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DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Topics

9Orthographic Projections

9Projection of Points

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Projection Theory

Engineering drawing are dependent on

projection methods.

Two projection methods used are:

Perspective and Parallel.

Both methods are based on projection

theory.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Projection theory

Comprises the principles used to

represent graphically 3-D objects and

structures on 2-D media.

All projection theory are based on two

variables: Line of sight and a plane of

projection.

DrP.

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S.Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

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of sight creates different views of the same object.

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

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of sight start at a single point.

DrP.

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IITGuwahati

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sight are parallel.

DrP.

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Plane of Projection

A plane of projection (i.e, an image or picture

plane) is an imaginary flat plane upon which the

image created by the line of sight is projected.

The image is produced by connecting the points

where the lines of sight pierce the projection

plane. In effect, 3-D object is transformed into a

2-D representation, also called projections.

The paper or computer screen on which a

drawing is created is a plane of projection.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

9 Parallel projection

projection lines are parallel object is positioned at

infinity.

Less realistic but easier to draw.

Perspective projection

the object is viewed from a single point projectors

are not parallel.

Perspective projections mimic what the human eyes

sees, however, they are difficult to draw.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Orthographic Projection

projection is positioned between the observer and the

object and is perpendicular to the parallel line of sight.

pictorial drawings that show all three dimensions of an

object in one view, or multi-views that show only two

dimensions of an object in a single view.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Multi-view Projection

Is an orthographic projection for which the object is behind

the plane of projection, and the object is oriented such that

only two of its dimensions are shown.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Multi-view Drawings

Employ multi-view

projection techniques.

object are drawn, and features

and dimensions in each view

accurately represent those of

the object. Each view is a 2-D

flat image. The views are

defined according to the

positions of the planes of

projection with respect to the

object.

view drawn on paper makes

the 3-D object appear 2-D; one

dimension, in this case the

depth dimension, can not be

represented since it is

perpendicular to the paper.

DrP.

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S.Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Frontal plane

of projection is

the plane onto

which the front

view of the

multi-view

drawing is

projected.

Front view of

an object

shows the

width and

height

dimensions.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Horizontal plane of projection is the plane onto which the

top view of the multi-view drawing is projected.

dimensions.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

In multi-view drawings, the right side view is the standard

side view used. The right side view of an object shows

the depth and the height dimensions. The right side view

is projected onto the profile plane of projection, which is

a plane that is parallel to the right side of the object.

DrP.

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S.Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

planes

Top view is

always

positioned and

aligned with the

front view, and

side (right) view

is always

positioned to the

right of and

aligned with the

front view.

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

infinite number of views of an object. However, some

views are more important than others.

views that are produced by six mutually perpendicular

planes of projection.

major surfaces of the object positioned so that they

are parallel to the sides of the box, six sides of the

box become projection planes, showing the six views

front, top, left, right, bottom and rear.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Object

suspended in a

glass box

producing six

principal views

each view is

perpendicular

to and aligned

with the

adjacent views.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

to produce six-view

drawing

views are all aligned

vertically and share

the same width

dimension.

and right side views

are all aligned

horizontally and share

the same height

dimension.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

The three-view

multiview drawing is the

standard used in

engineering and

technology, because

many times the other three

principal views are mirror

images and do not add to

the knowledge about the

object.

The standard views used in

a three-view drawing are the

top, front and the right side

views

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

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aligned between the front

and top views, using

vertical projection lines.

aligned between the front

and the profile views, using

horizontal projection lines.

positioning of the three

views, the depth dimension

cannot be aligned using

projection lines. Instead,

the depth dimension is

measured in either the top

or right side view.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

US Standard

European standard

BIS - 1991

DrP.

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S.Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

The principal

projection

planes and

quadrants

used to create

first- and

third-angle

projection

drawings

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

The principal

projection

planes and

quadrants

used to create

first- and

third-angle

projection

drawings

DrP.

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IITGuwahati

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in the third

quadrant puts the

projection planes

between the

viewer and the

object.

When placed in

the first quadrant,

the object is

between the

viewer and the

projection planes.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

First angle

projection

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Third angle

projection

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

First angle projection

Third-angle projection

third quadrant.

plane of projection.

observer and the object.

non-transparent.

to be transparent.

Front (elevation) view is drawn above

the XY line

below the XY line

line

XY line

and vise versa

plane itself.

Followed in USA

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Symbol of projection

The method of projection used should be indicated in the

space provided for the purpose in the title box of the

drawing sheet. The symbol recommended by BIS is to

draw the two sides of a frustum of a cone placed with its

axis horizontal.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Projection of points

Projection of points, viz., front, top and profile views are

obtained by locating the given point in each of the four

quadrants.

If the point lies

In the 1st quadrant - Either on or above HP and in front of VP.

In the 2nd quadrant Either on or above HP and behind VP.

In the 3rd quadrant - Either on or below HP and behind VP.

In the 4th quadrant Either on or below HP and in front of VP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Conventional Representation

quadrants are designated by the capital letters, viz, A,

B, C, etc.

Their front views are conventionally represented by

small letters with dashes, viz., a, b, c

with double dashes, viz a, b, c

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Projectors and

the lines of the

intersection of

planes of

projections are

shown as thin

lines.

The lines of

intersection of

HP and VP is

denoted as XY.

The VP and HP

are written on

either side of

the XY line.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Example 1:

A point P is 40 mm in front of VP,

50 mm above HP and 30 mm in

front of left profile plane (PP).

Draw the three principal views of

the point.

Solution:

Step 1:

Point P is located in I quadrant.

Point P is projected on VP, HP,

and left PP.

P front view on VP, p top view

on HP and p right view on PP.

DrP.

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 2:

After obtaining the

projections on VP, HP and

left PP, the HP and the left

PP are rotated by 90 so as

to lie in the same plane as

that of VP.

DrP.

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

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Step 3:

After rotation, HP lies below

the XY line and the left PP

on which the right view is

projected lies on the left of

VP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 4:

Orthographic

projections

Draw a thin horizontal XY

line to represent the line of

intersection of HP and VP.

Draw X1Y1 line to

represent the line of

intersection of VP and PP.

Through O, the point of

intersection of XY and

X1Y1, draw a 45 degree

line for projecting the

profile view.

Since the given point P is

30 mm in front of left PP,

draw a vertical projector

line at a distance of 30 mm

from the X1Y1 line.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

HP, mark p the front view

of the point P, 50 mm above

the XY line.

Since point P is 50 mm infront

of VP and also the HP on

which the top view of the point

P is projected, lies below XY

line, p the top view of the line

lies 40 mm below XY line.

To project the right view on

the left PP, draw a horizontal

projector through p to intersect

the 45 degree line at m and

through m draw a vertical

projector to intersect the

horizontal projector drawn

through p at p the right

view of point P

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Steps

1-4

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

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IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Example 2:

A point P is 30 mm above HP, 50

mm behind VP and 45 mm infront

of left PP. Draw the three principal

views of the point.

Solution:

Step 1:

Point P is located in II quadrant.

Since point P is located behind VP,

the VP is assumed transparent

plane.

Point P is projected on VP, HP, and

left PP.

p front view on VP, p top view

on HP and p right view on left PP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 2:

After obtaining the

projections on VP, HP and

left PP, the HP and the left

PP are rotated by 90 so as

to lie in the same plane as

that of VP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 3:

After rotation, HP

will coincide with the

VP and the left PP

will lie on the left of

VP.

The direction of

rotation is

maintained same as

in the first quadrant.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 4:

Orthographic

projections

Draw a thin horizontal XY line

and mark both HP and VP

above it.

Draw X1Y1 line to represent

the line of intersection of VP

and left PP.

Mark PP on the left side of

VP. Since point P is 30 mm

above HP, the front view of

the point P lies 30 mm above

the XY line. Therefore, mark

p the front view of the

point P, 30 mm above XY line.

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

VP and also the HP on which

the top view is projected will

also lie above the XY line, p

the top view of point P lies 50

mm above XY line.

To project the right view on the

left PP, draw a horizontal

projector through p to intersect

the 45 degree line at m and

through m, draw a vertical

projector to intersect the

horizontal projector drawn

through p at p the right view

of point P.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Steps

1-4

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Example 3:

Draw the three principal views of a

point P lying 40 mm behind VP, 60

mm below HP and 30 mm behind

the right PP.

Solution:

Step 1:

Point P is located in III quadrant.

Since the three planes of projections

lie in between the observer and the

point P, they are assumed as

transparent planes.

Point P is projected on VP, HP, and

right PP.

p front view on VP, p top view

on HP and p right view on right

PP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 2:

After obtaining the

projections on VP,

HP and right PP, the

HP and the right PP

are rotated by 90 so

as to lie in the same

plane as that of VP.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 3:

After rotation, HP

lies above XY line

and the right PP lies

on the right side of

the VP.

For rotating HP,

the direction of

rotation is

maintained same

as in the first

quadrant.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Step 4:

Orthographic

projections

Draw a thin horizontal

XY line and mark HP

and VP on either side

of XY line to indicate the

third quadrant system of

projection.

Draw X1Y1 line to

represent the line of

intersection of VP and

right PP.

Through O draw a 45

degree line for

projecting the profile

view.

DrP.

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S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

the right PP, draw a vertical

projector line at a distance of 30

mm from the X1Y1 line. Since

the point P is 60 mm below HP,

the front view of point P lies 60

mm below XY line. Therefore,

mark p the front view of point

P 60 mm below the XY line.

Since the point P is 40 mm

behind VP and also the HP on

which the top view is projected

lies above the XY line, p the top

view of the point P lies 40 mm

above the XY line.

To project the right view on the

right PP, draw a horizontal

projector through p to intersect

the 45 degree line at m, draw a

vertical projector to intersect the

horizontal projector drawn

through p at p the right view

of point P.

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Steps

1-4

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

Robi

Dr

IITGuwahati

Guwahati

IIT

Example 4: Draw the three principal views of a

point P lying 60 mm

below HP, 50 mm infront of VP and 45 mm infront of the left PP.

Solution:

Steps 1-4

DrP.

P.S.

S.Robi

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Dr

IITGuwahati

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IIT

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