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SFOC Optimisation Methods

For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

Content

Introduction.................................................................................................. 5
Influence of NOx Regulations on Reduced SFOC............................................ 6
Engine Tuning Methods Available................................................................... 6
Exhaust Gas Bypass (EGB)...................................................................... 6
Variable Turbine Area or Turbine Geometry (VT)......................................... 8
Engine Control Tuning (ECT)..................................................................... 9
Potential Fuel Savings on Low-Load Operation............................................ 10
Summary.................................................................................................... 13

MAN B&W Diesel


SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

SFOC Optimisation Methods


For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

Introduction

mum Continuous Rating) ranges shown

will only be introduced for engines in

One of the goals in the marine industry

in Table 1a.

compliance with the IMO NOx Tier II re-

today is to reduce the impact of CO2

quirements.

emissions from ships and thereby to re-

The high-load range corresponds to a

duce the fuel consumption for the pro-

normal, standard-tuned engine of today.

estimate at any load.


This drive may often result in operation

As an example, Figs. 1a and 1b show


the impact on the SFOC curves valid

pulsion of ships to the widest possible


For part-load and low-load optimisa-

for ME/ME-C and MC/MC-C/ME-B en-

tion, the following engine tuning meth-

gines in general, based on a standard-

ods are available, see Table 1b.

tuned engine (high load), VT part load

of the ship at reduced ship speed and,

and VT low load, respectively. They are

consequently, at reduced engine load.

The above-described engine tuning

available for both nominally rated and

This has placed more emphasis on op-

methods are only available for engines

derated engines.

erational flexibility in terms of demand

with high-efficient turbochargers, and

for reduced SFOC (Specific Fuel Oil


Consumption) at part/low-load opera-

SFOC-optimised load ranges

tion of the main engine. However, on

High load

85-100% SMCR (standard-tuned engine)

two-stroke engines, reduction of the

Part load

50-85% SMCR

SFOC is affected by NOx regulations in

Low load

25-70% SMCR

order to maintain compliance with the

Table 1a

IMO NOx Tier II demands.


Engine tuning methods available
Depending on the intended operation

EGB

Exhaust Gas Bypass

range of the main engine, the engine

VT

Variable Turbine Area or Turbine Geometry

may be SFOC-optimised in the follow-

ECT

Engine Control Tuning (only for ME/ME-C)

ing percentage SMCR (Specified Maxi-

Table 1b

SFOC
High-load optimised
Part-load optimised (VT tuning)
Low-load optimised (VT tuning)

High-load optimised
Part-load optimised (VT tuning)
Low-load optimised (VT tuning)

2 g/kWh

1 g/kWh

1 g/kWh
3 g/kWh

3 g/kWh
35

5 g/kWh
65

70

80

70

80

100 % SMCR
Engine load

100 % SMCR
Engine load

Fig.1a: Example of SFOC reductions for ME/ME-C engines with VT

MAN B&W Diesel

65

Fig.1b: Example of SFOC reductions for MC/MC-C/ME-B engines with VT

SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

An SFOC reduction of 5 g/kWh makes

The IMO NOx limit is given as a weight-

Engine Tuning Methods Available

it possible to obtain a fuel cost reduc-

ed average of the NOx emission cycle

The engine tuning methods available

tion of up to approx. 3% of the specific

values at 25, 50, 75 and 100% load,

are described in more detail below.

will of course be reduced further due to

5% x NOx (25) + 11% x NOx (50) + 55%

Exhaust Gas Bypass (EGB)

the low load.

x NOx (75) + 29% x NOx (100).

This method requires installation of an

The influence of NOx regulations and

This relationship can be utilised to shape

EGB. The EGB technology is available

the engine tuning methods available

or tailor the SFOC profile over the load

for both the ME/ME-C and MC/MC-C/

for ME/ME-C and MC/MC-C/ME-B en-

range, i.e. the SFOC can be reduced at

ME-B type engines. The SFOC poten-

gines are described below.

low load at the expense of higher SFOC

tial is better on the ME type engine,

in the high-load range without exceed-

where EGB is combined with variable

Influence of NOx Regulations on


Reduced SFOC

ing the IMO NOx limit.

exhaust valve timing.

As mentioned, the SFOC is limited by

Compared with MC/MC-C/ME-B en-

The turbochargers on the ME/ME-C

NOx regulations on two-stroke engines.

gine types, the SFOC reduction po-

engines for part load and low load are

In general, the NOx emission will in-

tential is better for the ME/ME-C type

matched at 100% load with fully open

crease if the SFOC is reduced and vice

engines because variable exhaust valve

EGB. At approximately 90% load, the

versa. In the standard configuration, our

timing is available.

EGB starts to close and is fully closed

consumption. The daily consumption

EGB, individually tailored at approx 6%

engines are optimised close to the IMO

below about 80% load. For MC/MC-C/

NOx limit, which is why the NOx emis-

ME-B engines, the similar engine load

sion cannot be increased.

figures are about 90%/70% for part


load and 85%/65% for low load. For
MC6/MC-C6, it is about 85%/70% for

Exhaust Gas Bypass, EGB open and closed EGB

part load and 85%/65% for low load.

ME/ME-C

The above description of open/closed


: Part load

EGB is shown in graphical form in Fig. 2.

: Low load

With this technology, the SFOC is de-

Engine load
60

70

80

creased at low load at the expense of

100% SMCR

90

MC/MC-C/ME-B
: Part load
: Low load
Engine load
60

70

80

100% SMCR

90

MC6/MC-C6
: Part load
: Low load
Engine load
60

70
Closed

Partly open

80

90

Open

Based on ISO ambient conditions and for guidance only.

Fig. 2: Exhaust Gas Bypass (EGB) open and closed EGB

SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

100% SMCR

higher SFOC at high load.

SFOC g/kWh

SFOC g/kWh
180

176
Standard
EGB, part load
EGB, low load

175
174

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min

173

179
178

176

171

175

170

174

169

173

168

172

167

171

166

170

165
164

169

163

168

162

167

161

166

160
159

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min

177

172

Standard
EGB, part load
EGB, low load

165

ISO ambient conditions


25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

164
25

95 100

ISO ambient conditions


30

35

40

Engine shaft power % SMCR

Fig. 2a: Example of SFOC reductions for 6S80ME-C8.2 with EGB

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95 100

Engine shaft power % SMCR

Fig. 2b: Example of SFOC reductions for 6S80MC-C8.2 with EGB

With part-load optimisation and com-

The most optimal method depends on

pared with a standard engine, the

the operating pattern.

SFOC is reduced at all loads below


about 85%.

As an example, Fig. 2a shows the


SFOC curves valid for a nominally rated

With low-load optimisation, and com-

6S80ME-C8.2 engine based on stand-

pared with part-load optimisation, the

ard high load, EGB part load and EGB

SFOC is further reduced at loads below

low load, respectively. Fig. 2b shows

about 70%, at the expense of higher

the similar SFOC curves valid for the

SFOC in the high-load range.

nominally rated 6S80MC-C8.2.

MAN B&W Diesel


SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

Variable Turbine Area or Turbine


Geometry (VT)

Variable Turbine Area or Turbine Geometry (VT) Nozzle Ring Area


ME/ME-C

This method requires special turbo: Part load

charger parts allowing the turbocharger(s)

: Low load

on the engine to vary the area of the

Engine load
60

70

80

nozzle ring. The VT method is available

100% SMCR

90

for both the ME/ME-C and MC/MC-C/


ME-B type engines. The SFOC potential

MC/MC-C/ME-B

is better on the ME/ME-C type engines,


: Part load

where VT is combined with variable ex-

: Low load

haust valve timing.

Engine load
60

70

80

100% SMCR

90

The nozzle ring area has a maximum at


the higher engine load range. When the

MC6/MC-C6

engine load for ME/ME-C engines for

: Part load

part load and low load is reduced below

: Low load

approx. 90%, the area gradually starts

Engine load
60

70
Minimum area

80

Intermediate area

90

to decrease and reaches its minimum at

100% SMCR

about 80% engine load. For MC/MC-C/

Maximum area

ME-B engines, the similar engine load

Based on ISO ambient conditions and for guidance only.

figures are about 90%/70% for part


load and about 85%/65% for low load.

Fig. 3: Variable Turbine area or turbine geometry (VT) nozzle ring area

SFOC g/kWh
176

SFOC g/kWh
180
Standard
VT, part load
VT, low load

175
174
173

179

Standard
VT, part load
VT, low load

178
177

172

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min

176

171

175

170

174

169

173

168

172

167

171

166

170

165

169

164

168

163

167

162

166

161

165

160
159
25

ISO ambient conditions

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80 85 90 95 100
Engine shaft power % SMCR

Fig. 3a: Example of SFOC reductions for 6S80ME-C8.2 with VT

SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

164
25

ISO ambient conditions

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Engine shaft power % SMCR

Fig. 3b: Example of SFOC reductions for 6S80MC-C8.2 with VT

For MC6/MC-C6, it is about 85%/70%


for part load and 85%/65% for low load.
The above description of the VT nozzle
ring area is shown in graphical form in
Fig. 3. With this technology, the SFOC
is reduced at low load at the expense of
higher SFOC at high load.
With part-load optimisation and compared with a standard engine, the
SFOC is reduced at all loads below
about 85%.

SFOC g/kWh
176
Standard
ECT, part load
ECT, low load

175
174
173

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min

172
171
170
169
168
167
166
165
164

With low-load optimisation and com-

163

pared with part-load optimisation, the

162

SFOC is further reduced at all loads

161

below about 70%, at the expense of

160

higher SFOC in the high-load range.

159
25

ISO ambient conditions

30

35

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Engine shaft power % SMCR

The most optimal method on a specific


engine depends on the operating pattern.

40

Fig. 4: Example of SFOC reductions for 6S80ME-C8.2 with ECT

As an example, Fig. 3a shows the


SFOC curves valid for a nominally rated
6S80ME-C8.2 engine based on stand-

With part-load optimisation and com-

a change in trade pattern is permitted if

ard high load, VT part load and VT low

pared with a standard-tuned engine,

reported and approved by the flag state

load, respectively.

the SFOC is reduced at all loads below

representative, usually a classification

about 85%.

society. Hence, on a longer term basis,


the owner can select one or the other of

Fig. 3b shows the similar SFOC curves


valid for the nominally rated 6S80MC-

With low-load optimisation and com-

the modes for the engine, provided the

C8.2.

pared with part-load optimisation, the

authorities are informed.

SFOC is further reduced at all loads


Engine Control Tuning (ECT)

below about 70%, at the expense of

Both modes will need to be verified on

This method can be implemented with-

higher SFOC in the high-load range.

test bed if decided in time. Otherwise, a


special, approved process is called for.

out change of engine components, and


can be implemented as an engine run-

The most optimal method on a specific

ning mode. Only pmax and engine con-

engine depends on the operating pat-

As an example, Fig. 4 shows the SFOC

trol parameters are changed.

tern.

curves valid for a nominally rated

The method uses the possibility of vari-

Random shifting between the part-load

ard high load, ECT part load and ECT

able exhaust valve timing and injection

and low-load modes is not allowed by

low load, respectively.

profiling, and is only available for ME/

the authorities. A mode shift in case of

6S80ME-C8.2 engine based on stand-

ME-C engine types. Two different service


optimisation possibilities are available.

MAN B&W Diesel


SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

Potential Fuel Savings on Low-Load


Operation

However, shipowners will still mostly

Under such conditions, the application

require the possibility of operating the

of one of the previously described en-

Today, a reduction of CO2 emissions,

ship at the earlier higher ship speed,

gine tuning methods, e.g. the Variable

and thereby a reduction of the fuel con-

if occasionally needed. This means

Turbine area, VT, optimised for low-load

sumption of a ship, is an increasing de-

that the SMCR power of the main en-

operation, will add to reduce the fuel

mand that will be even stronger in the

gines may still be maintained, while the

consumption.

future. This may result in lower service

changed trading pattern of the ship may

ship speeds compared with earlier ship

result in operation with a relatively lower

Table 2a shows, as an example, the cal-

speeds. Thus, the lower the ship speed,

load of the main engine, with only few

culations of the potential fuel consump-

the lower the required propulsion power

days of operation on high engine loads.

tion savings for a 6S80ME-C8.2 by us-

and, thereby, the lower the fuel con-

ing the VT low-load optimised method,

sumption is.

compared with a similar engine with the


standard high-load optimised version.

Main engine 6S80ME-C8.2 IMO Tier ll


SMCR = 25,080kW x 78r/min
Standard engine, high load optimised
Engine load

% SMCR

35%

50%

65%

85%

100%

kW

8,778

12,540

16,302

21,318

25,080

SFOC
g/kWh
Re LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

171.4

167.0

164.3

165.0

168

36.1

50.3

64.3

84.4

101.1

Engine power

Fuel consumption
Days in service
Fuel consumption

t/day

Total fuel consumption

day/year

40

100

90

15

t/year

1,444

5,030

5,787

1,266

506

14,033 t/year

Total fuel consumption

VT, low load optimised


Engine load

% SMCR

35%

50%

65%

85%

100%

kW

8,778

12,540

16,302

21,318

25,080

SFOC
g/kWh
Re LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

166.4

162.0

159.3

165.3

168.5

Engine power

Fuel consumption
Days in service

t/day

35.0

48.8

62.3

84.6

101.4

day/year

40

100

90

15

Fuel consumption

t/year

1,400

4,880

5,607

1,269

507

13,663 t/year

Fuel savings

t/year

44

150

180

-3

-1

370 t/year

Fuel savings

%/year

3.0

3.0

3.0

-0.2

-0.3

2.6%/year

Table 2a: Savings in fuel consumption for 6S80ME-C8.2 with VT, low load compared with a standard engine

10 SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

For the given trading pattern, the po-

The corresponding potential relative

tential specific fuel saving found for the

fuel saving for other engine types are

6S80ME-C8.2 engine type is approx.

of the same magnitude, with the higher

2.6%.

savings valid for the ME/ME-C engine


types and the lower savings valid for the

Table 2b shows the corresponding cal-

MC/MC-C/ME-B types.

culations, but now valid for a 6S80MCC8.2 engine.

Of course, in all cases, the daily fuel


consumption will be lowered mostly

For the given trading pattern, the po-

due to the lower ship speed, i.e. lower

tential specific fuel savings found for the

power needed.

6S80MC-C8.2 engine type is approx.


1.5%.

Main engine 6S80MC-C8.2 IMO Tier ll


SMCR = 25,080kW x 78r/min
Standard engine, high load optimised
Engine load

% SMCR

35%

50%

65%

85%

100%

kW

8,778

12,540

16,302

21,318

25,080

SFOC
g/kWh
Re LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

175.2

171.0

168.7

168.3

171.0

36.9

51.5

66.0

86.1

102.9

Engine power

Fuel consumption
Days in service
Fuel consumption

t/day

Total fuel consumption

day/year

40

100

90

15

t/year

1,476

5,150

5,940

1,292

515

14,373 t/year

Total fuel consumption

VT, low load optimised


Engine load

% SMCR

35%

50%

65%

85%

100%

kW

8,778

12,540

16,302

21,318

25,080

SFOC
g/kWh
Re LCV = 42,700 kJ/kg

172.2

168.0

165.7

168.8

172.0

Engine power

Fuel consumption
Days in service

t/day

36.3

50.6

64.8

86.4

103.5

day/year

40

100

90

15

Fuel consumption

t/year

1,452

5,060

5,832

1,296

518

14,158 t/year

Fuel savings

t/year

24

90

108

-4

-3

215 t/year

Fuel savings

%/year

1.6

1.7

1.8

-0.3

-0.6

1.5%/year

Table 2b: Savings in fuel consumption for 6S80MC-C8.2 with VT, low load compared with a standard engine

MAN B&W Diesel


SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines 11

Please note that the reduced SFOC on


low-load operation, when using one of
the engine tuning methods available, involves a correspondingly lower exhaust
gas temperature at low-load operation,
which has to be considered at the design state of the exhaust boiler of the

6S80ME-C8.2
SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min
C
280

6S80ME-C8.2

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min


260
C
240
280

ship.

220
260

As an example, the influence on the

200
240
25
220

exhaust gas temperature of the engine

Standard

VT, low load

Standard

VT, low load


ISO ambient conditions

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80 85 90 95 100
Engine shaft power % SMCR

tuning methods valid for 6S80ME-C8.2

ISO ambient conditions


2005a: Exhaust gas temperature after t/c for 6S80ME-C8.2 with VT, low load compared with a standFig.

with VT, low load compared with a

ard
engine25,080
SMCR:

6S80MC-C8.2
25 30 35 40 45 50
kW x 78 r/min

standard engine is shown in Fig. 5a.

C
280

The similar exhaust gas temperature

SMCR: 25,080 kW x 78 r/min


260
C
240
280

55

60

65

70

6S80MC-C8.2

influence for 6S80MC-C8.2 is shown


in Fig. 5b, and the same tendency is
also applied to the EGB and ECT tuning
methods.

220
260
200
240
25
220
200
25

75

80 85 90 95 100
Engine shaft power % SMCR

Standard

VT, low load

Standard

VT, low load


ISO ambient conditions

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80 85 90 95 100
Engine shaft power % SMCR
ISO ambient conditions

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80 85 90 95 100
Engine shaft power % SMCR

Fig. 5b: Exhaust gas temperature after t/c for 6S80MC-C8.2 with VT, low load compared with a standard engine

12 SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines

Summary
The introduction of the described main
engine tuning methods EGB, VT and
ECT makes it possible to optimise the
fuel consumption when normally operating at low loads, while maintaining
the possibility of operating at high load
when needed, for example when the
time schedule is tight.
In this way, the MAN B&W two-stroke
engine is meeting the more stringent
demand of the future for reduction of
CO2 emissions and thereby the fuel
costs. A reduction of up to 3% of the
specific fuel consumption is possible.

MAN B&W Diesel


SFOC Optimisation Methods For MAN B&W Two-stroke IMO Tier II Engines 13

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informational
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
5510-0099-00ppr Aug 2012 Printed in Denmark

MAN Diesel & Turbo


Teglholmsgade 41
2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark
Phone +45 33 85 11 00
Fax +45 33 85 10 30
info-cph@mandieselturbo.com
www.mandieselturbo.com

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