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For the training undergone at

For fulfilling the requirement of the award of degree of MBA

Subject: TPP (IMS-903/ MBA- 9th semester)
Under the Supervision of
Finance Manager
Dr. JK Chandel and Dr. Mamta Bhardwaj
Assistant Professor

Submitted To:
The Director

Submitted By:
Kiran jyot
MBA 9 Semester
Roll No. 23
Regn. No. 11 -UD 3044


(JUNE 2015)


I take this opportunity to thank MR. K.M. CHOPRA( Manager Finance &
Commerce ), who allowed me to pursue six weeks summer training in the F&C
department and who from the very beginning of the training period provided
his valuable guidance as to how to proceed with my training & the project
I acknowledge with deep sense of appreciation the co-operation received from
all the officers of various sections of F&C deptt. for sparing their precious time
& sharing their valuable knowledge with me.
I would like to convey my special thanks to Mrs. Mamta Bhardwaj (assistant
professor) and Dr. JK. Chandel ( assistant professor) and for providing their
valuable knowledge & suggestions regarding my project report & for guiding me
throughout this 6 weeks time period regarding various finance related aspects
of any organization.
Last but not the least, I thank my parents, who helped directly in completing
the project that will go a long way in my career, the project is really
knowledgeable and memorable one.

Kiran jyot
M.B.A. 9th sem
Institute of Management & Studies
KUK Kurukshetra.

I declare that I KIRAN studying in Institute of Management Studies, Kurukshetra University,
Kurukshetra studying in MBA 5year (9TH semester), have undergone summer training in
I solemnly declare that work done by me original and no copy of it has been submitted to any
other university for an award of any other degree fellowship on similar topic.
The information provided in the study is authentic to the best knowledge and the result embodied
in this study has not been submitted to any other university or institute for the ward of degree.



Chapter No.


Page No.

Gas industry
1. Introduction
2. Top players of the sector



1. Introduction
2. Products and services
3. Organizational structure



Analysis and Discussion

1. Ratio analysis
2. Financial Performance of the year
3. Cash flow statement



1. SWOT Analysis
2. Suggestions
3. Conclusion



Learning from the training





Gas industry
2. Top players of the sector


Gas industry are a group of gases that are specially manufactured for use in a wide range of
industries ,which include oil and gas, petrochemicals, chemicals, power, mining, steelmaking,
metals, environmental protection, medicine, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food, water,
fertilizers, nuclear power, electronics and aerospace. Their production is a part of the wider
chemical Industry (where industrial gases are often seen as "speciality chemicals").
The principal gases provided are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrogen, helium and
acetylene; although a huge variety of gases and mixtures are available in gas cylinders. The
industry producing these gases is known as the industrial gases industry, which is seen as also
encompassing the supply of equipment and technology to produce and use the gases.

Whilst most gas is usually only sold to other industrial enterprises; retail sales of gas cylinders
and associated equipment to tradesmen and the general public are available through local agents
and typically includes products such as balloon helium , dispensing gases for beer kegs, welding
gases and welding equipment, LPG and medical oxygen.
The known chemical elements which are, or can be obtained from natural resources and which
are gaseous are hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, plus the noble gases; and are
collectively referred to by chemists as the "elemental gases". These elements are all primordial
apart from the noble gas radon which is a trace radioisotope but which does occur naturally,
albeit only from radioactive decay. (It is not known if any synthetic elements with atomic
number above 108 are gases.)
The elements which are stable two atom homonuclear molecules at standard temperature and
pressure (STP), are hydrogen (H 2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2), plus the halogens fluorine (F2)
and chlorine (Cl2). The noble gases are all monatomic.
In the industrial gases industry the term "elemental gases" (or sometimes less accurately
"molecular gases") is used to distinguish these gases from molecules that are also chemical
compounds. These elements are all nonmetals.
Radon is chemically stable, but it is radioactive and does not have a stable isotope. Its uses are
due to its radioactivity rather than its chemistry and it requires specialist handling outside of
industrial gas industry norms. It can however be produced as a by-product of uraniferous ores
processing. Radon is a trace naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) encountered in the
air processed in an ASU.
Chlorine is the only elemental gas that is technically a vapor since STP

The first gas from the natural environment used by man was almost certainly air when it was
discovered that blowing on or fanning a fire made it burn brighter. Man also used the warm gases
from a fire to smoke food. Steam from boiling water has also been used by man in cooking
foods. Carbon dioxide has been known from ancient times as the byproduct of fermentation,
particularly for beverages, which was first documented dating from 70006600 BCE in Jiahu,
China.[1] Natural gas was used by the Chinese in about 500 B.C. when they discovered the
potential to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was
used to boil sea water.[2] Sulfur dioxide was first used by the Romans in winemaking when it was
discovered that if you burn candles made of sulfur inside empty wine vessels it would keep them
fresh and prevent them gaining a vinegar smell.[3]
Acetylene welding on cylinder water jacket, 1918Lit carbide lampHowever until the advent of
scientific method and the science of chemistry, none of these gases would have been positively
identified or understood. The history of chemistry tells us that a number of gases were identified
and either discovered or first made in relatively pure form during the Industrial Revolution of the
18th and 19th centuries by notable chemists in their laboratories. The timeline of attributed
discovery for various gases are carbon dioxide (1754), hydrogen (1766), nitrogen (1772), nitrous
oxide (1772), oxygen (1773) , ammonia (1774), chlorine (1774), methane (1776), hydrogen

sulfide (1777), carbon monoxide (1800), hydrogen chloride (1810), acetylene (1836), helium
(1868) fluorine (1886), argon (1894),] krypton, neon and xenon (1898) and radon (1899).

Carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, ammonia, chlorine, sulfur dioxide and
manufactured fuel gas were already being used during the 19th century, and mainly had uses in
food, refrigeration, medicine, and for fuel and gas lighting.[18] For example, carbonated water was
being made from 1772 and commercially from 1783, chlorine was first used to bleach textiles in
1785 [19] and nitrous oxide was first used for dentistry anaethesia in 1844. At this time gases were
often generated for immediate use by chemical reactions. A notable example of a generator is
Kipps apparatus which was invented in 1844


and could be used to generate gases such as

hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine, acetylene and carbon dioxide by simple gas evolution
reactions. Acetylene was manufactured commercially from 1893 and acetylene generators were
used from about 1898 to produce gas for gas cooking and gas lighting, however electricity took
over as more practical for lighting and once LPG was produced commercially from 1912, the use
of acetylene for cooking declined.[18]
Once gases had been discovered and produced in modest quantities, the process of
industrialisation spurred on innovation and invention of technology to produce larger quantities
of these gases. Notable developments in the industrial production of gases include the
electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen (in 1869) and oxygen (from 1888), the Brin process for

oxygen production which was invented in the 1884, the chloralkali process to produce chlorine
in 1892 and the Haber Process to produce ammonia in 1908.
The development of uses in refrigeration also enabled advances in air conditioning and the
liquefaction of gases. Carbon dioxide was first liquefied in 1823. The first Vapor-compression
refrigeration cycle using ether was invented in 1834 and a similar cycle using ammonia was
invented in 1873 and another with sulfur dioxide in 1876.[18] Liquid oxygen and Liquid nitrogen
were both first made in 1883; Liquid hydrogen was first made in 1898 and liquid helium in 1908.
LPG was first made in 1910. A patent for LNG was filed in 1914 with the first commercial
production in 1917.
Although no one event marks the beginning of the industrial gas industry, many would take it to
be the 1880s with the construction of the first high pressure gas cylinders.]Initially cylinders were
mostly used for carbon dioxide in carbonation or dispensing of beverages..
In 1895 refrigeration compression cycles were further developed to enable the liquefaction of air,
most notably by Carl von Linde allowing larger quantities of oxygen production and in 1896 the
discovery that large quantities of acetylene could be dissolved in acetone and rendered non
explosive allowed the safe bottling of acetylene.
A particularly important use was the development of welding and metal cutting done with
oxygen and acetylene from the early 1900s. As production processes for other gases were
developed many more gases came to be sold in cylinders without the need for a gas generator.
The history of manufactured gas, important for lighting, heating, and cooking purposes
throughout most of the nineteenth century and the first half of the 20th century, began with the
development of analytical and pneumatic chemistry in the eighteenth century. The manufacturing
process for "synthetic fuel gases" (also known as "manufactured fuel gas", "manufactured gas" or
simply "gas") typically consisted of the gasification of combustible materials, usually coal, but
also wood and oil. The coal was gasified by heating the coal in enclosed ovens with an oxygenpoor atmosphere. The fuel gases generated were mixtures of many chemical substances,
including hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and ethylene, and could be burnt for heating and
lighting purposes. Coal gas, for example, also contains significant quantities of unwanted sulfur

and ammonia compounds, as well as heavy hydrocarbons, and so the manufactured fuel gases
needed to be purified before they could be used.
The first attempts to manufacture fuel gas in a commercial way were made in the period 1795
1805 in France by Philippe Lebon, and in England by William Murdoch. Although precursors
can be found, it was these two engineers who elaborated the technology with commercial
applications in mind. Frederick Winsor was the key player behind the creation of the first gas
utility, the London-based Gas Light and Coke Company, incorporated by royal charter in April
Many other manufactured fuel gas utilities were founded first in England, and then in the rest of
Europe and North America in the 1820s. The technology increased in scale. After a period of
competition, the business model of the gas industry matured in monopolies, where a single
company provided gas in a given zone. The ownership of the companies varied from outright
municipal ownership, such as in Manchester, to completely private corporations, such as in
London and most North American cities. Gas companies thrived during most of the nineteenth
century, usually returning good profits to their shareholders, but were also the subject of many
complaints over price.
In the second half of the 19th century, the manufactured fuel gas industry diversified out of
lighting and into heat and cooking. The threat from electrical light in the later 1870s and 1880s
drove this trend strongly. The gas industry did not cede the gas lighting market to electricity
immediately, as the invention of the Welsbach mantle in the late 1880s dramatically increased the
luminosity of gas flames, and gas remained competitive with electricity. Acetylene was also used
from about 1898 for gas cooking and gas lighting (see Carbide lamp) on a smaller scale,
although its use too declined with the advent of electric lighting, and LPG for cooking.[1] Other
technological developments in the late nineteenth century include the use of water gas and
machine stoking, although these were not universally adopted.
In the 1890s, pipelines from natural gas fields in Texas and Oklahoma were built to Chicago and
other cities, and natural gas was used to supplement manufactured fuel gas supplies, eventually
completely displacing it. Gas ceased to be manufactured in North America by 1966 (with the

exception of Indianapolis and Honolulu), while it continued in Europe until the 1980s.
"Manufactured gas" is again being evaluated as a fuel source, as energy utilities look towards
coal gasification once again as a potentially cleaner way of generating power from coal, although
nowadays such gases are likely to be called "synthetic natural gas".
1.1.2. MANUFACTURED GAS 18121825
Manufactured gas in England

From 1812 to approximately 1825, manufactured gas was predominantly an English technology.
A number of new gas utilities were founded to serve London and other cities in the UK in the
years after 1812. Liverpool, Exeter, and Preston were the first in 1816, but others soon followed,
so that by 1821, no town with population less than 50,000 was without gaslight. Five years later,
there were only two towns over 10,000 that were without gaslight. [9] Within London itself, the
growth of gaslight was rapid. New companies were founded within a few years of the Gas Light
and Coke Company, and a period of intense competition soon followed as companies competed
for consumers on the boundaries of their respective zones of operations. Frederick Accum, in the
various editions of his book on gaslight, gives a good sense of how rapidly the technology spread
in the capital. In 1815, he wrote that there were 4000 lamps in the city, served by 26 miles
(42 km) of mains. In 1819, he raised his estimate to 51,000 lamps and 288 miles (463 km) of
mains. Likewise, there were only two gasworks in London in 1814, and by 1822, there were
seven and by 1829, there were 200 companies. [7] The government did not regulate the industry as
a whole until 1816, when an act of Parliament created and a post of inspector for gasworks, the
first holder of which was Sir William Congreve. Even then, no laws were passed regulating the
entire industry until 1847, although a bill was proposed in 1822, which failed due to opposition
from gas companies. The charters approved by Parliament did, however, contain various
regulations such as how the companies could break up the pavement, etc.
Manufactured gas in Europe and North America
France's first gas company was also promoted by Frederick Winsor after he had to flee England
in 1814 due to unpaid debts and tried to found another gas company in Paris, but it failed in
1819. The government was also interested in promoting the industry, and in 1817 commissioned

Chabrol de Volvic to study the technology and build a prototype plant, also in Paris. The plant
provided gas for lighting the hpital Saint Louis, and the experiment was judged successful. [10]
King Louis XVIII then decided to give further impulse to the development of the French industry
by sending people to England to study the situation there, and to install gaslight at a number of
prestigious buildings, such as the Opera building, the national library, etc. A public company was
created for this purpose in 1818.[11] Private companies soon followed, and by 1822, when the
government moved to regulate the industry, there were four in operation in the capital. The
regulations passed then prevented the companies from competing, and Paris was effectively
divided between the various companies operating as monopolies in their own zones.[12]
Gaslight also spread to other European countries. In 1817, a company was founded in Brussels
by P. J. Meeus-Van der Maelen, and began operating the following year. By 1822, there were
companies in Amsterdam and Rotterdam using English technology.[13] In Germany, gaslight was
used on a small scale from 1816 onwards, but the first gaslight utility was founded by the by
English engineers and capital. In 1824, the Imperial Continental Gas Association was founded in
London to establish gas utilities in other countries. Sir William Congreve, one if its leaders,
signed an agreement with the government in Hanover, and the gas lamps were used on streets for
the first time in 1826.[14]
Gaslight was first introduced to the US in 1816 in Baltimore by Rembrandt and Rubens Peale,
who lit their museum with gaslight, which they had seen on a trip to Europe. The brothers
convinced a group of wealthy people to back them in a larger enterprise, and, the local
government passed a law allowing the Peales and their associates to lay mains and light the
streets. A company was incorporated for this purpose in 1817. After some difficulties with the
apparatus and financial problems, the company hired an English engineer with experience in
gaslight. It began to flourish, and by the 1830s, the company was supplying gas to 3000 domestic
customers and 100 street lamps.[15] Companies in other cities followed, the second being Boston
Gas Light in 1822 and New York Gas Light Company in 1825.[16] A gas works was built in
Philadelphia in 1835.[17]

Gas production technology

Distillation column in a cryogenic air separation plant Air separation plants refine air in a
separation process and so allow the bulk production of nitrogen and argon in addition to oxygen these three are often also produced as cryogenic liquid. To achieve the required low distillation
temperatures, an Air Separation Unit (ASU) uses a refrigeration cycle that operates by means of
the JouleThomson effect. In addition to the main air gases, air separation is also the only
practical source for production of the rare noble gases neon, krypton and xenon.
Cryogenic technologies also allow the liquefaction of natural gas, hydrogen and helium. In
natural-gas processing, cryogenic technologies are used to remove nitrogen from natural gas in a
Nitrogen Rejection Unit; a process that can also be used to produce helium from natural gas - if
the natural gas fields contain sufficient helium to make this economic. The larger industrial gas
companies have often invested in extensive patent libraries in all fields of their business, but
particularly in cryogenics.

The other principal production technology in the industry is Reforming. Steam reforming is a
chemical process used to convert natural gas and steam into a syngas containing hydrogen and
carbon monoxide with carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Partial oxidation and autothermal
reforming are similar processes but these also require oxygen from an ASU. Synthesis gas is

often a precursor to the chemical synthesis of ammonia or methanol. The carbon dioxide
produced is an acid gas and is most commonly removed by amine treating. This separated carbon
dioxide can potentially be sequestrated to a carbon capture reservoir.
Air Separation and hydrogen reforming technologies are the cornerstone of the industrial gases
industry and also form part of the technologies required for many fuel gasification ( including
IGCC), cogeneration and Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids schemes. Hydrogen has many
production methods and is touted as a carbon neutral alternative fuel to hydrocarbons, whilst
liquid hydrogen is used by NASA in the Space Shuttle as a rocket fuel; see hydrogen economy
for more information on hydrogens uses.
Simpler gas separation technologies, such as membranes or molecular sieves used in pressure
swing adsorption or vacuum swing adsorption are also used to produce low purity air gases in
nitrogen generators and oxygen plants. Other examples producing smaller amounts of gas are
chemical oxygen generators or oxygen concentrators.
In addition to the major gases produced by air separation and syngas reforming, the industry
provides many other gases. Some gases are simply byproducts from other industries and others
are sometimes bought from other larger chemical producers, refined and repackaged; although a
few have their own production processes. Examples are that:

hydrogen chloride can be produced by burning hydrogen in chlorine,

nitrous oxide is produced by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate when gently


electrolysis is used for the production of fluorine

Electrical Corona discharge is used to produce ozone from air or oxygen.

Related services and technology can be supplied such as vacuum, which is often provided in
hospital gas systems; purified compressed air; or refrigeration. Another unusual system is the
inert gas generator. Some industrial gas companies may also supply related chemicals,
particularly liquids such as bromine and ethylene oxide.


Mode of Gas supply

Most materials that are gaseous at ambient temperature and pressure are supplied as compressed
gas. A gas compressor is used to compress the gas into storage pressure vessels (such as gas
canisters, gas cylinders or tube trailers) through piping systems. Gas cylinders are by far the most
common gas storage and large numbers are produced at a "cylinder fill" facility.
However a few gases are vapours that can be liquefied at ambient temperature under pressure
alone, so they can also be supplied as a liquid in an appropriate container. This phase change also
makes these gases useful as ambient refrigerants and the most significant industrial gases with
this property are ammonia (R717), propane (R290), butane (R600) and sulphur dioxide (R764).
Chlorine also has this property but is too toxic, corrosive and reactive to ever have been used as a
refrigerant. Some other gases exhibit this phase change if the ambient temperature is low
enough; this includes ethylene (R1150), carbon dioxide (R744), ethane (R170), nitrous oxide
(R744A) and sulfur hexafluoride; however these can only be liquefied under pressure if kept
below their critical temperatures which are 9 C for C2H4 ; 31 C for CO2 ; 32 C for C2H6 ;
36 C for N2O ; 45 C for SF6
All of these substances are also be provided as a Gas (not a vapor) at the 200 bar pressure in a
gas cylinder because that pressure is above their critical pressure.[26] Other gases can only be
supplied as liquid if also cooled. All gases can potentially be used as a refrigerant around the
temperatures at which they are liquid; for example nitrogen (R728) and methane (R50) are used.
Exceptionally carbon dioxide can be produced as a cold solid known as dry ice, which sublimes
as it warms in ambient conditions, the properties of carbon dioxide are such that it cannot be
liquid.Acetylene is also supplied differently. Since it is so unstable and explosive, this is supplied

as a gas dissolved in acetone within a packing mass in a cylinder. Acetylene is also the only other
common industrial gas that sublimes at atmospheric pressure.

Gas delivery

The major industrial gases can be produced in bulk and delivered to customers by pipeline, but
can also be packaged and transported. Most gases are sold in gas cylinders and some sold as
liquid in appropriate containers (e.g. Dewars) or as bulk liquid delivered by truck. The industry
originally supplied gases in cylinders to avoid the need for local gas generation; but for large
customers such as steelworks or oil refineries, a large gas production plant may be built nearby
(typically called an "on-site" facility) to avoid using large numbers of cylinders manifolded
together. Alternatively, an industrial gas company may supply the plant and equipment to
produce the gas rather than the gas itself. An industrial gas company may also offer to act as
plant operator under an operations and maintenance contract for a gases facility for a customer,
since it usually has the experience of running such facilities for the production or handling of
gases for itself.
Some materials are dangerous to use as a gas; for example, fluorine is highly reactive and
industrial chemistry requiring fluorine often uses hydrogen fluoride (or hydrofluoric acid)
instead. Another approach to overcoming gas reactivity is to generate the gas as and when
required, which is done, for example, with ozone.
The delivery options are therefore local gas generation, pipelines, bulk transport (truck, rail,
ship), and packaged gases in gas cylinders or other containers.

Bulk liquid gases are often transferred to end user storage tanks. Gas cylinders (and liquid gas
containing vessels) are often used by end users for their own small scale distribution systems.
Toxic or flammable gas cylinders are often stored by end users in gas cabinets for protection
from external fire or from any leak.

1.1.4. Alessandro Volta

Pneumatic chemistry developed in the eighteenth century with the work of scientists such as
Stephen Hales, Joseph Black, Joseph Priestley, and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, and others. Until
the eighteenth century, gas was not recognized as a separate state of matter. Rather, while some
of the mechanical properties of gases were understood, as typified by Robert Boyle's experiments
and the development of the air pump, their chemical properties were not. Gases were regarded in
keeping the Aristotelean tradition of four elements as being air, one of the four fundamental
elements. The different sorts of airs, such as putrid airs or inflammable air, were looked upon as
atmospheric air with some impurities, much like muddied water.
After Joseph Black realized that carbon dioxide was in fact a different sort of gas altogether from
atmospheric air, other gases were identified, including hydrogen by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Alessandro Volta expanded the list with his discovery of methane in 1776. It had also been
known for a long time that inflammable gases could be produced from most combustible
materials, such as coal and wood, through the process of distillation. Stephen Hales, for example,
had written about the phenomenon in the Vegetable Staticks in 1722. In the last two decades of
the eighteenth century, as more gases were being discovered and the techniques and instruments
of pneumatic chemistry became more sophisticated, a number of natural philosophers and
engineers thought about using gases in medical and industrial applications. One of first such uses
was ballooning beginning in 1783, but other uses soon followed.[2]

One of the results of the ballooning craze of 17831784 was the first implementation of lighting
by manufactured gas. A professor of natural philosophy at the University of Louvain Jan Pieter
Minckeleers and two of his colleagues were asked by their patron, the Duke of Arenberg, to
investigate ballooning. They did so, building apparatus to generate lighter than air inflammable
gases from coal and other inflammable substances. In 1785 Minckeleers used some of this
apparatus to gasify coal to light his lecture hall at the university. He did not extend gas lighting
much beyond this, and when he was forced to flee Leuven during the Brabant Revolution, he
abandoned the project altogether.

1.1.5. Philippe LebonLebon's thermolamp, from his patent (1799 and 1801)Philippe Lebon was a French civil
engineer working in the public engineering corps who became interested while at university in
distillation as an industrial process for the manufacturing of materials such as tar and oil. He
graduated from the engineering school in 1789, and was assigned to Angoulme. There, he
investigated distillation further, and became more aware that the gas produced in the distillation
of wood and coal could also be a useful byproduct for lighting, heating, and even as an energy
source in engines. He took out a patent for distillation processes in 1794, and continued his
research, eventually designing a distillation oven that came to be known as the thermolamp. He
applied for and received a patent for this invention in 1799, with an addition in 1801. He
launched a marketing campaign in Paris in 1801 by printed a pamphlet and renting a house
where he put on public demonstrations with his apparatus. His goal was to raise sufficient funds
from investors to launch a company, but he failed to attract this sort of interest, either from the

French state or from private sources. He was forced to abandon the project and return to the civil
engineering corps. Although he was given a forest concession by the French government to
experiment with the manufacture of tar from wood for naval use, he never succeed with the
thermolamp, and died in uncertain circumstances in 1805.[4]
Although the thermolamp received some interest in France, it was in Germany that the interest
was the greatest. A number of books and articles were written on the subject in the period 1802
1812. There were also thermolamps designed and built in Germany, the most important of which
were by Zachaus Winzler, an Austrian chemist who ran a saltpetre factory in Blansko. Under the
patronage of the aristocratic zu Salm family, he built a large one in Brno. He later moved to
Vienna to further his work there. The thermolamp, however, was used primarily for making
charcoal and not for the production of gases.

1.1.6. William MurdockWilliam Murdoch (sometimes Murdock) (17541839) was an engineer working for the firm of
Boulton & Watt, when, while investigating distillation processes sometime in 17921794, he also
started to use coal gas for illumination. He was living in Redruth in Cornwall at the time, and
made some small scale experiments with lighting his own house with coal gas. He soon
thereafter dropped the subject until 1798, when he moved to Birmingham to work at Boulton &
Watt's home base of Soho. Boulton & Watt then instigated another small scale series of
experiments, but with ongoing patent litigation and their main line of business, steam engines, to

attend to, the subject was dropped once again. Gregory Watt, James Watt's second son, while
traveling in Europe saw Lebon's demonstrations and wrote a letter to his brother, James Watt Jr.,
informing him of this potential competitor. This prompted James Watt Jr. to begin a gaslight
development program at Boulton & Watt that would scale up the technology and lead to the first
commercial applications of gaslight.[7][8]
After an initial installation at the Soho Foundry in 18031804, Boulton & Watt prepared an
apparatus for the textile firm of Philips & Lee in Salford near Manchester in 18051806. This
was to be their only major sale until late 1808. George Augustus Lee was a major motivating
force behind the development of the apparatus. He had an avid interest in technology, and had
introduced a series of technological innovations at the Salford Mill, such as iron frame
construction and steam heating. The continued to encourage the development of gaslight
technology at Boulton & Watt.[7][8]Winsor and the Gas Light and Coke Company[edit]

The first company to provide manufactured gas to consumer as a utility was the London-based
Gas Light and Coke Company. It was founded through the efforts of a German migr, Frederick
Winsor, who had witnessed Lebon's demonstrations in Paris. He had tried unsuccessfully to
purchase a thermolamp from Lebon, but remained taken with the technology, and decided to try
his luck, first in his hometown of Brunswick, and then in London in 1804. Once in London,
Winsor began an intense marketing campaign to find investors for a new company that would
manufacture gas apparatus and sell gas to consumers. He was quite successful in finding willing
investors, but the legal form of the company was a more difficult problem. By the Bubble Act of
1720, all joint-stock companies above a certain number of shareholders in England needed to
receive a royal charter to be incorporate, which meant in effect that an act of Parliament was

Winsor waged his campaign intermittently to 1807, when the investors constituted a committee
charged with obtaining an act of Parliament. They pursued this task over the next three years,
running into forms various adversity along the way, the most important of which was the
resistance on part of Boulton & Watt in 1809. In that year, the committee made a serious attempt
to get the House of Commons to pass a bill empowering the king to grant the charter, but
Boulton & Watt felt their gaslight apparatus manufacturing business was threatened and mounted
an opposition through their allies in Parliament. Although a parliamentary committee
recommended approval, it went down to defeat on the third reading.
The following year, the committee tried again, succeeding with the acquiescence of Boulton &
Watt because they renounced all powers to manufacture apparatus for sale. The act required that
the company raise 100,000 before they could request a charter, a condition it took the next two
years to fill. George III granted the charter in 1812.

What defines an industrial gas?

Industrial gas is a group of materials that are specifically manufactured for use in industry and
industryare also gaseous at ambient temperature and pressure. They are chemicals which can be
an elemental gas or a chemical compound that is either organic or inorganic, and tend to be low
molecular weight molecules. They could also be a mixture of individual gases. They have value
as a chemical; whether as a feedstock, in process enhancement, as a useful end product, or for a
particular use; as opposed to having value as a "simple" fuel.
The term industrial gases [27] is sometimes narrowly defined as just the major gases sold, which
are: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrogen, acetylene and helium. [28] Many names are
given to gases outside of this main list by the different industrial gas companies, but generally
the gases fall into the categories "specialty gases", medical gases, fuel gases or refrigerant
gases. However gases can also be known by their uses or industries that they serve, hence
"welding gases" or "breathing gases", etc. ; or by their source, as in "air gases"; or by their mode
of supply as in "packaged gases". The major gases might also be termed "bulk gases" or "tonnage

In principle any gas or gas mixture sold by the "industrial gases industry" probably has some
industrial use and might be termed an "industrial gas". In practice, "industrial gases" are likely to
be a pure compound or precise mixture, packaged or in small quantities, but with high purity or
tailored to a specific use (e.g. oxyacetylene). Lists of the more significant gases are listed in "The
Gases" below.
There are cases when a gas is not usually termed an "industrial gas"; principally where the gas is
processed for later use of its energy rather than manufactured for use as a chemical substance or

The oil and gas industry is seen as distinct. So, whilst it is true that natural gas is a "gas"
used in "industry" - often as a fuel, sometimes as a feedstock, and in this generic sense is
an "industrial gas"; this term is not generally used by industrial enterprises for
hydrocarbons produced by the petroleum industry directly from natural resources or in an
oil refinery.

The petrochemical industry is also seen as distinct. So petrochemicals (chemicals derived

from petroleum) such as ethylene are also generally not described as "industrial gases".

Sometimes the chemical industry is thought of as distinct from industrial gases; so

materials such as ammonia and chlorine might be considered "chemicals" (especially if
supplied as a liquid) instead of or sometimes as well as "industrial gases".

These demarcations are based on perceived boundaries of these industries (although in practice
there is some overlap), and an exact scientific definition is difficult. To illustrate "overlap"
between industries:

Manufactured fuel gas (such as town gas) would historically have been considered an
industrial gas. Syngas is often considered to be a petrochemical; although its production
is a core industrial gases technology. Similarly, projects harnessing Landfill gas or biogas,
Waste-to-energy schemes, as well as Hydrogen Production all exhibit overlapping


Helium is an industrial gas, even though its source is from natural gas processing.

Any gas is likely to be considered an industrial gas if it is put in a gas cylinder (except
perhaps if it is used as a fuel)

Propane would be considered an industrial gas when used as a refrigerant, but not when
used as a refrigerant in LNG production, even though this is an overlapping technology.

Important liquefied gases

This list shows the most important liquefied gases:
1) Produced from air
a. liquid nitrogen (LIN)
b. liquid oxygen (LOX)
c. liquid argon (LAR)
2) Produced from hydrocarbon feedstock
a. liquid hydrogen
b. liquid helium
c. Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
d. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
3) Other
a. liquid carbon dioxide
Legal, regulatory, environmental, health, and safety aspects of gas manufacture
Gas lighting was one of the most debated technology of the first industrial revolution. In Paris, in
particular, as soon as 1823 a public controversy forced the government to devise safety norms

(Fressoz, 2007). The residues produced from distilled coal were either disposed into rivers or
stocked in basins which polluted (and still pollute) the soil.
Case law in the United Kingdom and the United States clearly held though the construction and
operation of a gas-works was not the creation of a public nuisance in se, due to the reputation of
gas-works as highly undesirable neighbors, and the noxious pollution known to issue from such,
especially in the early days of manufactured gas, gas-works were on extremely short notice from
the courts that (detectable) contamination outside of their grounds especially in residential
districts would be severely frowned upon. Indeed, many actions for the abatement of nuisances
brought before the courts did result in unfavorable verdicts for gas manufacturers in one study
on early environmental law, actions for nuisance involving gas-works resulted in findings for the
plaintiffs 80% of the time, compared with an overall plaintiff victory rate of 28.5% in industrial
nuisance cases.[18]
Injunctions both preliminary and permanent could and were often issued in cases involving gasworks. For example, the ill reputation of gas-works became so well known that in City of
Cleveland vs. Citizens' Gas Light Co., 20 N. J. Eq. 201, a court went so far as to enjoin a future
gas-works not yet even built preventing it from causing annoying and offensive vapours and
odors in the first place. The injunction not only regulated the gas manufacturing process
forbidding the use of lime purification but also provided that if nuisances of any sort were to
issue from the works a permanent injunction forbidding the production of gas would issue from
the court.[19] Indeed, as the Master of the Rolls, Lord Langdale, once remarked in his opinion in
Haines v. Taylor, 10 Beavan 80, that I have been rather astonished to hear the effects of gas
works treated as nothing...every man, in these days, must have sufficient experience, to enable
him to come to the conclusion, that, whether a nuisance or not, a gas manufactory is a very
disagreeable thing. Nobody can doubt that the volatile products which arise from the distillation
of coal are extremely offensive. It is quite contrary to common experience to say they are not
so...every man knows it.[20] However, as time went by, gas-works began to be seen as more as a
double-edged sword and eventually as a positive good, as former nuisances were abated by
technological improvements, and the full benefits of gas became clear. There were several major
impetuses that drove this phenomenon:


regulation of pollution from gas-works (in the case of the United Kingdom, with the
passage of the Gas-works Clauses Act 1847), which increased the cost of pollution,
previously being near zero, leading to the development of technologies that abated the
ongoing pollution nuisances (in many cases, turning discarded former pollutants into
profitable by-products);

the rise of the "smoke nuisance" in the 1850s, brought about by the domestic and
commercial use of coal, in many cities and metropolises; direct combustion of coal being
a particularly notorious source of pollution; which the widespread use of gas could abate,
especially with the commencement of using gas for purposes other than illuminating
during the 1870s; for cooking, for the heating of dwelling-houses, for making domestic
hot water, for raising steam, for industrial and chemical purposes, and for stationary
internal combustion engine-driving purposes which were previously met by employing

the development of high-pressure gas mains, and compressors (1900s); these were
capable of efficiently transporting gas over long distances, allowing one manufactured
gas plant to supply a relatively large area leading to the concentration of gasmanufacturing operations, instead of their geographic distribution; this resulted in gasworks being able to be located away from residential and commercial districts, where
their presence could result in discomfort and concern for the inhabitants thereof;

Both the era of consolidation of gas-works through high-pressure distribution systems (1900s
1930s) and the end of the era of manufactured gas (19551975) saw gas-works being shut down
due to redundancies. What brought about the end of manufactured gas was that pipelines began
to be built to bring natural gas directly from the well to gas distribution systems. Natural gas was
superior to the manufactured gas of that time, being cheaper extracted from wells rather than
manufactured in a gas-works more user friendly coming from the well requiring little, if any,
purification and safer due to the lack of carbon monoxide in the distributed product. Upon
being shut down, few former manufactured gas plant sites were brought to an acceptable level of
environmental cleanliness to allow for their re-use, at least by contemporary standards. In fact,

many were literally abandoned in place, with process wastes left in situ, and never adequately
disposed of.
As the wastes produced by former manufactured gas plants were persistent in nature, they often
(as of 2009) still contaminate the site of former manufactured gas plants: the waste causing the
most concern today is primarily coal tar (mixed long-chain aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons,
a byproduct of coal carbonization), while "blue billy" (a noxious byproduct of lime purification
contaminated with cyanides) as well as other lime and coal tar residues are regarded as lesser,
though significant environmental hazards. Some former manufactured gas plants are sometimes
still are owned by the gas utilities of today, often in an effort to prevent contaminated land from
falling into public use, and inadvertently causing the release of the wastes therein contained.
Others have fallen into public use, and without proper reclamation, have caused often severe
health hazards for their users. When and where necessary, former manufactured gas plants are
subject to environmental remediation laws, and can be subject to legally mandated cleanups.
Appliances and machinery of the historic gas-works
The basic design of gaslight apparatus was established by Boulton & Watt and Samuel Clegg in
the period 18051812. Further improvements were made at the Gas Light and Coke Company, as
well as by the growing number of gas engineers such as John Malam and Thomas Peckston after
1812. Boulton & Watt contributed the basic design of the retort, condenser, and gasometer, while
Clegg improved the gasometer and introduced lime purification and the hydraulic main, another
The retort bench was the construction in which the retorts were located for the carbonization
(synonymous with pyrolysis) of the coal feedstock and the evolution of coal gas. Over the many
years of manufactured gas production, advances were made that turned the retort-bench from
little more than coal-containing iron vessels over an open fire to a massive, highly efficient,
partially automated, industrial-scale, capital-intensive plant for the carbonization of large
amounts of coal. Several retort benches were usually located in a single "retort house", which
there was at least one of in every gas-works.

Initially, retort benches were of many different configurations due to the lack of long use and
scientific and practical understanding of the carbonization of coal. Some early retorts were little
more than iron vessels filled with coal and thrust upon a coal fire with pipes attached to their top
ends. Though practical for the earliest of gas-workings, this quickly changed once the very early
gas-works served more than a relatively few customers. As the size of such vessels grew the
need became apparent for efficiency in refilling retorts and it became known that though while
filling one-ended vertical retorts may be easy removing the coke and residues from them after
the carbonization of coal was far more difficult than filling them was. So gas retorts were
transitioned from vertical vessels to horizontal tubular vessels.
Retorts were usually made of cast iron during the early days of manufactured gas. Early gas
engineers experimented extensively with the best shape, size, and setting to adopt. No one form
of retort initially came to dominate, and many different cross-sections remained in use; however,
after the 1850s, retorts generally became made of fire-clay due to greater heat retention, greater
durability under heat, longer life with proper care, and other positive qualities. Cast-iron retorts
were still used in the small gas-works, due to their compatibility with the demands of such, with
the cast-iron retort's lower cost, ability to heat up quickly to meet transient demand, and "plug
and play" replacement capabilities outweighing the disadvantages of shorter life-time, lower
temperature margins, and lack of ability to be manufactured in non-cylindrical shapes. Also,
general gas-works practice following the switch to fire-clay retorts favored retorts that were
shaped like a "D" turned 90 degrees to the left, sometimes with a slightly pitched bottom section.
With the introduction of the fire-clay retort, higher heats could be held in the retort benches,
leading to faster and more complete carbonization of the coal within. As higher heats became
possible, advanced methods of retort bench firing were introduced, catalyzed by the development
of the open hearth furnace by Siemens, during a period from around 18551870, leading to a
revolution in gas-works efficiency.
Specifically, the two major advances were:

The introduction of the "indirectly fired" retort bench. The early "directly fired" retort
bench consisted of retorts suspended over a coke fire, which heated the retorts and drove

the carbonization of coal within to coke, and the evolution of gas. The introduction of
indirect firing changed this instead of the retorts being heated directly by the fire the
fire was placed a ways below and to one side of the retorts, brought to a very high heat,
while the air supply was reduced and a small amount of steam introduced. Instead of
evolving large quantities of heat to directly heat the retorts, the fire now evolved heated
gasses specifically carbon monoxide and due to the steam a small amount of
hydrogen gas as well, which are both highly combustible. These gasses rise from the fire
into a channel which soon brings them to the "tuyeres" small holes similar to "nostrils",
located adjacent to the retorts, which shoot the "furnace-gasses" out of them. Adjacent
"tuyeres" emit a large amount of "secondary air", which is preheated air, that, upon
mixing with the furnace gasses, causes them to ignite and burst into flame and bathe the
exterior of the retorts in heat.

The introduction of heat recuperation for the preheating of the air of primary and
secondary combustion. By causing the exhaust of the retort-bench to pass through a
labyrinthine maze of refractory brickwork, substantial quantities of heat can be extracted
from it. On the other side of the exhaust channels are channels for the passage of the air
of combustion. The bricks thus transfer the heat of the exhaust to the air of combustion,
preheating it. This provides for a much greater degree of thermal efficiency in the retortbench, causing it to be able to use far less coke as air that is preheated by waste heat is
already hot when it enters the fire to be burnt, or the "tuyere" to fuel secondary

These two advances turned the old, "directly fired" retort bench into the advanced, "indirectly
fired", "regenerative" or "generative" retort bench, and lead coke usage within the retort benches
at least in the larger works to drop from upwards of 40% of the coke made by the retorts to
factors as low as 15% of the coke made by the retorts, leading to an improvement in efficiency of
an order of magnitude. However, these improvements imparted an additional capital cost to the
retort bench to incorporate them, which caused them to be only slowly incorporated in the
smaller gas-works, if they were incorporated at all.

Further increases in efficiency and safety were seen with the introduction of the "through" retort,
which had a door at both its front and its rear. This provided for greater efficiency and safety in
loading and unloading the retorts, which was a labor-intensive and often dangerous process. Coal
could now be pushed out of the retort rather than pulled out of the retort. One interesting
modification of the "through" retort was the "inclined" retort coming into its heyday in the
1880s a retort set on a moderate incline, where coal was poured in at one end, and the retort
sealed; following pyrolysis, the bottom was opened and the coke poured out through means of
gravity. This was adopted in some gas-works, but the savings in labor were often offset by the
uneven distribution and pyrolysis of the coal as well as clumping problems leading to failure of
the coal to pour out of the bottom following pyrolysis that were exacerbated in certain coal types.
As such, inclined retorts were rendered obsolescent by later advances, including the retorthandling machine and the vertical retort system.
Several advanced retort-house appliances were introduced for improved efficiency and
convenience. The compressed-air or steam-driven clinkering pick was found to be especially
useful in removing clinker from the primary combustion area of the indirectly fired benches
previously clinkering was an arduous and time-consuming process that used large amounts of
retort house labor. Another class of appliances introduced were apparatuses and ultimately,
machines for retort loading and unloading. Retorts were generally loaded by using an
elongated scoop, into which the coal was loaded a gang of men would then lift the scoop and
ram it into the retort. The coal would then be raked by the men into a layer of even thickness and
the retort sealed. Gas production would then ensue and from 8 12 hours later, the retort
would be opened, and the coal would be either pulled (in the case of "stop-ended" retorts) or
pushed (in the case of "through" retorts) out of the retort. Thus, the retort house had heavy
manpower requirements as many men were often required to bear the coal-containing scoop
and load the retort.
Other Gas-Works facilities
From the retort, the gas would first pass through a tar/water "trap" (similar to a trap in plumbing)
called a hydraulic main, where a considerable fraction of coal tar was given up and the gas was
significantly cooled. Then, it would pass through the main out of the retort house into an
atmospheric or water-cooled condenser, where it would be cooled to the temperature of the

atmosphere or the water used. At this point, it enters the exhauster house and passes through an
"exhauster", an air pump which maintains the hydraulic mains and, consequently, the retorts at a
negative pressure (with a zero pressure being atmospheric). It would then be washed in a
"washer" by bubbling it through water, to extract any remaining tars. After this, it would enter a
purifier. The gas would then be ready for distribution, and pass into a gasholder for storage.
Hydraulic main
Within each retort-house, the retort benches would be lined up next to one another in a long row;
each retort had a loading and unloading door; affixed to each door was an ascension pipe, to
carry off the gas as it was evolved from the coal within. These pipes would rise to the top of the
bench where they would terminate in an inverted "U" with the leg of the "U" disappearing into a
long, trough-shaped structure (with a covered top) made of cast iron called a hydraulic main that
was placed atop the row of benches near their front edge. It ran continuously along the row of
benches within the retort house, and each ascension pipe from each retort descended into it.
The hydraulic main had a level of a liquid mixture of (initially) water, but, following use, also
coal tar, and ammoniacal liquor. Each retort ascension pipe dropped under the water level by at
least a small amount, perhaps by an inch, but often considerably more in the earlier days of gas
manufacture. The gas evolved from each retort would thus bubble through the liquid and emerge
from it into the void above the liquid, where it would mix with the gas evolved from the other
retorts and be drawn off through the foul main to the condenser.
There were two purposes to the liquid seal: first, to draw off some of the tar and liquor, as the gas
from the retort was laden with tar, and the hydraulic main could rid the gas of it, to a certain
degree; further tar removal would take place in the condenser, washer/scrubber, and the tar
extractor. Still, there would be less tar to deal with later. Second, the liquid seal also provided
defense against air being drawn into the hydraulic main: if the main had no liquid within, and a
retort was left open with the pipe not shut off, and air were to combine with the gas, the main
could explode, along with nearby benches.
However, after the early years of gas, research proved that a very deep, excessive seal on the
hydraulic main threw a backpressure upon all the retorts as the coal within was gasifying, and

this had deleterious consequences; carbon would likely deposit onto the insides of retorts and
ascension pipes; and the bottom layer of tar with which the gas would have to travel through in a
deeply sealed main robbed the gas of some of its illuminating value. As such, after the 1860s,
hydraulic mains were run at around 1 inch of seal, and no more.
Later retort systems (many types of vertical retorts, especially ones in continuous operation)
which had other anti-oxygen safeguards, such as check valves, etc., as well as larger retorts,
often omitted the hydraulic main entirely and went straight to the condensers as other apparatus
and buildings could be used for tar extraction, the main was unnecessary for these systems.
The horizontal condenser was an extended foul main with the pipe in a zigzag pattern from end
to end of one of the retort-house walls. Flange connections were essential as blockages from
naphthalene or pitchy deposits were likely to occur. The condensed liquids flowed down the
sloping pipes in the same direction as the gas. As long as gas flow was slow, this was an effective
method for the removal of naphthalene. Vertical air condensers had gas and tar outlets.
The annular atmospheric condenser was easier to control with respect to cooling rates. The gas in
the tall vertical cylinders was annular in form and allowed an inside and outside surface to be
exposed to cooling air. The diagonal side pipes conveyed the warm gas to the upper ends of each
annular cylinder. Butterfly valves or dampers were fitted to the top of each vertical air pipe, so
that the amount of cooling could be regulated.
The battery condenser was a long and narrow box divided internally by baffle-plates which cause
the gas to take a circuitous course. The width of the box was usually about 2 feet, and small tubes
passed from side to side form the chief cooling surface. The ends of these tubes were left open to
allow air to pass through. The obstruction caused by the tubes played a role in breaking up and
throwing down the tars suspended in the gas.
Typically, plants using cast-iron mains and apparatus allowed 5 square feet of superficial area per
1,000 cubic feet of gas made per day. This could be slightly reduced when wrought iron or mild
steel was used.

Maintained hydraulic main and condenser at negative pressure.
There were several types of exhausters.

The steam ejector/aspirator type exhauster used a substantial steam jet/venturi to

maintain the negative pressure in the hydraulic main and condenser. This type of
exhauster was mechanically simple, had no moving parts, and thus, had virtually no
potential to fail. However, it consumed a comparatively large amount of steam. Often
used as a backup exhauster; in this role it continued as a reliable backup until the end of
the age of manufactured gas.

Reciprocating exhausters of various types. Steam engine-driven exhauster used cylinder

pump to pump gas. Relatively reliable, but inefficient, using large quantities of steam, but
less than the ejector type exhauster. Used in the early days of exhausters, but quickly

Blower-type exhauster.


The Washerscrubber
Scrubbers which utilized water were designed in the 25 years after the foundation of the industry.
It was discovered that the removal of ammonia from the gas depended upon the way in which the
gas to be purified was contacted by water. This was found to be best performed by the Tower
Scrubber. This scrubber consisted of a tall cylindrical vessel, which contained trays or bricks
which were supported on grids. The water, or weak gas liquor, trickled over these trays, thereby
keeping the exposed surfaces thoroughly wetted. The gas to be purified was run through the
tower to be contacted with the liquid. In 1846 George Lowe patented a device with revolving
perforated pipes for supplying water or purifying liquor. At a later date, the Rotary Washer
Scrubber was introduced by Paddon, who used it at Brighton about 1870. This prototype
machine was followed by others of improved construction ; notably by Kirkham, Hulett, and
Chandler, who introduced the well-known Standard Washer Scrubber, Holmes, of Huddersfield,

and others. The Tower Scrubber and the Rotary Washer Scrubber made it possible to completely
remove ammonia from the gas.
Coal gas coming directly from the bench was a noxious soup of chemicals, and removal of the
most deleterious fractions was important, for improving the quality of the gas, for preventing
damage to equipment or premises, and for recovering revenues from the sale of the extracted
chemicals. Several offensive fractions being present in a distributed gas might lead to problems
Tar in the distributed gas might gum up the pipes (and could be sold for a good price),
ammoniacal vapours in the gas might lead to corrosion problems (and the extracted ammonium
sulfate was a decent fertilizer), naphthalene vapours in the gas might stop up the gas-mains, and
even carbon dioxide in the gas was known to decrease illumination; thus various facilities within
the gas-works were tasked with the removal of these deleterious effluents. But these do not
compare to the most hazardous contaminant in the raw coal gas: the sulfuret of hydrogen
(hydrogen sulfide, H2S). This was regarded as utterly unacceptable for several reasons:
1. The gas would smell rankly of rotten eggs when burnt;
2. The gas-works and adjacent district would smell of rotten eggs when the gas-works was
producing gas;
3. The gas, upon burning, would form sulfur dioxide, which would be quickly oxidized to
sulfur trioxide, and subsequently would react with the water vapor produced by
combustion to form sulfuric acid vapour. In a dwelling-house, this could lead to the
formation of irritating, poisonous and corrosive atmospheres where and when burnt.
4. Manufactured gas was originally distributed in the well-to-do districts, as such were lowhanging fruit for the gas utility. Such persons were of a class known to possess silver
goods of varying sorts. If exposed to a sulfurous atmosphere, silver tarnishes and a
sulfurous atmosphere would undoubtedly be present in any house lit with sulfuretted gas.
As such, the removal of the sulfuret of hydrogen was given the highest level of priority in the
gas-works. A special facility existed to extract the sulfuret of hydrogen known as the purifier.

The purifier was arguably the most important facility in the gas-works, if the retort-bench itself is
not included.
Originally, purifiers were simple tanks of lime-water, also known as cream or milk of lime, [24]
where the raw gas from the retort bench was bubbled through to remove the sulfuret of
hydrogen. This original process of purification was known as the "wet lime" process. The lime
residue left over from the "wet lime" process was one of the first true "toxic wastes", a material
called "blue billy". Originally, the waste of the purifier house was flushed into a nearby body of
water, such as a river or a canal. However, after fish kills, the nauseating way it made the rivers
stink, and the truly horrendous stench caused by exposure of residuals if the river was running
low, the public clamoured for better means of disposal. Thus it was piled into heaps for disposal.
Some enterprising gas entrepreneurs tried to sell it as a weed-killer, but most people wanted
nothing to do with it, and generally, it was regarded as waste which was both smelly and
poisonous, and gas-works could do little with, except bury. But this was not the end of the "blue
billy", for after burying it, rain would often fall upon its burial site, and leach the poison and
stench from the buried waste, which could drain into fields or streams. Following countless
fiascoes with "blue billy" contaminating the environment, a furious public, aided by courts,
juries, judges, and masters in chancery, were often very willing to demand that the gas-works
seek other methods of purification and even pay for the damages caused by their old methods
of purification.
This led to the development of the "dry lime" purification process, which was less effective than
the "wet lime" process, but had less toxic consequences. Still, it was quite noxious. Slaked lime
(calcium hydroxide) was placed in thick layers on trays which were then inserted into a square or
cylinder-shaped purifier tower which gas was then passed through, from the bottom to the top.
After the charge of slaked lime had lost most of its absorption effectiveness, the purifier was then
shut off from the flow of gas, and either was opened, or air was piped in. Immediately, the sulfurimpregnated slaked lime would react with the air to liberate large concentrations of sulfuretted
hydrogen, which would then billow out of the purifier house, and make the gas-works, and the
district, stink of sulfuretted hydrogen. Though toxic in sufficient concentrations or long
exposures, the sulfuret was generally just nauseating for short exposures at moderate
concentrations, and was merely a health hazard (as compared to the outright danger of "blue

billy") for the gas-works employees and the neighbors of the gas-works. The sulfuretted lime
was not toxic, but not greatly wanted, slightly stinking of the odor of the sulfuret, and was spread
as a low grade fertilizer, being impregnated with ammonia to some degree. The outrageous stinks
from many gas-works led many citizens to regard them as public nuisances, and attracted the eye
of regulators, neighbors, and courts.
The "gas nuisance" was finally solved by the "iron ore" process. Enterprising gas-works
engineers discovered that bog iron ore could be used to remove the sulfuretted hydrogen from
the gas, and not only could it be used for such, but it could be used in the purifier, exposed to the
air, whence it would be rejuvenated, without emitting noxious sulfuretted hydrogen gas, the
sulfur being retained in the iron ore. Then it could be reinserted into the purifier, and reused and
rejuvenated multiple times, until it was thoroughly embedded with sulfur. It could then be sold to
the sulfuric acid works for a small profit. Lime was sometimes still used after the iron ore had
thoroughly removed the sulfuret of hydrogen, to remove carbonic acid (carbon dioxide, CO2), the
bisulfuret of carbon (carbon disulfide, CS2), and any ammonia still aeroform after its travels
through the works. But it was not made noxious as before, and usually could fetch a decent rate
as fertilizer when impregnated with ammonia. This finally solved the greatest pollution nuisances
of the gas-works, but still lesser problems remained not any that the purifier house could solve,
though.of a variety of materials, brick, stone, concrete, steel, or wrought iron. The holder or
floating vessel is the storage reservoir for the gas, and it serves the purpose of equalizing the
distribution of the gas under pressure, and ensures a continuity of supply, while gas remains in
the holder. They are cylindrical like an inverted beaker and work up and down in the tank. In
order to maintain a true vertical position, the vessel has rollers which work on guide-rails
attached to the tank sides and to the columns surrounding the holder.
Gasholders may be either single or telescopic in two or more lifts. When it is made in the
telescopic form, its capacity could be increased to as much as four times the capacity of the
single-lift holder for equal dimensions of tank. The telescopic versions were found to be useful
as they conserved ground space and capital.

Minor and incidental coal gas-works facilities
The gasworks had numerous small appertunances and facilities to aid with divers gas
management tasks or auxiliary services.
Boilers-As the years went by, boilers (for the raising of steam) became extremely common in
most gas-works above those small in size; the smaller works often used gas-powered internal
combustion engines to do some of the tasks that steam performed in larger workings.
Steam was in use in many areas of the gasworks, including: For the operation of the exhauster;
For scurfing of pyrolysis char and slag from the retorts and for clinkering the producer of the
bench; For the operation of engines used for conveying, compressing air, charging hydraulics, or
the driving of dynamos or generators producing electric current; To be injected under the grate of
the producer in the indirectly fired bench, so as to prevent the formation of clinker, and to aid in
the water-gas shift reaction, ensuring high-quality secondary combustion; As a reactant in the
(carburetted) water gas plant, as well as driving the equipment thereof, such as the numerous
blowers used in that process, as well as the oil spray for the carburettor; For the operation of fire,
water, liquid, liquor, and tar pumps; For the operation of engines driving coal and coke conveyorbelts; For clearing of chemical obstructions in pipes, including naphthalene & tar as well as
general cleaning of equipment; For heating cold buildings in the works, for maintaining the
temperature of process piping, and preventing freezing of the water of the gasholder, or
congealment of various chemical tanks and wells.
Heat recovery appliances could also be classed with boilers. As the gas industry applied
scientific and rational design principles to its equipment, the importance of thermal management
and capture from processes became common. Even the small gasworks began to use heatrecovery generators, as a fair amount of steam could be generated for "free" simply by capturing
process thermal waste using water-filled metal tubing inserted into a strategic flue.
As the electric age came into being, the gas-works began to use electricity generated on site
for many of the smaller plant functions previously performed by steam or gas-powered engines,
which were impractical and inefficient for small, sub-horsepower uses without complex and
failure-prone mechanical linkages. As the benefits of electric illumination became known,

sometimes the progressive gasworks diversified into electric generation as well, as coke for
steam-raising could be had on-site at low prices, and boilers were already in the works.
Coal storage
According to Meade, the gasworks of the early 20th century generally kept on hand several
weeks of coal. This amount of coal could cause major problems, because coal was liable to
spontaneous combustion when in large piles, especially if they were rained upon, due to the
protective dust coating of the coal being washed off, exposing the full porous surface area of the
coal of slightly to highly activated carbon below; in a heavy pile with poor heat transfer
characteristics, the heat generated could lead to ignition. But storage in air-entrained confined
spaces was not highly looked upon either, as residual heat removal would be difficult, and
fighting a fire if it was started could result in the formation of highly toxic carbon monoxide
through the water-gas reaction, caused by allowing water to pass over extremely hot carbon (H 2O
+ C = H2 + CO), which would be dangerous outside, but deadly in a confined space.
Coal storage was designed to alleviate this problem. Two methods of storage were generally
used; underwater, or outdoor covered facilities. To the outdoor covered pile, sometimes cooling
appurtenances were applied as well; for example, means to allow the circulation of air through
the depths of the pile and the carrying off of heat. Amounts of storage varied, often due to local
conditions. Works in areas with industrial strife often stored more coal, while nations whose
proletariat was under "control" stored less. Other variables included national security; for
instance, the gasworks of Tegel in Berlin had some 1 million tons of coal (6 months of supply) in
gigantic underwater bunker facilities half a mile long (Meade 2e, p. 379); as Berlin is on the
North German Plain, perhaps this was due to what happened to Paris in the Franco-Prussian War
of 18701871.
Coal stoking and machine stoking
Machine stoking or power stoking was used to replace labor and minimize disruptions due to
labor disputes. Each retort typically required two sets of three stokers. Two of the stokers were
required to lift the point of the scoop into the retort, while the third would push it in and turn it
over. Coal would be introduced from each side of the retort. The coke produced would be
removed from both sides also. Gangs of stokers worked 12-hour shifts, although the labor was

not continuous. The work was also seasonal, with extra help being required in the winter time.
Machine stoking required more uniform placement of the retorts. Increasing cost of labor
increased the profit margin in experimenting with and instituting machine stoking.[26]
Tar/liquor storage
The chemical industries demanded coal tar, and the gas-works could provide it for them; and so
the coal tar was stored on site in large underground tanks. As a rule, these were single wall metal
tanks that is, if they were not porous masonry. In those days, underground tar leaks were seen
as merely a waste of tar; out of sight was truly out of mind; and such leaks were generally
addressed only when the loss of revenue from leaking tar "wells", as these were sometimes
called, exceeded the cost of repairing the leak. This practice of bygone days has caused
representatives of present-day gas utilities to dive under tables and utter minced oaths when
terms like "purportedly responsible party", "BTEX", "aquifer plume", or "Superfund" are
Ammoniacal liquor was stored on site as well, in similar tanks. Sometimes the more progressive
gasworks would have an ammonium sulfate plant, to convert the liquor into fertilizer, which was
sold to farmers.
Station meter
This large-scale gas meter precisely measured gas as it issued from the works into the mains. It
was of the utmost importance, as the gasworks balanced the account of issued gas versus the
amount of paid for gas, and strived to detect why and how they varied from one another. Often it
was coupled with a dynamic regulator to keep pressure constant, or even to modulate the
pressure at specified times (a series of rapid pressure spikes was sometimes used with
appropriately equipped street-lamps to automatically ignite or extinguish such remotely).
Anti-naphthalene minor carburettor
This device injected a fine mist of naphtha into the outgoing gas so as to avoid the crystallization
of naphthalene in the mains, and their consequent blockage. Naphtha was found to be a rather
effective solvent for these purposes, even in small concentrations. Where troubles with
naphthalene developed, as it occasionally did even after the introduction of this minor

carburettor, a team of workers was sent out to blow steam into the main and dissolve the
blockage; still, prior to its introduction, naphthalene was a very major annoyance for the
High-pressure distribution booster pump
This steam or gas engine powered device compressed the gas for injection into the high-pressure
mains, which in the early 1900s began to be used to convey gas over greater distances to the
individual low pressure mains, which served the end-users. This allowed the works to serve a
larger area and achieve economies of scale.


a. S.S GAS LAB ASIA,DELHI-S. S. Gas Lab Asia, Delhi (SSGLA) is a recognized
100% Export oriented unit (EOU) and a trusted engineering organization engaged
in the manufacture and export of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide gas plants and
related accessories. Originally in its earlier manifestation it was set up way back
in 1923 as Frontier Chemical Works, in Rawal Pindi Pakistan. Under the present
mentor Dr. S. S. Aggarwal, S. S. Gas Lab Asia, Delhi has made a very rapid
progress. Dr. Aggarwal designed his first CO2 gas plant in Ranchi in the year
1980 by using wood and charcoal. We have at present extremely talented and
dedicated team of professional to provide top class quality products, in the line
with International specifications but at cheap Indian prices. It is driven by latest
technology and our avowed objective and motto is to excel in all activities. Our
mission is channelized towards rendering the customer superior value and
ensuring the success of buyers, sellers, employees and business partners. Along
the journey of almost a whole century, we have graduated from just making CO2
to designing CO2 recovery and production plants and perfected the art of
liquification, solidification, storage, transport, delivery and injection- infusion
systems. While working practices on these developments down the years, we
studied most modern foreign technologies but did not forget to incorporate
concepts and requirements of Asian users. S. S. Gas Lab Asia, Delhi is a quality

conscious company. We aim to provide the best quality products to our clients. We
are contending to maintain our quality levels by regular quality checks. All our
products are duly tested by a team of experts who maintain strict vigilance. We
are endlessly running to reach the height of perfection by updating our expertise
and technology. All our products undergo rigorous quality assuring operations and
adjust internationally to all the safety standards
established in the year 2000. They are one of the leading consultancy provider in
the sector of gas producing plant and equipment. After achieving success in










manufactures,suppliers,designers&installers of plant and equipment for carbon








beverages,chemical sector.





Engineering Division of M. K. Sanghi Group of Companies commenced

manufacture of Industrial Gas Plants for producing Oxygen, Nitrogen and
Acetylene Gases in the mid 80's. The Company has a sprawling manufacturing
complex in Taloja near Bombay. The present range of manufacture of the
Company include Oxygen Plant ranging from capacities 40 Cu.m. per hour to
1000 Cu.m. per hour, Nitrogen Plant ranging from capacities 60 Cu.m. per hour to
1000 Cu.m. per hour and Acetylene Plant of capacities 45 Cu.m. per hour and 200
Cu.m. per hour and Nitrous Oxide Plant 8 cu.m./Hr to 24 cu.m./Hr.The SANGHI
ORGANIZATION range of Industrial Gas Plants are operating in various
countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Iran, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Mauritius,
Gambia, Nigeria, Dubai, Syria, Uganda, Tanzania, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador,
Sultanate of Oman, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, Honduras, Kenya, Chile, Cyprus, Egypt,
Ghana, Guatemala, Portugal, Romania, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe etc
in the year 1992, in Noida (Uttar Pradesh, India), we DBP Engineering Works

Pvt. Ltd., are the reckoned Manufacture, Exporter, Importer and Supplier of an
enhanced quality Gas Plant Spare Part, Nitrogen Plant, Oxygen Plant, Heat
Exchanger, Pressure Vessel, Air Compressor, Carbon Dioxide Plant, Hydrogen
Plant, etc. The offered systems are precisely engineered under the surveillance of
expert professionals using utilizing high grade material and sophisticated
machines in compliance with set industry norms. Moreover, these systems are
checked on different stages of quality parameters before being supplied to our
clients. Our systems are suitable for industrial and pharmaceutical laboratories.
We offer these systems to our clients in different technical specifications to meet
vast necessities of our clients in specified manner. Our offered systems are widely
demanded by our clients for their enormous features such as rugged construction,
easy installation, low maintenance, anti corrosive nature, less power consumption,
long functional life and easy to operate. We also provide Shop Fabrication Service
to our clients. We export our products in African and UAE Countires.
e. PRIME GASES,BENGALURU:- Prime Gases is one the largest players in the
whole of South India in terms of its manufacturing capabilities. Prime Gases
leverages through its Carbon dioxide recovery plants which are equipped to
handle both fertilizer based bi-product and distillery based bi-product. Our total
installed capacity is 215 Tons/ day across South India. We have two fertilizer
based bi product plants and twelve distillery based bi-product plants. Prime Gases
has the highest number of distillery based bi-product recovery plants in the whole
of South India. All our recovery plants are designed on the basis of home grown
technology to ensure the best of quality of product is delivered at the safest





All the recovery plants are ably supported by an efficient distribution network
comprising of 5 satellite filling stations which are strategically located at various
places across South India. Each satellite filling stations have a storage capacity of
100 Tons, thereby making available an aggregate total of 500 Tons across whole
of South India in terms of storage capacity alone. A stipulated safety stock is
maintained at all times across various filling stations to ensure uninterrupted
product supply to our customers during times of shortfall.

the year 2015, at Faridabad (Haryana, India), we are leading Manufacturer, Trader
and Supplier of Industrial Vessel, Gas Dryer, CO2 Storage Tank, Industrial
Vaporizer, CIP And Gas Liquefaction System, Cryogenic Valve, CO2 Generation
Plant, etc. We aim to offer the high grade products and services at reasonable
price range to our respected clients and regular up gradations on quality policy
and new cutting edge technology to retain set quality standards. All our products
are checked by expert team of quality controllers. We are trying hard to reach the
height of perfection by utilizing the best of our experience and technology. We are
trying hard to drive our quality acceptance norms internationally with the safety
standard to attain the maximum client satisfaction. We are also providing








In addition, our team consists of experienced professionals in this field having a

good knowledge and rich experience. They make genuine efforts to deliver the
manufactured products within stipulated set of time span. We are also able to
provide maintenance of static and rotary equipments as per the contract. We have
built a huge infrastructural facility that sprawls across a wide area of land. This
unit is further segregated into sub operational departments such as manufacturing
unit, quality control unit, procurement department, warehousing & packaging
unit, sales & marketing department etc. In addition to this, under the guidance of
our mentor "Mr. S. Ansari", we are able to perform given tasks in trouble free and
efficient manner.
g. HI-TECH GAS EQUIPMENT & HARDWARE,MANDI GOBINDGARH:Hi-Tech Engineered Solutions, Specialized in Design & Manufacturing Pressure
Swing Absorption based Oxygen / Nitrogen Generators, Hi-Tech is one of the
global Leading Manufacturer for Design & Manufacturing all types of Onsite Gas
Generation Systems and Installed around 200 Pressure Swing Adsorption
Generators plants worldwide
h. HARYANA AIR PRODUCTS LIMITED,PALWAL:-it is a well known entity
being a prominent, designer,manufacturer and supplier of a qualitative carbon

dioxide plants and systems in India. These palnts are based on the fossil
feuls,producer gas. Co2 recovery plants are based on distilleries,breweries,and
other souces of raw c02, storage tanks,mobile tankers,heat exchangers, dryers etc.
Gases and Engineering Consultants, a Chennai Based firm is into this business
since 2007 and has successfully installed this technology in various CO 2
processing plants across the country. Our technology is unique in capable of
developing precise density Dry Ice, with a much increased Shelf-life. Our
Technology is more flexible and can be made adaptable to the customer
specifications and production rates. There are many versions of these dry ice
press/plants categorized based on operation viz. Fully automatic, Semi-automatic,
Manual mode. Our layout comes with optional Recovery system to minimize the
gas wastage and increased efficiency. We do provide all other related services or










Apart from Dry ice plants, Balaji gases and Engineering Consultants are providing
various products and services related to all Industrial Gases Oxygen, Carbon-di-oxide,
rare gases etc.


Some of our other products are:


Dry Ice Press / Plants


Cylinder manifolds
Cylinder Pallets
Gear Pumps
CO2 Snow pack



Enterprises is a Visakhapatnam based industrial & medical gas supplies and
transportation services organisation to cater their customers with prompt supplies
and services. This organisation is a proprietory concern started by Mr. Srinivas
Bikkina in 2012 with a vision of high quality supplies and services to their


Products and services



Organizational structure



ISO 9001 : 2008. certification. We have over 200 employees in our organizat
SICGIL INDIA LIMITED is the largest manufacturer and distributor of
Liquid Co2 and Dry Ice in the country. It was incorporated in 1947 and is the
only Public Limited Company exclusively in the Co 2 business. The company
has five factories located at Bhatinda, Chennai, Goa, Tuticorin, Vadodara and
Kakinada with a cumulative production capacity of over 400 tons per day. The
facility is backed up by nine satellite refilling stations located at Bangalore,
Coimbatore, Ernakulam, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Madurai, Mumbai,
Pune, Srikakulam, Sriperumbudhur and Visakhapatnam. SICGIL offers high
purity Liquid Co2 of 99.99% (International Grade for Food Co 2) and services
all industrial users covering soft drinks, precision welding and foundries. Our units have been
accredited with ion.

Leveraging on the industry experience of 63 years, we are recognized as a trusted manufacturer,
supplier and distributor of Industrial Gases. These are processed in accordance with the safety
and quality standards set up the industry. Customers can avail from us Gaseous Co2, Liquid Co2,
Dry Ice Press and Solid Co2 (Dry Ice). The gases we offer are provided by us in leak-proof and
quality-tested cylinders within the committed time-frame. We also follow varied safety standards
during the transportation of our entire range of gases. The gases we offer are acknowledged for
their purity, accurate pH value and effectiveness.
Our organization also designs and develops a remarkable range of Gas Equipment for the
customers. The gamut offered to the clients includes Co2 Storage Tanks Vertically Mounted, Co2
Storage Tanks Horizontally Mounted, Pumps- Co2 Transfer and Dry Ice Press. These are
developed using optimum quality stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, hastelloy and nickel, which
we procure from certified vendors of the market. The products we offer are manufactured by an
adroit team of professionals, following industry quality norms and parameters.
Being a customer-focused firm, we aim at attaining the maximum satisfaction of the clients by
offering them supreme quality products. All our products are ensured for their supreme quality as
these are developed under the supervision of experienced quality inspectors. A team of diligent
professionals maintain cordial relationships with the patrons to understand their requirements
and cater them accordingly. Owing to the hardworking employees and customer-friendly
approach, we have been able to muster a huge clientle for ourselves in these years. Our
organization is a subsidiary company of Sicgil India Limited, which is a group company.
Quality Of High Purity, International Grade for Food Liquid Carbon Dioxide
All our factories are equipped to produce High Purity, International Grade for Food Liquid
Carbon Dioxide with purity in excess to 99.99% by vol., nil oil content and moisture less than 10
PPM. We produce International food grade Co 2 consistent with international specifications, and
are approved vendors for all major soft drink companies. Our Co 2 is used as a solvent for super
critical extraction of flavors and fragrances from spices, and is also used as a gas packer for
Cashews and other foods. It also provides an ideal inert shield for MIG welding as it has a dew
point of \9665 oC.

Distribution and Storage Infrastructure
To overcome supply constraints caused by Fertilizer Unit shut downs, we have installed very
large storage tanks at all factories. We can store about 3800 tons of Liquid Co 2 in these tanks at
any point of time. We have so far installed and operate 60 storage tanks; several more will be
added in the near future. We also have over 50 mobile tankers of 18 tons, 12 tons and 6 tons
capacity enabling us to distribute in bulk to our customers having storage tanks for Co 2. We also
have over 30 trucks and LCVs for distribution of gas in cylinders and Dry ice. Additionally, we
own the largest Co2 cylinder holding in the industry, 40,000 cylinders of various capacities and
combined with our dealers and distributor\92s cylinders, we handle over 1,00,000 cylinders in
our area of operation.













QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY:-our quality and food safety management strategy is aimed
at embedding awareness of quality and food safety in all our organizational process.
By now safety management systems are not simply a requirement foreseen by special norms
such as the "Seveso 2" directive for systems running the risk of serious injury. Instead they
represent a particular commitment, felt by the entire group, to ensure workplace safety


Each year refresher seminars are held for Protection and Prevention Service employees
The meetings discuss primary organisational and technical topics such as a general check of
activities carried out the previous year with analysis of the most important initiatives concerning
safety, and techniques for analysing risks and preventing accidents.

In addition to this, Gruppo SOL recently started a new safety campaign within its plants and
branches using various direct communication tools: "safety posters" and publications
The initiative testifies once again to the importance SOL places on the philosophy of Safety,
which must represent everyone's daily commitment.
CERTIFICATIONS:- SICGIL manufacturing locations and refilling stations are ISO
9001:2008 ( quality management system ) certified by TUV NORD. SICGIL manufacturing
locations ( ERNAKULAM, GOA and VADODARA ) are also certified FSSC 22000 ( food
safety system corporation ) by TUV NORD. The scheme is recognized by the global food safety
initative ( GFSI).

.DISTRIBUTION:- operating the largest completely owned fleet for the distribution of liquid
co2 in tankers and cycinders , and dry ice. Our vehicles are traced by a vehicle monitoring
system which provides our customers.

STORAGE INFRASTRUCTURE:- offering 2 to 250 ton capacity tanks which are
distinguishable by their compactness, total safety , easy installation on par with the latest
international standards.
ENVIRONMENT:--The 21st-century society sets out to be a "global village". The resulting
process of market evolution requires influencing companies to adopt sustainable development
criteria directed towards protecting the environment and observing increasingly-stringent safety
Why SICGIL CO2 Equipment?
All SICGIL units have been certified as ISO 9001-2000 and SICGIL is in the process of
obtaining HACCP certification.
All the CO2 related equipment we use are internally designed and developed at SICGIL, mainly
for our own purpose. Now our Equipment Division can also offer you the following products and
services that use our rich heritage and experience to provide you solid, time tested solutions.
We can supply both Brewery based & Distillery based CO2 Recovery plants with 99.99%
product purity, confirming to ISBT standards. These are designed in conformation with industry
standards and are available in various capacities and sizes as per your specific requirements. Our
range caters to the requirements of various applications such as beverage, industrial, chemical
and pharmaceutical industries



State of the art technology

High performance & efficiency
Low maintenance.
High Purity Food Grade 99.99% pure CO2
High Yield with low utility consumption norms
Very minimum impurities
User friendly, fully automatic operation
Low installation & operating cost - quick payback
Environmentally friendly.
Easy and safe recovery of the CO2 gas




The company has a long tradition in gas production and distribution. Founded in 1927 in
Monza, a city 15 km northeast from Milan, it has gradually expanded its business from the
Italian territory to the Western European countries during the Eighties. After the constitution
of new countries in the former Yugoslavia, it has enlarged its activities through the buyout of
some companies already operating on the Yugoslavian territory and it has gradually expanded
through the Balkan area. The 2010-11 has seen the group reaching new achievements: the
joint venture with the Indias CO2 market leader SICGIL, which led to the foundation of the
SICGILSOL, as well as the entry as competitor in the U.K. and Spanish markets in the field
of the home care.


Actually the SOL Group is present in 21 countries and over 2,100 people are employed in the
subsidiaries of the group. The 2010 annual revenue was 518 million Euros. Since 1998 the
company is quoted at the Milan Stock Exchange.
Our strategy is simple and its in line with our history. We can summarize it with three
words: enlargement, diversification and qualification explains Daniele Forni, Commercial
Director of the Italian based multinational company. SOL group started building and
managing plants with large production capacities to serve steel plant and glassworks in Italy,
went on expanding its sales of liquid and compressed gases to hospital and industry, but it
was quick to catch the opportunity of a new area of activity when a new service based on
oxygen therapy at home of patients with severe breathing difficulties was being developed in
the United States during the Eighties. SOL, through its subsidiary Vivisol, was one of the first
companies to offer this service in Europe.
Actually Vivisol is one of the leading European companies in the home care, principally in
the areas of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, diagnostics, therapy of obstructive sleep
area syndrome, artificial nutrition, telemedicine and advanced medical devices and home
aids. The company has more than 40 operative centers in Italy, France, Belgium, the
Nederland, Germany, Austria, Greece and more recently Spain UK, where SOL was not
present with the traditional industrial activity, and provides home care services for more than
150.000 patients daily. But the home care is just one of the different activities inside the
The home care is an important part of our business and needs high standard health system,
which is not still developed in many countries. Nevertheless we dont forget our industrial
origins and we are continuously expanding our activities in different fields, including energy
and industry, scientific research, agriculture, ecology environment and food technologies.
Sol group diversified also in new activities: in 2002 SOL group has acquired Energetika, the
hydroelectric power station in Jesenice, Slovenia.

We are a company always in expansion continues Forni. The market indexes suggest that
during the next decades the strongest developing area will be the Asian continent and the
recent joint venture with the Indian SICGIL has been a great opportunity to get to this
enormous market with our experience and know-how.
The enveloping of the Indian economy during the last two decades and the growing demand
of new infrastructures make the country one of the most interesting area for the industrial
development but also in the field of health services. Actually in India there are some changes
about medical gases, explains Forni: A new request for qualified services is rising, which
we can satisfy, comparable to the European standards. Our goal is to integrate the potentiality
of the developing Indian market with the quality of the services we developed in Europe and
building an innovative solution provider for healthcare sector in India with long term
experience ranging from gases, equipment, to process consulting.
Even the economical crisis has not slimmed down the goals of the company: Of course, we
are conscious of the financial crisis, but thanks to the geographic distribution and the
diversification of our activities, our economic development was always positive. Even in
2009, when the crisis was really strong in the metallurgic industry, which is one of the most
relevant sector for SOL group, our growth was positive (+1). The recent debt crisis has not
still had effect on SOLs activities: Anyway its clear that if some countries where the health
system is mainly State-run, will delay payments, we risk to have less resources to invest in
our growth concludes the Commercial Director. Thats why we cant stop. We are a
company always on the move, searching new areas and reaching new frontiers: its just
opening to new markets and developing the concept of sustainability through our products,
which means environmental management, clean energy and quality healthcare on the cheap,
we could reach new achievements.
Chennai-based SICGIL India Ltd, along with persons acting in concert (PACs), has again
increased its stake in IFB Agro Industries Ltd. SICGIL, a liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice

maker, currently holds 15.02 per cent in Kolkata-headquartered IFB Agro, up from 13.80 per
cent in the July-September quarter this year.
SICGIL, which does not have a board berth in IFB Agro, reported the stake increase to NSE on
December 3.
According to the disclosures to the stock exchange, SICGIL has been buying and selling through
market operations. In the April-June quarter last year SICGIL, which held 17.03 per centstake in
IFB Agro, increased it to 17.74 per cent in the January-March quarter this year. However, the
combined stake of SICGIL and the PACs had been declining since the first quarter (April-June)
of 2013-14.
Meanwhile, the promoters have also been raising their holding in IFB Agro this year. The
promoter group increased their stake to 63.58 per cent in July-September from 55.01 per cent as
on December 31, 2012.

Incidentally, IFB Agro commenced commercial production at its Dankuni bottling unit early this
month. According to the management, the company converted the Indian made foreign liquor
(IMFL) bottling plant at Dankuni to an India made Indian liquor (country liquor) bottling plant.
The plant had been awaiting State Government approval to commence production.
The rice grain-based country liquor bottling plant, on becoming fully operational, will provide
volume growth for the company in the IMIL segment.
In the IMFL segment, the company, a regional player, faces stiff competition from large Indian as
well as multinational companies. It is moving to improve sales by restructuring the distribution
model and focusing on promotional activities. The company has discontinued IMFL



2.2.1. CO2 Recovery Plants

Hyper Efficient CO2 Treatment

From brewery based CO2 plants to distillery based, ammonia based, chemical based and MEG
based plants, SICGIL offers complete recovery plant solutions capable of producing 99.99%
IBST Standard Liquid CO2.
SICGIL's experienced team of designers and professionals adhere to stringent quality control
standards to provided a complete end to end solution
View images of our recovery plant solutions from the gallery on the right or read below for
specific information on the various recovery plants offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.
Brewery Based Recovery Plants
SICGIL is engaged in manufacturing and exporting Brewery Based Plants, which are
manufactured using a quality grade of raw material by our experienced team of designers and

professionals. Our range is renowned for high performance, sturdy construction and corrosion
resistance. Our supply plant can produce 99.99% pure ISBT Standard Liquid CO2.
Application areas include Soft drinks, Beer, Food preservation.
Distillery Based Recovery Plants
SICGIL offers Distillery Based Plants of various capacities from different sources like Mollases ,
Grains etc . These are designed in conformation to industry standards and are available in various
capacities and sizes as per your specific requirements. Our supply plant can produce 99.99%
pure ISBT Standard Liquid CO2.
Features: High performance, High efficiency, Low maintenance.
Ammonia Based Recovery Plants
We also manufacture Ammonia Based Plants, which are in high demand due to its high end
features such as sturdy construction, durability, corrosion resistance, high efficiency and
dimensional accuracy. We have our own 450 MTPD plant at various locations all over India,
which are fertilizer based and completely built using SICGIL in-house technology
Chemical Based Recovery Plants
SICGIL also builds Chemical Based CO2 Plants from a variety of different sources such as
Calcium Chloride Base Recovery Plants, Sodium Hydro Sulphide Recovery Plants. Like our
ammonia based plants, these chemical based plants are also in high demand due to their high end
features such as sturdy construction, durability, corrosion resistance, high efficiency and
dimensional accuracy. These are equipped with forklift accessible sub-frames, switching between
liquid and dry ensuring fast and easy application.
MEG Based Recovery Plants
The SICGIL present invention provides a complete process for purifying CO2 off-gas from
ethylene glycol plants to produce high purity carbon dioxide through catalytic conversion. This
high purity carbon dioxide can be used in food grade applications, or in the production of
methanol, urea, oxy-alcohols, etc., and the condensate water from the process can be used as
boiler feed water (BFW).


2.2.2. CO2 Production Plants

End to End CO2 Production Systems

SICGIL offers complete end to end CO2 production systems such as Diesel and Kerosene Based
CO2 plants. Our production solutions are built to last and are well known for their sturdy design
and high quality, keeping them in high demand globally.
View images of our production plant solutions from the gallery on the right or read below for
specific information on the various production plants offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.
Diesel and Kerosene Based CO2 Plant
Our quality range of Diesel Based Plants are based on a very sturdy design including cross head
and stuffing box, which ensures complete isolation between the combustion chamber and the
lubricating oil, which prevents contamination of the lubricating oil. The Diesel Base Plant
offered by us is in high demand all across the globe and is manufactured using quality raw
material procured from reliable sources.
Features: Complete stripping of CO2, Improved CO2 absorption, Low pressure
purification, Less fuel consumption and cost effectiveness

Natural Gas based CO2 plant
With our wide experience, we have been able to offer a quality range of Natural Gas Base Plants,
which produce biogas that can be utilized in a gas engine, based combined heat and power
(CHP) plant. The electricity produced in the CHP plant is CO2 neutral, contrary to the electricity
produced from fossil fuels. These plants have fully automatic operation and have a simplified
overall concept ensuring low operation and maintenance costs.
Features: Available in customized designs, Corrosion resistant, Durable,Sturdy,
Dimensionally accurate
2.2.3. CO2 Absorption Plants
Hyper Efficient CO2 Treatment
SICGIL offers comprehensive CO2 Absorption plant solutions ranging from Fuel Gas recovery
plants to Bio Gas based CO2 recovery plants.
Our absorption plants are precision engineered and provide solutions with the highest level of
safety and cost effectiveness.
View images of our absorption plant solutions from the gallery on the right or read below for
specific information on the various absorption plants offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.

Fuel Gas Recovery Plant

Our precision engineered range of Fuel Gas Recovery Base Plant is renowned for removing the
need for continuous flaring of gas from oil, gas and petrochemical plants. The gas is safely and
cost effectively recovered and can be utilized for other purposes.
Features: Environmentally friendly, cost effective, easy and safe recovery of the flare gas
Bio gas based CO2 Recovery plant
SICGIL can supply CO2 plant from sources like Bio Gas Base Recovery is manufactured using
quality raw material and advanced technology ensuring durability and dimensional accuracy. Our
range operates at ambient conditions with no external heating required to prevent hydrate
2.2.4. CO2 Tanks
Comprehensive CO2 storage solutions
SICGIL offers high quality storage tanks to handle all your CO2 storage needs. We offer
horizontal tanks, vertical tanks and mobile tanks in a wide range of storage volume options from
5MT to 300MT.
View images of our storage solutions from the gallery on the right or read below for specific
information on the various storage options offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.
CO2 Storage tanks Horizontal / Vertical
SICGIL can supply both horizontal and vertical CO2 storage tanks of different capacities ranging
from 5 MT to 300 MT as per your requirement . These are designed as per supplied
specifications and can store liquid CO2 under high pressures.
Features: Completely safe for bulk CO2 storage, Configured with modern safety devices,
refrigerants and insulators which prevent the loss of gas by evaporation and liquid CO2,
Constructed from best and low temperature steel, fabrication process of these tanks is duly
checked by internationally approved inspection agencies, valves & fittings are approved by

controller of explosives, polyeurathene insulation and aluminium cladding is provided for
tropical design.

CO2 Mobile Tankers

SICGIL CO2 tankers are designed in different capacities to make them suitable for existing
chassis. The PU insulation of these tankers is of higher thicknesses as no refrigeration system is
required. The fabrications and drawings are approved and supervised by international inspection
agencies. All mobile tankers are available at various capacity ranges .
2.2.5. Dry Ice Presses
Dry Ice production equipment from SICGIL
SICGIL offers our wide range of Dry Ice Equipment, which is specially designed to produce the
highest density dry ice. The dry ice manufactured has a longer shelf life, better transportability,
and offers better blasting aggression. These equipment are available as Semi auto matic or fully
automatic and require less maintenance.
In its range of Dry Ice Presses, SICGIL offers both Block Machines and Pelletizers.
View images of our dry ice presses from the gallery on the right or read below for specific
information on the various dry ice products offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.

Block Machines
We offer a variety of square block shape Dry Ice presses which are highly efficient with less
power consumption. We can also provide a recovery system installed on the same system.

We also offers various range of Pelletizers as per customer requirement.
2.2.6. OTHER CO2 EQUIPMENTS:CO2 Equipment Accessories
In addition to providing comprehensive CO2 equipment solutions, SICGIL also has a range of
other CO2 equipment and accessories including Cylinder Filling Stations, spare parts & services
for CO2 plants, as well as filling pumps.
View images of our other CO2 equipment from the gallery on the right or read below for specific
information on the various other products offered by SICGIL.
Contact us if you would like a detailed presentation or addition information on any of our
products and services.
Cylinder Filling Station
We offer Liquid CO2 Filling Stations, which are designed to fill liquid carbon dioxide into
cylinders. The system consists of a maximum of three weighing platforms and three high-

pressure filling manifolds controlled by a semi automatic system. The system is operated for two

Better accuracy and consistency of operation

Programmable set points

Spare parts & Services for CO2 plant
SICGIL offers you a versatile service program from a single source that includes on-site support,
troubleshooting, training and operation of plants. In addition to this, we also offer comprehensive
service solutions that include

Revamps and repairs and debottlenecking

Studies, plant audits and optimization

Spare parts and components

Thanks to our many years of experience, we can help you operate your plant more effectively.
Because of our excellent supply contacts, SICGIL can source any type of spare parts /
components for CO2 plants. Our service engineers are available on standby 24/7!

Filling pumps

These days, cylinders are filled more often with the help of a special liquid pump which pumps
the liquid from the liquid source to the cylinder filling system. The pump is specially designed to
handle liquid CO2 at extremely low temperatures and pressures (approximately 22 kg/cm2) and
pumps the same to 80 kg/cm2 or more in cylinders.

Gland packing specially developed for leak less operation, reducing gas loss

Minimal maintenance - all parts available off the shelf

Quick cool down

Designed for continuous operation.




CHAIRMAN:1. Mr. K.D. Parakh


Mr. R.P. Raghavan

Mr. K.N.Ayair
Mr. C.M. Varadarajan
Mr. H.C.H. Bhabha
Mr. N. Radhakrishna
Mr. F. Dadabhoy


Chartered accountants,Chennai
1. HDFC bank
2. Bank of India
1. Mr. K.K. Rajendran FICWA

Mrs. Laxmi Sukumar

Mr. T.K. Sesadri
Mr. A.K. Mylswamy
Mr. L.M. Sethi
Mrs. kamya



Ratio analysis


Financial performance of the yaer


Cash flow statement




1. Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis) refers to an assessment of
the viability, stability and profitability of a business, sub-business or project.
It is performed by professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of
information taken from financial statement and other reports. These reports are
usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Based
on these reports, management may:

Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business;

Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product;

Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods;

Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank losn to increase its working capital.

Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital;

Other decisions that allow management to make an informed selection on various

alternatives in the conduct of its business.

Goals of financial statements analysis:Financial analysts often assess the firm's:


Profitability - its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and longterm. A company's degree of profitability is usually based on the income statement, which
reports on the company's results of operations;


Solvency - its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the longterm;


Liquidity - its ability to maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate
Both 2 and 3 are based on the company's balance sheet, which indicates the financial
condition of a business as of a given point in time.

Any successful business owner is constantly evaluating the performance of his or her company,
comparing it with the company's historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with
successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your
company's effectiveness, however, you need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers
like sales, profits, and total assets. You must be able to read between the lines of your financial
statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible.
This massive data overload could seem staggering. Luckily, there are many well-tested ratios out
there that make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and
quantify your company's strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and
understand the risks you may be taking.
Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analysts
implement plans that improve profitability, liquidity, financial structure, reordering, leverage, and
interest coverage. Although ratios report mostly on past performances, they can be predictive too,
and provide lead indications of potential problem areas.
Ratio analysis is primarily used to compare a company's financial figures over a period of time, a
method sometimes called trend analysis. Through trend analysis, you can identify trends, good
and bad, and adjust your business practices accordingly. You can also see how your ratios stack
up against other businesses, both in and out of your industry.
There are several considerations you must be aware of when comparing ratios from one financial
period to another or when comparing the financial ratios of two or more companies.

If you are making a comparative analysis of a company's financial statements over a

certain period of time, make an appropriate allowance for any changes in accounting
policies that occurred during the same time span.


When comparing your business with others in your industry, allow for any material
differences in accounting policies between your company and industry norms.

When comparing ratios from various fiscal periods or companies, inquire about the types
of accounting policies used. Different accounting methods can result in a wide variety of
reported figure

TYPES OF RATIOS:Classification of ratios by functions


Profitability Ratios Turnover

1. Return on investment
2. Net profit ratio
3. Gross profit ratio
4. Expenses ratio
5. Operating profit ratio

RatiosSolvency ratios
1. Stock turnover ratio
2. Debtors turnover ratio
3. Creditors turnover ratio
4. Working capital turnover ratio
5. Fixed assets turnover ratio

Short Term Solvency Ratios

1. Current ratio
2. Quick ratio
3. Absolute liquidity ratio

Long Term Solvency Ratios

1. Proprietary ratio
2. Debt equity ratio
3. F. assets to NWR

a. Divident per share:- Divident per share is the total dividends paid out over entire
year Divident by the number of outstanding ordinary shares issued. It is calculated
D- sum of dividends over a period
SD- one time dividends
S- shares outstanding for the period


(Figure 3.1.A. )








march, 2011

march, 2012

march, 2013

march, 2014

INTERPRETATION:-this chart shows that the divident per share of ICICI bank is increasing
the reason may be that
1. they do not want to conserve their profit instead they want to announce more and more
2. The second reason may be that they have excess profit and even after conserving profits
they have excess money to declare the dividends.
b. Operational ratio:- it is a ratio that shows the efficiency of a companys
management by comparing operating expense to net sales. It is calculated as:OR= operating expense * 100/ net sales

(Figure- 3.1.B)


operational ratio2



operational ratio2





INTERPRETATION:-As the operational ratio is increasing . In march 2011, it is 25.03 , in

march 2012 it is 25.38 , in march 2013 it is 46.32 and in march 2014 it is 58.39. the reason may
be:1. This ratio is complementary to the net operating profit ratio. In march OR is 25.03 this
means that NOP is 74.97 .in march, 2012 OR is 25.38 this means that NOP is 74.62, in
march 2013 OR is 46.32 this means NOP is 53.68, in march 2014 OR is 58.39 this means
NOP is 41.61. this shows that more is the operational ratio low efficient the firm will be.
c. Debt equity ratio:- This ratio, also known as External-Internal Equity Ratio is
calculated to measure the relative claims of outsiders and the owners
(shareholders) against the firms assets. Debt-Equity ratio indicates the
relationship between the external equities or the outsiders funds and the internal
equities or the shareholders funds.
Debt equity ratio= outsider funds/shareholders fund
(Figure 3.1.C.)


debt-equity ratio2



debt-equity ratio2






INTERPRETATION:-. A ratio of 1:1 may be usually considered to be a satisfactory ratio

although interpretation of this ratio depends primarily upon the financial policy of the firm and
upon the firms nature of business. The debt-equity ratio of ICICI Bank is increasing
continuously which indicates the company is increasing the proportion of debt in its capital
structure & is striving to achieve the standard norm of 1:1.
d. Debtors turnover ratio:- It shows the relationship between the net credit sales
and average trade is also known as account receivable turnover ratio.
debtors turnover ratio=net credit sales/average debtors
(Figure 3.1.D)

debtor's turnover ratio





debtor's turnover ratio











INTERPRETATION:-This graph is showing that the ratio is reducing continuously. The low
turnover ratio is not good because it tells that they are not able to manage the debtors in a better

way. Money from the debtors is not collected in a fast way. This tell they should made efficient
polices so that money can be collected from the debtors fastly.

e. Return on Capital Employed Ratio:- This ratio establishes relationship between

profits & the capital employed. It is most widely used to measure the overall
profitability & efficiency of the business. Capital employed can be either gross or
net capital employed.
ROI= net profits * 100 / net capital employed
(Figure 3.1.E.)







INTERPRETATION:- This ratio showed an increasing trend except in the year 2014. Where it
fell down. Overall this ratio has been increasing which is an indicator of good financial health of
the company.
f. Net Profit Ratio:- This ratio establishes a relationship between net profit (after
taxes) and sales. Net profits are obtained after deducting income tax and
generally. Non-operating incomes and expenses are excluded from the net profits
for calculating this ratio. This ratio the firms capacity to face adverse economic
conditions. Net profit is found out by deducting sales returns from sales. It is
expressed in the percentage. Examples of non-profit revenues are interest on
investment and income from sale of fixed assets. Examples of non operating

expenses include interest on loan and loss on sale of assets. It is used to measure
the overall profitability of the business.
Net profit ratio= net profit after tax * 100 / net sales
(figure- 3.1.F)

net profit ratio2


net profit ratio2









INTERPRETATION:- Higher the ratio, the higher is the profitability. The ratio is increasing
rapidly but at a slow rate this shows that the expenses were relatively less or revenues are more
in comparison with the last year.
g. Gross profit ratio:- This ratio establishes the relationship between gross profits
and net sales. Gross profit is found out by deducting cost of goods sold from
sales. It is a popular tool to evaluate the operational performance of the business.
It is computed by dividing the gross profit figure by net sales.
The basic components of this ratio is gross profit and net sales. Gross profit is equal to the net
sales minus cost of goods sold. Net sales are equal to total gross sales less return inwards and
discount allowed. The information about the gross profit and net sales is normally available from
income statement of the company.
Gross profit ratio= gross profit*100/net sales
(figure 3.1.G)


gross profit ratio2






gross profit ratio2





INTERPRETATION:-the gross profit ratio is showing that in March,2012 the ratio is

decreasing this means the cost of purchase in this year whereas in the preceeding years the ratio
is increasing means cost of purchase was less thats why the gross profit was more and
consequently the ratio was better.
h. Current Ratio:-It expresses the relationship between current assets and current
liabilities. This ratio also called working capital ratio is a measure of general
liquidity and is widely used to make the analysis of short term financial position
of a firm. It is widely used to test the liquidity of the business and measures the
ability of the business to repay its debt over the period of next 12 months. This
ratio tells whether the current assets are enough to settle current liabilities.
Current ratio below 1 shows critical liquidity problem because it means that the
total current liabilities exceeds total current liabilities. General rule is that higher
the current ratio better it is but there is a limit to this. The formula to be used is:
Current ratio= current assets/current liabilities










(Figure 3.1.H)

current ratio2





INTERPRETATION:- the current ratio is increasing rapidly but in year 2014 it is decreasing. A
relatively high current ratio indicates that a firm is liquid & has the ability to pay its current
obligations in time. An increase in current ratio represents improvement in the liquidity position
of a firm while a decrease indicates that there has been deterioration in the liquidity position of
the firm. A ratio equal or near to 2:1 is considered to be satisfactory.
i. Quick ratio:- This ratio, also called as Acid Test or Liquid Ratio, expresses the
relationship between liquid/quick assets and current liabilities. Liquid assets are
those assets which can be converted into cash within a short period without loss of
value. Liquid assets include all the current assets except Inventories and prepaid










quick ratio

quick ratio










INTERPRETATION:- The quick ratio is increasing from March,2011 to March,2014. This

means that the value of stock and prepaid expenses is less. Usually a high quick ratio is an
indication that the firm is liquid & has the ability to meet its current/liquid liabilities in time and
on the other hand a low ratio represents that the firms liquidity position is not good. As a rule of
thumb or as a convention quick ratio of 1:1 is considered satisfactory, however

this rule may

not hold true in all the cases.








from 54.27




Profit before tax





Profit after tax





Net worth





Loan funds










Capital adequate 31.20%


CAR ( without 66.18%


In financial accounting, a cash flow statement, also known as statement of cash flows, is a
financial statement that shows how changes in balance sheet accounts and income affect cash
and cash equivalents, and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing and financing
activities. Essentially, the cash flow statement is concerned with the flow of cash in and out of
the business. The statement captures both the current operating results and the accompanying
changes in the balance sheet.[1] As an analytical tool, the statement of cash flows is useful in
determining the short-term viability of a company, particularly its ability to pay bills.
International Accounting Standard 7 (IAS 7), is the International Accounting Standard that deals
with cash flow statements.
People and groups interested in cash flow statements include:

Accounting personnel, who need to know whether the organization will be able to cover
payroll and other immediate expenses

Potential lenders or creditors, who want a clear picture of a company's ability to repay

Potential investors, who need to judge whether the company is financially sound

Potential employees or contractors, who need to know whether the company will be able
to afford compensation

Shareholders of the business.

The cash flow statement was previously known as the flow of Cash statement. The cash flow
statement reflects a firm's liquidity.
The balance sheet is a snapshot of a firm's financial resources and obligations at a single point in
time, and the income statement summarizes a firm's financial transactions over an interval of
time. These two financial statements reflect the accrual basis accounting used by firms to match
revenues with the expenses associated with generating those revenues. The cash flow statement
includes only inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents; it excludes transactions that do
not directly affect cash receipts and payments. These non-cash transactions include depreciation
or write-offs on bad debts or credit losses to name a few.[3] The cash flow statement is a cash
basis report on three types of financial activities: operating activities, investing activities, and
financing activities. Non-cash activities are usually reported in footnotes.
The cash flow statement is intended to
1. provide information on a firm's liquidity and solvency and its ability to change cash flows
in future circumstances
2. provide additional information for evaluating changes in assets, liabilities and equity
3. improve the comparability of different firms' operating performance by eliminating the
effects of different accounting methods
4. indicate the amount, timing and probability of future cash flows
The cash flow statement has been adopted as a standard financial statement because it eliminates
allocations, which might be derived from different accounting methods, such as various
timeframes for depreciating fixed assets
Cash flow activities
The cash flow statement is partitioned into three segments, namely:
1. cash flow resulting from operating activities;

2. cash flow resulting from investing activities;
3. cash flow resulting from financing activities.
The money coming into the business is called cash inflow, and money going out from the
business is called cash outflow.
a. Operating activities
Operating activities include the production, sales and delivery of the company's product as well
as collecting payment from its customers. This could include purchasing raw materials, building
inventory, advertising, and shipping the product.
Under IAS 7, operating cash flows include:]

Receipts for the sale of loans, debt or equity instruments in a trading portfolio

Interest received on loans

Payments to suppliers for goods and services

Payments to employees or on behalf of employees

Interest payments (alternatively, this can be reported under financing activities in IAS 7)

buying Merchandise

Items which are added back to [or subtracted from, as appropriate] the net income figure (which
is found on the Income Statement) to arrive at cash flows from operations generally include:

Depreciation (loss of tangible asset value over time)

Deferred tax

Amortization (loss of intangible asset value over time)


Any gains or losses associated with the sale of a non-current asset, because associated
cash flows do not belong in the operating section (unrealized gains/losses are also added
back from the income statement).

Dividends received
b. Investing activities

Examples of Investing activities are

Purchase or Sale of an asset (assets can be land, building, equipment, marketable

securities, etc.)

Loans made to suppliers or received from customers

Payments related to mergers and acquisition.

c. Financing activities

Financing activities include the inflow of cash from investors such as banks and shareholders, as
well as the outflow of cash to shareholders as dividends as the company generates income. Other
activities which impact the long-term liabilities and equity of the company are also listed in the
financing activities section of the cash flow statement.
Under IAS 7,

Payments of dividends

Payments for repurchase of company shares

For non-profit organizations, receipts of donor-restricted cash that is limited to long-term


Items under the financing activities section include:

Dividends paid


Sale or repurchase of the company's stock

Net borrowings

Payment of dividend tax

Repayment of debt principal, including capital leases

Disclosure of non-cash activities

Under IAS 7, non-cash investing and financing activities are disclosed in footnotes to the
financial statements. Under US General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), non-cash
activities may be disclosed in a footnote or within the cash flow statement itself. Non-cash
financing activities may include[11]

Leasing to purchase an asset

Converting debt to equity

Exchanging non-cash assets or liabilities for other non-cash assets or liabilities

Issuing shares in exchange for assets

PREPARATION METHODS:The direct method of preparing a cash flow statement results in a more easily understood report.

The indirect method is almost universally used, because FAS 95 requires a supplementary

report similar to the indirect method if a company chooses to use the direct method.
Direct method
The direct method for creating a cash flow statement reports major classes of gross cash receipts
and payments. Under IAS 7, dividends received may be reported under operating activities or
under investing activities. If taxes paid are directly linked to operating activities, they are
reported under operating activities; if the taxes are directly linked to investing activities or
financing activities, they are reported under investing or financing activities. Generally Accepted
Accounting Principles (GAAP) vary from International Financial Reporting Standards in that

under GAAP rules, dividends received from a company's investing activities is reported as an
"operating activity," not an "investing activity."
Indirect method
The indirect method uses net-income as a starting point, makes adjustments for all transactions
for non-cash items, then adjusts from all cash-based transactions. An increase in an asset account
is subtracted from net income, and an increase in a liability account is added back to net income.
This method converts accrual-basis net income (or loss) into cash flow by using a series of
additions and deductions.
The following rules can be followed to calculate Cash Flows from Operating Activities when
given only a two-year comparative balance sheet and the Net Income figure. Cash Flows from
Operating Activities can be found by adjusting Net Income relative to the change in beginning
and ending balances of Current Assets, Current Liabilities, and sometimes Long Term Assets.
When comparing the change in long term assets over a year, the accountant must be certain that
these changes were caused entirely by their devaluation rather than purchases or sales (i.e. they
must be operating items not providing or using cash) or if they are nonoperating items.[16]

Decrease in non-cash current assets are added to net income

Increase in non-cash current asset are subtracted from net income

Increase in current liabilities are added to net income

Decrease in current liabilities are subtracted from net income

Expenses with no cash outflows are added back to net income (depreciation and/or
amortization expense are the only operating items that have no effect on cash flows in the

Revenues with no cash inflows are subtracted from net income


Non operating losses are added back to net income

Non operating gains are subtracted from net income


Current year
A: cash flow arising from operating activities


Net profit before tax

Finance cost paid
Loss on sale of fixed 24.81

(in lakhs)
previous year








Profit on sale of fixed
Interest received
Operating profit before
Increase in trade and
other payables
Decrease in trade and
other receivales
Decrease in inventories













Increase in inventories
Decrease in trade and
other payables
Increase in trade and
other receivables
Direct taxes paid
( outflow ) from
operating expenses





(in lakhs)
previous year

Current year
B: cash flow arisig from investing activites

Disposal of
fixed assets
and other











Purchase of






outflow in
the course
of investing





(In lakhs)
previous year

Current year
C: Cash flow arising from financing activites

increase in long term



Increase in hire
purchase finance



Increase in short
term borrowings






Repayment of long
term borrowings



Repayment of hire
purchase finance



Finance costs paid





Net cash outflow of

financing activites



decrease) in cash or
bank ( A+B+C)



Add: cash and bank

balances at beginning
of the year



Cash and bank at the

close of the year




SWOT Analysis, Suggestions,Conclusion


SWOT Analysis, Suggestions,Conclusion

4.1. SWOT Analysis

This is one of the best and competitive compqny in suppliers of carbondioxide and is
supplying it to various leading companies.


This organization also designs and develops a remarkable range of Gas Equipment for the


All their factories are equipped to produce High Purity, International Grade for Food
Liquid Carbon Dioxide with purity in excess to 99.99% by vol.



SOL use a safety campaign within its plants and branches using various direct
communication tools: "safety posters" and publications.



Working in the a pressurized environment increase the hazard of accidents as it is a work

of mechanical engineering.
More working hours of the workers is also one of the weakness.


The company has five factories located at Bhatinda, Chennai, Goa, Tuticorin, Vadodara
and Kakinada with a cumulative production capacity of over 400 tons per day. The
facility is backed up by nine satellite refilling stations located at Bangalore, Coimbatore,
Ernakulam, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Madurai, Mumbai, Pune, Srikakulam,
Sriperumbudhur and Visakhapatnam..They have opportunity to expand somewhere in
more places..


They have good expansion in areas of solid,liquid and gaseous forms of carbon dioxide.


More and more companies are coming up, both in private and public sector. Competiton
is increasing so they have threat that they will lack behind.


As this company induljes only in the carbon manufacturing areas or equipments .this is
thus a threat.


SICGIL INDIA LIMITED is the largest manufacturer and distributor of Liquid Co2 and Dry Ice
in the country. it can be concluded thats is a best place where a investor can
invest in but

Apart from this when the financial analysis of the company is being done
it is clear that the return on investment is decreasing in the year 2014
this means it is not invested properly the policy is not up to the mark.


On the other hand debtor turnover ratio is also decreasing the bank is
not able to recover its debts from the debtors so soon.


More and more companies are coming up, both in private and public
sector. Competiton is increasing so they have threat that they will lack


They have good expansion in areas of solid,liquid and gaseous forms of carbon
is suggested to expand their products

To conclude this report, it can be said that the financial health of SICGIL is the largest
manufacturer and distributor of Liquid Co2 and Dry Ice in the country and this company is
financially sound. Most of the accounting ratios showed an increasing or an upward trend which
indicates good financial health of this company.


The company has five factories located at Bhatinda, Chennai, Goa, Tuticorin, Vadodara and
Kakinada with a cumulative production capacity of over 400 tons per day. The facility is backed
up by nine satellite refilling stations located at Bangalore, Coimbatore, Ernakulam, Hyderabad,
Indore, Kolkata, Madurai, Mumbai, Pune, Srikakulam, Sriperumbudhur and
Visakhapatnam..They have opportunity to expand somewhere in more places
It has high financial performance,with low maintainence .the purity of food is 99.99% with
minimum impurities, the products are user friendly and there is a low installation and operation
cost. The products they produced are environment friendly and easy to use.
For the purpose of analysis, accounting ratios were used. There are many well-tested ratios out
there that make the task of analysing the financial statements a bit less daunting. Comparative
ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify your company's strengths and weaknesses, evaluate
its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking.
As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques aren't definitive and their
results shouldn't be viewed as gospel. Many off-the-balance-sheet factors can play a role in the
success or failure of a company. But, when used in concert with various other business
evaluation processes, comparative ratios are invaluable.


It is not enough to acquire theoretical knowledge; we must also know how to put it to use in the
real word. India has one of the largest workforces in the world. Indians have strong theoretical
knowledge and have good command over English... The interviewers usually look for three

things- theoretical knowledge, practical experience and soft skills and though most of the newly
graduates have good theoretical knowledge but they lack in practical experience and soft skills.
The solution for success is integration of theoretical learning with practical experience. Studies
conducted by various research groups have shown that practical training increased students
understanding of theoretical knowledge, retention and their motivation to study. Practical
training can provide valuable work experience by sharpening and adding to the skills we are
learning in school or colleges. During my training session I came to know about various new
things in the organization. Till now we have studied only in the books that how human resources
work in the organization but seeing them practically shows the differences what we have studied
in the books. In the training I have learned many new things about the human resources likeattendance record of employees, leave policy, file and documentation in the recruitment process,
salary system.