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EE101: Op Amp circuits (Part 1)

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in
www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.
* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor
biasing and coupling capacitors.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.
* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor
biasing and coupling capacitors.
* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be
expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.
* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor
biasing and coupling capacitors.
* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be
expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.
* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in
sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.
* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor
biasing and coupling capacitors.
* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be
expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.
* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in
sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)
* The user can generally carry out circuit design without a thorough knowledge of
the intricate details (next slide) of an Op Amp. This makes the design process
simple.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amps: introduction

* The Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block that can be
used for realizing several electronic circuits.
* The use of Op Amps frees the user from cumbersome details such as transistor
biasing and coupling capacitors.
* The characteristics of an Op Amp are nearly ideal Op Amp circuits can be
expected to perform as per theoretical design in most cases.
* Amplifiers built with Op Amps work with DC input voltages as well useful in
sensor applications (e.g., temperature, pressure)
* The user can generally carry out circuit design without a thorough knowledge of
the intricate details (next slide) of an Op Amp. This makes the design process
simple.
* However, as Einstein has said, we should make everything as simple as possible,
but not simpler. need to know where the ideal world ends, and the real one
begins.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp 741
Actual circuit
VCC

Q8
Q12

Q13

Q14

Q9
Q15
R6
+

Q2

Q1

Symbol

R7

Q19
R5

CC
Q3

Q18

OUT

OUT

R10

Q4

VCC

Q21

VEE

Q20

Q23

Q7
Q16
Q10

Q5

Q6

Q17
R9

Q11
R4

R8
R1

R3

R2

Q22
Q24

VEE

offset adjust

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit

VCC
OUT

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit

VCC
OUT

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and
much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly
affecting the analysis.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit

VCC
OUT

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and
much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly
affecting the analysis.
* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work
without them!

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit

VCC
OUT

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and
much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly
affecting the analysis.
* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work
without them!
In Op Amp circuits, the supply voltages are often not shown explicitly.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit

VCC

Ro
Vi

OUT

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vi

AV Vi

Vo

VEE

* The external resistances ( a few k) are generally much larger than Ro and
much smaller than Ri we can assume Ri , Ro 0 without significantly
affecting the analysis.
* VCC and VEE ( 5 V to 15 V ) must be supplied; an Op Amp will not work
without them!
In Op Amp circuits, the supply voltages are often not shown explicitly.

Parameter

Ideal Op Amp

741

AV
Ri
Ro

105 (100 dB)


2 M
75
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit


VCC

Ro
Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation
Vsat

10

10

0
5

slope = AV
Vsat

0.1

0
Vi (mV)

0.1

0
5

10

0.2

saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

0.2

linear
saturation

10

0
Vi (V)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit


VCC

Ro
Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation
Vsat

10

10
saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

5
0
5

slope = AV
Vsat

10

0.2

0.1

0
Vi (mV)

0.1

0.2

linear
saturation

10

0
Vi (V)

* The output voltage Vo is limited to Vsat , where Vsat 1.5 V less than VCC .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp: equivalent circuit


VCC

Ro
Vi

OUT

Ri

Vi

Vo

AV Vi

Vo

AV Vi

VEE

saturation

linear

saturation
Vsat

10

10
saturation

Vo (V)

Vo (V)

5
0
5

slope = AV
Vsat

10

0.2

0.1

0
Vi (mV)

0.1

0.2

linear
saturation

10

0
Vi (V)

* The output voltage Vo is limited to Vsat , where Vsat 1.5 V less than VCC .
* For Vsat < Vo < Vsat , Vi = V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small
V+ and V are virtually the same.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Ro

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

- Op Amp operating in the linear region

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

- Op Amp operating in the linear region


- Op Amp operating in the saturation region

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

- Op Amp operating in the linear region


- Op Amp operating in the saturation region
* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region
depends on

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

VEE

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

- Op Amp operating in the linear region


- Op Amp operating in the saturation region
* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region
depends on

- input voltage magnitude

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits

Vsat

10

VCC

Ro

VEE

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

saturation

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

* Broadly, Op Amp circuits can be divided into two categories:

- Op Amp operating in the linear region


- Op Amp operating in the saturation region
* Whether an Op Amp in a given circuit will operate in linear or saturation region
depends on

- input voltage magnitude


- type of feedback (negative or positive)
(We will take a qualitative look at feedback later.)
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

VCC

VEE

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0
5

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

VCC

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0
5

VEE

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

In the linear region,


* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small
V+ V

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

VCC

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0
5

VEE

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

In the linear region,


* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small
V+ V
* Since Ri is typically much larger than other resistances in the circuit,
we can assume Ri .
iin 0

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

VCC

Ro
Vi

Ri

AV Vi

saturation

Vo

Vo (V)

OUT

Vsat

10

iin

0
5

VEE

linear
saturation

Vsat

10

0
Vi (V)

In the linear region,


* V+ V = Vo /AV , which is very small
V+ V
* Since Ri is typically much larger than other resistances in the circuit,
we can assume Ri .
iin 0
These two golden rules enable us to understand several Op Amp circuits.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .


Vi
R2
R2 =
Vi .
Vo = V i1 R2 = 0
R1
R1

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .


Vi
R2
R2 =
Vi .
Vo = V i1 R2 = 0
R1
R1
The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .


Vi
R2
R2 =
Vi .
Vo = V i1 R2 = 0
R1
R1
The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.
Where does the current go?

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
Vi

R1

ii

R2

i1
Vi
Vo

R1

ii

RL

Vo
RL

Since V+ V , V 0 V i1 = (Vi 0)/R = Vi /R .


(The non-inverting input is at real ground here, and the inverting input is at
virtual ground.)
Since ii (current entering the Op Amp) is zero, i1 goes through R2 .


Vi
R2
R2 =
Vi .
Vo = V i1 R2 = 0
R1
R1
The circuit is called an inverting amplifier.
Where does the current go?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

f = 1 kHz
1k

Vi

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo
0

Vi

5
0

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

f = 1 kHz
1k

Vi

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo
0

Vi

5
0

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain
(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

f = 1 kHz
1k

Vi

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo
0

Vi

5
0

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain
(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).
* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

f = 1 kHz
1k

Vi

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

10 k

Vm = 0.5 V

Vo
0

Vi

5
0

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain
(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).
* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !
* For the common-emitter amplifier, on the other hand, the gain gm (RC k RL )
depends on how the BJT is biased (since gm depends on IC ).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

5
10 k

f = 1 kHz
1k

Vi

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 0.5 V

Vi

5
0

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The gain of the inverting amplifier is R2 /R1 . It is called the closed-loop gain
(to distinguish it from the open-loop gain of the Op Amp which is 105 ).
* The gain can be adjusted simply by changing R1 or R2 !
* For the common-emitter amplifier, on the other hand, the gain gm (RC k RL )
depends on how the BJT is biased (since gm depends on IC ).
(SEQUEL file: ee101 inv amp 1.sqproj)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

1k

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz
Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo
0

15
0

Vi

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

1k

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz
Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo
0

15
0

Vi

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The output voltage is limited to Vsat .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

1k

R2

R1
Vo
RL

Vi , Vo (Volts)

f = 1 kHz
Vi

15

10 k

Vm = 2 V

Vo
0

15
0

Vi

0.5

1
t (msec)

1.5

* The output voltage is limited to Vsat .


* Vsat is 1.5 V less than the supply voltage VCC .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

10
10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1
Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo
0

Vi

RL
10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

10
10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1
Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo
0

Vi

RL
10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the
input due to its slew rate limitation.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

10
10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1
Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo
0

Vi

RL
10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the
input due to its slew rate limitation.
* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output
can rise (or fall).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

10
10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1
Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo
0

Vi

RL
10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the
input due to its slew rate limitation.
* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output
can rise (or fall).
* For the 741, the slew rate is 0.5 V /sec.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

10
10 k

f = 25 kHz

R2

1k

Vi

Vo (expected)

R1
Vo

Vi , Vo (Volts)

Vm = 1 V

Vo
0

Vi

RL
10

20

40

t (sec)

60

80

* If the signal frequency is too high, a practical Op Amp cannot keep up with the
input due to its slew rate limitation.
* The slew rate of an Op Amp is the maximum rate at which the Op Amp output
can rise (or fall).
* For the 741, the slew rate is 0.5 V /sec.
(SEQUEL file: ee101 inv amp 2.sqproj)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

R2
Vi

R2
Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo
RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

What if the + (non-inverting) and (inverting) inputs of the Op Amp are


interchanged?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

R2
Vi

R2
Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo
RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

What if the + (non-inverting) and (inverting) inputs of the Op Amp are


interchanged?
R2
Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =
Vi .
R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

R2
Vi

R2
Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo
RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

What if the + (non-inverting) and (inverting) inputs of the Op Amp are


interchanged?
R2
Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =
Vi .
R1
However, from Circuit 1 to Circuit 2, the nature of the feedback changes from
negative to positive.
Our assumption that the Op Amp is working in the linear region does not hold for
R2
Circuit 2, and Vo =
Vi does not apply any more.
R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits: inverting amplifier

R2
Vi

R2
Vi

R1

R1

Vo

Vo
RL

RL

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

What if the + (non-inverting) and (inverting) inputs of the Op Amp are


interchanged?
R2
Our previous analysis would once again give us Vo =
Vi .
R1
However, from Circuit 1 to Circuit 2, the nature of the feedback changes from
negative to positive.
Our assumption that the Op Amp is working in the linear region does not hold for
R2
Circuit 2, and Vo =
Vi does not apply any more.
R1
(Circuit 2 is also useful, and we will discuss it later.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
R1
Vi

Vo
RL

* V+ V = Vi

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
R1
Vi

Vo
RL

* V+ V = Vi
i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
R1
Vi

Vo
RL

* V+ V = Vi
i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi
R2
* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi
R2 = Vi 1 +
.
R1
R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
R1
Vi

Vo
RL

* V+ V = Vi
i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi
R2
* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi
R2 = Vi 1 +
.
R1
R1
* This circuit is known as the non-inverting amplifier.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)

R2

i1
R1
Vi

Vo
RL

* V+ V = Vi
i1 = (0 Vi )/R1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi
R2
* Vo = V+ i1 R2 = Vi
R2 = Vi 1 +
.
R1
R1
* This circuit is known as the non-inverting amplifier.
* Again, interchanging + and changes the nature of the feedback from negative
to positive, and the circuit operation becomes completely different.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2
Vs

Vs

R1
Vo =
RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1
Vi

R2
Vs
R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier
R2

R2

Ro

R1
R1
Vs

Vo = 1 +
RL

R2
R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be
preferred?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2
Vs

Vs

R1
Vo =
RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1
Vi

R2
Vs
R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier
R2

R2

Ro

R1
R1
Vs

Vo = 1 +
RL

R2
R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be
preferred?
* For the inverting amplifier, since V 0 V , i1 = Vs /R1 Rin = Vs /i1 = R1 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting or non-inverting?

R2
Vs

Vs

R1
Vo =
RL

R2

i1

Ro

R1
Vi

R2
Vs
R1

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Vo

RL

Inverting amplifier
R2

R2

Ro

R1
R1
Vs

Vo = 1 +
RL

R2
R1

Vi

Vs

Ri

AV Vi

Vs

Noninverting amplifier

* If the sign of the output voltage is not a concern, which configuration should be
preferred?
* For the inverting amplifier, since V 0 V , i1 = Vs /R1 Rin = Vs /i1 = R1 .
* For the non-inverting amplifier, Rin Ri of the Op Amp, which is a few M.
Non-inverting amplifier is better if a large Rin is required.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Non-inverting amplifier

R2
R1

Vo

Vo
Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Non-inverting amplifier

R2
R1

Vo

Vo
Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .
Vo
R2
1+
1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .
Vi
R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Non-inverting amplifier

R2
R1

Vo

Vo
Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .
Vo
R2
1+
1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .
Vi
R1
This circuit is known as unity-gain amplifier/voltage follower/buffer.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Non-inverting amplifier

R2
R1

Vo

Vo
Vi

RL

Vi

RL

Consider R1 , R2 0 .
Vo
R2
1+
1 , i.e., Vo = Vi .
Vi
R1
This circuit is known as unity-gain amplifier/voltage follower/buffer.
What has been achieved?

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Loading effects

Ro

Rs
Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Consider an amplifier of gain AV . We would like to have Vo = AV Vs .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Loading effects

Ro

Rs
Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Consider an amplifier of gain AV . We would like to have Vo = AV Vs .


However, the actual output voltage is,
Vo =

RL
RL
Ri
AV Vi = AV

Vs .
Ro + RL
Ro + RL
Ri + Rs

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Loading effects

Ro

Rs
Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Consider an amplifier of gain AV . We would like to have Vo = AV Vs .


However, the actual output voltage is,
Vo =

RL
RL
Ri
AV Vi = AV

Vs .
Ro + RL
Ro + RL
Ri + Rs

To obtain the desired Vo , we need Ri and Ro 0 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Loading effects

Ro

Rs
Vs

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

RL

Consider an amplifier of gain AV . We would like to have Vo = AV Vs .


However, the actual output voltage is,
Vo =

RL
RL
Ri
AV Vi = AV

Vs .
Ro + RL
Ro + RL
Ri + Rs

To obtain the desired Vo , we need Ri and Ro 0 .


The buffer (voltage follower) provides this feature (next slide).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo
RL

Ro
RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B
Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is
large) the buffer has a large input resistance.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo
RL

Ro
RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B
Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is
large) the buffer has a large input resistance.
* As we have seen earlier, AV is large Vi 0 V VA = VB = Vs .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vs

Vi

Vo
RL

Ro
RL

Ri

AV Vi

Vo

B
Vs

Op Amp

* The current drawn from the source (Vs ) is small (since Ri of the Op Amp is
large) the buffer has a large input resistance.
* As we have seen earlier, AV is large Vi 0 V VA = VB = Vs .
* The resistance seen by RL is R 0 Ro , which is small the buffer has a small
output resistance. (To find R 0 , deactivate the input voltage source (Vs )
AV Vi = 0 V .)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer
Vi

i2

buffer

RL
load

Ri

AV Vi

source
amplifier

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer
Vi

i2

buffer

RL
load

Ri

AV Vi

source
amplifier

Since the buffer has a large input resistance, i1 0 A,


and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer
Vi

i2

buffer

RL
load

Ri

AV Vi

source
amplifier

Since the buffer has a large input resistance, i1 0 A,


and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .
Similarly, i2 0 A, and Vo2 = AV Vs .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp buffer

Vo1

Vs

i1

Vo

Vo2

Rs

Ro

buffer
Vi

i2

buffer

RL
load

Ri

AV Vi

source
amplifier

Since the buffer has a large input resistance, i1 0 A,


and V+ (on the source side) = Vs Vo1 = Vs .
Similarly, i2 0 A, and Vo2 = AV Vs .
Finally, Vo = Vo2 = AV Vs , as desired, irresepective of RS and RL .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi1 /R1 , i1 = Vi2 /R2 , i1 = Vi3 /R3 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi1 /R1 , i1 = Vi2 /R2 , i1 = Vi3 /R3 .

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
i = i1 + i2 + i3 =
+
+
.
R1
R2
R3

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi1 /R1 , i1 = Vi2 /R2 , i1 = Vi3 /R3 .

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
i = i1 + i2 + i3 =
+
+
.
R1
R2
R3
Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi1 /R1 , i1 = Vi2 /R2 , i1 = Vi3 /R3 .

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
i = i1 + i2 + i3 =
+
+
.
R1
R2
R3
Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
Rf
Rf
Rf
V o = V if Rf = 0
+
+
Rf =
Vi1 +
Vi2 +
Vi3 ,
R1
R2
R3
R1
R2
R3
i.e., Vo is a weighted sum of Vi1 , Vi2 , Vi3 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Op Amp circuits (linear region)


Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3 i3
Rf

R2 i2
R1 i1

if

ii

Vo
RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi1 /R1 , i1 = Vi2 /R2 , i1 = Vi3 /R3 .

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
i = i1 + i2 + i3 =
+
+
.
R1
R2
R3
Because of the large input resistance of the Op Amp, ii 0 if = i, which gives,

Vi1
Vi2
Vi3
Rf
Rf
Rf
V o = V if Rf = 0
+
+
Rf =
Vi1 +
Vi2 +
Vi3 ,
R1
R2
R3
R1
R2
R3
i.e., Vo is a weighted sum of Vi1 , Vi2 , Vi3 .
If R1 = R2 = R3 = R , the circuit acts as a summer, giving
Vo = K (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 ) with K = Rf /R .
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Summer example
1.2

Vi1
0.6

Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3
Rf

R 2 i2
R 1 i1

if

Vi2
ii

Vo
RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k
Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )
SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3
0

2
t (msec)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Summer example
1.2

Vi1
0.6

Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3
Rf

R 2 i2
R 1 i1

if

Vi2
ii

Vo
RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k
Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )
SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3
0

2
t (msec)

* Note that the summer also works with DC inputs. This is true about the
inverting and non-inverting amplifiers as well.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Summer example
1.2

Vi1
0.6

Vi3
Vi2
Vi1

R3

Vi3

i3
Rf

R 2 i2
R 1 i1

if

Vi2
ii

Vo
RL

R1 = R2 = R3 = 1 k

0.6

Vo

Rf = 2 k
Vo = 2 (Vi1 + Vi2 + Vi3 )
SEQUEL file: ee101_summer.sqproj

3
0

2
t (msec)

* Note that the summer also works with DC inputs. This is true about the
inverting and non-inverting amplifiers as well.
* Op Amps make life simpler! Think of adding voltages in any other way.
M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay