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Original Title: Operational Amplifier

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You are on page 1of 84

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor

biasing and coupling capacitors.

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor

biasing and coupling capacitors.

* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be

expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor

biasing and coupling capacitors.

* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be

expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.

* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in

sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor

biasing and coupling capacitors.

* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be

expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.

* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in

sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)

* The user can generally carry out circuit design without a thorough knowledge of

the intricate details (next slide) of an Op Amp. This makes the design process

simple.

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be

used for realizing several electronic circuits.

* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor

biasing and coupling capacitors.

* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be

expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.

* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in

sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)

* The user can generally carry out circuit design without a thorough knowledge of

the intricate details (next slide) of an Op Amp. This makes the design process

simple.

* However, as Einstein has said, we should make everything as simple as possible,

but not simpler. need to know where the ideal world ends, and the real one

begins.

Op Amp 741

Actual circuit

VCC

Q8

Q12

Q13

Q14

Q9

Q15

R6

+

Q2

Q1

Symbol

R7

Q19

R5

CC

Q3

Q18

OUT

OUT

R10

Q4

VCC

Q21

VEE

Q20

Q23

Q7

Q16

Q10

Q5

Q6

Q17

R9

Q11

R4

R8

R1

R3

R2

Q22

Q24

VEE

offset adjust

VCC

OUT

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

VCC

OUT

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and

much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly

affecting the analysis.

VCC

OUT

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and

much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly

affecting the analysis.

* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work

without them!

VCC

OUT

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and

much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly

affecting the analysis.

* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work

without them!

In Op Amp circuits, the supply voltages are often not shown explicitly.

VCC

Ro

Vi

OUT

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and

much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly

affecting the analysis.

* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work

without them!

In Op Amp circuits, the supply voltages are often not shown explicitly.

Parameter

Ideal Op Amp

741

AV

Ri

Ro

2 M

75

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

VCC

Ro

Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

10

0

5

slope = AV

Vsat

0.1

0

Vi (mV)

0.1

0

5

10

0.2

saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

0.2

linear

saturation

10

0

Vi (V)

VCC

Ro

Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

10

saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

5

0

5

slope = AV

Vsat

10

0.2

0.1

0

Vi (mV)

0.1

0.2

linear

saturation

10

0

Vi (V)

* The output voltage Vo is limited to Vsat , where Vsat 1.5 V less than VCC .

VCC

Ro

Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

10

saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

5

0

5

slope = AV

Vsat

10

0.2

0.1

0

Vi (mV)

0.1

0.2

linear

saturation

10

0

Vi (V)

* The output voltage Vo is limited to Vsat , where Vsat 1.5 V less than VCC .

* For Vsat < Vo < Vsat , Vi = V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small

V+ and V are virtually the same.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Ro

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

- Op Amp operating in the saturation region

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

- Op Amp operating in the saturation region

* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region

depends on

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

VEE

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

- Op Amp operating in the saturation region

* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region

depends on

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

- Op Amp operating in the saturation region

* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region

depends on

- type of feedback (negative or positive)

(We will take a qualitative look at feedback later.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

VCC

VEE

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0

5

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

VCC

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0

5

VEE

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small

V+ V

VCC

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0

5

VEE

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small

V+ V

* Since Ri is typically much larger than other resistances in the circuit,

we can assume Ri .

iin 0

VCC

Ro

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0

5

VEE

linear

saturation

Vsat

10

0

Vi (V)

* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small

V+ V

* Since Ri is typically much larger than other resistances in the circuit,

we can assume Ri .

iin 0

These two golden rules enable us to understand several Op Amp circuits.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

R2

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Vi

R2

R2 =

Vi .

Vo = V i1 R2 = 0

R1

R1

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Vi

R2

R2 =

Vi .

Vo = V i1 R2 = 0

R1

R1

The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Vi

R2

R2 =

Vi .

Vo = V i1 R2 = 0

R1

R1

The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.

Where does the current go?

R2

i1

Vi

R1

ii

R2

i1

Vi

Vo

R1

ii

RL

Vo

RL

(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at

virtual ground.)

Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Vi

R2

R2 =

Vi .

Vo = V i1 R2 = 0

R1

R1

The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.

Where does the current go?

f = 1 kHz

1k

Vi

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo

0

Vi

5

0

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

f = 1 kHz

1k

Vi

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo

0

Vi

5

0

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain

(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).

f = 1 kHz

1k

Vi

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo

0

Vi

5

0

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain

(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).

* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !

f = 1 kHz

1k

Vi

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo

0

Vi

5

0

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain

(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).

* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !

* For the common-emitter amplifier, on the other hand, the gain gm (RC k RL )

depends on how the BJT is biased (since gm depends on IC ).

5

10 k

f = 1 kHz

1k

Vi

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 0.5 V

Vi

5

0

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain

(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).

* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !

* For the common-emitter amplifier, on the other hand, the gain gm (RC k RL )

depends on how the BJT is biased (since gm depends on IC ).

(SEQUEL file: ee101 inv amp 1.sqproj)

1k

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz

Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo

0

15

0

Vi

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

1k

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz

Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo

0

15

0

Vi

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

1k

R2

R1

Vo

RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz

Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo

0

15

0

Vi

0.5

1

t (msec)

1.5

* Vsat is 1.5 V less than the supply voltage VCC .

10

10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo

0

Vi

RL

10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

10

10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo

0

Vi

RL

10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the

input due to its slew rate limitation.

10

10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo

0

Vi

RL

10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the

input due to its slew rate limitation.

* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output

can rise (or fall).

10

10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo

0

Vi

RL

10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the

input due to its slew rate limitation.

* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output

can rise (or fall).

* For the 741, the slew rate is 0.5 V /sec.

10

10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo

0

Vi

RL

10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the

input due to its slew rate limitation.

* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output

can rise (or fall).

* For the 741, the slew rate is 0.5 V /sec.

(SEQUEL file: ee101 inv amp 2.sqproj)

R2

Vi

R2

Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo

RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

interchanged?

R2

Vi

R2

Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo

RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

interchanged?

R2

Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =

Vi .

R1

R2

Vi

R2

Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo

RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

interchanged?

R2

Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =

Vi .

R1

However, from Circuit 1 to Circuit 2, the nature of the feedback changes from

negative to positive.

Our assumption that the Op Amp is working in the linear region does not hold for

R2

Circuit 2, and Vo =

Vi does not apply any more.

R1

R2

Vi

R2

Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo

RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

interchanged?

R2

Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =

Vi .

R1

However, from Circuit 1 to Circuit 2, the nature of the feedback changes from

negative to positive.

Our assumption that the Op Amp is working in the linear region does not hold for

R2

Circuit 2, and Vo =

Vi does not apply any more.

R1

(Circuit 2 is also useful, and we will discuss it later.)

R2

i1

R1

Vi

Vo

RL

* V+ V = Vi

R2

i1

R1

Vi

Vo

RL

* V+ V = Vi

i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

R2

i1

R1

Vi

Vo

RL

* V+ V = Vi

i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi

R2

* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi

R2 = Vi 1 +

.

R1

R1

R2

i1

R1

Vi

Vo

RL

* V+ V = Vi

i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi

R2

* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi

R2 = Vi 1 +

.

R1

R1

* This circuit is known as the non-inverting amplifier.

R2

i1

R1

Vi

Vo

RL

* V+ V = Vi

i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi

R2

* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi

R2 = Vi 1 +

.

R1

R1

* This circuit is known as the non-inverting amplifier.

* Again, interchanging + and changes the nature of the feedback from negative

to positive, and the circuit operation becomes completely different.

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2

Vs

Vs

R1

Vo =

RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1

Vi

R2

Vs

R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier

R2

R2

Ro

R1

R1

Vs

Vo = 1 +

RL

R2

R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be

preferred?

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2

Vs

Vs

R1

Vo =

RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1

Vi

R2

Vs

R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier

R2

R2

Ro

R1

R1

Vs

Vo = 1 +

RL

R2

R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be

preferred?

* For the inverting amplifier, since V 0 V , i1 = Vs /R1 Rin = Vs /i1 = R1 .

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2

Vs

Vs

R1

Vo =

RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1

Vi

R2

Vs

R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier

R2

R2

Ro

R1

R1

Vs

Vo = 1 +

RL

R2

R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be

preferred?

* For the inverting amplifier, since V 0 V , i1 = Vs /R1 Rin = Vs /i1 = R1 .

* For the non-inverting amplifier, Rin Ri of the Op Amp, which is a few M.

Non-inverting amplifier is better if a large Rin is required.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Non-inverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vo

Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .

Non-inverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vo

Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .

Vo

R2

1+

1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .

Vi

R1

Non-inverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vo

Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .

Vo

R2

1+

1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .

Vi

R1

This circuit is known as unity-gain amplifier/voltage follower/buffer.

Non-inverting amplifier

R2

R1

Vo

Vo

Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .

Vo

R2

1+

1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .

Vi

R1

This circuit is known as unity-gain amplifier/voltage follower/buffer.

What has been achieved?

Loading effects

Ro

Rs

Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Loading effects

Ro

Rs

Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

However, the actual output voltage is,

Vo =

RL

RL

Ri

AV Vi = AV

Vs .

Ro + RL

Ro + RL

Ri + Rs

Loading effects

Ro

Rs

Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

However, the actual output voltage is,

Vo =

RL

RL

Ri

AV Vi = AV

Vs .

Ro + RL

Ro + RL

Ri + Rs

Loading effects

Ro

Rs

Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

However, the actual output voltage is,

Vo =

RL

RL

Ri

AV Vi = AV

Vs .

Ro + RL

Ro + RL

Ri + Rs

The buffer (voltage follower) provides this feature (next slide).

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo

RL

Ro

RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B

Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is

large) the buffer has a large input resistance.

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo

RL

Ro

RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B

Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is

large) the buffer has a large input resistance.

* As we have seen earlier, AV is large Vi 0 V VA = VB = Vs .

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo

RL

Ro

RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B

Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is

large) the buffer has a large input resistance.

* As we have seen earlier, AV is large Vi 0 V VA = VB = Vs .

* The resistance seen by RL is R 0 Ro , which is small the buffer has a small

output resistance. (To find R 0 , deactivate the input voltage source (Vs )

AV Vi = 0 V .)

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer

Vi

i2

buffer

RL

load

Ri

AV Vi

source

amplifier

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer

Vi

i2

buffer

RL

load

Ri

AV Vi

source

amplifier

and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer

Vi

i2

buffer

RL

load

Ri

AV Vi

source

amplifier

and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .

Similarly, i2 0 A, and Vo2 = AV Vs .

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer

Vi

i2

buffer

RL

load

Ri

AV Vi

source

amplifier

and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .

Similarly, i2 0 A, and Vo2 = AV Vs .

Finally, Vo = Vo2 = AV Vs , as desired, irresepective of RS and RL .

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

i = i1 + i2 + i3 =

+

+

.

R1

R2

R3

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

i = i1 + i2 + i3 =

+

+

.

R1

R2

R3

Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

i = i1 + i2 + i3 =

+

+

.

R1

R2

R3

Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

Rf

Rf

Rf

V o = V if Rf = 0

+

+

Rf =

Vi1 +

Vi2 +

Vi3 ,

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

i.e., Vo is a weighted sum of Vi1 , Vi2 , Vi3 .

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3 i3

Rf

R2 i2

R1 i1

if

ii

Vo

RL

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

i = i1 + i2 + i3 =

+

+

.

R1

R2

R3

Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

Vi1

Vi2

Vi3

Rf

Rf

Rf

V o = V if Rf = 0

+

+

Rf =

Vi1 +

Vi2 +

Vi3 ,

R1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

i.e., Vo is a weighted sum of Vi1 , Vi2 , Vi3 .

If R1 = R2 = R3 = R , the circuit acts as a summer, giving

Vo = K (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 ) with K = Rf /R .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Summer example

1.2

Vi1

0.6

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3

Rf

R 2 i2

R 1 i1

if

Vi2

ii

Vo

RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k

Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )

SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3

0

2

t (msec)

Summer example

1.2

Vi1

0.6

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3

Rf

R 2 i2

R 1 i1

if

Vi2

ii

Vo

RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k

Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )

SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3

0

2

t (msec)

* Note that the summer also works with DC inputs. This is true about the

inverting and non-inverting amplifiers as well.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Summer example

1.2

Vi1

0.6

Vi3

Vi2

Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3

Rf

R 2 i2

R 1 i1

if

Vi2

ii

Vo

RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k

Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )

SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3

0

2

t (msec)

* Note that the summer also works with DC inputs. This is true about the

inverting and non-inverting amplifiers as well.

* Op Amps make life simpler! Think of adding voltages in any other way.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

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