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Title:FisheryHarbourManualonthePreventionofPollutionBayof
BengalProgramme...
Moredetails

Chapter2WATERQUALITYMONITORING,
STANDARDSANDTREATMENT
2.1Watersampling
2.2Testingprocedures
2.3Investigativeanalysis
2.4Watertreatmentmethods

2.1Watersampling
2.1.1Borewells
2.1.2Municipalmains
2.1.3Watertanksandreservoirs
2.1.4Harbourbasinwater
Waterusedforprocessingfish,washingfishormakingiceissupposedtomeet
drinkingwaterstandardsifitistobeconsideredsafe.Reason:contaminatedwater
isthemaincauseforpathogenloadingoffish,posingaserioushealthhazardtoits
consumer.
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WHOhasissuedguidelinesfordrinkingwaterquality,areportinthreevolumes.Vol.
1dealswithguidelinevalues,Vol.2dealswitheachcontaminantandVol.3gives
informationonhowtohandlewatersuppliesinsmallruralcommunities.WHO
recognizesthatverystringentstandardscannotbeuseduniversallyandsoarange
ofguidelinevaluesformorethan60parametershavebeenelaborated.Mostnations
havetheirownguidelinesorstandards.Thecontrolexertedbylocalregulatory
authoritiesmaydifferfromplacetoplacedependingonthelocalsituation.Sohow
canacceptablewaterqualitybedefined?Whatcantheharbourmasterdotoensure
quality?Ensuringthequalityoftheharbourbasinwhenitiscontiguouswith
estuarineorcoastalwatersisperhapsbeyondthescopeoftheharbourmaster
excepttoensurethatactivitiesinhisharbourdonotaddtothepollution.However,
heisdutyboundtoensurethatthewaterusedfordrinking,cleaningfish,icemaking
andfishprocessingmeetsstandardsofpotabilitysetinhiscountry.
Qualitativeandquantitativemeasurementsareneededfromtimetotimeto
constantlymonitorthequalityofwaterfromthevarioussourcesofsupply.
Theharbourmastershouldthenensureappropriatewatertreatmentwithin
thefisheryharbourcomplexaswellasinitiateremedialmeasureswiththe
supplierswhenwatersupplyfromoutsideispolluted.
WatersamplingandanalysisshouldbedonebyISOcertifiedlaboratories.Wherever
laboratoriesavailablelocallyarenotISOcertified,itisadvisabletogettheirquality
assessedbyanISOcertifiedlaboratorybycarryingoutcollaborativeteststoensure
thatvariationintheaccuracyofresultsissufficientlysmall.Unreliableresults
exacerbateproblemsofpollutionwhencorrectiveactioncannotbetakenintime.
Samplingandmonitoringtestsshouldbecarriedoutbyqualifiedtechnicians.
Dependingontheactualstateofthefishingharbourinfrastructureand
environmentalconditionsinandaroundtheharbour,monitoringshouldbecarried
outaccordingtoaspecificprogrammeforeachsourceofwatersupply.

2.1.1Borewells
Contaminationmayarisefrompollutantsenteringthewatertablesomedistance
fromtheportorfromsewageenteringtheboreholeitselfintheportareathrough
crackedorcorrodedcasings.Incaseswhereoverdrawingisevident(wateris
brackish),testsshouldbeconductedatleastmonthly.

2.1.2Municipalmains
Supplycouldbecontaminatedatsourceorthroughcorrodedpipelinesleadingtothe
fisheryharbour.Mixingwithsewagelinesduetodefectivepipinghasbeenknownto
occuroften.Completetestsshouldbecarriedouteveryhalfyear,andtheauthorities
shouldbeinformedwhenresultsindicatecontamination.

2.1.3Watertanksandreservoirs
Bothtypesofstructurearepronetobacterialgrowthiftheresidualchlorinelevelsin
themarelowornonexistent.Testingmaynotbenecessaryifperiodicscrubbingis
carriedout.Bacteriologicaltestsshouldbedoneatleasthalfyearly.

2.1.4Harbourbasinwater
Typically,harbourbasinsaretestedyearly.However,inareaswheremonsoonsare
veryactive,itmaybeadvisabletotestatthepeakofthedryseasonwheneffluent
pointdischargestendtoremainconcentratedinthewaterbodyandagainduringthe
wetseasonwhenagriculturerunoffmaybeconsiderable.Anothercriticalperiodfor
harboursisthepeakofthefishingseasonwhentheharbourisatitsbusiestand
vesselgeneratedpollutionislikelytobeatitspeak.
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2.2Testingprocedures
2.2.1Physicaltests
2.2.2Chemicaltests
2.2.3Bacteriologicaltests
Whilethedetailsofsampling,testingandanalysisarebeyondthescopeofthis
handbook,whatfollowsisageneraldescriptionofthesignificanceofwaterquality
testsusuallymade.
Testingproceduresandparametersmaybegroupedintophysical,chemical,
bacteriologicalandmicroscopiccategories.
Physicaltestsindicatepropertiesdetectablebythesenses.
Chemicaltestsdeterminetheamountsofmineralandorganic
substancesthataffectwaterquality.
Bacteriologicaltestsshowthepresenceofbacteria,characteristicof
faecalpollution.

2.2.1Physicaltests
Colour,turbidity,totalsolids,dissolvedsolids,suspendedsolids,odourandtasteare
recorded.
Colourinwatermaybecausedbythepresenceofmineralssuchasironand
manganeseorbysubstancesofvegetableoriginsuchasalgaeandweeds.Colour
testsindicatetheefficacyofthewatertreatmentsystem.
Turbidityinwaterisbecauseofsuspendedsolidsandcolloidalmatter.Itmaybe
duetoerodedsoilcausedbydredgingorduetothegrowthofmicroorganisms.
Highturbiditymakesfiltrationexpensive.Ifsewagesolidsarepresent,pathogens
maybeencasedintheparticlesandescapetheactionofchlorineduringdisinfection.
Odourandtasteareassociatedwiththepresenceoflivingmicroscopicorganisms
ordecayingorganicmatterincludingweeds,algaeorindustrialwastescontaining
ammonia,phenols,halogens,hydrocarbons.Thistasteisimpartedtofish,rendering
themunpalatable.Whilechlorinationdilutesodourandtastecausedbysome
contaminants,itgeneratesafoulodouritselfwhenaddedtowaterspollutedwith
detergents,algaeandsomeotherwastes.

2.2.2Chemicaltests
pH,hardness,presenceofaselectedgroupofchemicalparameters,biocides,highly
toxicchemicals,andB.O.Dareestimated.
pHisameasureofhydrogenionconcentration.Itisanindicatorofrelativeacidityor
alkalinityofwater.Valuesof9.5andaboveindicatehighalkalinitywhilevaluesof3
andbelowindicateacidity.LowpHvalueshelpineffectivechlorinationbutcause
problemswithcorrosion.Valuesbelow4generallydonotsupportlivingorganismsin
themarineenvironment.DrinkingwatershouldhaveapHbetween6.5and8.5.
Harbourbasinwatercanvarybetween6and9.
B.O.D.:Itdenotestheamountofoxygenneededbymicroorganismsforstabilization
ofdecomposableorganicmatterunderaerobicconditions.HighB.O.D.meansthat
thereislessofoxygentosupportlifeandindicatesorganicpollution.
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2.2.3Bacteriologicaltests
Fortechnicalandeconomicreasons,analyticalproceduresforthedetectionof
harmfulorganismsareimpracticalforroutinewaterqualitysurveillance.Itmustbe
appreciatedthatallthatbacteriologicalanalysiscanproveisthat,atthetimeof
examination,contaminationorbacteriaindicativeoffaecalpollution,couldorcould
notbedemonstratedinagivensampleofwaterusingspecifiedculturemethods.In
addition,theresultsofroutinebacteriologicalexaminationmustalwaysbe
interpretedinthelightofathoroughknowledgeofthewatersupplies,includingtheir
source,treatment,anddistribution.
Wheneverchangesinconditionsleadtodeteriorationinthequalityofthewater
supplied,oreveniftheyshouldsuggestanincreasedpossibilityofcontamination,
thefrequencyofbacteriologicalexaminationshouldbeincreased,sothataseriesof
samplesfromwellchosenlocationsmayidentifythehazardandallowremedial
actiontobetaken.Wheneverasanitarysurvey,includingvisualinspection,indicates
thatawatersupplyisobviouslysubjecttopollution,remedialactionmustbetaken,
irrespectiveoftheresultsofbacteriologicalexamination.Forunpipedruralsupplies,
sanitarysurveysmayoftenbetheonlyformofexaminationthatcanbeundertaken
regularly.
Therecognitionthatmicrobialinfectionscanbewaterbornehasledtothe
developmentofmethodsforroutineexaminationtoensurethatwaterintendedfor
humanconsumptionisfreefromexcrementalpollution.Althoughitisnowpossibleto
detectthepresenceofmanypathogensinwater,themethodsofisolationand
enumerationareoftencomplexandtimeconsuming.Itisthereforeimpracticalto
monitordrinkingwaterforeverypossiblemicrobialpathogenthatmightoccurwith
contamination.Amorelogicalapproachisthedetectionoforganismsnormally
presentinthefaecesofmanandotherwarmbloodedanimalsasindicatorsof
excrementalpollution,aswellasoftheefficacyofwatertreatmentanddisinfection.
Thepresenceofsuchorganismsindicatesthepresenceoffaecalmaterialandthus
ofintestinalpathogens.(Theintestinaltractofmancontainscountlessrodshaped
bacteriaknownascoliformorganismsandeachpersondischargesfrom100to400
billioncoliformorganismsperdayinadditiontootherkindsofbacteria).Conversely,
theabsenceoffaecalcommensalorganismsindicatesthatpathogensareprobably
alsoabsent.Searchforsuchindicatorsoffaecalpollutionthusprovidesameansof
qualitycontrol.Theuseofnormalintestinalorganismsasindicatorsoffaecal
pollutionratherthanthepathogensthemselvesisauniversallyacceptedprinciplefor
monitoringandassessingthemicrobialsafetyofwatersupplies.Ideally,thefinding
ofsuchindicatorbacteriashoulddenotethepossiblepresenceofallrelevant
pathogens.
Indicatororganismsshouldbeabundantinexcrementbutabsent,orpresentonlyin
smallnumbers,inothersourcestheyshouldbeeasilyisolated,identifiedand
enumeratedandshouldbeunabletogrowinwater.Theyshouldalsosurvivelonger
thanpathogensinwaterandbemoreresistanttodisinfectants,suchaschlorine.In
practice,thesecriteriacannotallbemetbyanyoneorganism,althoughmanyof
themarefulfilledbycoliformorganisms,especiallyEscherichiacoliastheessential
indicatorofpollutionbyfaecalmaterialofhumanoranimalorigin.

2.3Investigativeanalysis
2.3.1Testcase
Aharbourmaster'sknowledgeofthestateoftheenvironmentinandaroundthe
fishingharbourgoesalongwaytowardpreventingoutbreaksofcontaminationor
diseasewithsubsequentlossofresourcesandincome.Thisisparticularlysoforthe
manysmalltomediumfishingportsscatteredaroundcoastlinesindeveloping
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countries,where,moreoftenthannot,environmentalhelpandsupportfromcentral
bodiesismeagreandverytimeconsuming.
Thefollowingisatruelifeexampleofaninvestigativeanalysiscarriedoutinan
ASEANcountryinaharbourthatwasexperiencingproblemswithhygiene(coliform
contaminatedfish).

2.3.1Testcase
Theportinquestionissituatedinthemouthofanestuary.Thetown'swatersupply
cannotprovidetheportwithpotablewaterandtheportdrawsgroundwaterfroma
seriesofboreholesinandaroundtheportarea.Theport'sstorageinfrastructure
consistsofonlyoneelevatedconcretetankwhichcannotbetakenoutofservicefor
cleaning.Iceissuppliedbyoutsidecontractors.
Currentlaboratorytestresultswereexaminedandfoundtobetooconsistentto
reflectnaturalchangesintheenvironment,pointingafingerofsuspicionatthe
laboratory'sQualityAssurance.AnewlaboratorywithI.S.O.certificationwas
selectedtocarryoutthenewtests.
Watersamplesweretakenbyexternaltechniciansfromtheport'sborehole,the
auctionhall'swatertaps,eachandeveryoneoftheexternalicesuppliersandthe
harbourbasin.
AsamplereportfromthelaboratoryisshowninTable21.
Inthistable,thefirstcolumnindicatesthetestparameterandthelastcolumn
indicatesthemethodusedtodeterminethetestresult(sometimes,morethanone
methodmaybeusedtodetermineresiduals).
Thesecondcolumnindicateshowtheparametersaremeasured,thethirdcolumn
givestheactualtestresultwhichmaythenbecomparedtothevaluesinthefourth
column.Thevaluesinthefourthcolumnarenationalstandardsorlimitssetby
Governmentsandmaydifferfromcountrytocountry.Thevaluesinthethirdcolumn
shouldnotexceedthoseinthefourthcolumn.
Table22showstherecommendedWHOstandardlimitsforpotablewater.
Table21:SAMPLEWATERANALYSISREPORTPORTTAPWATER
Parameter

Unit

Test
Remarks

Requirement

Methods

Colour

Pt.Co
scale

15

Colorimetric

Odour

Pt.Co
scale

negative

odourless

Organoleptic

pH

Pt.Co
scale

6.50

6.58.5

Electrometric

Taste

Pt.Co
scale

normal

tasteless

Organoleptic

Turbity

FTU

Turbidity

Aluminum

mg/l

below0.20

0.2

AAS

Copper

mg/l

below0.03

1.0

AAS

IronTotal

mg/l

below0.04

0.3

AAS

Manganese

mg/l

0.06

0.1

AAS

Sodium

mg/l

96.93

200

AAS

Physical&Chemical*) :

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Zinc

mg/l

0.047

AAS

Chloride

mg/l

140.41

250

Argentometric

Flouride

mg/l

0.09

1.5

Colorimetric

Nitrate

mg/l

below0.11

10

Colorimetric

Nitrite

mg/l

0.96

Colorimetric

Sulphate

mg/l

below0.94

400

Turbidimetric

Arsenic

mg/l

below0.001

0.05

AAS

Barium

mg/l

below0.10

AAS

Cadmium

mg/l

below0.005

0.005

AAS

Cyanide

mg/l

below0.01

0.1

Colorimetric

ChromHexavalent

mg/l

below0.006

0.05

Colorimetric

Lead

mg/l

below0.01

0.05

AAS

Mercury

mg/l

below0.001

0.001

AAS

Selenium

mg/l

below0.007

0.01

AAS

OrganicMatterby
KMnO4

mg/l

3.06

10

Permanganantometric

DissolvedSolid

mg/l

431

1000

Gravimetric

HydrogenSulphideas
H2S

mg/l

below0.01

0.05

Colorimetric

mgCaCO3

95.49

500

AAS

perml

6.9x102

1.0x102

PourPlate

Coliform

per100ml

nil

nil

Filtration

E.Coli

per100ml

nil

nil

Filtration

Salmonellasp

per100ml

negative

negative

Filtration

TotalHardness
Bacteriological:
TotalBacteria

*)

StandardMethods

A.Examinationoftheport'sdeepboreholetestreportrevealedthatwhereasthe
ironandmanganeselevelswereoverthelimit,indicatingvegetablematterinthe
acquifer,thesodiumandchloridelevelswerelow,indicatingthatthepumpwasnot
overdrawing.Boththenitrateandnitritelevelswerelowindicatingthatsewage
intrusionintotheboreholecasingwasnotaproblem.Thetotalbacterialcount,
however,wasveryhigh,indicatingthatthewaterhastobechlorinatedtolowerthe
count.
B.Examinationoftheauctionhall'stapwatertestreport(comparingthemtothe
boreholewater)indicatesthatthebacterialcountisslightlylowerbutnotenoughto
beconsideredsanitaryandfitfordrinking.Theturbidityalsodroppeddramatically
betweenboreholeandtap,indicatingdepositionofsolidsinsidetheport'sonly
storagetank.Thenitratelevelalsodropsasthenitratesarefurtherconvertedto
nitritesindicatingbacteriologicalactivityinsidetheoverheadtankaswell.Asitturned
out,chlorinatingequipmentwasnotinstalled.
C.Examinationoftheicetestreportsrevealsthatbothsodiumandchloridesare
overthelimitindicatingeitherleakingcansattheiceplants(dirtybrinewaterenters
theicewaterduringthechillingoperation)oroverdrawingattheplant'sborehole.
Closerexaminationalsorevealedthatthenitritelevelsareveryhigh(indicating
decomposedsewage)andthatcoliformswerepresentintheice.Thispointeda
fingerattheboreholeofoneparticularplant,whichinfactwasfoundtobe
overdrawingwatertomeetanincreaseindemand.Thepresenceofthecoliforms
alsoindicatedthattheiceplant'sownchlorinatingequipmentwasnotfunctioning
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properly.
D.Acloselookattheriverbasinwaterindicatedheavycontaminationbysewageof
thewatercourse.
Theconclusionstobedrawnfromtheaboveexercisearethat:
a)Themostlikelysourceofcontaminationwastheicesuppliedtothe
fishermen,whichinturncontaminatedthefishintheholds
b)Theport'sownwatersupplyandstoragesystemwasinneedofan
overhaul
c)Theport'sriverwaterwasnottobeusedinanyofthefishhandling
processes.
Table23givestheEUrecommendationsforharbourwatersingeneral.
Harbourwaterisneversuitableforuseinfishhandlingprocessesdestinedfor
humanconsumption.
Table22:W.H.O.DRINKINGWATERSTANDARDS
PARAMETER

UNIT

LIMIT

Aluminium

mgAl/l

0.2

Arsenic

mgAs/l

0.05

Barium

mgBa/l

0.05

Berylium

ugBe/l

0.2

Cadmium

ugCd/l

5.0

Calcium

mgCa/l

200.0

Chromium

mgCr/l

0.05

Copper

mgCu/l

1.0

IronTotal

mgFe/l

0.3

Lead

mgPb/l

0.01

Magnesium

mgMg/l

150.0

Manganese

mgMn/l

0.1

Mercury

ugHg/l

1.0

Selenium

mgSe/l

0.01

Sodium

mgNa/l

200.0

Zinc

mgZn/l

5.0

Chlorides

mgCl/l

250.0

Cyanide

mgCn/l

0.1

Fluorides

mgF/l

1.5

Nitrates

mgNO3/l

10.0

Nitrites

mgNO2/l

Sulphates

mgSO4/l

400.0

Suphides

mgH2S/l

TOTAL"drins"

ug/l

0.03

TOTAL"ddt"

ug/l

1.0

Hydrocarbons

mg/l

0.1

AnionicDetergents

mg/l

pH
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Totaldissolvedsolids

mg/l

1500

Totalhardness

mg/l

500

Alkalinity

mg/l

500

TotalBacteria

Count/ml

100

Coliform

Count/100ml

E.Coli

Count/100ml

Salmonella

Count/100ml

MICROBIOLOGICALPARAMETERS

ug=microgramorppb
mg=milligramorppm
Table23:EUESTUARYANDHARBOURBASINWATERSTANDARDS
PARAMETER

UNIT

LIMIT

Mercury

ugHg/l

0.50(D)

Cadmium

ugCd/l

5.00(D)

Arsenic

mgAs/l

0.50(G)

Chromium

mgCr/l

0.50(G)

Copper

mgCu/l

0.50(G)

Iron

mgFe/l

3.00(G)

Lead

mgPb/l

0.50(G)

Nickel

mgNi/l

0.50(G)

Zinc

mgZn/l

50.00(G)

Tributyltin

ug/l

0.002

Triphenyltin

ug/l

0.008

Aldrin

ug/l

0.01

Dieldrin

ug/l

0.01

Endrin

ug/l

0.005

Isodrin

ug/l

0.005

TOTAL"drins"

ug/l

0.03

TOTAL"ddt"all4isomers

ug/l

0.025

paraddt

ug/l

0.01

Hexachlorocyclohexane

ug/l

0.02

Carbontetrachloride

ug/l

12.0

Pentachlorophenol

ug/l

2.0

Hexachlorobenzene

ug/l

0.03

Hexachlorobutadiene

ug/l

0.10

Chloroform

ug/l

12.0

EthyleneDichloride

ug/l

10.0

Perchloroethylene

ug/l

10.0

Trichlorobenzene

ug/l

0.40

Trichloroethylene

ug/l

10.0

Hydrocarbons

ug/l

300.0(G)

Phenols

ug/l

50.0

Surfactants

ug/l

300.0(G)

DissolvedOxygen

%Saturation 80120(G)

pH
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Sulphide

mg/l

0.04(S)

MICROBIOLOGICALPARAMETERS
Faecalconforms

per100ml

2000

Totalcoliforms

per100ml

10000

Salmonella

Enteroviruses

ug=microgram
G=Guideline
mg=milligram
S=Suggested
D=Dissolved

2.4Watertreatmentmethods
2.4.1Primarytreatment
2.4.2Secondarytreatment
2.4.3Completetreatment
Treatmentofrawwatertoproducewaterofpotablequalitycanbeexpensive.Itis
advisabletodeterminethequantityofwaterneedingtreatment,asnotallwater
usedinafisheryharbourorprocessingplantneedstobeofpotablequality.
Sizingoftheequipmentiscrucialtoproduceacceptablewateratreasonablecost.
Themainpointtorememberisthatseparatesystemsandpipelinesarerequiredfor
potableandnonpotablewatertoavoidcrosscontamination.Eachsystemmustbe
clearlyidentifiedbycontrastingcolouredpipelines.
Waterusedfordrinking,cleaningfishandicemakingmustbefreefrompathogenic
bacteriaandmayrequiresecondarytreatmentorevencompletetreatment
dependingonchemicalelementsthatneedtoberemoved.Waterforotherneeds
likegeneralcleaningmayperhapsneedonlyprimarytreatment.

2.4.1Primarytreatment
Therearefourmethodsofprimarytreatment:chlorinationozonetreatment
ultraviolettreatmentandmembranefiltration.
Chlorination:Freshorseawatercanbechlorinatedusingeitherchlorinegasor
hypochlorites.Chlorinatedwaterminimizesslimedevelopmentonworkingsurfaces
andhelpscontrolodour.
Figure8:CHLORINATIONTREATMENT

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Themainadvantagesofusingchlorinegasare:
Itisthemostefficientmethodofmakingfreechlorineavailabletoraw
water.
ItlowersthepHofthewaterslightly.
Controlissimpletestingsimpleanditisnotanexpensivemethod.
Themaindisadvantagesare:
Chlorinegasistoxicandcancombinewithotherchemicalstoform
combustibleandexplosivematerials.
Automaticcontrolsystemsareexpensive.
Chlorinecylindersmaynotbereadilyavailableatsmallcentres.
Chlorineexpandsrapidlyonheatingandhencethecylindersmust
havefusibleplugssetat70C.Italsoreactswithwater,releasingheat.
Watershouldnotthereforebesprayedonaleakingcylinder.
Figure9:PERCENTAGEOFAVAILABLECHLORINEBYWEIGHT
COMPOUND
Chlorinegas

CHEMICALCOMPOSITION %CHLORINEBYWEIGHT
Cl2

100.0

Monochloramine

NH2Cl

138.0

Diochloramine

NH4Cl2

165.0

HOCl

135.4

Ca(OCl2)

99.2

HypochlorousAcid
Calciumhypochlorite

Hypochloritesaregenerallyavailableintwoformssodiumhypochloritesolution
normallyavailableat10%concentrationandcalciumhypochloriteavailableasa
powder.
Themaindisadvantagesofusinghypochloritesare:
Calciumhypochloriteisnotstableandmustbestoredinairtight
drums.
Sodiumhypochloriteisquitecorrosiveandcannotbestoredinmetal
containers
Sodiumhypochloritemustbestoredinlightproofcontainers.
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Itisdifficulttocontroltherateofadditionofhypochloritesinproportion
towaterflow.
HypochloritesraisethepHinwater.
Theyaremoreexpensivethanchlorinegas.
Itisimportanttounderstandthemannerinwhichchlorineorchlorinereleasing
substancesbehavewhenaddedtowater,dependingonothersubstancespresent.
Whenwatercontainsreducingsubstanceslikeferroussaltsor
hydrogensulphide,thesewillreducepartoftheaddedchlorineto
chlorideions.
Whenwatercontainsammonia,organicmatter,bacteriaandother
substancescapableofreactingwithchlorine,theleveloffreechlorine
willbereduced.
Ifthequantityofchlorineaddedissufficientlylargetoensurethatitis
notallreducedorcombined,aportionofitwillremainfreeinthewater.
Thisistermedasresidualfreechlorineorfreechlorine.
Whenchlorinereactschemicallyasinthefirsttwocases,itlosesitsoxidisingpower
andconsequentlyitsdisinfectingproperties.Someammoniacalchlorideshowever
stillretainsomedisinfectingproperties.Chlorinepresentinthisformistermed
residualcombinedchlorineorcombinedchlorine.
Fromthestandpointofdisinfection,themostimportantformisfreechlorine.Routine
analysisalwaysaimsatdeterminingatleastthefreechlorinelevel.
Ozonetreatment:Thoughtheprincipleisrelativelysimple,thismethodneeds
specialequipment,supplyofpureoxygenandtrainedoperators.Ozoneisgenerated
bypassingpureoxygenthroughanozonegenerator.Itisthenbubbledthrougha
gasdiffuseratthebottomofanabsorptioncolumn,inadirectionoppositetotheflow
ofrawwater.Retentionorcontacttimeiscriticalandthesizeoftheabsorption
columndependsonthewaterflow.
Figure10:OZONETREATMENT

Themainadvantagesofozonetreatmentare:
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Ozoneisamuchmorepowerfulgermicidethanchlorineespeciallyfor
faecalbacteria.
Itreducesturbidityofwaterbybreakingdownorganicconstituents.
Theprocessiseasilycontrolled.
Thedisadvantagesare:
Pureoxygenmaynotbereadilyavailablelocally.
Ozonizedwateriscorrosivetometalpiping.
Ozonedecomposesrapidlyintooxygen.
Waterhastobeaeratedpriortousetoremovetheozone.
Ultravioletirradiationtreatment:Thismethodisoftenusedtotreatdrinking
water.Successfulcommercialinstallationshavebeenmadetopurifyseawaterin
largefishprocessingplants.
Figure11:ULTRAVIOLETIRRADIATIONTREATMENT

ThemainadvantagesofUVtreatmentare:
UVraysintherangeof25002600Angstromunitsarelethaltoall
typesofbacteria.
Thereisnoorganoleptic,chemicalorphysicalchangetothewater
quality.
Overexposuredoesnothaveanyilleffects.
Themaindisadvantagesare:
Electricitysupplyshouldbereliable.
Turbidityreducesefficiency.
Watermayrequirepriortreatmentlikefiltration.
Theunitrequiresregularinspectionandmaintenance.
Thicknessofthewaterfilmshouldnotexceed7.5cm.
Membranefiltration:Osmoticmembranetreatmentmethodsaregenerally
expensiveforcommercialscaleinstallations.Combinationsofmembranetreatment
withUVtreatmentunitsareavailablefordomesticuse.

2.4.2Secondarytreatment
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Secondarytreatmentofwaterconsistsofsedimentationandfiltrationfollowedby
chlorination.Sedimentationcanbecarriedoutbyholdingtherawwaterinpondsor
tanks.Thefourbasictypesoffiltrationarecartridgefiltration,rapidsandfiltration,
multimediasandfiltration,andupflowfiltration.
Cartridgefiltration:Thissystemisdesignedtohandlewatersoflowturbidityand
willremovesolidsinthe5to100micronrange.
Themainadvantagesare:
Lowcostand'inline'installation.
Changeofcartridgeissimple.
Operationisfoolproof.Oncethecartridgeisclogged,flowsimply
stops.
Themaindisadvantagesare:
Suddenincreaseinturbidityoverloadsthesystem.
Cartridgesmaynotbereadilyavailableandlargestocksmaybe
required.
Rapidsandfiltration:Thissystemconsistsofalayerofgravelwithlayersofsand
ofdecreasingcoarsenessabovethegravel.Assolidsbuildupontop,flow
decreasesuntilitstops.Thisiscorrectedbybackflushingthesystemtoremovethe
solidbuildupontop,Figure12.
Themainadvantagesare:
Costoffiltrationmediaisnegligible.
Operationissimple.
Themaindisadvantagesare:
Aholdingtankforfilteredwaterisrequiredtoprovideclearwaterback
flushing.
Pumpingloadsincreaseassedimentsbuildup.
Figure12:RAPIDSANDFILTRATION

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Figure13:CONVENTIONALSANDFILTRATION

Multimediasandfiltration:Thissystemissimilartotherapidsandfiltration
method.
Figure14:MULTIMEDIASANDFILTRATION

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Upflowfiltration:Filtrationcanbeatatmosphericpressureorbyusinga
pressurisedsystem,Figures15aand15b.
Themainadvantagesare:
Highflowratesareeasilyattained.
Waterwithturbidityupto1500ppmcanbehandled.
Degreeoffiltrationcanbeeasilyadjusted.
Thefilterbedcanbeeasilycleanedusingthefilteredwater.
Figure15a:ATMOSPHERICPRESSUREUPFLOWFILTER

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Figure15b:PRESSURETYPEUPFLOWFILTER

Themaindisadvantageis:
Closesupervisionisnecessarytoensurethatthefilterbeddoesnot
rupture.

2.4.3Completetreatment
Completetreatmentconsistsofflocculation,coagulation,sedimentationandfiltration
followedbydisinfection.Flocculationandcoagulationwillassistinremoving
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contaminantsinthewater,causingturbidity,colourodourandtastewhichcannotbe
removedbysedimentationalone.Thiscanbeachievedbytheadditionoflimeto
makethewaterslightlyalkaline,followedbytheadditionofcoagulantslikeAlum
(aluminiumsulphate),ferricsulphateorferricchloride.Theresultantprecipitatecan
beremovedbysedimentationandfiltration.
Chemicaltreatmentmayberequiredtoreduceexcessivelevelsofiron,manganese,
chalk,andorganicmatter.Suchtreatmentisusuallyfollowedbyclarification.Iron
mayberemovedbyaerationorchlorinationtoproduceaflocculantwhichcanbe
removedbyfiltration.Manganesemayberemovedbyaerationfollowedby
adjustmentofpHandupflowfiltration.Mostcolourscanberemovedbytreatment
withferricsulphatetoprecipitatethecolours.

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