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EXPERIMENT 1 CALORIMETRY

M. M. VELASQUEZ
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, COLLEGE OF HOME ECONOMICS
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: AUGUST 15, 2014
INSTRUCTORS NAME: IRINA DIANE CASTAOS

INTRODUCTION
Chemical reactions are
accompanied by the change in
the chemical energy of a system.
The most common form of this
energy change appears as heat.
The determination of the energy
change associated with chemical
reactions can be done using an
experimental technique called
calorimetry. The technique is
based on observing the
temperature change when a
system absorbs or releases
energy in the form of heat. The
experiment is carried out in a
device called a calorimeter, in
which the temperature change of
a known amount of substance
(often water) of known specific
heat is measured. This
temperature change is caused by
the absorption (endothermic
reaction) or release (exothermic
reaction) of heat.
There are two types of
calorimetry: constant-volume
calorimetry and constantpressure calorimetry. The
constant-volume calorimetry is
often carried out in a bomb
calorimeter, a device used to
measure the heat of combustion
reactions. For processes that take
place at constant pressure, the
heat is measured in a coffee-cup
calorimeter. This apparatus is
commonly used to find the heat
of an aqueous reaction. In the
experiment, processes are carried
out in the latter. The set-up is
solely made up of styrofoam for
an isolated system, a 6" test tube
for the mixed reactants, cork

stopper and thermometer for


measurement of temperature
change. The setup is treated as
an isolated system. As an
adiabatic system, the first law of
thermodynamics (Law of
Conservation of Energy) applies,
qrxn = -qcal
(1)
That is, the heat of the
reaction (qrxn) is the quantity of
heat that the system would have
to lose to its surroundings to be
restored to its initial temperature
when the reaction occurs at
constant temperature. In turn, qrxn
is just the negative of the energy
gained by the calorimeter, qcal.
The heat measured from a
heat process conducted under
constant pressure is known as
enthalpy, H. It is known to be
the heat change for a reaction,
qrxn corresponding to moles of the
limiting reagent, nLR .

H rxn=
Where

q rxn
n LR

(2)

q rxn=C cal T (3)


The sign of the H and qrxn
will dictate whether the reaction
is an exothermic ( -, negative
values) or endothermic ( +,
positive values).
The first part of the
experiment includes the
calibration of the calorimeter
setup. This is to determine the
heat capacity of the calorimeter,
Ccal which can be done by adding
a known amount of heat and
measuring the rise in
temperature of the calorimeter
and of the solution it contains.

Using the known enthalpy for the


reaction of a strong base and a
strong acid
H+ (aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) Ho = -55.85
kJ/mol
(4)

and the recorded change in


temperature, T, the heat
capacity of the calorimeter can be
obtained.

cal = H rxn n LR

T
C

(5)

The determination of
for various reactions are
included in the experiment.
Equation 2 can be used in the
calculations. However, note that
equation 2 is only for reactions
with no solid reactants or
products formed (homogenous
systems). For heterogeneous
systems, with solid reactants and
products formed, the equation
below can be used.

H rxn

the water will be considered as


the surroundings. The solid is
weighed, heated to a certain
temperature, and added to a
known mass and temperature of
water in the calorimeter. After,
the final water temperature is
measured, which is also the final
temperature of the solid.
Assuming no heat escapes the
calorimeter, the heat is released
by the system (-qsystem or -qmetal ) is
in equal magnitude but opposite
in sign to the heat absorbed by
the surroundings ( +qsurroundings or
+qH2O).
-qmetal = qH2O (6)
Having
q=mcT
(7)
gives
-(mmetal cmetal Tmetal ) =
mH O c H O T H O
(8)
Thus, using equation 8,
cmetal can be calculated:
2

Cmetal =
(5)
where

mx s solid reactant =mass of excess


'

solid reactant
c x s solid reactant =specific heat of
excess solid reactan
mx s solid product =mass of excess
solid product
c x s solid product =specific heat of
excess solid product
The calorimeter can also be
used to find the specific heat of a
solid, as long as it does not react
with or dissolve in water. The
solid will act as the system and
'

'

c H O mH O T H
mmetal T metal
2

(8)

In general, the experiment


aims (1) to recall the use of
calorimeter from the experiment
done on the previous General
Chemistry course, (2) to
determine the enthalpy of
reaction through calorimetry and
(3) to determine the specific heat
of a metal and to assess its purity
by using the results obtained.

'

REFERENCES
[1]