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GUIDELINES

FOR
BUILDING A
RED MEAT ABATTOIR

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These guidelines were compiled to assist you in the planning of the building of a Red Meat abattoir

The importance of liaison on an ongoing basis with the officers of the Directorate:
Veterinary Public Health of your Province cannot be over-emphasised

Enclosed is a list of contact persons in the different Veterinary Service areas in Gauteng Province whom
you should URGENTLY contact before starting with the construction

The Director
Department of Agriculture, Conservation,
Environment and Land Affairs
Directorate : Veterinary Services
PO Box 8769
Johannesburg
2000
Diamond Corner
68 Eloff, cnr. Market Streets
Tel : (011) 355 1900
Fax: (011) 337 2292

The Director
National Directorate: Veterinary Public Health
Private Bag X138
Pretoria
Tel: (012) 319 7456
Fax: (012) 329 6892

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CONTENTS
No

Subject

Page no

1.

List of Provincial contact persons

2.

A.

Legislation:

1.
2.
3.

7
7
12

4.
B.

3.

Legislation relating to abattoirs


Meat Safety Act 2000 (Act 40 of 2000)
Fertilisers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural - and Stock Remedies Act
(Act 36 of 1947)
Animal protection Act 1962 (Act 71 of 1962) as amended

12

Grades and requirements for abattoirs

14

Grade E
Grade D
Grade C
Grade B
Grade A
Export Abattoir

14
15
16
16
17
17

Procedure :

19

A.

Summary

20

B.

Application for Construction/ Upgrading of an Abattoir (Form)

21

C.

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

23

1.
2.

23
24

D.

E.

Application Form
Regional Director

Submission of plan drawings

25

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

25
29
30
36
38
45

Requirements for plan drawings


Guidelines for the building of change-rooms
Examples of plan drawings
Examples of Legend/Specification
Examples/Information with regard to Sewerage System
Examples of some equipment

Documents to be submitted with plan drawings:

51

1.
2.

51
51

Letter of no objection - Local authority


Letter of no objection -. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

F.

Re-zoning

52

G.

Registration as a Business

52

H.

National Building Regulations

52

I.

Concessions and Deviations

52

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4.

5.

6.

Meat Inspection:

53

A.
B.
C.
D.

54
55
60
61

Qualifications
Duty Sheet
Commitment (Form)
Application for Registration of inspection personnel

Application for Registration Certificate

64

Form: Biannual Registration of an abattoir Gauteng Veterinary Services

65

Marking of meat/stamps

67

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Chapter

LIST OF PROVINCIAL
VETERINARY SERVICE
CENTERS

PROVINCIAL VETERINARY SERVICES HEAD OFFICE : GAUTENG


Dr Wynton Rabalao
PO Box 8769
JOHANNESBURG
2000
Cell:
082 373 7724
Tel:
(011) 355 1986

Mr. C. Jordaan

Fax:

Fax: (012) 328 4125

Cell: 082 258 3690


Tel: (012) 328 5140 or
(011) 355 1962

(011) 337 2292

GERMISTON
Gauteng East Rand
Dr Thembinkosi Ramuthivheli
PO Box 1009
Germiston
1400

Southern Gauteng
Dr S Andreou
PO Box 1009
Germiston
1400

Cell:
Tel:

Cell: 083 377 9218


Fax: (011) 821 7759

082 441 2261


(011) 821 7709

RANDFONTEIN
Dr I McDonald
PO Box 26
Randfontein
1760

Tel:
Cell:
Fax:

(011) 411 4300


082 258 3779
(011) 412 2546

PRETORIA
Mr D Venter
Private Bag X369

Pretoria

Tel:
Cell:

(012) 328 5140


083 653 9333

0001

Fax:

(012) 328 4125

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Chapter

LEGISLATION

IMPORTANT NOTICE
In terms of :

THE MEAT SAFETY ACT, 2000 (ACT No.40 OF 2000)


THE SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS AT PLACES OTHER
THAN APPROVED ABATTOIRS ARE PROHIBITED

The Act provides for the maintenance of proper standards of hygiene for the slaughtering
of animals to obtain meat suitable for human and animal use.
The Act forbids the slaughter of animals at any place other than an abattoir with a valid
Registration Certificate, in other words one that meets certain requirements relating to its
layout and structure.
The Act was thus created to ensure that all consumers in the Republic of South Africa
obtains CLEAN, SAFE, HEALTHY AND WHOLESOME meat.
This assurance is only possible when such meat is derived from approved abattoirs that
are regularly inspected to ensure that they meet with hygiene requirements and where the
meat is inspected by trained, capable meat inspectors to remove all sick, infected or
contaminated meat and animal products from the food-chain.
Meat, suitable for consumption, is marked with a stamp on which the name and identity
number of the abattoir appears.

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LEGISLATION
A.

LEGISLATION RELATING TO ABATTOIRS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

THE MEAT SAFETY ACT, 2000 (ACT No.40 OF 2000)


ANIMAL HEALTH ACT, 2002 (ACT No. 7 OF 2002)
HEALTH ACT, 1977 (ACT No. 63 OF 1977)
ANIMALS PROTECTION, 1962 (ACT No. 71 OF 1962)
FERTILISERS, FARM FEEDS, AGRICULTURAL REMEDIES AND STOCK
REMEDIES ACT, 1947 (ACT No. 36 OF 1947)
NATIONAL WATER ACT, 1998 (ACT No. 36 OF 1998)
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT, 1993 (ACT No. 85 OF 1993)
BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT, 1983 (ACT No. 3 OF 1983)
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT, 1966 (ACT No. 30 OF 1966)
WORKMENS COMPENSATION ACT, 1941 (ACT No. 30 OF 1941)
ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT, 1965 (ACT No. 45 OF 1965)
MUNICIPAL BY-LAWS AND REGULATIONS, WHERE RELEVANT
MARKETING ACT, 1968 (ACT No. 59 OF 1968)
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS ACT, 1990 (ACT No. 119 OF 1990)
STOCK THEFT ACT, 1959 (ACT No. 57 OF 1959)

Not all of these Acts will be discussed; abattoir owners must acquaint themselves with
how and where they may be affected by the legislation. This applies in particular to
regulations and byelaws peculiar to the local authority.

2. THE MEAT SAFETY ACT, 2000 (ACT No.40 OF 2000)


Meat is an important but highly perishable source of protein. Consumers take it for
granted that the necessary measures are being taken to ensure that the meat they buy
will be healthy and wholesome with the optimum shelf life. This is indeed the case.

2.1 Act No.40 OF 2000 provides for the maintenance of proper standards of hygiene
for the slaughtering of animals with a view to obtaining meat suitable for human and
animal use.
The Act forbids the slaughter of animals at any place other than an abattoir with a
valid Registration Certificate, in other words one which meets certain requirements
relating to its layout and structure and the permanent equipment and other facilities
that must be installed or provided there, and which has been approved in terms of
this Act.
The Act requires that the meat and animal products obtained should be handled and
stored at approved abattoirs in accordance with prescribed standards, and that such
meat and animal products should be removed in accordance with prescribed
standards.
The Act also states that meat may not be imported except in terms of a permit
issued by the Director.

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2.2 Definitions in Section 1 of the Act which might be important


abattoir means a slaughter facility in respect of which a registration certificate
has been issued in terms of section 8 (1) and in respect of which a grading has
been determined in terms of section 8 (2); (I).
animal means any animal referred to in Schedule 1; (iv)
Kinds of domesticated animals
Bovine
Donkey
Duck
Farmed deer
Fowl
Goose
Guinea fowl
Horse
Kangaroo
Mule

Ostrich
Partridge
Pheasant
Pig
Pigeon
Quail
Rabbit
Sheep / Goat
Turkey

animal product means any by-product obtained from the carcass of an animal
other than the meat thereof
assignee means any person, undertaking, body, institution or association
designated under section 4; (viii)
essential national standards means the standards contemplated in section 11;
(xiv)
MEC means the member of the Executive Council of the province in question
responsible for abattoirs
national executive officer means the officer designated as such in terms of
section 2 (1); (xiii)
officer means an officer as defined in section 1(1) of the Public Service Act, 1994
(Proclamation No 103 of 1994); (ii)
owner in relation to a slaughter facility, includes the person in control of the
slaughter facility; (vi) those portions of any animal which are ordinarily intended for
human or animal consumption;
premises includes any building, structure, enclosure, land, road, harbour, jetty,
quay or mooring; (xvi)
provincial executive officer means the officer of the province in question
designated as such in terms of section 5 (2) (a); (xvii)
regulation means any regulation made under section 22; (xviii)
sale includes an agreement to sell . and any offer, advertisement, exposure,
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transfer of ownership, conveyance or delivery for sale, exchange or disposal in any


manner, whether for any consideration or otherwise, and sell has a
corresponding meaning; (xxiv)
slaughter means the killing of an animal and the performance of the usual
accompanying acts in connection therewith in order to obtain meat and animal
products there from; (xx)
slaughter facility means any facility, whether stationary or mobile, at or on which
animals are slaughtered or intended to be slaughtered, and includes areas in or
adjacent to such facilities where
(a) carcasses are chilled;
(b) meat or animal products are handled; (xxi)
provincial executive officer means the officer of the province in question
designated as such in terms of section 5 (2) (a); (xvii)
regulation means any regulation made under section 22; (xviii)
sale includes an agreement to sell and any offer, advertisement, exposure,
transfer of ownership, conveyance or delivery for sale, exchange or disposal in any
manner, whether for any consideration or otherwise, and sell has a
corresponding meaning; (xxiv)
slaughter means the killing of an animal and the performance of the usual
accompanying acts in connection therewith in order to obtain meat and animal
products there from; (xx)
slaughter facility means any facility, whether stationary or mobile, at or on which
animals are slaughtered or intended to be slaughtered, and includes areas in or
adjacent to such facilities where
(c) carcasses are chilled;
(d) meat or animal products are handled; (xxi)

2.3 Important Sections of the Act


2.3.1

Section 4 Designation of assignees


The inspection body that performs the meat inspection as prescribed. An
assignee can be an organisation, or part of an organisation. The
personnel of the inspection body must be free from commercial, financial
and other pressures, which might affect their judgement.
2.3.2 Section 7- Prohibition of slaughter of animals at places other than
abattoirs. Slaughter may not take place anywhere else but at an
approved abattoir
2.3.3 Section 8Approval of slaughter facility. An application for registration of
a slaughter facility must be submitted with the required fee. A registration
certificate is issued if the facility complies with the conditions stipulated in
the act and is valid for the period indicated on the certificate.
The grade of an abattoir is indicated on the registration certificate.
2.3.4 Section 9-Withdrawal or lapsing of registration certificate.
The
certificate can be withdrawn if the facility no longer complies with the
VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

conditions or is not operated in accordance with the essential standards or


no longer utilised as an abattoir.
2.3.5 Section 10-Instructions with regard to operation of an abattoir.
(a)
To comply with an essential national standard;
(b)
To comply with any condition of the registration certificate;
(c)
To perform or cease to perform an act not conducive to good abattoir
practice
(d)
To suspend operations at an abattoir until certain conditions specified
in the registration certificate are complied with.
2.3.6. Section 11 Essential national standards.
The standards that are applicable at all abattoirs in order to maintain an
acceptable standard of hygiene.
2.3.6. Section 13 Restriction on importation of fresh meat
No person shall import any fresh meat into the Republic except on the
authority of an importation permit issued by the national executive officer
2.3.7. Section 15 Powers of entry and investigation
The director or any official acting under a delegation or direction of the
director may, during working hours enter any abattoir for inspections
2.3.8. Section 16 Entry and search of premises
An officer may, on the authority of a warrant issued in terms of subsection
(2), enter premises for an investigation.
2.3.9. Section 17 Confidentiality
No person shall disclose any information acquired by him through the
exercising of his powers or the performing of his duties in terms of this Act,
2.3.10. Section 18 Appeals
Any person whose interests are affected by any decision or direction of the
national executive officer or any other officer under this Act may appeal
against such decision or direction to the Minister or the M.E.C of the
province in question. 2.3.11. Section 19 Offences and penalties
In the case of a first conviction, a person is liable to a fine or to
imprisonment not exceeding two years or to both.
In a subsequent conviction it could be four years imprisonment and a fine.
2.3.12. Section 21 Presumption and evidence
(a)
Any meat or animal product in respect of which a sample is taken,
be regarded as having the same properties as that sample
(b)
Any document certified as a true copy, is permissible as evidence in
court
2.3.13. Section 24 Regulations
The Minister may make regulations regarding various matters for the
proper execution of this Act.
The Standing Regulations in terms of the Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act 40 of
2000) define the legal requirements in great detail
The current Standing Regulations were promulgated on 9 October 1969 as
Government notice No R3505 in the Government Gazette No 2540 in
terms of Section 38 of Act No 87 of 1967. Section 25 of Act 40 of 2000:
Meat Safety Act, 2000 however stipulates that these Regulations remain
valid

On account of the fact that the current Standing Regulations were promulgated in 1969
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10

and that amendments have been made over the years by means of Government Notices,
the Standing Regulations are presently being rewritten and upgraded. Unfortunately this
project had not been completed at the time of writing. Readers are advised therefore to
note for themselves when the new Standing Regulations are announced and published,
and are strongly recommended to obtain a full set of the Regulations.
SUBDIVISION OF THE REGULATIONS
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV
PART V
PART VI
PART VII
PART VIII
PART IX
PART X
PART XI
PART XII
PART XIII
PART XIV
PART XV
PART XVI
PART XVII
PART XVIII
PART XIX
PART XX
PART XXI
PART XXII
PART XXIII
PART XXIV
PART XXV
PART XXVI
PART XXVII
PART XXVIII
PART XXIX
PART XXX
PART XXXI

Definitions
Approval of Abattoirs and Appeals
Abattoirs: Requirements in respect of Premises and Facilities
Handling, Slaughter and Inspection: General
Ante-mortem Inspection
Humane Slaughter of Animals
Post mortem Inspection
Disposal of Condemned Carcasses, Meat, Viscera or Animal Products
Marks and Marking
De-boning Rooms or Places
Rendering of Edible Fat
Edible Offal Cleaning
Preparation of Casings
Preparation of Pet Foods
Canning of Meat for Animal Consumption
Equine Animal Slaughter Regulations
Preparation and Storage of Skins and Hides
Poultry Slaughter Regulations
Transport of Animals, Meat and Animal Products
Importation of Carcasses and Meat
Cold Storage Facilities
Cleaning and Disinfection
Exemption for Research
Laboratory Services
Examination for Meat Inspectors Certificate
Qualifications, Appointments and Duties of Veterinary Meat Inspector,
Meat Inspectors and Meat Examiners
General
Records, Reports and Returns
Fees
Penalties
Title and Date of Commencement

In conclusion we must also point out that as a result of changes to the profession over the
years the Directorate: Veterinary Public Health has addressed various specific procedures
in the form of policy documents and guidelines. The following are a few examples of
subjects dealt with in this way:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Recovery of foetal skins.


Guidelines for the emergency slaughters outside the abattoir of animals that have
escaped from the abattoir.
Chilling meat in abattoirs.
Health control of persons working in an abattoir.
Guidelines for the handling, slaughtering and inspection of Brucellosis reactors

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11

gravid and non-gravid cows.


Please note also that the legality of these documents is the same as that of the Standing
Regulations and the Act itself.
3. FERTILISERS, FARM FEEDS, AGRICULTURAL REMEDIES AND STOCK
REMEDIES ACT, 1947 (ACT 36 OF 1947)
This Act provides for the appointment of a Registrar Fertilisers, Farm, Feeds,
Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies; for the registration of fertilisers, farm,
feeds, agricultural remedies, stock remedies, sterilisation installations and pest control
operatives; for controlling or prohibiting the importation, sale, procurement, alienation
or use of fertilisers, farm feeds, agricultural remedies and stock remedies; for the
appointment of technical advisors and analysts; and for related matters.
4. ANIMALS PROTECTION ACT, 1962 (ACT 71 OF 1962) AS AMENDED
This Act has been amended as follows:
General Law Amendment Act, 1972 (Act No. 102 of 1972);
Amendment Act, 1972 (Act No. 7 of 1972);
Animals Protection Amendment Act , 1983 (Act No. 54 of 1983).
This Act deals with the prevention of cruelty to animals; we will review it briefly.
Section 2 defines malpractice towards animals.
including:

These include all acts of cruelty

Cruel treatment such as hitting, kicking, torturing, maiming; shutting up under


unsatisfactory conditions; malnourishment and starving; keeping in dirty, unhealthy
conditions; injuring; ill-treating sick draught animals; keeping caged together
animals which might injure each other; unsatisfactory transportation and handling;
setting traps which could cause injuries; inhumane killing; and anything else which
could result in unnecessary suffering and cruelty.
Sections 3 and 4 deal with the powers of the court, with special reference to damages.
The following aspects are dealt with in Sections 5 to 9:

When a police officer may put down or destroy an animal.


Pound-master may recover costs.
Owner may be required to make animals available for inspection by the court.
Powers of an official of a society, for the prevention of cruelty to animals.
Costs may award against, or recovered from, a vexatious complainant if the court is
satisfied that the complainant laid charges without good reason.

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12

Regulations
The Minister can promulgate regulations relating to:
The keeping and ownership of animals.
Any other reasonable requirements needed to protect animals.
The custody/accommodation of any animals as well as the recovery of costs
incurred from the owner.
Any other general matter which may promote compliance with this Act.
These regulations can also specify fines for non-compliance with the Act.

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13

B. GRADES AND REQUIREMENTS


FOR ABATTOIRS

Government Gazette R. 1028


of 26 May 1989 (enclosed herewith)
fully spells out these specific
requirements laid down for the different
grades of abattoirs.
If you should still be insure,
discuss the matter with your
Veterinary Public Health Officer.
GRADES OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ABATTOIRS
Requirements for Grade E red meat abattoirs
1

A red meat abattoir may be graded as a Grade E red meat abattoir if it is complies
with the following requirements:

(a)
(b)

The throughput thereof shall not exceed eight slaughter units.


Roads on the premises thereof shall be gravelled or surfaces in such a way as to
prevent dust and mud.
Facilities shall be available for the off-loading of animals brought there by
conveyances.
Lairage facilities shall be available, and shall be sufficient to keep at least the number of slaughter units to be slaughtered there in
the course of four hours: Provided that if animals stay overnight in an adjacent
grazing paddock and can be brought quietly from there immediately prior to
slaughter, lairage facilities need not be provided;
be provided with concrete floors with an adequate slope to ensure the drainage of
water; and
be located at a lower level that the abattoir building.
Facilities shall be available to restrain and stun animals in a humane manner prior to
slaughter.
A slaughter hall, which may also serve as a dry landing area and bleeding area
where animals are bled in a hanging position, shall be available.
A solid partition of at least three metres high, behind which rough offal is emptied,
cleansed and kept prior to removal, shall be available within the abattoir building.

(c)
(d)
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(e)
(f)
(g)

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14

(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)

Such partitioned area shall have an exterior door for the removal of un-skinned
heads, feet, stomachs and intestines.
Hanging facilities, calculated at 0,75 metre length of rail per chilller unit, shall be
available for carcasses and red offal.
A door that is used exclusively for the removal of carcasses and red offal shall be
available.
Covered loading facilities for the removal of carcasses and red offal shall be
available.
Suitable equipment (excluding a scalding tank for pigs) shall be available for the
efficient performance of all functions required in terms of the Act in connection with
the slaughter and dressing of animals and the inspection of meat.
Theft proof containers and facilities shall be available for the collecting and
disposing of meat and animal products which have been condemned in terms of
section 27 (b) (i) of the Act.
Change-rooms, toilets and shower and wash facilities shall be available for all
persons who perform functions at such abattoir.
An efficient drainage system and facilities for handling effluent shall be available.
Facilities for the storage of supplies needed for the effective operation thereof shall
be available.

Requirements for Grade D red meat abattoirs


2. A red meat abattoir may be graded as a Grade D red meat abattoir if it complies with
the following requirements:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

(f)

(g)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(h)

The throughput thereof shall not exceed 15 slaughter units.


Unless otherwise determined in this clause, it shall comply with the requirements
set out in clause 3.
Roads on the premises thereof shall be provided with a suitable surface in order to
render it dust and must fee.
Lairage facilities shall be available, and shall be sufficient to keep at least the
number of slaughter units to be slaughtered there in the course of four hours.
Suitably equipped stunning areas shall be available for all the kinds of animals that
are slaughtered there: Provided that if different kinds of animals are not
slaughtered simultaneously, the same stunning area may be used for different
kinds of animals.
A dry landing area and bleeding area that are separated from the dressing area
shall be available for each kind of animal slaughtered there: Provided that if
different kinds of animals are not slaughtered simultaneously, the same dry landing
area and bleeding area may be used for different kinds of animals.
Separate rooms shall be available in which rough offal such as unskinned heads, feet and trotters, as well as inedible offal
such as hides, skins, hare, horns, hooves and feathers in the case of ostriches are
kept prior to removal;
rough offal such as stomachs and intestines are emptied, cleansed and kept prior
to removal; and
red offal such as thymi, pancreases, livers, spleens, kidneys, hearts, lungs, tails,
oesophagi, diaphragms, omenta and, in the case of heifers, udders are handled
and kept if it is not conveyed with the carcasses.
Facilities, including a side rail, shall be available for the keeping of meat and
animal products detained in terms of section 27 (b) (ii) of the Act and condemned
in terms of section 27 (b) (I) of the Act.

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15

Requirements for Grade C red meat abattoirs


3. A red meat abattoir may be graded as a Grade C red meat abattoir if it complies with
the following requirements:
(a) The throughput thereof shall not exceed 50 slaughter units.
(b) Unless otherwise determined in this clause, it shall comply with the requirements
set out in clause.
(c) It shall be designed and erected in such a manner that dirty and clean parts and
functions at the abattoir are separated, and for this purpose (i) dirty parts shall include lairages, washing facilities for conveyances of animals
(if provided), stunning areas, dry landing areas, bleeding areas, a de-haring
room, areas and rooms where inedible offal is handled on rough offal is handled,
chilled and frozen, as well as eating areas, change-rooms, toilets and shower
and wash facilities for persons employed in said parts, and entrances to such
facilities, rooms and areas; and
(ii) clean parts shall include the slaughter hall, areas and rooms where carcasses
and red offal are handled, chilled and frozen, loading facilities for carcasses and
red offal and washing facilities for conveyances or meat (if provided), as well as
office accommodation and eating areas, change-rooms, toilets and shower and
wash facilities for persons employed in said parts, and entrances to such
facilities, rooms, parts and accommodation.
(d) Separate rooms shall be available for the handling of (i) Un-skinned head and feet; and
(ii) hides, skins, hair, horns, hooves, and feathers in case of ostriches.
(e) A room shall be available for the keeping of meat and animal products detained in
terms of section 27 (b) (ii) of the Act and has been condemned in terms of section
27 (i) of the Act, and such room shall be equipped in such manner that such meat
and animal products can be sorted and re-arranged within that room.
(f) Hanging facilities shall be adequate for the carcasses and red offal of the slaughter
units that are slaughtered and dressed there in the course of two hours.
(g) Refrigeration facilities shall be available for the carcasses and edible offal of the
throughput thereof: Provided that if edible offal is removed from the abattoir within
four hours after an animal has been slaughtered, refrigeration facilities for the
edible offal of such animal need not be provided.
(h) An area for the quartering, sorting and marking of carcasses and meat shall be
available between the refrigeration facilities and the covered loading facilities.
Requirements for Grade B red meat abattoirs
4. A red meat abattoir may be graded as a Grade B red meat abattoir if it complies with
the following requirements:
(a) The throughput thereof shall not exceed 100 slaughter units.
(b) Unless otherwise determined in this clause, it shall comply with the requirements
set out in clause 5.
(c) The air temperature within the area for the quartering, sorting and marking of
carcasses and meat shall be maintained at not more than 10 degrees Celsius
while meat is being handled.
(d) Washing facilities shall be available for the conveyances in which animals are
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16

(e)

brought there.
Separate office accommodation and change-rooms shall be available for meat
inspection personnel.

Requirements for Grade A red meat abattoirs


5. A red meat abattoir may be graded as a Grade A red meat abattoir if it complies with
the following requirements:
(a) The throughput thereof may exceed 100 slaughter units.
(b) Unless otherwise determined in this clause, it shall comply with the requirements set
out in clause 6.
(c) Separate rooms shall be available for the keeping of meat and animal products
detained in terms of section 27 (b) (ii) of the Act, and for the keeping of meat and
animal products condemned in terms of section 27 (b) (I) of the Act.
(d) Separate change-rooms, toilets and showers and wash facilities shall be available
for the persons who dispose of condemned meat and animal products referred to in
paragraph (c).
(e) It shall have ante mortem, isolation and post mortem facilities available, and shall
have access to laboratory facilities.
Requirements for export abattoirs
6. An abattoir from which meat or animal products are exported shall at least comply with
the requirements for a Grade C, Grade CP or Grade CH abattoir, as the case may be,
as well as any additional requirements as determined by the appropriate authority in
the country to which such meat of animal products are to be exported.
Exceeding of throughput
(1)

The Chief Meat Hygiene Officer may on application grant written authority that the
throughput of an abattoir may exceed the maximum determined in this notice:
Provided that the grade allocated to such abattoir shall not be changed as result of
such higher throughput.
(2) An application referred to in sub-clause (1) shall be considered on the basis of
proven managerial ability of the applicant concerned and his ability to maintain
hygiene at the abattoir concerned.

Grading abattoirs according to their maximum permitted daily throughputs:


RED MEAT
E up to 8 slaughter units per day
D up to 15
C up to 50
B up to 100
A own capacity
In terms of the definition in the Standing Regulations, a slaughter unit is the equivalent of:
1 bovine or equine
3 calves
15 sheep/goats
5 pigs
VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

17

2 ostriches
and must be distinguished from a chiller which is the equivalent of:
1 bovine/equine carcasses
2 calf carcasses
6 sheep/goat carcasses
2 pig carcasses
12 plucks
6 unmasked heads
6 ostrich thighs

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18

Chapter

PROCEDURE

When building a new abattoir there is a specific


procedure to be followed. The following summary
will assist in your planning :

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

19

A.

SUMMARY

Contact the office of the regional service centre. Discuss your intentions and plans
with them.

The first step is to complete and submit the preliminary environmental assessment
questionnaire, attached to this brochure, to the Directorate for Environment at the
provincial Department of Agriculture
Only after they have completed their screening and given clearance in writing, can
you proceed by submitting the application for building an abattoir

3.

Two copies of a complete set of drawings (plans) should be submitted to Veterinary


Public Health for evaluation from a hygiene point of view.

4.

The following documents must be submitted with your plans:


(a)
(b)
(c)

The pro-forma information enquiry Building of an abattoir duly completed.


Written approval of your Local Authority that the abattoir may be built on your
premises.
A letter of no objection from the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
wherein the method of disposal of abattoir effluent is addressed.

5.

Make sure that the premises have the necessary zoning to operate the abattoir and
related activities.

6.

Construction may ONLY commence once written approval of your plans had been
received from the Director Veterinary Services of your province.

7.

The following liaison/arrangements with your Veterinary Public Health Officer should
be done as soon as possible:
(a)
(b
(c)
(d)
(e)

8.

Arrange for the inspection of the site.


Give notice when construction will commence.
Arrange for inspection during construction.
Give notice when construction is completed.
Arrange for final inspection and trial slaughtering.

Apply for a Registration certificate


9. Get the necessary labels to mark meat. (The abattoir number can be reserved near
completion of the project to permit the necessary printing)

B.

APPLICATION FOR
OF AN ABATTOIR

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

CONSTRUCTION / UPGRADING

20

AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION,
ENVIRONMENT AND LAND AFFAIRS
DIRECTORATE: VETERINARY SERVICES
THE DIRECTOR, PO BOX 8769, JOHANNESBURG 2000

Telephone: (011) 355-1987


Fax: (011) 337-2292

APPLICATION FOR CONSTRUCTION / UPGRADING OF AN ABATTOIR


IN GAUTENG PROVINCE
1.

ABATTOIR:

Name:

Type:

Physical Address or Registered Farm Name and Number (attach route description):

Magisterial District:
Tel.:
2.

OWNER :

Fax:

E-mail:

Name:

Physical Address:
Postal Address:

Code:

Tel.:

Fax:

CONTACT PERSON:

E-mail:

Name:

Tel.:

Fax:

E-mail:

Owner, for the purpose of the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000), means the person in whom the ownership of the
abattoir is vested or, in the case of any abattoir in respect of which the right of general control is vested in a person other
than the person in whom the ownership is vested, that other person.
3. 8. Further information to be supplied on reverse of application form.
I, the undersigned, hereby apply for approval of the plans for construction / upgrading of the abovementioned abattoir.
understand that preliminary approval of the plans does not obviate the need for Abattoir Registration.
APPLICATION FEE :

R 500

TYPE OF PAYMENT into DACEL Cost Recovery PMG account:


Deposit at Bank:

(Attached slip / printout)

Cash

Virtual Card

Cheque

Electronic Payment:

Home or Bank

Service Centre:

Virtual Card Transaction

Approved Credit Client

(2 day clearance)

(10 day clearance)

(2 day clearance)

Approved Creditors Number.:

I understand that the service can be delivered only after the payment is reflected in the DACEL Cost Recovery PMG, or once all
previous invoices of an approved credit client have been paid.
BANK:
BRANCH CODE:

STANDARD BANK (SA)


16 53 00

CODE TO BE USED :

V V 1

ACCOUNT NAME:
ACCOUNT NO.:

DATE:

DACEL COST RECOVERY PMG


401310345

SIGNATURE:

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


Application Number(s):
Receipt Number:

OR Service Delivery Number:

Plans Evaluated:

Approved Creditors Number:


Date:
OFFICER

Summary of Report on Reverse:


SIGNATURE

Further information to be supplied by applicant:


VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

21

3.

PROPOSED TURNOVER:
SPECIES

PER DAY

PER HOUR

Is it fit for human consumption:

YES

NO

YES

NO

Cattle
Sheep
Pigs
Other
4.

WATER:

4.1 Source:

4.2 Quality:
4.3 In case of origin other than Municipal
4.3.1 Bacteriological tests
4.3.2 Chemical tests
5.
6.

Has it been tested:


YES

NO

YES
(Copy of the latest results included)

NO

Description and extent of activities on adjoining premises (to be illustrated with the help of sketches)
Method of disposal of condemned material:
6.1 Blood:
6.2 Organ and condemned carcasses:
6.3 Paunch content:
6.4 Feathers:

7.

How will abattoir effluent be disposed of:


7.1 Connection to Municipal sewage system:
7.2 Septic tank and French drain system:
7.3 Irrigation of lands:
7.4 Other:

8.

Meat Inspection:
Have the necessary arrangements for compulsory meat inspection been made:

YES

NO

(Include a copy of commitment of agent / veterinarian / meat inspector to provide the meat inspection service at your abattoir)

SIGNATURE OF APPLICANT

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


REMARKS / RECOMMENDATION
Copy to File Number:

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

Yes:

22

C.

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY

Complete and send to Regional office of above Department

Name and address of Abattoir owner :


............................................................
............................................................
............................................................
Code : .................................................

Telephone number: .........................

Fax number : ...................................

Location of abattoir :

Nearest town / city ..............................................................................................

Distance and direction to nearest town / city .....................................................

Indicate position on map .................................................................................


Average slaughter units per month ............................................................................
Disposal of blood .......................................................................................................
If sold, (only in case of rendering plant) Supply name of buyer
....................................................................................................................................

If buried, indicate where and size of terrain


If cremated indicate position of incineration

Disposal of paunch content .......................................................................................


If buried indicate where and size of terrain
If burnt, indicate position of incinerator
If composted, indicate where
Effluent volume ..................................................................m3 per month

Type of disposal / purification system ..................................................................


In case of sewerage system - give name of .........................................................
In case of septic tank system - indicate position ..................................................
In case of sedimentation ponds - indicate position
Estimated depth of dam ............................................................................(m)
Estimated capacity of dam.......................................................................(m3)

In case of irrigation - indicate where


Area available for irrigation ..........................................................................

Indicate all boreholes

Soil type (sandy, loam, clay ... ) ...............................................................................


Use 1:50 000 map, available from the Government Printers in Pretoria

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23

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND


FORESTRY / REGIONAL DIRECTOR

Mr H Smit
Regional Director: Gauteng Province
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
Private Bag X995
PRETORIA
0001

Tel (012) 392 1300


Fax (012) 392 1304

or

Department of Water Affairs and Forestry


Sanlam Plaza East
285 Schoeman Street
PRETORIA
0002

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24

D.

SUBMISSION OF PLANS

1. REQUIREMENTS THAT SHOULD BE INDICATED


ON PLANS
If you are inexperienced or un-knowledgeable with regard to abattoir design drawings you
are seriously advised to obtain the help of a professional consultant.
Discuss the project on an ongoing basis with your Provincial Veterinary Public Health
Officer.
A.

REQUIREMENTS THAT SHOULD BE INDICATED ON PLANS

1. All design drawings submitted must be drawn in black water-resistant ink on durable
light coloured paper with a minimum size of A1
Must include a site plan to the scale of 1:200 or such other scale as approved by the
Director, containing the following information:
1. The used scale.
2. True North.
3. Prevailing wind direction.
4. Surface draining and natural slope.
5. Position and directions of boundaries of the premises.
6. Position of gates and access roads to and on the site.
7. Structural specifications of fences and gates including the position thereof.
8. Description of and structural specifications of road surfaces on and adjoining the
site and where applicable names of such streets.
9. Nature of non-traffic surfaces within the boundaries of the site including
description and structure of pedestrian walkways.
10. Detail, position and design of sewerage/effluent disposal systems.
11. Detail of storm water drainage including concrete or asphalt apron around
buildings.
12. The abattoir as well as all other buildings and structures specifying the purpose
for which it will be used.
13. Position of change rooms - No toilet, unless waterborne must be within 6m of an
abattoir or lairage.
14. Position of offloading facilities
15. Positions of kraals/holding pens - Lairages to be located at a lower level than
25

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

the abattoir building.


16. Position and structure of physical clean dirty site separation as from Grade BP
in case of poultry and from Grade C red meat slaughter facilities.
17. Position and structure * of both clean and dirty transport vehicle washbays
where required.
18. Description and extent of activities on neighbouring premises including position
of existing structures/building stating purpose for which it is used.
*

Where structural specification are required as in points 7, 10 and 16 a scale of 1:50 must be used on separate drawings
additional to the site plan.

2. Design drawings of the slaughter facility and associated structures must be on a scale
of 1:50 or any other scale that the Director specifically approved.
Each separate floor/level/story must be illustrated individually with the necessary cross
sections where required.
Elevation drawings (four sides), floor plans and sections are required and must contain
the following:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Scale used.
True North indicated.
All rooms/halls/structures on the premises must be illustrated and must indicate
the use/purpose thereof.
Detail of the following must be illustrated:
(a)

Nature of wall and door surfaces as well as colour of paint or tiles where
applicable, inside as well as outside.
(b) Direction and slope of floors. Slaughter halls 1:60 / Rough offal rooms 1:36
(c) Rounding of floor-wall and wall-wall junctions with a minimum of 50 mm
radius. (Detail drawings required).
(d) Non-absorbent ceilings where applicable with a minimum height of 2,75 m
from the floor. The nature of ceilings, rails and construction should be
shown in section.
(e) All rooms must be insect, rodent and bird proof.
(f) Exposed piping a minimum of 40 mm from wall.
(g) All: power points
Hot water points
Cold water points
Mixed (Hot and cold) water points
Water hose points (including hose reels)
Drainage points as well as fat/solids traps must be indicated. (Detail
drawings required).
(h) All:
Windows (indicate the size or catalogue code), should provide
ventilation and must be provided with fly screens .
Doors
Passages
Entrances
Exits
Hatches must not be excessive in size, edible produce must not
touch the side of the hatch. Lower side must slope towards the dirty
area.
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26

Extractors fans, must be indicated.


(i)

Window frames must be made of metal or durable waterproof material.


Sloping of inner window sills approximately 45.

(j)

Intensity of artificial light should ensure 220 lux in work areas and 540 lux at
inspection points.

(k)

Doors must be made of metal or durable waterproof material and where


required entrance/exit doors must be fitted with self closing mechanisms.

(l)

All drainages channels must slope from clean to dirty.

(m)

Drainage of effluent discharging equipment including handwash basins,


sterilisers and boot washes not to occur across floors in traffic zones.

(n)

Handling of blood.

5. Carcass rails (bleeding/dressing/storage) and equipment (dressing platforms, hand


wash basins, sterilisers, etc.) must be shown in the actual positions and should be
drawn to scale. All overhead rail heights must be indicated. Overhead rails must
be at least 1,1 m from the nearest wall.
6. Sterilisers must be provided with a continuous overflow facility.
7. Bootwash facilities and HWB provided at all entrances to rooms where edible
produce are handled.
8. Product handling showing flow patterns of products and personnel.
9. Moveable equipment required for the normal effective operation of a slaughter
facility must be indicated in the position where it is most often used, e.g.
(a) Containers conforming to requirements set in the Standing Regulations for
condemned materials.
(b) Trolleys.
(c) Moveable platforms.
(d) Containers for edible as well as inedible material.
10. Separate area for storage and make-up of cartons linked by a hatch to the area
where produce are cartoned.
11. Cooling facilities - indicating:
(a)

Type e.g.

Domestic
Commercial
Self build.

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Purpose and capacity.


Detail of construction and size.
Drainage and gradient of floor.
Detail of racks, rails, etc.

12. De-boning rooms indicating an ambient temperature of 10C and connected to a


VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

27

sterilising room by means of a hatch must be illustrated where applicable.


13. Design drawings of:
Toilet, change room, shower and washing facilities must illustrate:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)

Separate facilities for different sexes.


Toilets and wash-hand-basins.
Hot and cold water, soap, disposable towels.
Showers provided with hot and cold water.
Separation between toilets and change rooms.
Lockers, tables, chairs or benches.
Hose points for cleansing purposes.
Number of workers with indication of sex, allocated to each change room.
No toilet or change-room must open directly into an abattoir.

14.

Any points that cannot be shown on the drawing may be explained in a covering
letter.

15.

The use of numbers or a standard legend is permissible.

16.

Any other specification or illustration required by the director is to be provided.

B. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SLAUGHTER FACILITIES:


Details that must be indicated on the plans:
1. Lairage facilities
(Scale 1:50)
(a) Animal reception facilities - i.e. motor transport or by hoof etc.
(b) Race connections between reception and pens.
(c) Lairage capacity for the specific animal species.
Minimum: Cattle 1,67m2
Sheep and small pigs: 0,55m2
Calves and large pigs: 0,74m2
(d) Water troughs - detail of construction and position in the pen.
(e) Gates detail of construction and direction of swing
(f) Feed racks/cribs must be provided for animals that remain in the pens for a
period of longer than 24 hours. The feed store must be rodent proof.
(g) Dung handling.
(h) Ante mortem inspection and isolation facilities (only in Grade C or higher).
(i) Wash points with hose reels for lairage cleansing.
(j) Lairage distance and connection (race) to abattoir must be shown in detail.
Lairages must be at least 6 m from abattoir.
(k) Route to emergency slaughter.
(l) Kerbs, floor slopes (1:60) and draining of the vehicle area, loading platforms,
pens races and services lanes must be shown.
(m) A drained walkway adjacent to the cattle race must be indicated.
(n) A pre-stunning wash point for pigs.
VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

28

2. Lairage section drawings


(Scale 1:50)
(a)

Nature of construction - steel dimensions, closure of open pipe ends,


connections of horizontal railings with uprights, spacing of railings, walls/heights
and distances to be shown.

(b)

Kerbs with details in respect of kerb/floor junctions

(c)

Nature of roof and construction thereof - this is compulsory for small livestock.
(Roof must be non combustible).

(d)

Roof guttering and drain piping.

(e)

Off loading platform detail - nature of construction, height, drainage (kerbs, drip
rails, etc.)

(f)

Floors to be finished with adequate slope to ensure the drainage of water.

3. Abattoir
(Scale 1:50)
(a)

Product handling and flow patterns of product and personnel must be indicated.

(b)

Carcass rails (bleeding/dressing/storage) and equipment (dressing platforms,


hand wash basins, sterilisers, etc.) must be shown in the actual positions and
should be drawn to scale. All overhead rail heights must be indicated.

(c)

Handling of blood.

(d)

Intensity of artificial lighting.

4. Abattoir sections
(Scale 1:50)
(a)

Nature of ceiling, rails and roof construction.

2. GUIDELINES TO THE BUILDING OF CHANGEROOMS


CHANGE-ROOM SURFACES AND THE PROVISION OF SANITATION DEVICES IN
ABATTOIRS
This is a guideline in terms of GG 2362 of 5 October 1990 of the Department of Labour.
The specifications of the National Building Regulations (SABS 0400-1990) with regard to
change-room surfaces and sanitation devices in the case of abattoirs is in short to the
following:

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

29

Floor surfaces

ROOM

POPULATION

Change-rooms and dining


rooms

1 - 15
16 - 100
More than 100

MINIMUM SURFACE
MEASUREMENT
2
0,8 m per person with a minimum of
6 m2
0,6 m2 per person with a minimum of
12 m2
0,5 m2 per person with a minimum of
60 m2

NB: The floor surfaces are based on the plan measurements but do not include the
surface occupied by a built-in cabinet or cupboard, or door, a partition wall or other
partition that was erected in terms of sub-regulation CC 2.4.
Sub-regulation CC 2.4 reads:
Two or more rooms are regarded as one room if a partition wall or any other partition,
inclusive a door erected between such rooms, occupy more than 60% of the partition
surfaces.
SANITATION DEVICES

Population
from to

Men
Toilets

15
30
60
90
120

Urinals

Hand-wash
basins
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
5
4
3
6
5
For a population of more than 120, add 1
toilet, 1 urinal, 1 hand-wash basin for
each 100 persons.
A 600 mm length urinal is equivalent to
one urinal.

Women
Toilets

Hand-wash
basins
2
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
9
5
For a population of more
than 120, add 1 toilet for
each 50 persons and 1
hand-wash baisin for each
100 persons.

Showers should be supplied separately for each gender in a relationship of 1 shower for
each 15 persons in a change-room or they should have direct access to it.
If a dispute should develop, the Department of Labour should be contacted for a decisive
answer. The users code for the implementation of the National Building Regulations
(SABS 0400-1990) can be bought from the SABS.

3. EXAMPLES OF PLANS
Standard type of plans are available on request

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32

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35

4. LEGENDS (SPECIFICATIONS)
Specifications may be indicated on the plan/drawings, or may be provided as
an addendum.
Specifications of equipment may be in the form of symbols as in attached examples, on
the plan drawing, or indicated by numbers with an explanatory addendum

SPECIFICATIONS

All interior windowsills should be sloped with a gradient of 45.


All windows should be made of steel or similar durable material.
All corners should have a minimum radius of 50 mm.
Walls should be plastered and painted with a light, washable paint.
Floors should be 100 mm thick. Floor to wall corners should be rounded.
All equipment should be placed at least 50 mm from walls to facilitate in the cleaning
of the walls.
Expansion joints should be filled with poly-urethane sealing agent.
All floor-slopes should be 1:60. Stomach and intestine rooms should be 1:36
The slopes of the rounded drainage canals should be 1:100.
The building should be rodent, bird and insect resistant.
The building should be dust-free as far as practically possible.
The lighting should comply with the national building regulations. The intensity of
artificial lighting should be at least 220 lux and where meat inspection is done, it
should be 540 lux
Fluorescent lights that does not cause colour changes should be provided. Light
fittings should be protected against corrosion by vapour-dense coverings.
If necessary roof ventilators should be provided or alternatively extractor fans
All hand-wash basins should be foot- or knee-operated
All implements, tables, equipment, utensils and containers used in an abattoir should
be manufactured with impervious, corrosion-resistant and non-toxic material in such a
way that it can be cleaned easily and the surfaces that come into contact with
carcasses or edible products should be smooth in good condition
All pipes (water, electric, steam, etc.) must be at least 50 mm away from wall
surfaces.
Efficient drainage points or drainage channels to be provided at all stations where
excessive amounts of water is used (e.g. carcass wash area)
Wall areas prone to damage must be protected.
The floor surfaces should be smooth but not slippery.
Openings for carcasses should be at least 1400 mm wide.
Doors and door frames must be smooth, impermeable and corrosion resistant and of
light colour. In the case of steel doors the smooth surfaces must face to the inside or
be covered with a smooth steel sheet
Outside doors leading to rooms containing edible products must be provided with self
closing equipment
Fly-gauze should be installed in front of all opening parts of windows.
The toilets must be separated from the change rooms with a solid wall or panels and
be provided with a door

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

36

All carcass rails should be installed 1067 mm away from walls


At least 900 mm in between carcass rails
Offal hooks should be at least 400 mm from wall and 1,500 mm from floor.
All paintwork should be of a light colour.

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37

5. EXAMPLES OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS


SEPTIC TANK SYSTEM FOR A FARM
The septic tank system is an effective and economic method to dispose of your abattoir
effluent. The only prerequisite for this system is that the soil in the area should drain
effectively and that it should conform to the requirements of the local authority.
One of the biggest advantages is that it can be used within 24 hours of installation. Care
should be taken to restrict the water flow to the tank in the first two days to allow sufficient
bacteria growth
If the septic tank system can be installed as close as 10 m from the abattoir (Care should
be taken that it is not under roadways or working areas, to avoid the braking up of such in
case of failure

SEPTIC TANK SYSTEMS


Based on a CSIR technical guide K86 of the Institute
for Water Research
A septic tank system usually consists of two main components:
1.
2.

The septic tank


The final disposal system, which is usually an underground seepage furrow
(French drain).

Each of these components has specific functions and should be designed accordingly
The functions of the components
Raw sewerage will clog the soil, causing ineffective absorption by the sub-soil. The
septic tank, however, will condition the incoming sewerage, separating the solids from the
liquid phase by either settling to the bottom or collecting at the surface (float). This
results in the formation of three distinct layers:
Layer of sludge on the bottom,
A floating layer of scum on top and
A relatively clear liquid layer in the middle.
Bacterial digestion of organic material will cause liquefaction of the solids with associated
gas formation thus reducing the solids volume.
The only function of a soil disposal system is to get rid of the effluent from the septic tank
in a safe and inoffensive manner.

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38

Designing requirements
1. Septic tank
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

The tank must function both as a sedimentation tank as well as a digester.


The capacity of the tank should be large enough to provide ample retention time
for inflowing sewerage.
Possible clogging of the in- and outlet and internal pipes must be limited to a
minimum.
Provision should be made for ventilation for gasses to escape.
The possibility of passage of sludge and scum to the soil percolation system must
be avoided as far as possible.

2. Sub-soil percolation system


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

The nature of the soil to a large extent determines the shape and size of the
system.
Locations should be such that it does not create a danger for public health or
pollute either ground- of surface water.
The clogging effect of the effluent on the surface soil must be avoided
Facilitate full use of the available infiltration area.

Public Health aspects of septic tank systems


In built areas, this system should be seen as a temporary measure. There is practically
no difference between the effluent from a septic tank and raw sewerage as far as
potential danger for public health is concerned. Organisms causing disease can be
present in the effluent of the septic tanks. In communities where drinking water is derived
from boreholes, it is usually unwise to make use or a septic tanks system.
Combined and separate disposal systems
Two types of disposal systems are in use:
1.

A separate system for the ablution facilities (cloakrooms, toilets and kitchens)
utilising a septic tank and a separate or common soil percolation system

2.

A second system for the abattoir effluent incorporating the necessary solids/fat
traps and sedimentation tanks to remove solids (pieces of meat and fat). Effluent
from this system can be discharged in a separate of the same common soil
percolation system

Designing criteria
1. Volume sewerage water
Abattoirs require a water supply of at least 900 litre per slaughter unit. The water
must be available at an effective pressure and be protected against pollution

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

39

Average water consumption at a A-grade abattoir can be sub-divided into:


Holding pens
Slaughter and dress
Offal area
Warm water
Steam
Chilling
Ablution

10%
20%
25%
25%
5%
8%
7%

The volume of effluent in approximately 80 85% of water required


Typical abattoir effluent contains blood, pieces of meat, fat and gut. Constant urine
and dung in suspension. Each of these contributing to a very high organic load
2. Septic tanks
(a) Location:
Local authorities usually have by-laws determining the minimum distances for the
placing of septic tanks from buildings and boundaries. It is recommended that the
tank be located near to a driveway to facilitate cleansing by means of a vacuum
tanker. From a health point of view it is sufficient to have a soil cover of 150 to 200
mm over the system.
(b) Capacity:
Calculation of capacity is based on usage per person per day with a retention period
of 24 hours in the septic tank to provide for separation of scum and sludge thus
providing for a relatively clear effluent.
(c) Shape proportions and compartmentation:
For tanks of a given capacity and depth, the shape of the tank is relatively
unimportant. The liquid depth should be between 1 and 2 meters. Single
compartment tanks usually give acceptable performance but if a tank is divided
vertically into two compartments with the first compartment half to two thirds of the
total volume, the amount of suspended solids removed from the effluent is greater
(d) Inlet, outlet and inter-compartment arrangements:
Figure 1 indicates the positioning of the above in terms of the water level. To
accommodate the scum accumulation, the distance between the waterline and the
roof of the tank should at least 20 percent of the water depth.
(e) Access and ventilation:
The different compartment components should be accessible for inspection and
maintenance. The location of manholes should be such that admission is easily
obtained to pipes that could be blocked. Ventilation is usually through the inlet sewer
to the vent pipe against the wall of the building.
(f) Materials: Septic tanks should be constructed of materials such as concrete, bricks,
coated steel or any other materials which are not subject to excessive corrosion.
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40

Design and construction of soil percolation system


(a) Location :
Percolation trenches should be located where dangerous pollution of ground water is
least likely to occur.
(b) Suitability of the soil :
There is no simple test to accurately determine if soil is suitable to absorb the
effluent. The standard SABS-test gives an indication and can be used as a guideline.
The relative proportions of sand, silt and clay determine the texture of the soil and
influence the absorbing ability. The larger and more uniform the particles, the faster
the percolation rate. Yellow and reddish-brown soil usually has good absorption
quality, whereas a dull-grey (high clay content) has not
(c) Trench design:
The bulk of the effluent enters the soil through the sidewalls of the trench. Deep
narrow trenches are therefore preferable to wide shallow trenches. A permeable
layer, covered with impervious strata will require a deep trench, while the permeable
topsoil, with permeable sub-soil will call for shallow trenches.
(d) Trench construction:
Trenches should be constructed along the contours. Where two or more trenches are
adjacent to each other the distance in between should be twice the depth. After
excavation the sides of the trenches should be roughened to restore the natural
surface. Filling material should be clean and free of dust or silt.
The size of the filling material is not critical and can be from 6 mm to 75 mm or more.
It is advisable to have a layer of fine gravel or coarse sand against the infiltration
surfaces. The trench should be filled with gravel to about 100 to 150 mm from the top.
Prior to back filling, a layer of finer gravel should be placed on top to prevent soil from
entering the trench.
If the length of the trench is in excess of 6 m it will become necessary to provide an
open jointed distribution pipe.
Figure 2 illustrates a typical percolation trench. The trench should be approximately 4
m in length for every 1000 litres given average absorption of the soil
Maintenance
Septic tank requires effective maintenance. When scum and sludge gets discharged into
the percolation trenches, the septic tank should be emptied and the silt and foam should
be removed. If this is not done, the seepage system can be damaged permanently.
When a ground seepage system starts clogging, there is little to be done, but proper
usage of the septic tank can extend the lifetime of the furrows considerably.
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6. EXAMPLES OF CERTAIN EQUIPMENT

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E. DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBMITTED WITH PLAN DRAWINGS

D.

1.

LETTER OF NO OBJECTION FROM LOCAL


AUTHORITY

2.

LETTER OF NO OBJECTION FROM DEPARTMENT OF


WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY

OTHER DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBMITTED WITH PLANS:

As already seen in the section dealing with legislation, other authorities also have
requirements that have to be conformed with. It is thus essential to liase with those
authorities as well
1.

Letter of no objection from your local authority clearly specifying that they have no
objection to the abattoir being built on those premises. The local authority may in
the same letter specify additional requirements in terms of e.g. disposal of
condemned material, blood, stomach content and even abattoir effluent in order to
minimise environmental pollution
This letter can be obtained from either:
a.
Municipality
b.
Local Regional Council
c.
Department of Health
If you have problems with this matter contact your local Veterinary Public Health
officer

2.

Letter of no objection from the Department Water Affairs and Forestry


Such letter will be issued on basis of information obtained from the included
questionnaire Department Water Affairs and Forestry
Complete the questionnaire as comprehensively as possible and forward it to the
office of the Regional director, Department Water Affairs of your area. (See list of
addresses included)

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F.

RE-ZONING

Even though this Department does not require written proof that your premises has the
correct zoning to :

Operate an abattoir
Operate a business
For a food premises

You are advised to give urgent attention to this matter


Cases are known where abattoirs were built without the necessary consent - with grave
financial implications to the owner

G.

REGISTRATION AS A BUSINESS

You are legally compelled to register your abattoir as a business under the Regional
Councils Act

H.

NATIONAL BUILDING REGULATIONS

Building plans are evaluated by officers of this Department in terms of the Abattoir
Hygiene Act 1992 (No 121 of 1992) from a hygiene point of view
Building plans must also be submitted to the offices of your local authority to be approved
in terms of the National Building Regulations

I.

CONCESSIONS AND DEVIATIONS

Occasionally due to a very specific need, abattoir owners need to obtain consent from the
Director not to conform to some of the regulations
In such cases a protocol could be drawn up in consultation with your Veterinary Public
Health officer specifying the managerial procedure that will be followed, to bring the
specific need as close as possible to the requirements of the Standing Regulations
The protocol as well as written application for exemption of the Regulation being
transgressed must be submitted to the Director Veterinary Services for approval

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Chapter

Meat Inspection

A.

QUALIFICATIONS

B.

DUTY SHEET

C.

COMMITMENT

D.

APPLICATION FOR DESIGNATION

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53

A.

QUALIFICATIONS

The minimum qualifications required to be designated at an approved abattoir to do meat


inspection are :

1. A Veterinarian
He should be registered in terms of the Veterinary and Para-Veterinary Occupational
Act 1982 (Act No. 19 of 1982) to exercise a veterinary occupation.

2. A Meat Inspector:
1. The National Diploma in Meat Hygiene of the Department of National Education

2. The National Diploma in Meat Technology of the Department of National Education

3. The National Diploma for Health Inspector of the Department of National Education
4. National Diploma in Environmental Health
5. The Health Inspectors Certificate and the Certificate for Inspectors of Meat and
other food, both from the Royal Association for Health
6. Any other qualification approved by the Director

3. A Meat Examiner:
a. National Certificate for Meat Examiners of the Department of National Education
b. Any other qualification approved by the Director

Please take note that a Meat Examiner may only do meat inspection under the
supervision of a Meat Inspector.

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B.

DUTY SHEET

DUTY SHEET AND TASK DESCRIPTION FOR DESIGNATED PERSONS


UNDER THE ABATTOIR HYGIENE ACT (ACT 121 OF 1992)

INTRODUCTION

The overall task of an designated person is to ensure that the requirements of the
Abattoir Hygiene Act 1992, Act 121 of 1992, is adhered to his/her slaughter facility.

PREREQUISITES

Designated persons must be in possession of:


(i)

Written authorisation according Article 8(1).

(ii)

A copy of the Abattoir Hygiene Act 121 of 1992, the Standing Regulations as well as
any relevant Directives.

A. MEAT EXAMINERS
1. Perform routine primary meat inspection on all carcasses, meat and animal
products according to Schedule 2 given in the Standing Regulations and
appropriate directives.
2. Meat examiners may under supervision of an designated meat
inspector/veterinarian assist in the controlling of basic hygiene requirements in
his/her slaughter facility.
B. MEAT INSPECTOR
Additional to the duties of the meat examiner, the meat inspector is responsible to
perform the following duties:
1. Ensure that the requirements as set out in the Abattoir Hygiene Act (Act 121 of
1992) as well as the Standing Regulations and directives are adhered to.
2. Ensure that the conditions stipulated on the Registration Certificate for his/her
slaughter facility are met.
3. Ensure that the basic hygiene requirements for slaughter facilities are complied
with, in particular the following:
3.1

Sufficient water of acceptable quality, quantity and pressure must be


available during production.
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55

3.2

Warm water must be available as necessary for cleaning.

3.3

Sterilisers available with water at 82C where necessary.

3.4

Equipment used in the slaughter facility should be of a sterilisable material.

3.5

All edible animal products to be handled hygienically and kept off the floor
and away from other dirty areas.

3.6

Clean protective clothing must be issued to all workers on a daily basis.

3.7

Soap and disposable hand towels to be available where indicated.

3.8

Toilet paper must be available in all toilet facilities during periods of


slaughter or production.

3.9

Paunch and intestinal contents as well as any other condemned material


should be disposed of in the prescribed manner.

3.10

The humane handling of slaughter animals.

3.11

The abattoir should be cleaned continuously and daily after slaughtering


and should be kept in a tidy condition.

3.12

All edible products should be handled in a clean and tidy manner at all
times.

4. Ensure that the slaughter facility is maintained in a clean hygienic manner during
production / slaughtering
5. Ensure that:
The abattoir is thoroughly cleaned as prescribed in Part XXII of the Standing
Regulations, after conclusion of slaughter and that surfaces are clean before
slaughtering commences. Attention should be given especially that no edible or
condemned products after conclusion of slaughter should stay over on the abattoir
premises, unless it is stored in a suitable cooling facility.
6. Ensure all personnel handling meat are subjected to medical tests as prescribed,
including daily examination of the hands and arms of personnel and monitoring of
medical records to exclude carriers of transmissible disease.
7. Ensure that:
7.1 Vehicles transporting live animals conform to standards.
7.2 Animals are treated humanely.
7.3

Animals qualifying for emergency slaughter be handled as soon as possible


or accommodated in isolation lairages.

7.4 Clean water is available in all lairages.


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56

7.5 Records of arrivals are monitored to ensure that:


(a) animals are rested sufficiently before slaughter,
(b) and that appropriate measures may be taken in cases of animals
standing over for longer than 48 hours as well as calves which have to be
provided with feed.
7.6

No dead animals are brought into the slaughter facility unless a protocol
exists in the case of processing in an approved plant.

8. Should a veterinarian not be available, the meat inspector should examine all live
animals and arrange that suspect cases be slaughtered last and if thought
necessary, seek the advice of a veterinarian.
9. Ensure that all animals are slaughtered according to procedures set out in the
Abattoir Hygiene Act of 1992 and Standing Regulations in particular:
9.1 Humane handling during movement of animals to the stunning area.
9.2 Effective stunning and immediate bleeding in the hanging position.
9.3 Commencement of dressing only after the animal has bled out completely.
9.4 Dressing to be undertaken hygienically to limit contamination.
9.5

Those dressing and evisceration techniques occur in such a way that


contamination of the carcass, offal and meat are limited to a minimum.

9.6

Edible rough offal to be handled and cleaned according to prescribed


methods.

10.

Meat inspection to be done according to prescriptions in Schedule 2 of the


Standing Regulations. Abnormal carcasses/meat should be detained for
judgement by a veterinarian unless exemption by a veterinarian has been
granted, and be disposed of, if condemned, in a safe prescribed manner by the
owner. Ensure that condemned material cannot be reintroduced into the food
chain.

11.

Ensure that:
The disposal of condemned carcasses or animal products should occur in
terms of Part VIII of the Standing Regulations. Precautions should be taken
especially to ensure that no condemned product reaches the food chain
intentionally or because of lack of control or supervision

12.

Ensure that:
No carcass or meat derived from an animal slaughtered in the abattoir is
removed without marking it in terms of the regulation in Part IX of the Standing
Regulations.

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57

13.

Ensure that:
The approval stamp should at all times be under his personal supervision,
control and use and should thus be stored in such a way to exclude the
undesignated use thereof.

14.

Ensure that:
14.1 No intermingling of warm and already cooled products should occur
14.2 Daily cleaning is done effectively
14.3 Non-admissible items should not be stored in the cooling facilities

15.

Ensure that:
Offloading and transport of carcasses, meat and animal products should occur
in terms of Part XIX of the Standing Regulations. The following should receive
specific attention :
15.1 That meat vehicles conform to the regulations with regard to:
(a) Them being dust- and waterproof
(b) The name and address of owner being displayed
(c) Their state of cleanliness
15.2 That carcasses and red offal are not loaded with rough offal into the
same vehicle, except where rough offal is transported in an acceptable,
leak-proof container with a tight sealing cover.

16.

Ensure that:
Records, reports and logs should be kept up to date by the owner of the
abattoir in terms of Part XXVIII and that the necessary information be kept up
to date and supplied to the owner to complete the Schedule 8 forms.
If the meat inspector is of opinion that an approved abattoir or part thereof or
an appliance therein is dirty or in an unhygienic condition, or if renovation,
repair or changes are necessary or if it does not conform in all respects to the
requirements of the Act, or if the Regulations are not met, he can instruct the
owner in writing to repair the named fault.
A copy of each instruction should be submitted to the Provincial Director of that
specific Province without delay for submission to the Director: Veterinary
Public Health.

C. VETERINARIAN
Additional to the duties of the meat inspector, the veterinarian is responsible to
VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

58

perform the following duties:


1. Ante-mortem inspection on all animals arriving and accommodated at a slaughter
facility where he/she is designated.
2. Secondary meat inspection of all detained carcasses/meat as described in the
Standing Regulations. Do, or delegate tertiary inspections (laboratory tests) to
laboratory assistant or responsible meat inspector
3. Ensure that all inspection procedures followed by the inspection staff are done
according to the relevant Standing Regulations of the Act.
4. Responsible for the compliance to the requirements of the Abattoir Hygiene Act as
well as the Standing Regulations and Directives promulgated under the Act.

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59

C.

COMMITMENT

I, the undersigned:
NAME:
ADDRESS:
....
TEL. NO.: (W)...
TEL. NO.: (H) ..
ID NO.: ..
QUALIFICATIONS:.....
....
Intend to do meat inspection at the new abattoir of:
OWNER: ......
ADDRESS: ..

SIGNED ON .. ON THIS DAY


OF ..20.

SIGNATURE

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60

D.

APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION OF INSPECTION


PERSONNEL AT AN ABATTOIR IN GAUTENG PROVINCE

Complete the attached Form:

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61

AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION, ENVIRONMENT AND


LAND AFFAIRS
DIRECTORATE: VETERINARY SERVICES
THE DIRECTOR, PO BOX 8769, JOHANNESBURG 2000
Telephone: (011) 355-1987
Fax: (011) 337-2292

APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION OF INSPECTION PERSONNEL


AT AN ABATTOIR IN GAUTENG PROVINCE
ANNEXURE A:
1.

To be completed by the abattoir owner

(full name and surname) as owner () of


(name of abattoir) with registration number

situated at (physical address)


Tel.:

Fax:

E-mail:

approved under the Meat Safety Act of 2000 (Act 40 of 2000) as a Grade
Abattoir
hereby apply that the person(s) indicated in the table below be registered by the Director: Veterinary Services, to render a
service as veterinarian(s) / meat inspector(s) at the above-mentioned abattoir.
Owner, for the purpose of the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000), means the person in whom the ownership of

the abattoir is vested or, in the case of any abattoir in respect of which the right of general control is vested in a
person other than the person in whom the ownership is vested, that other person.
2. PARTICULARS OF OFFICIALS:
FULL NAME AND SURNAME

IDENTITY NUMBER

POSITION

i
ii
iii
iv
v
3. The abovementioned veterinarian(s) / meat inspector(s) / meat examiner(s) will be in the employ of:
(name of company)

whilst working at this abattoir.

4. Enclosed herewith please find a completed Annexure B for every official mentioned under 2. above.
APPLICATION FEE :

The application fee is R 50 for every official mentioned under 2. above.

TYPE OF PAYMENT into DACEL Cost Recovery PMG account:


Deposit at Bank:

Cash

Virtual Card

(Attached slip / printout)


(2 day clearance)

Electronic Payment:

Home or Bank

Service Centre:

Virtual Card Transaction

Approved Credit Client

Cheque

(10 day clearance)

(2 day clearance)

Approved Creditors Number.:

I understand that the service can be delivered only after the payment is reflected in the DACEL Cost Recovery PMG, or once
all previous invoices of an approved credit client have been paid.
SIGNATURE: ABATTOIR OWNER

DATE
BANK:
BRANCH CODE:

STANDARD BANK (SA)


16 53 00

CODE TO BE USED:

V V 7

ACCOUNT NAME:
ACCOUNT NO.:

DACEL COST RECOVERY PMG


401310345

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


Application Number(s):
OR Service Delivery Number:

Receipt Number:

Approved Creditors Number:


Approved:
OFFICER

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

SIGNATURE

62

To be completed by proposed veterinarian / meat inspector*


REAPPLICATION / NEW APPLICATION* UNDER THE NEW MEAT SAFETY ACT
(ACT 40 OF 2000)

ANNEXURE B:

(* Please delete that which is not relevant)


1. PERSONAL INFORMATION:
1.1 Surname:

First Names:

1.2 Identity number:

(Attach certified copy of ID)

1.3 Physical Address:


1.4 Postal Address:

Code:

1.5 Tel.:

Fax:

E-mail:

2. QUALIFICATIONS:
PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS

DATE
ATTAINED

INSTITUTION
(Name of University / Technikon / College)

(Attach certified copies of all qualifications only if it is a new application)


3.

PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE of ante mortem inspection of slaughter stock, meat inspection and general hygiene control at
an abattoir (Please give time period and extent of involvement)

4.

IN WHOS SERVICE will you be, if you are appointed at the above-mentioned abattoir (name of company)?

5.

PROVISION OF THE FOLLOWING SERVICES:


(1)

Ante mortem inspection

YES / NO

(2)

Meat inspection

YES / NO

(3)
General hygiene management
In case of a meat examiner in a red meat abattoir, will you be working under the
supervision of a Veterinarian / Meat Inspector?

YES / NO
YES / NO

6. I CONFIRM THE FOLLOWING:


(1)

That I am in possession of a duty sheet.

(2)

That I am in possession of a copy of the Meat Safety Act (Act No. 40. of 2000) and that I am familiar with the
stipulations therein.

(3)

That I am in possession of a copy of the Standing Regulations and that I am familiar with the contents thereof.

(4)

That I understand that I can be reported to the Professional Body of which I am a member should I fail to carry out
my lawful duties to the best of my ability.

DATE

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SIGNATURE: PROPOSED VETERINARIAN / MEAT INSPECTOR

63

Chapter

Application for
Registration
Registration

APPLICATION FOR A
REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE

The application should be submitted in writing to the Director : Veterinary Public Health
through the Director: Veterinary Services (or his designated delegate) in your Province.
The application may only be done once the abattoir construction is complete and a final
inspecti9on was done, in order for the application to be recommended
The application must be accompanied by the necessary fee as determined from time to time
by the Director from time to time. (Contact your local Veterinary Public Health officer in this
regard).
See attached pro-forma application form of the Registration Certificate.

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64

AGRICULTURE, CONSERVATION,
ENVIRONMENT AND LAND AFFAIRS
DIRECTORATE: VETERINARY SERVICES
THE DIRECTOR, PO BOX 8769, JOHANNESBURG 2000
Telephone: (011) 355-1987
Fax: (011) 337-2292

APPLICATION FOR THE BIANNUAL REGISTRATION OF AN ABATTOIR


GAUTENG VETERINARY SERVICES
ABATTOIR:

Name:

Type:

Physical Address or Registered Farm Name and Number:


Magisterial District:
Tel.:

Fax:

OWNER :

E-mail:

Name:

Physical Address:
Postal Address:

Code:

Tel.:

Fax:

E-mail:

Fax:

E-mail:

Name:

CONTACT PERSON:
Tel.:

AVERAGE DAILY SLAUGHTER: Cattle:

Calves:

Sheep / Goats:

Pigs:

Other (specify):

Usual time and duration of slaughter:


for the purpose of the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000), means the person in whom the ownership of the abattoir is vested or, in
Owner,
the case of any abattoir in respect of which the right of general control is vested in a person other than the person in whom the ownership is
vested, that other person.

I, the undersigned, hereby apply for registration of the abovementioned Abattoir, in terms of the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000).
APPLICATION FEE of
R
(see reverse: V V 2 V V 6) for Registration of a
Grade abattoir
TYPE OF PAYMENT into DACEL Cost Recovery PMG account:
Deposit at Bank:

Cash

Virtual Card

(Attached slip / printout)

(2 day clearance)

Electronic Payment:

Home or Bank

Service Centre:

Virtual Card Transaction

Approved Credit Client

Cheque

(10 day clearance)

(2 day clearance)

Approved Creditors Number.:

I understand that the service can be delivered only after the payment is reflected in the DACEL Cost Recovery PMG, or once all previous
invoices of an approved credit client have been paid.

DATE:

SIGNATURE:
STANDARD BANK (SA)
16 53 00

BANK:
BRANCH CODE:

ACCOUNT NAME:
ACCOUNT NO.:

DACEL COST RECOVERY PMG


401310345

CODE TO BE USED (see reverse):


FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
Application Number(s):
Receipt Number:

OR Service Delivery Number:


Approved Creditors Number:

Recommended Abattoir Grade:


Approved
:

Recommended Total Number:

Date:

of (species)

to be slaughtered daily.

Gauteng Registration Certificate Number:

For Export Facilities only: National Registration Certificate (ZA) Number:


Remarks / Recommendation:

(see reverse)
ADMINISTRATION OFFICER

VPH-PLANS-05-Guidelines-RedMeat

SIGNATURE

65

CHARGES FOR REGISTRATION AND BANK CODES TO BE USED

ABATTOIRS GRADE

AMOUNT

CODE NO.

6,000

VV2

4,500

VV3

2,000

VV4

1,000

VV5

500

VV6

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


REMARKS / RECOMMENDATION
Copy
to
Number:

File

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Yes:

66

Chapter

Marking of
Meat/Stamps

Section 10 (1) of the Act prohibits the removal of meat from an abattoir unless the meat
has been inspected, approved and it has been marked in the prescribed manner
The mark is in the form of a round stamp as illustrated below, with the following
specifications :
a. The diameter of the circle must be at least 40 mm
b. Must contain the identity number of the abattoir as well as the words Goedgekeur
and Passed
c. The letters must be at least 4 mm in height

1/12

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