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Mid term exam 1 (Notes, books, and calculators are not authorized)
Show all your work in the blank space you are given on the exam sheet. Always justify your
Question 1: Find a parametric representation of the line in R4 that passes through P =
(1, 2, 3, 4) and is orthogonal to the hyperplane x1 2x2 + 3x3 4x4 = 5.
A normal vector to the hyperplane x1 2x2 + 3x3 4x4 = 5 is u := (1, 2, 3, 4). The line in
question is the collection of points X = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) so that X P is parallel to u. This means
that there is a real number t so that
X P = tu = (t, 2t, 3t, 4t).
The parametric representation of the line is
x1 = 1 + t,

x2 = 2 2t,

x3 = 3 + 3t,

x4 = 4 4t.

## Question 2: Find a unit vector orthogonal to u = (1, 2, 3) and v = (3, 2, 1).

It is a known property of the cross product that the following vector w := u v is orthogonal to u
and v. By definition

2 2 3 1 1 3
)

(1)
,
,
w = (
3 1 1 3 2 2
= (4, 8, 4).
By normalizing w we obtain the desired vector:
w
1
= (4, 8, 4).
kwk
96

(2)

## Mid term exam 1, September 28, 2010

Question 3: Find an equation of the hyperplane in R4 that passes through P = (0, 1, 2, 3) and
is normal to u = (1, 1, 1, 1).
By definition H is the collection of points X = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) so that (X P )u. This means
0 =(X P )(1, 1, 1, 1) = (x1 , x2 1, x3 2, x4 3)(1, 1, 1, 1)
= x1 (x2 1) + (x3 2) + (x4 3) = x1 x2 + x3 + x4 4.
The equation of the hyperplane in question
0 = x1 x2 + x3 + x4 4.
Question 4: Prove the triangle inequality: ku + vk kuk + kvk for all u, v Rn .
By definition of the dot product, we have the following equality:
ku + vk2 := (u + v)2 = (u + v)(u + v) = uu + uv + vu + vu.
Using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we obtain
ku + vk2 kuk2 + kukkvk + kvkkuk + kvk2 = (kuk + kvk)2 .
Taking the square root gives the triangle inequality:
ku + vk kuk + kvk.

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
1
3


2
4

## The determinant of A is |A| = 4 16 = 2 6= 0. The matrix is invertible. We use the formula

from class to compute the inverse:


1
4 2
1
A =
2 3 1





1 1 1
1 2 3
B=
. Find (a) 3A 4B (b) AT (c) AT B.
1 1 1
3 2 1

 
 

3 3 3
4 8 12
1 11 9
3A 4B =
+
=
3 3 3
12 8 4
15 5 7

1 1
T

1
1
A =
1 1

2 0 2
AT B = 2 0 2
2 0 2

Question 6: Let A =

## Mid term exam 1, September 28, 2010

Question 7: Let A be a square matrix. Assume that A has the following property: X T AX
2kXk2 for all column vector X. Prove that A is invertible.
Consider X so that AX = 0. Then 0 = X T AX 2kXk2 . This proves that kXk = 0, which in
turn proves that X = 0. As a result the solution set of AX = 0 is {0}. This proves that A is
invertible since A is square.
Question 8: Find 2 2 nonzero matrices A and B such that AB = 0.
Consider the following matrix:
A=


0
0


1
,
0

Then
AB = 0

B=A

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3
13 . Find the LU factorization of A.
5

1
Question 9: Let A = 3
2

2
4
1

## We compute the echelon form

1
A 3
2

of A to get U and L

2 3
1 2
4 13 0 2
1 5
0 3

1
l1 = 3 ,
2

3
1
4 0
1
0

0
l2 = 1 ,
23

2
2
0

0
l3 = 0
1

Finally we have

1
L = 3
2

0
1
32

0
0 ,
1

1
U = 0
0

2
2
0

3
4
7

3
4
7

## Mid term exam 1, September 28, 2010

Question 10: Let u1 = (1, 2, 4), u2 = (2, 3, 1), u3 = (2, 1, 1) in R3 . (a) Show that u1 , u2 ,
u3 are orthogonal.
We compute ui uj for i 6= j, i, j {1, 2, 3}.
u1 u2 = 2 6 + 4 = 0,

u1 u3 = 2 + 2 4 = 0,

u2 u3 = 4 3 1 = 0.

## This proves the statement.

(b) consider the 3 3 matrix U = [u1 u2 u3 ] where uj , j {1, 2, 3} are considered as column
vectors. Show that U is invertible.

x1
Consider X = x2 so that U X = 0. Then
x3
x1 u1 + x2 u2 + x3 u3 = 0.
Taking the dot product with u1 gives
0 = x1 u1 u1 + x2 u2 u1 + x3 u3 u1 = x1 ku1 k2 = 21x1 .
This proves that x1 = 0. By repeating this process with u2 and u3 we obtain that x2 = 0 and
x3 = 0. As a result the solution set of U X = 0 is {0}. This means that U is invertible.
(c) Let v = (3, 5, 2). Solve U X = v, where v is considered as column vector. (Do not compute
the reduced echelon form of the system.)
By definition
x1 u1 + x2 u2 + x3 u3 = v
Taking the dot product with u1 and using the orthogonality of u1 , u2 , u3 gives
vu1 = 21 = x1 u1 u1 + x2 u2 u1 + x3 u3 u1 = x1 ku1 k2 = 21x1 ,
i.e., x1 = 1. Similarly
vu2 = 7 = x1 u1 u2 + x2 u2 u2 + x3 u3 u2 = x2 ku2 k2 = 14x2 ,
i.e., x1 = 21 .

1
X = 12 .

3
2