103.165
101.890
101.842
101.692
99.240
97.740
83.740
Design data:
Number of traffic lanes
Carriage way width
Length of abutment
Overall width of deck
Overall span (Excluding expansion gap)
Effective span (C/C of bearings)
Type of superstructure
Width of bearing
Length of bearing
Thickness of bearing
Number of bearings per support
Wearing coat thickness
Thickness of return wall
Materials used
Grade of concrete
Grade of steel
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
M
= Fe415
4 nos
7.5 m
17.20 m
17.2 m
19.96 m
18 m
PSC girder slab
250 mm
400 mm
48 mm
36
5
mm effective thick
Uniform 75 mm
0.5 m
35
TNHW
Design of Abutment
300
103.165
200
1473
180
120
700 x 550
150
101.692
1000
500
1000
1451
99.24
97.74
1750
800
1750
3000
Sl.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Dirt wall
Bracket
(i)
( ii )
Pedestals
Bed block
Abutment stem
Pile cap
Returns
Nos
1
1
0.5
5
1.00
1.000
0.5
1
2
Length
17.2
17.2
17.2
0.15
17.2
17.20
17.2
17.5
1.75
Width
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.55
1.8
0.8
1
4.30
3.925
Depth
1.473
0.18
0.18
0.7
0.3
2.152
1
1.5
0.5
Concrete
(m3)
7.601
0.270
0.090
0.289
9.288
29.612
0.500
112.875
6.869
c.g.fro
Selfwt. (kN) m (X)
182.416
2.4000
6.480
2.6500
2.160
2.6167
6.930
1.2500
222.912
1.6500
710.676
2.15
12.000
1.4167
2709.000
2.15
164.850
3.425
Moment
about 'X'
(kNm)
437.799
17.172
5.652
8.663
367.805
1527.954
17.000
5824.350
564.611
21 )
21
5. Earth pressure (or) Fluid pressure as per clause 217.1 of IRC:6, which ever is more:
As per Columb's Earth pressure theory
sin2(sinsinsqrt.(sinsinsinsin,where
Ka=
sin2(
0.750 ,sinsin
0.9396926
(sinsin
0.383 , sinsin
0.9396926208
ka
=
0.297
90 deg
1.570796327 rad
0 deg
0 rad
TNHW
Design of Abutment
Pressure ordinate
=
Total active earth pressure force=
30 deg
20 deg
0.5235987757 rad
0.3490658504 rad
0.297 x
21
0.5
=
91.876393 kN/m
it acts at
2.2785 m away from X and at an inclination o
Total Horizontal component =
1398.64 k.N
Total Vertical component =
509.062 k.N
Moment at the bottom of pile cap to active earth pressure=
x
x
5.425
33.871 x
20
33.871 k.N/m2
5.425
x
0.42
x
=
3186.792593 k.Nm
Moment abiut 'X' due to vertical component of earth pressure =
509.06 x
2.55
=
1298.1079655 kNm
These forces are compared with the effects due to Fluid pressure.
Fluid pressure =
4.8 k.N/m2
(As per IRC:6)
Base pressure ordinate =
5.425 x
4.8 =
26.04 k.N/m2
Horizontal force=
70.634 k.N/m
Total Horizontal force=
1144.263 k.N
Moment at the base of abutment foundation due to fluid pressure=
1144.2627
x
5.425 /3
=
2069.2084 k.Nm
<
3186.792593 k.Nm
Hence
Earth Pr.
1398.64
5.425
3186.79259 kNm
1.2
5.425
564.39565
564.39565
x
x
x
x
0.297
6.4219793
cos
sin
x
x
20
20
18 =
16.2 =
=
=
6.422
564.4
530.36
193.03
k.N/m2
k.N
k.N
k.N
100
kN
100.000 kN
9.8303
=
10.81333 mm
5.406665 mm
mm
=
0.15018514
0.15018514 N/mm2
=
69.343 k.N
Horizontal load on each support (in longitudinal direction)=
Moment abiut 'X'
=
69.3435 x
4.102 =
TNHW
0.0002925
238
388
/1000
69.343 kN
284.446965 kNm
Design of Abutment
800 mm
17200 mm
3
0.16
1.5
2.5
2.5 for T of
Z x Sa x I /(2 x g x R)
0.12
175.2744 kN
175.2744 x
175.2744 x
3.925 =
5.425 =
687.95202 kNm
950.86362 kNm
182.416 x
21.890 x
21.890 x
0.12 =
3.1885 =
4.6885 =
21.890 kN
69.796 kNm
102.631 kNm
0.12 =
0.7776 x
0.7776 x
0.12 =
0.2592 x
0.2592 x
TNHW
0.2592 kN
0.12 =
0.877 kNm
1.266 kNm
0.832 kN
2.527 =
4.027 =
0.12 =
2.101 kNm
3.349 kNm
26.74944 kN
2.302 =
3.802 =
0.12 =
61.577 kNm
101.701 kNm
85.281 kN
85.281 x
85.281 x
1.076 =
2.576 =
1.44 x
1.44 x
0.12 =
1.8186666667 =
3.3186666667 =
0.12 =
325.08 x
2.749 kNm
3.915 kNm
3.385 =
4.885 =
0.832 x
0.832 x
0.7776 kN
3.535 =
5.035 =
91.763 kNm
219.684 kNm
1.44 kN
2.619 kNm
4.779 kNm
325.08 kN
0.75 =
243.810 kNm
Design of Abutment
0.12 =
19.782 x
19.782 x
19.782 kN
1.9625 =
3.4625 =
38.822 kNm
68.495 kNm
Summary of forces due to abutment system at the bottom of the pile cap:
Total horizontal load due to seismic effects =
482.091 kN
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
749.631 kNm
Summary of forces due to abutment system at the top of the pile cap:
Total horizontal load due to seismic effects =
157.011 kN
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
270.305 kNm
Seismic load due to embankment fill:
Active earth pressure , Pa = h Ca
[(1+v)(Cos2(  )]
Where, Ca =
cos x cos2 x cos(+ + )]
v =Vertical seismic coefficient
tan1(h/(1+v))
1
[1+((sin() x sin ())/(cos() x cos())]1/2
0.06
30
0.113 &
0
0
20
0.12
0.524
0.127
0.000
0.000
0.349
rad
Radians
rad
rad
rad
1.06
0.94
Cos2(  ) =
cos =
cos2 =
cos(+ + ) =
(sin() =
sin ()) =
cos() =
cos() =
Ca =
Hence, the value of
0.840
0.994
1.000
0.895
0.766
0.399
1
0.895
0.399
&
&
0.851
0.992
&
0.889
&
0.386
&
0.889
&
0.365
0.399 is considered
19.324 kN
37.92 kNm
15.764 kN
30.937 kNm
23.686 =
1.9625 =
1398.636 =
2.7125 =
598.052 kN
1622.217 kNm
530.358 =
352.969 kN
TNHW
45.44 kN/m2
Design of Abutment
352.969 x
2.7125 =
957.429 kNm
Stability Analysis:
Presented below are the details of the stability analysis and loads on piles calcu;ations:
Sl.No
Load description
1
2
3
4
5
Axial load
(kN)
1460.62
1539.58
4017.425
2336.7488
HL
e'
(m)
1.25
1.25
2.183
3.425
(kN)

Moment
(kNm)
1825.775
1924.475
8771.006
8003.364
10056.470
12
838.03918
1095.3326
6863.235
12
571.93629
617.30458
TNHW
9286.680
12
773.890
1218.952
+
+
and
4631.28066 =
18
257.29337
580.745812 kN
2098.3381167 kN
12 =
+
+
and
816.629129 =
18
45.3682849
526.568006 kN
1928.995 kN
12 =
+
+
and
174.862 kN
160.750 kN
8011.111 =
18
445.062
328.828 kN
Design of Abutment
3656.725 kN
12 =
304.727 kN
Type of Soil
Value of K1
Loose sand
0.146
Medium sand
0.525
Dense sand
1.245
0.040
K1 =
0.525 kg/cm3
E=
33.000 Gpa or
330000
I=
4908738.52 cm4
T=
314.677
L1/T =
0.000
From Fig.: 2 of IS:2911(partII), for fixed head piles, Lf/T =
Length of fixity Lf =
6.923
Design length of pile =
0.00
+
6.923
(Free length
+
Grip length)
Design length of pile =
6.923 m
For load combination C1:
Design moment =
174.862
x
6.923
kg/cm2
2.2
m
=
/2
6.923 m
605.284 kNm
556.435 kNm
Adopt
2.000 % of steel and 75mm clear cover
Diameter of pile =
1000 mm
For maximum load condition:
Selfweight of pile =
130.495 kN
Maximum load =
1225.828 kN
Moment
=
605.284 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
113.153 kNm
Total design moment =
718.44 kNm
Stress in steel =
120.72 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
9.79 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
711.241 kN
Moment
=
605.284 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
65.653 kNm
Total design moment =
670.94 kNm
Stress in steel =
124.08 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
8.34 N/mm2
For load combination C2:
Design moment =
Adopt
Diameter of pile =
For maximum load condition:
Selfweight of pile =
TNHW
160.750
2.000 % of steel
1000 mm
6.923 /2
and 75mm clear cover
130.495 kN
Design of Abutment
Maximum load =
747.800 kN
Moment
=
556.435 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
69.027 kNm
Total design moment =
625.46 kNm
Stress in steel =
127.3 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
8.62 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
657.063 kN
Moment
=
556.435 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
60.652 kNm
Total design moment =
617.09 kNm
Stress in steel =
113.84 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
7.67 N/mm2
For load combination C3:
Design moment =
304.727
6.923 /2
1054.813 kNm
Adopt
2.000 % of steel and 75mm clear cover
Diameter of pile =
1000 mm
For maximum load condition:
Selfweight of pile =
130.495 kN
Maximum load =
1349.447 kN
Moment
=
1054.813 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
124.563 kNm
Total design moment =
1179.38 kNm
Stress in steel =
208.37 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
14.52 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
459.324 kN
Moment
=
1054.813 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:782000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
42.399 kNm
Total design moment =
1097.21 kNm
Stress in steel =
275.21 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
14.63 N/mm2
Permissible stresses:
cbc
Comb
(N/mm2)
C1
11.6666666667
C2
11.6666666667
C3
17.5
st
(N/mm2)
200
200
300
As the stresses are within the permissible limits, hence the adopted reinforcement is adequate.
Hence, provide 20Y32 bars as mian longitudinal reinforcement.
Design of Pile cap:
Maximumm load on front piles
=
1095.3326 kN
Number of piles in the row =
6 nos
Total load from piles
=
6571.9953 kN
Flexural design
Moment at the face of the abutment stem
=
6571.9953093
x
= 6571.9953093 kNm
Grade of concrete adopted =
M 35
and fe415 steel
cbc =
11.5 N/mm2
Modular ratio considered
st =
200 N/mm2
k
=
0.3650794 ,
j =
0.8783068783 ,
Q =
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Q x b) =
454.83647 mm
Depth provided =
1500 150 25
=
1309 mm
>
454.836466
Hence the provided section is
adequate
BM/st x j x d
Area of Steel required
=
TNHW
10
1.843747375
mm
16
Design of Abutment
=
28581.257 mm2
Area of steel required / m length of pile cap
=
Hence provide
16
1658.8076947 mm2/m
bars @
121 mm c/c
Shear design
As the critical section for shear is at a distance 'd' from the face of the stem, hence the critical section is falling in the
column row line no shear check is required
297.359 /
266.282 =
Moment
(kNm)
2.651
0.450
0.140
6.480
0.000
0.279
0.000
76.428
80.559
74.500
6.580
46.484
3.448
15.407
10.490
124.573
297.359
1.117 m
Reinforcement in the stem shall be designed assuming it as a cantilever member and the same is ckecked for
axial and bending condition.
Design bending moment for cantilever action condition
=
297.359 kNm
Grade of concrete adopted M 35
and fe415 steel
k = 0.3650794 , j =
0.8783069 , Q =
1.84374738
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Q x b) =
401.59613 mm
Depth provided =
800 75 10
=
715 mm
>
401.596128 mm
The adopted section is
adequate
Hence,
OKAY
Area of Steel required
Provide
Y 20
Provide
Y 16
BM/st x j x d =
@
@
2367.544 mm2/m
133 mm c/c On tension face
265 mm c/c On comp. face
2368 mm2/m
758 mm2/m
373.95
kNm
and fe415 steel with 50% of increase in stresses
N/mm2
Modular ratio considered
=
N/mm2
0.878 , Q =
2.766
367.713 mm
75 10
mm
>
367.713 mm
Hence,
OKAY
BM/st x j x d =
10
1984.898 mm2/m
TNHW
Design of Abutment
Aspect ratio =
3.925
/
1.75
=
Hence bending in horiziontal direction governs the design
Design of flexural reinforcement at the top of the pile cap
Earth pressure at the top of pile cap level =
24.50609467
Surcharge pressure =
6.4219793 kN/m2
Total pressure ordinate at the top of pile cap =
30.928073982
Horizontal bending moment
=
47.358613 kNm/m
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Qb)
160.26872 mm
Depth provided =
500
75
=
415 mm
>
160.26872467
Hence the provided section is adequate
BM/st x j x d =
Area of steel required =
649.64275736
Minimum area of steel (0.12%) =
600 mm2/m
Hence area of reinforcement required =
649.64276 mm2/m
Provide
Y 12
@
174 mm c/c
Design of flexural reinforcement at mid height of stem
Earth pressure at mid height of the stem =
12.253047335
Surcharge pressure =
6.4219793 kN/m2
Total pressure ordinate at the top of pile cap =
18.675026648
Horizontal bending moment
=
28.596135 kNm/m
BM/st x j x d =
Area of steel required =
392.26806726
Minimum area of steel (0.12%) =
600 mm2/m
Hence area of reinforcement required =
600 mm2/m
Provide
Y 12
@
189 mm c/c
2.24285714
kN/m2
kN/m2
10
mm
mm2/m
kN/m2
kN/m2
mm2/m
TNHW
1.473