You are on page 1of 10

Design of Abutment

Design of Abutment AB-1


Data:
Road crest level
=
Bottom of deck
=
Bottom of bearing =
(Top of pedastal)
Top of bed block =
Top of pile cap
=
Bottom of pile cap =
Pile termination level =

103.165
101.890
101.842
101.692
99.240
97.740
83.740

Design data:
Number of traffic lanes
Carriage way width
Length of abutment
Overall width of deck
Overall span (Excluding expansion gap)
Effective span (C/C of bearings)
Type of super-structure
Width of bearing
Length of bearing
Thickness of bearing
Number of bearings per support
Wearing coat thickness
Thickness of return wall
Materials used
Grade of concrete
Grade of steel

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
M
= Fe415

4 nos
7.5 m
17.20 m
17.2 m
19.96 m
18 m
PSC girder slab
250 mm
400 mm
48 mm
36
5
mm effective thick
Uniform 75 mm
0.5 m

35

Estimation of forces on abutment:


The following forces are acting on the abutment
1. Dead load of the super-structure system
2. Vehicular live load from super-structure
3. Self-weight of the abutment system
4. Self-weight of soil over burden
5. Earth pressure (or) Fluid pressure as per cl. 217.1 of IRC:6 (Which ever is sever)
6. Live load surcharge pressure
7. Braking force
8. Secondary effects
The abopve listed forces are determined in detail and presented below.
1. Dead load and superimposed dead load from super-structure:
Dead load and Superimposed dead load reaction on abutment is taken from the STAAD analysis results
Total dead load reaction on abutment
=
1460.62 kN
Total reaction on abutment due to FPLL =
0 kN
2. Vehicular live load reaction on abutment:
All the vehicles are kept in such a way that to get maximum reaction on the abutment
a) 70R - Wheeled loading
=
1539.58 kN
For two lane bridges one 70R vehicle or two Class-A vehicle can be allowed
Max of 70R loadinbg =
1539.58 kN
70R-Wheeled loading
Total support reaction for
4 lane =
1539.58 kN

TNHW

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

3. Self-weight of Abutment system:

300

103.165

200
1473

180
120

700 x 550
150

101.692
1000

500

1000

1451

99.24
97.74
1750

800

1750

3000

Self weight of Abutment system:

Sl.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Dirt wall
Bracket
(i)
( ii )
Pedestals
Bed block
Abutment stem
Pile cap
Returns

Nos
1
1
0.5
5
1.00
1.000
0.5
1
2

Length
17.2
17.2
17.2
0.15
17.2
17.20
17.2
17.5
1.75

Width
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.55
1.8
0.8
1
4.30
3.925

Depth
1.473
0.18
0.18
0.7
0.3
2.152
1
1.5
0.5

Concrete
(m3)
7.601
0.270
0.090
0.289
9.288
29.612
0.500
112.875
6.869

c.g.fro
Self-wt. (kN) m (X)
182.416
2.4000
6.480
2.6500
2.160
2.6167
6.930
1.2500
222.912
1.6500
710.676
2.15
12.000
1.4167
2709.000
2.15
164.850
3.425

4. Self-weight of soil overburden:


Load due uo soil overburden over the heel slab =
(Assume unit weight of soil =
1.75
x
3.925 x
16.2 x
=
2336.7488 kN
Moment about 'X'
= 2336.7488 x
3.425 =
8003.36447 kNm

Moment
about 'X'
(kNm)
437.799
17.172
5.652
8.663
367.805
1527.954
17.000
5824.350
564.611

21 )
21

5. Earth pressure (or) Fluid pressure as per clause 217.1 of IRC:6, which ever is more:
As per Columb's Earth pressure theory
sin2(sinsinsqrt.(sinsinsinsin,where
Ka=
sin2(
0.750 ,sinsin
0.9396926
(sinsin
0.383 , sinsin
0.9396926208
ka
=
0.297

90 deg
1.570796327 rad

0 deg
0 rad

TNHW

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Pressure ordinate
=
Total active earth pressure force=

30 deg
20 deg

0.5235987757 rad
0.3490658504 rad

0.297 x

21
0.5
=
91.876393 kN/m
it acts at
2.2785 m away from X and at an inclination o
Total Horizontal component =
1398.64 k.N
Total Vertical component =
509.062 k.N
Moment at the bottom of pile cap to active earth pressure=

x
x

5.425
33.871 x

20

33.871 k.N/m2
5.425

deg with horizontal as shown in Fig.

x
0.42
x
=
3186.792593 k.Nm
Moment abiut 'X' due to vertical component of earth pressure =
509.06 x
2.55
=
1298.1079655 kNm
These forces are compared with the effects due to Fluid pressure.
Fluid pressure =
4.8 k.N/m2
(As per IRC:6)
Base pressure ordinate =
5.425 x
4.8 =
26.04 k.N/m2
Horizontal force=
70.634 k.N/m
Total Horizontal force=
1144.263 k.N
Moment at the base of abutment foundation due to fluid pressure=
1144.2627
x
5.425 /3
=
2069.2084 k.Nm
<
3186.792593 k.Nm
Hence

Earth Pr.

1398.64

is considered in the abutment design. =

5.425

3186.79259 kNm

Live Load Surcharge:


Clause 217.3 of IRC:6 states that if adequate length of approach slab is provided, no live load surcharge need to be considered.
However,Cl.714.4 of IRC:78 states thata live load surcharge equivalent to 1.2 m height of backfill shall be considered in the
design. Hence the same is considered.
Lateral pressure =
Total lateral load =
Horizontal component =
And, vertical component =

1.2
5.425
564.39565
564.39565

x
x
x
x

0.297
6.4219793
cos
sin

x
x
20
20

18 =
16.2 =
=
=

6.422
564.4
530.36
193.03

k.N/m2
k.N
k.N
k.N

Braking Force Calculations


Total Live load on the span =
1000 kN
Braking force = 20% of R, i.e.
200
and acts at 1.20m above RCL
Bearing level is RL(+)
101.890
Neglecting the extra vertical load on abutment due to eccentricity of braking force
Horizontal load on each support =
200
/2=
Horizontal load on each support (in longitudinal direction)=
Secondary effects
Secondary effects are due to temperature and shrinkage.
Refer Clause no. 218 and 220.3 of IRC:6-1966
Shrinkage strain =
0.0002
Coefficient of thermal expansion=
0.0000117
Maximum temperature variation =
25 deg.
Temperature strain =
0.0000117
x
25
Total strain =
4.93E-04
Total change in the length of the longitudinal girder
=
0.0004925
x
19960 =
Design change in length =
1.1
x
9.8303
Change in length effective per support =
10.81333 /2=
Effective depth of elastomer bearing =
36 mm
Plan size of the bearing =
250
x
400
Shear strain in bearing =
5.406665
/
36
As shear modulus of bearing material =
1 N/mm2
Shear stress in bearing =
0.1501851 x
1
Total number of bearings =
5
Induced shear force at the bottom of bearing =
0.1501851

100
kN
100.000 kN

9.8303
=

10.81333 mm
5.406665 mm

mm
=

0.15018514

0.15018514 N/mm2

=
69.343 k.N
Horizontal load on each support (in longitudinal direction)=
Moment abiut 'X'
=
69.3435 x
4.102 =

TNHW

0.0002925

238

388

/1000

69.343 kN
284.446965 kNm

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Seismic load calculations:


Road crest level =
103.165
Top of pile cap level =
99.240
Height of the abutment above pile cap =
3.925 m
Thickness of the abutment =
0.8 m
(or)
Length of abutment =
17.20 m
(or)
Moment if inertia of the abutment stem =
7.34E+11 mm4
Grade of concrete =
M 35
Youngs modulus of concrete =
31500 N/mm2

800 mm
17200 mm

Diflection of tip = PL3/3EI


The horizontal load required to produce 1mm deflection =
1146911.711 N
OR =
1146.912 kN
Dead load reaction from the super structure =
1460.62 kN
Live load reaction from the super structure =
1539.58 kN
Total load =
3000.2 kN
Fundamental time period (T) = 2 x sqrt(D/100xF) =
0.324 sec
Zone no =
Zone factor (Z) =
Importance factor (I) =
Reduction factor (R) =
Sa/g =

3
0.16
1.5
2.5
2.5 for T of

0.324 sec and for medium soils

Horizontal seismic coefficient =

Z x Sa x I /(2 x g x R)

Design horizontal seismic coefficient

Force due to dead load


=
Moment at the top of the pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
Force due to Abutment System:
Dirt wall
=
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
Braket
Rectangular portion =
6.480 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
Triangilar portion =
2.160 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
Load due to pedestals =
6.930 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =

0.12
175.2744 kN
175.2744 x
175.2744 x

3.925 =
5.425 =

687.95202 kNm
950.86362 kNm

182.416 x
21.890 x
21.890 x

0.12 =
3.1885 =
4.6885 =

21.890 kN
69.796 kNm
102.631 kNm

0.12 =
0.7776 x
0.7776 x
0.12 =
0.2592 x
0.2592 x

Load due to pile cap =


2709.000 x
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =

TNHW

0.2592 kN

0.12 =

0.877 kNm
1.266 kNm
0.832 kN

2.527 =
4.027 =
0.12 =

2.101 kNm
3.349 kNm
26.74944 kN

2.302 =
3.802 =

0.12 =

61.577 kNm
101.701 kNm

85.281 kN

85.281 x
85.281 x

1.076 =
2.576 =

1.44 x
1.44 x

0.12 =
1.8186666667 =
3.3186666667 =
0.12 =

325.08 x

2.749 kNm
3.915 kNm

3.385 =
4.885 =

0.832 x
0.832 x

Load due to bed block =


222.912 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
26.74944 x
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
26.74944 x
Abutment stem:
Uniform thick portion =
710.676 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
Top haunch portion =
12.000 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =

0.7776 kN
3.535 =
5.035 =

91.763 kNm
219.684 kNm
1.44 kN
2.619 kNm
4.779 kNm
325.08 kN

0.75 =

243.810 kNm

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Load due to return walls =


164.850 x
Moment at the top of pile cap =
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =

0.12 =
19.782 x
19.782 x

19.782 kN
1.9625 =
3.4625 =

38.822 kNm
68.495 kNm

Summary of forces due to abutment system at the bottom of the pile cap:
Total horizontal load due to seismic effects =
482.091 kN
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
749.631 kNm
Summary of forces due to abutment system at the top of the pile cap:
Total horizontal load due to seismic effects =
157.011 kN
Moment at the bottom of the pile cap =
270.305 kNm
Seismic load due to embankment fill:
Active earth pressure , Pa = h Ca
[(1+v)(Cos2( - -)]
Where, Ca =
cos x cos2 x cos(+ + )]
v =Vertical seismic coefficient

Angle of internal friction of soil

tan-1(h/(1+v))

Angle of earth face of the wall with vertical


=
Slope of earth fill

Angle of friction between wall and soil


h =
Horizontal seismic coefficient
=
v
v

1
[1+((sin() x sin ())/(cos() x cos())]1/2

0.06
30
0.113 &
0
0
20
0.12

0.524
0.127
0.000
0.000
0.349

rad
Radians
rad
rad
rad

1.06
0.94

Cos2( - -) =
cos =
cos2 =
cos(+ + ) =
(sin() =
sin ()) =
cos() =
cos() =
Ca =
Hence, the value of

0.840
0.994
1.000
0.895
0.766
0.399
1
0.895
0.399

&
&

0.851
0.992

&

0.889

&

0.386

&

0.889

&
0.365
0.399 is considered

Load calculations at the top of pile cap level/ unit length


Active earth pressure at the bottom of pile cap level =
32.875 kN/m2
Horizontal load =
64.517 kN
Additional horizontal load =
64.517 45.193 =
Moment due to extra load =
19.324 x
1.9625 =

19.324 kN
37.92 kNm

Seismic load calculations due to live load surcharge:


Pressure ordinate =
10.051 kN/m2
Horizontal load =
39.450 kN
Additional horizontal load =
39.450
Moment due to extra load =
15.764
x

15.764 kN
30.937 kNm

23.686 =
1.9625 =

Summary of seismic load at the top of pile cap:


Total horizontal load =
54.407 kN
Total moment due to seismic effects =
124.573 kNm
Load calculations at the bottom of pile cap level
Active earth pressure at the bottom of pile cap level =
Horizontal load =
1996.69 kN
Additional horizontal load =
1996.69 Moment due to extra load =
598.052 x

1398.636 =
2.7125 =

598.052 kN
1622.217 kNm

Seismic load calculations due to live load surcharge:


Pressure ordinate =
10.051 kN/m2
Horizontal load =
883.33 kN
Additional horizontal load =
883.33 -

530.358 =

352.969 kN

TNHW

45.44 kN/m2

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Moment due to extra load =

352.969 x

2.7125 =

957.429 kNm

Summary of seismic load at the bottom of th pile cap:


Total horizontal load =
1608.387 kN
Total moment due to seismic effects =
4280.141 kNm

Stability Analysis:
Presented below are the details of the stability analysis and loads on piles calcu;ations:
Sl.No

Load description
1
2
3
4
5

Axial load
(kN)
1460.62
1539.58
4017.425
2336.7488

HL

e'
(m)
1.25
1.25
2.183
3.425

(kN)
-

Moment
(kNm)
1825.775
1924.475
8771.006
8003.364

Dead load of Super-structure system


Vehicular live load
Self - weight of abutment system
Overburden soil load (on heel slab)
Earth pressure/Fluid pressure
1 Horizontal
1398.636
2.2785
3186.793
2 Vertical
509.06195
2.55
1298.108
6 Surcharge live load
1 Horizontal
530.358
2.7125
1438.597
2 Vertical
193.03468
2.55
492.238
7 Braking force
100.000
4.150
415.000
8 Secondary effects
69.343
4.102
284.447
9 Seismic effects
1608.387
4280.141
Total forces and moments
10056.47
2098.338
16990.130
Following load combinations were studied:
C1 =
DL+FPLL+VLL+self-weight+Overburden soil+Earth pressure+ Surchage load+Braking+Secondary effects
C2 =
Dislodge condition
C3 =
C1 + 50% of Live load + Seismic load
Horizontal
Comb.
Axial load
Load
ML
'e'
C1
10056.470
2098.338 16990.130
0.461
C2
6863.235
1928.995 13939.327
0.119
C3
9286.680
3656.725 11955.252
0.863
Piles and pile cap data:
diameter of piles
1000 mm
Number of rows of piles along bridge direction
=
2 spacing at
3.00 m
Number of rows in transverse direction
=
6 spacing at
3.19 m
Size of pile cap =
17.230
x
4.3
x
1.500
Grade of concrete for piles= M 35
Number of piles (n) =
12 nos.
ZL
=
18 m3
For load combination C1:
Maximum and minimum load on piles =

Maximum/minimum load on piles =

10056.470
12
838.03918
1095.3326

Total horizontal load at the bottom of pile cap level=


Horizontal load/pile
=
2098.3381 /
For load combination C2:
Maximum and minimum load on piles =

Maximum/minimum load on piles =

6863.235
12
571.93629
617.30458

Total horizontal load at the bottom of pile cap level=


Horizontal load/pile
=
1928.9946 /
For load combination C3:
Maximum and minimum load on piles =

Maximum/minimum load on piles =

TNHW

9286.680
12
773.890
1218.952

+
+
and

4631.28066 =
18
257.29337
580.745812 kN

2098.3381167 kN
12 =

+
+
and

816.629129 =
18
45.3682849
526.568006 kN

1928.995 kN
12 =

+
+
and

174.862 kN

160.750 kN

8011.111 =
18
445.062
328.828 kN

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Total horizontal load at the bottom of pile cap level=


Horizontal load/pile
=
3656.7253 /

3656.725 kN
12 =

304.727 kN

Flexural Design of Piles:


Design scour level =
99.240
Bott. of pile cap level =
97.740
Grade of concrete for piles = M
35
Fixity depth calculations are done as per 2911(part-II)
Medium sand
Type of soil
2
T = (EI/k1)0.2
Where
E = Youngs modulus of pile material in kg/cm 2
I = Moment of Inertia of pile cross section in cm 4
K1 = Constant depends on soil type in kg/cm 3
As per IS:2911(part-II) values of constants K1 for submerged condition is
SL.NO

Type of Soil

Value of K1

Loose sand

0.146

Medium sand

0.525

Dense sand

1.245

Very loose sand

0.040

K1 =
0.525 kg/cm3
E=
33.000 Gpa or
330000
I=
4908738.52 cm4
T=
314.677
L1/T =
0.000
From Fig.: 2 of IS:2911(part-II), for fixed head piles, Lf/T =
Length of fixity Lf =
6.923
Design length of pile =
0.00
+
6.923
(Free length
+
Grip length)
Design length of pile =
6.923 m
For load combination C1:
Design moment =
174.862
x
6.923

kg/cm2

2.2
m
=

/2

6.923 m

605.284 kNm

556.435 kNm

Adopt
2.000 % of steel and 75mm clear cover
Diameter of pile =
1000 mm
For maximum load condition:
Self-weight of pile =
130.495 kN
Maximum load =
1225.828 kN
Moment
=
605.284 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
113.153 kNm
Total design moment =
718.44 kNm
Stress in steel =
120.72 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
9.79 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
711.241 kN
Moment
=
605.284 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
65.653 kNm
Total design moment =
670.94 kNm
Stress in steel =
124.08 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
8.34 N/mm2
For load combination C2:
Design moment =
Adopt
Diameter of pile =
For maximum load condition:
Self-weight of pile =

TNHW

160.750

2.000 % of steel
1000 mm

6.923 /2
and 75mm clear cover

130.495 kN

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Maximum load =
747.800 kN
Moment
=
556.435 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
69.027 kNm
Total design moment =
625.46 kNm
Stress in steel =
127.3 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
8.62 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
657.063 kN
Moment
=
556.435 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
60.652 kNm
Total design moment =
617.09 kNm
Stress in steel =
113.84 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
7.67 N/mm2
For load combination C3:
Design moment =

304.727

6.923 /2

1054.813 kNm

Adopt
2.000 % of steel and 75mm clear cover
Diameter of pile =
1000 mm
For maximum load condition:
Self-weight of pile =
130.495 kN
Maximum load =
1349.447 kN
Moment
=
1054.813 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
124.563 kNm
Total design moment =
1179.38 kNm
Stress in steel =
208.37 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
14.52 N/mm2
For minimum load condition:
Axial load =
459.324 kN
Moment
=
1054.813 kNm
As per cl. 709.1.5.2 of IRC:78-2000, 1 in 150 tilt shall be permitted
Extra moment due to the tilt =
42.399 kNm
Total design moment =
1097.21 kNm
Stress in steel =
275.21 N/mm2
Stress in concrete =
14.63 N/mm2
Permissible stresses:
cbc
Comb
(N/mm2)
C1
11.6666666667
C2
11.6666666667
C3
17.5

st
(N/mm2)
200
200
300

As the stresses are within the permissible limits, hence the adopted reinforcement is adequate.
Hence, provide 20-Y32 bars as mian longitudinal reinforcement.
Design of Pile cap:
Maximumm load on front piles
=
1095.3326 kN
Number of piles in the row =
6 nos
Total load from piles
=
6571.9953 kN
Flexural design
Moment at the face of the abutment stem
=
6571.9953093
x
= 6571.9953093 kNm
Grade of concrete adopted =
M 35
and fe415 steel
cbc =
11.5 N/mm2
Modular ratio considered
st =
200 N/mm2
k
=
0.3650794 ,
j =
0.8783068783 ,
Q =
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Q x b) =
454.83647 mm
Depth provided =
1500 150 25
=
1309 mm
>
454.836466
Hence the provided section is
adequate
BM/st x j x d
Area of Steel required
=

TNHW

10

1.843747375
mm

16

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

=
28581.257 mm2
Area of steel required / m length of pile cap
=
Hence provide

16

1658.8076947 mm2/m
bars @

121 mm c/c

Shear design
As the critical section for shear is at a distance 'd' from the face of the stem, hence the critical section is falling in the
column row line no shear check is required

Design of abutment stem at the top of the pile cap level:


Presented below are the details of forces and moments at the top of the pile cap level/unit length:
HL
Load
'e'
Sl.no.
Item description
(kN)
(kN)
(m)
1 Load due to self weight of stem
1. Dirt wall
10.606
0.250
2. Bracket
i)
0.900
0.500
ii)
0.300
0.467
4. Bed block
1
12.960
-0.500
5. Stem
i)
41.318
0.000
ii)
0.698
-0.400
iii)
0.000
-0.733
2 Dead load from super-structure
84.920
-0.900
3 Live load from super-structure
89.510
-0.900
(including of foot path live load)
4 Earth pressure/Fluid pressure
i) Horizontal
45.193
-1.649
ii)Vertical
16.449
0.400
5 Surcharge pressure
i) Horizontal
23.686
-1.963
ii)Vertical
8.621
0.400
6 Braking force
5.814
-2.650
7 Secondary effects
4.032
-2.602
8 Seismic effects
54.407
Total load
266.282
78.725
Eccentricity 'e' =

297.359 /

266.282 =

Moment
(kNm)
2.651
0.450
0.140
-6.480
0.000
-0.279
0.000
-76.428
-80.559

-74.500
6.580
-46.484
3.448
-15.407
-10.490
-124.573
-297.359

1.117 m

Reinforcement in the stem shall be designed assuming it as a cantilever member and the same is ckecked for
axial and bending condition.
Design bending moment for cantilever action condition
=
297.359 kNm
Grade of concrete adopted M 35
and fe415 steel
k = 0.3650794 , j =
0.8783069 , Q =
1.84374738
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Q x b) =
401.59613 mm
Depth provided =
800 75 10
=
715 mm
>
401.596128 mm
The adopted section is
adequate
Hence,
OKAY
Area of Steel required
Provide
Y 20
Provide
Y 16

BM/st x j x d =
@
@

Checking the design for Seismic load combination:


Design bending moment =
Grade of concrete adopted M 35
cbc =
17.25
st =
300
k=
0.3651 , j =
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Q x b) =
Depth provided =
800 =
715
The adopted section is
adequate
Area of Steel required

2367.544 mm2/m
133 mm c/c On tension face
265 mm c/c On comp. face

2368 mm2/m
758 mm2/m

373.95
kNm
and fe415 steel with 50% of increase in stresses
N/mm2
Modular ratio considered
=
N/mm2
0.878 , Q =
2.766
367.713 mm
75 10
mm
>
367.713 mm
Hence,
OKAY

BM/st x j x d =

10

1984.898 mm2/m

Design of return walls:

TNHW

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,

Design of Abutment

Aspect ratio =
3.925
/
1.75
=
Hence bending in horiziontal direction governs the design
Design of flexural reinforcement at the top of the pile cap
Earth pressure at the top of pile cap level =
24.50609467
Surcharge pressure =
6.4219793 kN/m2
Total pressure ordinate at the top of pile cap =
30.928073982
Horizontal bending moment
=
47.358613 kNm/m
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Qb)
160.26872 mm
Depth provided =
500
75
=
415 mm
>
160.26872467
Hence the provided section is adequate
BM/st x j x d =
Area of steel required =
649.64275736
Minimum area of steel (0.12%) =
600 mm2/m
Hence area of reinforcement required =
649.64276 mm2/m
Provide
Y 12
@
174 mm c/c
Design of flexural reinforcement at mid height of stem
Earth pressure at mid height of the stem =
12.253047335
Surcharge pressure =
6.4219793 kN/m2
Total pressure ordinate at the top of pile cap =
18.675026648
Horizontal bending moment
=
28.596135 kNm/m
BM/st x j x d =
Area of steel required =
392.26806726
Minimum area of steel (0.12%) =
600 mm2/m
Hence area of reinforcement required =
600 mm2/m
Provide
Y 12
@
189 mm c/c

2.24285714

kN/m2
kN/m2

10
mm
mm2/m

kN/m2
kN/m2
mm2/m

Design of Dirt wall:


Height of the dirt wall
=
1.473 m
Earth pressure at the bottom of the dirt wall =
9.1968095409 kN/m2
Neglecting the vertical component of the load to be on conservative side
Horizontal load on the wall/m length of the wall =
6.7734502269 kN/m
Moment at the bottom of the dirt wall =
6.7734502 x
0.42 x
= 4.1904627 kNm/m
Surcharge pressure on the wall
=
6.4219793 kN/m2
Surcharge load on the dirt wall
=
9.4595755 kN/m
Moment at the bottom of the dirt wall =
9.4595755 x 0.5 x
1.473
= 6.9669774 kNm/m
Total design moment at the bottom of the dirt wall=
11.157440094 kNm/m
For M 35
grade concrete and fe415 steel
k = 0.3650794 , j =
0.8783069 , and Q =
1.84374738
Depth required = Sqrt(BM/Qb) =
77.791398 mm
Depth provided =
300
75
8
=
217 mm
>
77.7913976 mm
Provided depth is graterthan the required depth
the section is adequate
Area of steel reqiured
= BM/st x j x d =
292.70392783 mm2/m
Minimum area of steel (0.12%)
=
360 mm2/m
2
mm
/m
Hence the required steel =
360
Provide
Y 12
dia bars
@
314 mm c/c

TNHW

1.473

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt. Ltd.,