Operational Amplifier

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EE101 Operational Amplifier

Operational Amplifier

© All Rights Reserved

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M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~sequel

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

The bridge converts R to a signal voltage which can then be suitably amplified and used for

display or control.

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

The bridge converts R to a signal voltage which can then be suitably amplified and used for

display or control.

Assuming that the amplifier has a large input resistance,

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

The bridge converts R to a signal voltage which can then be suitably amplified and used for

display or control.

Assuming that the amplifier has a large input resistance,

v1 =

R

1

VCC = VCC .

R +R

2

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

The bridge converts R to a signal voltage which can then be suitably amplified and used for

display or control.

Assuming that the amplifier has a large input resistance,

v1 =

R

1

VCC = VCC .

R +R

2

v2 =

(R + R)

1 1+x

1

1

VCC =

VCC (1 + x) (1 x/2) VCC = (1 + x/2) VCC ,

R + (R + R)

2 1 + x/2

2

2

where x = R/R .

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

Rd = R + R varies with the quantity to be measured. Typically, R is a small fraction of R.

The bridge converts R to a signal voltage which can then be suitably amplified and used for

display or control.

Assuming that the amplifier has a large input resistance,

v1 =

R

1

VCC = VCC .

R +R

2

v2 =

(R + R)

1 1+x

1

1

VCC =

VCC (1 + x) (1 x/2) VCC = (1 + x/2) VCC ,

R + (R + R)

2 1 + x/2

2

2

where x = R/R .

For example, with VCC = 15 V , R = 1 k, R = 0.01 k ,

v1 = 7.5 V ,

v2 = 7.5 + 0.0375 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

The amplifier should only amplify v2 v1 = 0.0375 V (since that is the signal arising from R).

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

The amplifier should only amplify v2 v1 = 0.0375 V (since that is the signal arising from R).

Definitions:

Given v1 and v2 ,

1

vc = (v1 + v2 ) = common-mode voltage,

2

vd = (v2 v1 ) = differential-mode voltage.

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

The amplifier should only amplify v2 v1 = 0.0375 V (since that is the signal arising from R).

Definitions:

Given v1 and v2 ,

1

vc = (v1 + v2 ) = common-mode voltage,

2

vd = (v2 v1 ) = differential-mode voltage.

v1 and v2 can be rewritten as,

v1 = vc vd /2 , v2 = vc + vd /2 .

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

The amplifier should only amplify v2 v1 = 0.0375 V (since that is the signal arising from R).

Definitions:

Given v1 and v2 ,

1

vc = (v1 + v2 ) = common-mode voltage,

2

vd = (v2 v1 ) = differential-mode voltage.

v1 and v2 can be rewritten as,

v1 = vc vd /2 , v2 = vc + vd /2 .

In the above example, vc 7.5 V , vd = 37.5 mV .

VCC

Ra

Rc

v1

Amplifier

v2

Rb

Vo

Rd

The amplifier should only amplify v2 v1 = 0.0375 V (since that is the signal arising from R).

Definitions:

Given v1 and v2 ,

1

vc = (v1 + v2 ) = common-mode voltage,

2

vd = (v2 v1 ) = differential-mode voltage.

v1 and v2 can be rewritten as,

v1 = vc vd /2 , v2 = vc + vd /2 .

In the above example, vc 7.5 V , vd = 37.5 mV .

Note that the common-mode voltage is quite large compared to the differential-mode voltage.

This is a common situation in transducer circuits.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

v+

Amplifier

vo

v+ = vc + vd /2

v = vc vd /2

vo = Ad (v+ v ) = Ad vd ,

where Ad is called the differential gain or simply the gain (AV ).

v+

Amplifier

vo

v+ = vc + vd /2

v = vc vd /2

vo = Ad (v+ v ) = Ad vd ,

where Ad is called the differential gain or simply the gain (AV ).

In practice, the output can also have a common-mode component:

vo = Ad vd + Ac vc ,

where Ac is called the common-mode gain.

v+

Amplifier

vo

v+ = vc + vd /2

v = vc vd /2

vo = Ad (v+ v ) = Ad vd ,

where Ad is called the differential gain or simply the gain (AV ).

In practice, the output can also have a common-mode component:

vo = Ad vd + Ac vc ,

where Ac is called the common-mode gain.

The ability of an amplifier to reject the common-mode signal is given by the

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):

CMRR =

Ad

.

Ac

v+

Amplifier

vo

v+ = vc + vd /2

v = vc vd /2

vo = Ad (v+ v ) = Ad vd ,

where Ad is called the differential gain or simply the gain (AV ).

In practice, the output can also have a common-mode component:

vo = Ad vd + Ac vc ,

where Ac is called the common-mode gain.

The ability of an amplifier to reject the common-mode signal is given by the

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR):

Ad

.

Ac

For the 741 Op Amp, the CMRR is 90 dB (' 30,000), which may be considered to be infinite in

CMRR =

many applications. In such cases, mismatch between circuit components will determine the overall

common-mode rejection performance of the circuit.

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

Method 1:

Large input resistance of Op Amp i+ = 0, V+ =

R4

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

Method 1:

Large input resistance of Op Amp i+ = 0, V+ =

Since V+ V 0, i1 =

R4

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

1

1

(Vi1 V )

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

R1

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

Method 1:

Large input resistance of Op Amp i+ = 0, V+ =

R4

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

1

1

(Vi1 V )

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

R1

R2

i1 R2 V+

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

Since V+ V 0, i1 =

i 0 V o = V

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

Method 1:

Large input resistance of Op Amp i+ = 0, V+ =

R4

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

1

1

(Vi1 V )

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

R1

R2

i1 R2 V+

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

Since V+ V 0, i1 =

i 0 V o = V

Vo =

R2

(Vi2 Vi1 ) .

R1

R2

i1

Vi1

Vi2

R1

i

i+

Vo

R3

RL

R4

Method 1:

Large input resistance of Op Amp i+ = 0, V+ =

R4

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

1

1

(Vi1 V )

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

R1

R2

i1 R2 V+

(Vi1 V+ ) .

R1

Since V+ V 0, i1 =

i 0 V o = V

R2

(Vi2 Vi1 ) .

R1

The circuit is a difference amplifier.

Vo =

Difference amplifier

R2

Vi1

Vi2

R2

Vi1

R1

R1

Vo

R3

RL

R2

Vo1

R3

R4

RL

R1

AND

Vi2

R4

Case 1

Vo2

R3

RL

R4

Case 2

Method 2:

Since the Op Amp is operating in the linear region, we can use superposition:

Difference amplifier

R2

Vi1

Vi2

R2

Vi1

R1

R1

Vo

R3

RL

R2

Vo1

R3

R4

RL

R1

AND

Vi2

R4

Case 1

Vo2

R3

RL

R4

Case 2

Method 2:

Since the Op Amp is operating in the linear region, we can use superposition:

Case 1:

R2

Vi1 .

Vo1 =

R1

Difference amplifier

R2

Vi1

Vi2

R2

Vi1

R1

R2

R1

Vo

R3

RL

Vo1

R3

R4

RL

R1

AND

Vi2

R4

Case 1

Vo2

R3

RL

R4

Case 2

Method 2:

Since the Op Amp is operating in the linear region, we can use superposition:

Case 1:

Case 2:

R2

Vi1 .

Vo1 =

R1

R4

Non-inverting amplifier, with Vi =

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

R2

R4

Vo2 = 1 +

Vi2 .

R1

R3 + R4

Difference amplifier

R2

Vi1

Vi2

R2

Vi1

R1

R2

R1

Vo

R3

Vo1

R3

RL

R4

RL

R1

AND

Vi2

R4

Case 1

Vo2

R3

RL

R4

Case 2

Method 2:

Since the Op Amp is operating in the linear region, we can use superposition:

Case 1:

Case 2:

R2

Vi1 .

Vo1 =

R1

R4

Non-inverting amplifier, with Vi =

Vi2 .

R3 + R4

R2

R4

Vo2 = 1 +

Vi2 .

R1

R3 + R4

Vo = Vo1 + Vo2 =

1+

R2

R1

R4

R3 + R4

Vi2

R2

R2

Vi1 =

(Vi2 Vi1 ) , if R3 /R4 = R1 /R2 .

R1

R1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Difference amplifier

1k

1k

Ra

Rc

v1

10 k

R2

1 k R1

v2

Vo

Rb

1k

VCC

Rd

1k

1 k R3

RL

R4

10 k

Bridge

Difference amplifier

Difference amplifier

1k

1k

Ra

Rc

v1

10 k

R2

1 k R1

v2

Vo

Rb

1k

VCC

Rd

1k

1 k R3

RL

R4

10 k

Bridge

Difference amplifier

The resistance seen from v2 is (R3 + R4 ) which is small enough to cause v2 to change.

This is not desirable.

Difference amplifier

1k

1k

Ra

Rc

v1

10 k

R2

1 k R1

v2

Vo

Rb

1k

VCC

Rd

1k

1 k R3

RL

R4

10 k

Bridge

Difference amplifier

The resistance seen from v2 is (R3 + R4 ) which is small enough to cause v2 to change.

This is not desirable.

need to improve the input resistance of the difference amplifier.

Difference amplifier

1k

1k

Ra

Rc

v1

10 k

R2

1 k R1

v2

Vo

Rb

1k

VCC

Rd

1k

1 k R3

RL

R4

10 k

Bridge

Difference amplifier

The resistance seen from v2 is (R3 + R4 ) which is small enough to cause v2 to change.

This is not desirable.

need to improve the input resistance of the difference amplifier.

We will discuss an improved difference amplifier later. Before we do that, let us

discuss another problem with the above difference amplifier which can be important

for some applications (next slide).

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

(vi2 vi1 ) .

R1

The output voltage depends only on the differential-mode signal (vi2 vi1 ),

i.e., Ac (common-mode gain) = 0.

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

(vi2 vi1 ) .

R1

The output voltage depends only on the differential-mode signal (vi2 vi1 ),

i.e., Ac (common-mode gain) = 0.

In practice, R3 and R1 may not be exactly equal. Let R3 = R1 + R .

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

(vi2 vi1 ) .

R1

The output voltage depends only on the differential-mode signal (vi2 vi1 ),

i.e., Ac (common-mode gain) = 0.

In practice, R3 and R1 may not be exactly equal. Let R3 = R1 + R .

R2

R2

R2

vo =

1+

vi2

vi1

R1 + R + R2

R1

R1

R2

R

'

(vd x vc ) , with x =

(show this)

R1

R1 + R2

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

(vi2 vi1 ) .

R1

The output voltage depends only on the differential-mode signal (vi2 vi1 ),

i.e., Ac (common-mode gain) = 0.

In practice, R3 and R1 may not be exactly equal. Let R3 = R1 + R .

R2

R2

R2

vo =

1+

vi2

vi1

R1 + R + R2

R1

R1

R2

R

'

(vd x vc ) , with x =

(show this)

R1

R1 + R2

R2

R2

|Ac | = x

|Ad | =

, since x 0.01 (with 1% tolerance resistors).

R1

R1

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

(vi2 vi1 ) .

R1

i.e., Ac (common-mode gain) = 0.

In practice, R3 and R1 may not be exactly equal. Let R3 = R1 + R .

R2

R2

R2

vo =

1+

vi2

vi1

R1 + R + R2

R1

R1

R2

R

'

(vd x vc ) , with x =

(show this)

R1

R1 + R2

R2

R2

|Ac | = x

|Ad | =

, since x 0.01 (with 1% tolerance resistors).

R1

R1

However, since vc can be large compared to vd , the effect of Ac cannot be ignored.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

|Ac | = x

R2

R2

R

, |Ad | =

, where x =

.

R1

R1

R1 + R2

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

R2

R

, |Ad | =

, where x =

.

R1

R1

R1 + R2

In our earlier example, vc = 7.5 V vd = 0.0375 V .

|Ac | = x

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

R2

R

, |Ad | =

, where x =

.

R1

R1

R1 + R2

In our earlier example, vc = 7.5 V vd = 0.0375 V .

|Ac | = x

With R1 = 1 k, R2 = 10 k, x = 0.01 ,

|Ac vc | = x

R2

vc = 0.01 10 7.5 = 0.75 V .

R1

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

R2

R

, |Ad | =

, where x =

.

R1

R1

R1 + R2

In our earlier example, vc = 7.5 V vd = 0.0375 V .

|Ac | = x

With R1 = 1 k, R2 = 10 k, x = 0.01 ,

R2

vc = 0.01 10 7.5 = 0.75 V .

R1

R2

|Ad vd | =

vd = 10 0.0375 = 0.375 V .

R1

|Ac vc | = x

Difference amplifier

R2

vi1

vi2

R1

vo

vi1 = vc vd /2

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

R3 = R1

R4 = R2

R2

R

, |Ad | =

, where x =

.

R1

R1

R1 + R2

In our earlier example, vc = 7.5 V vd = 0.0375 V .

|Ac | = x

With R1 = 1 k, R2 = 10 k, x = 0.01 ,

R2

vc = 0.01 10 7.5 = 0.75 V .

R1

R2

|Ad vd | =

vd = 10 0.0375 = 0.375 V .

R1

|Ac vc | = x

need a circuit which will reduce the common-mode component at the output.

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Large input resistance of A1 and A2 the current through the two resistors marked R2 is also

equal to i1 .

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Large input resistance of A1 and A2 the current through the two resistors marked R2 is also

equal to i1 .

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Large input resistance of A1 and A2 the current through the two resistors marked R2 is also

equal to i1 .

1

2 R2

Vo1 Vo2 = i1 (R1 + 2 R2 ) =

(Vi1 Vi2 ) (R1 + 2 R2 ) = (Vi1 Vi2 ) 1 +

.

R1

R1

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Large input resistance of A1 and A2 the current through the two resistors marked R2 is also

equal to i1 .

1

2 R2

Vo1 Vo2 = i1 (R1 + 2 R2 ) =

(Vi1 Vi2 ) (R1 + 2 R2 ) = (Vi1 Vi2 ) 1 +

.

R1

R1

R4

R4

2 R2

Finally, Vo =

(Vo2 Vo1 ) =

1+

(Vi2 Vi1 ) .

R3

R3

R1

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

Vi1

A1

i1

R2

R4

R3

A3

R1

Vo

B

Vi2

Vo1

A2

RL

R3

R2

R4

Vo2

1

(Vi1 Vi2 ) .

R1

Large input resistance of A1 and A2 the current through the two resistors marked R2 is also

equal to i1 .

1

2 R2

Vo1 Vo2 = i1 (R1 + 2 R2 ) =

(Vi1 Vi2 ) (R1 + 2 R2 ) = (Vi1 Vi2 ) 1 +

.

R1

R1

R4

R4

2 R2

Finally, Vo =

(Vo2 Vo1 ) =

1+

(Vi2 Vi1 ) .

R3

R3

R1

V+ V VA = Vi1 , VB = Vi2 , i1 =

Instrumentation amplifier

Vi1

A1

Vo1

R4

R1

i1

R2

A3

R3

Vo

R2

R3

RL

R4

Vi2

A2

Vo2

Instrumentation amplifier

Vi1

A1

Vo1

R4

R1

i1

R2

A3

R3

Vo

R2

R3

RL

R4

Vi2

A2

Vo2

The input resistance seen from Vi1 or Vi2 is large (since an Op Amp has a large input

resistance).

Instrumentation amplifier

Vi1

A1

Vo1

R4

R1

i1

R2

A3

R3

Vo

R2

R3

RL

R4

Vi2

A2

Vo2

The input resistance seen from Vi1 or Vi2 is large (since an Op Amp has a large input

resistance).

the amplifier will not load the preceding stage, a desirable feature.

Instrumentation amplifier

Vi1

A1

VCC

Ra

R1

i1

v2

Rb

R4

Rc

v1

Vo1

R2

Vo

R2

R3

Rd

A3

R3

RL

R4

Vi2

A2

Vo2

The input resistance seen from Vi1 or Vi2 is large (since an Op Amp has a large input

resistance).

the amplifier will not load the preceding stage, a desirable feature.

Instrumentation amplifier

Vi1

A1

VCC

Ra

R1

i1

v2

Rb

R4

Rc

v1

Vo1

R2

Vo

R2

R3

Rd

A3

R3

RL

R4

Vi2

A2

Vo2

The input resistance seen from Vi1 or Vi2 is large (since an Op Amp has a large input

resistance).

the amplifier will not load the preceding stage, a desirable feature.

As a result, the voltages v1 and v2 in the bridge circuit will remain essentially the same

when the bridge circuit is connected to the instrumentation amplifier.

Instrumentation amplifier

vi1

A1 v

o1

R2

R4

R3

R1

A3

i1

B

vi2

vi1 = vc vd /2

vo

R3

R2

A2

R4

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

vo2

As we have seen earlier, vi1 and vi2 can have a large common-mode component (vc ).

What is the effect of vc on the amplifier output vo ?

Instrumentation amplifier

vi1

A1 v

o1

R2

R4

R3

R1

A3

i1

B

vi2

vi1 = vc vd /2

vo

R3

R2

A2

R4

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

vo2

As we have seen earlier, vi1 and vi2 can have a large common-mode component (vc ).

What is the effect of vc on the amplifier output vo ?

v+ v vA = vc vd /2 , vB = vc + vd /2 .

Instrumentation amplifier

vi1

A1 v

o1

R2

R4

R3

R1

A3

i1

B

vi2

vi1 = vc vd /2

vo

R3

R2

A2

R4

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

vo2

As we have seen earlier, vi1 and vi2 can have a large common-mode component (vc ).

What is the effect of vc on the amplifier output vo ?

v+ v vA = vc vd /2 , vB = vc + vd /2 .

i1 =

1

1

1

(vA vB ) =

((vc vd /2) (vc + vd /2)) = vd .

R1

R1

R1

Instrumentation amplifier

vi1

A1 v

o1

R2

R4

R3

R1

A3

i1

B

vi2

vi1 = vc vd /2

vo

R3

R2

A2

R4

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

vo2

As we have seen earlier, vi1 and vi2 can have a large common-mode component (vc ).

What is the effect of vc on the amplifier output vo ?

v+ v vA = vc vd /2 , vB = vc + vd /2 .

i1 =

1

1

1

(vA vB ) =

((vc vd /2) (vc + vd /2)) = vd .

R1

R1

R1

vc has simply got cancelled! (And this holds even if R2 and R20 are not exactly matched.)

Instrumentation amplifier

vi1

A1 v

o1

R2

R4

R3

R1

A3

i1

B

vi2

vi1 = vc vd /2

vo

R3

R2

A2

R4

vi2 = vc + vd /2

RL

vo2

As we have seen earlier, vi1 and vi2 can have a large common-mode component (vc ).

What is the effect of vc on the amplifier output vo ?

v+ v vA = vc vd /2 , vB = vc + vd /2 .

i1 =

1

1

1

(vA vB ) =

((vc vd /2) (vc + vd /2)) = vd .

R1

R1

R1

vc has simply got cancelled! (And this holds even if R2 and R20 are not exactly matched.)

The instrumentation amplifier is very effective in minimising the effect of the common-mode

signal. (Note that component mismatch in the second stage will cause a finite CMRR, but the first

stage has effectively amplified only vd while leaving vc unchanged; so the overall CMRR has

improved.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Current-to-voltage conversion

this current into a voltage for further processing.

Current-to-voltage conversion

this current into a voltage for further processing.

Current-to-voltage conversion can be achieved by simply passing the current through a

resistor: Vo1 = Is R .

Is

Vo1

Current-to-voltage conversion

this current into a voltage for further processing.

Current-to-voltage conversion can be achieved by simply passing the current through a

resistor: Vo1 = Is R .

Ro

Is

Vo1

Vi

Ri

AV Vi

Vo2

amplifier

However, this simple approach will not work if the next stage in the circuit (such as an

amplifier) has a finite Ri , since it will modify Vo1 to Vo1 = Is (Ri k R) , which is not

desirable.

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

RL

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

RL

V V+ , and i 0 Vo = V Is R = Is R .

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

RL

V V+ , and i 0 Vo = V Is R = Is R .

The output voltage is proportional to the source current, irrespective of the value

of RL , i.e., irrespective of the next stage.

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

RL

V V+ , and i 0 Vo = V Is R = Is R .

The output voltage is proportional to the source current, irrespective of the value

of RL , i.e., irrespective of the next stage.

Example: a photocurrent detector.

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

Is

RL

Vo

RL

Vbias (negative)

V V+ , and i 0 Vo = V Is R = Is R .

The output voltage is proportional to the source current, irrespective of the value

of RL , i.e., irrespective of the next stage.

Example: a photocurrent detector.

Current-to-voltage conversion

i

Is

Vo

Is

RL

Vo

RL

Vbias (negative)

V V+ , and i 0 Vo = V Is R = Is R .

The output voltage is proportional to the source current, irrespective of the value

of RL , i.e., irrespective of the next stage.

Example: a photocurrent detector.

Vo = Is R . The diode is under a reverse bias, with Vn = 0 V and Vp = Vbias .

C

Vi

Vc

i1

R

i

Vo

RL

C

Vi

Vc

i1

R

i

Vo

RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R .

C

Vi

Vc

i1

R

i

Vo

RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R .

Since i 0 , the current through the capacitor is i1 .

C

dVc

Vi

= i1 =

.

dt

R

C

Vi

Vc

i1

R

i

Vo

RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R .

Since i 0 , the current through the capacitor is i1 .

C

dVc

Vi

= i1 =

.

dt

R

Vc = V Vo = 0 Vo = Vo C

dVo

dt

Vi

R

C

Vc

i1

Vi

i

Vo

RL

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R .

Since i 0 , the current through the capacitor is i1 .

C

dVc

Vi

= i1 =

.

dt

R

Vc = V Vo = 0 Vo = Vo C

Vo =

1

RC

dVo

dt

Vi

R

Z

Vi dt

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Integrator

C

Vi

R = 1 k , C = 0.2 F

R

Vo

RL

Vo =

1

RC

Vi dt

Integrator

C

Vi

R = 1 k , C = 0.2 F

R

Vo

RL

Vo =

Vi

3

Vo

3

0

0.5

1

1.5

t (msec)

2.5

1

RC

Vi dt

Integrator

C

Vi

R = 1 k , C = 0.2 F

R

Vo

RL

Vo =

1

RC

Vi dt

Vi

Vi

3

0

Vo

0

3

Vo

3

6

0

0.5

1

1.5

t (msec)

2.5

0.5

1

1.5

t (msec)

2.5

Integrator

C

Vi

R = 1 k , C = 0.2 F

R

Vo

RL

Vo =

1

RC

Vi dt

Vi

Vi

3

0

Vo

0

3

Vo

3

6

0

0.5

1

1.5

t (msec)

2.5

0.5

1

1.5

t (msec)

2.5

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Offset voltage

Vi

Vo

0

1

Vi (mV)

Offset voltage

Real Op Amp

Ideal Op Amp

Vi

VOS

Vo

Vo

Vsat

Vsat

0

1

Vi (mV)

0

1

Vi (mV)

Offset voltage

Real Op Amp

Ideal Op Amp

Vi

VOS

Vo

Vo

Vsat

Vsat

0

1

Vi (mV)

0

1

Vi (mV)

Offset voltage

Real Op Amp

Ideal Op Amp

Vi

VOS

Vo

Vo

Vsat

Vsat

0

1

Vi (mV)

0

1

Vi (mV)

For Vo = 0 V , V+ + VOS V = 0 V+ V = VOS .

Offset voltage

Real Op Amp

Ideal Op Amp

Vi

VOS

Vo

Vo

Vsat

Vsat

0

1

Vi (mV)

0

1

Vi (mV)

For Vo = 0 V , V+ + VOS V = 0 V+ V = VOS .

Vo versus Vi curve gets shifted.

Offset voltage

Real Op Amp

Ideal Op Amp

Vi

VOS

Vo

Vo

Vsat

Vsat

0

1

Vi (mV)

0

1

Vi (mV)

For Vo = 0 V , V+ + VOS V = 0 V+ V = VOS .

Vo versus Vi curve gets shifted.

741: 6 mV < VOS < 6 mV .

OP-77: 50 V < VOS < 50 V .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Effect of VOS

10 k R2

10 k

1k

Vi

R2

1k

Vi

R1

Vo

RL

R1

Real

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

Effect of VOS

10 k R2

10 k

1k

Vi

R2

Real

1k

Vi

R1

R1

VOS

Vo

R2

Vi + VOS

R1

Vo

RL

RL

By superposition, Vo =

Ideal

1+

R2

R1

Effect of VOS

10 k R2

10 k

1k

Vi

R2

Real

1k

Vi

R1

R1

VOS

Vo

R2

Vi + VOS

R1

Vo

RL

RL

By superposition, Vo =

Ideal

1+

R2

R1

Effect of VOS

10 k R2

10 k

1k

Vi

R2

Real

1k

Vi

R1

R1

VOS

Vo

R2

Vi + VOS

R1

Vo

RL

RL

By superposition, Vo =

Ideal

1+

R2

R1

i.e., a DC shift of 22 mV .

Effect of VOS

Vc

Vc

C

C

i1

Vi

i1

Vi

R

Vo

RL

Real

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

Effect of VOS

Vc

Vc

C

C

i1

Vi

i1

Vi

Real

Vo

RL

V V+ = VOS i1 =

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

1

dVc

(Vi VOS ) = C

.

R

dt

Effect of VOS

Vc

Vc

C

C

i1

Vi

i1

Vi

Real

Vo

RL

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

1

dVc

V V+ = VOS i1 = (Vi VOS ) = C

.

R

dt

Z

1

i.e., Vc =

(Vi VOS ) dt .

RC

Effect of VOS

Vc

Vc

C

C

i1

Vi

i1

Vi

Real

Vo

RL

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

1

dVc

V V+ = VOS i1 = (Vi VOS ) = C

.

R

dt

Z

1

i.e., Vc =

(Vi VOS ) dt .

RC

Even with Vi = 0 V , Vc will keep rising or falling (depending on the sign of VOS ).

Eventually, the Op Amp will be driven into saturation.

Effect of VOS

Vc

Vc

C

C

i1

Vi

i1

Vi

Real

Vo

RL

VOS

Ideal

Vo

RL

1

dVc

V V+ = VOS i1 = (Vi VOS ) = C

.

R

dt

Z

1

i.e., Vc =

(Vi VOS ) dt .

RC

Even with Vi = 0 V , Vc will keep rising or falling (depending on the sign of VOS ).

Eventually, the Op Amp will be driven into saturation.

need to address this issue!

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

(a)

Vo

RL

VOS

RL

(b)

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

(a)

(a)

Vo

RL

VOS

RL

(b)

VOS

dVc

= C

R

dt

Z

1

Vc =

VOS dt Op Amp saturates.

RC

i1 =

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

C

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

Vo

RL

(a)

VOS

RL

(b)

VOS

dVc

= C

R

dt

Z

1

Vc =

VOS dt Op Amp saturates.

RC

(a)

i1 =

(b)

R0

Vo = 1 +

VOS .

R

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

C

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

Vo

RL

(a)

VOS

RL

(b)

VOS

dVc

= C

R

dt

Z

1

Vc =

VOS dt Op Amp saturates.

RC

(a)

i1 =

(b)

R0

Vo = 1 +

VOS .

R

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

C

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

Vo

RL

(a)

VOS

RL

(b)

VOS

dVc

= C

R

dt

Z

1

Vc =

VOS dt Op Amp saturates.

RC

(a)

i1 =

(b)

R0

Vo = 1 +

VOS .

R

However, R 0 must be large enough to ensure that the circuit still functions as an integrator.

Effect of VOS

Integrator with Vi = 0 V :

R

C

i1

i1

Vc

R

C

Vc

R

Vo

VOS

Vo

RL

(a)

VOS

RL

(b)

VOS

dVc

= C

R

dt

Z

1

Vc =

VOS dt Op Amp saturates.

RC

(a)

i1 =

(b)

R0

Vo = 1 +

VOS .

R

However, R 0 must be large enough to ensure that the circuit still functions as an integrator.

R 0 1/C at the frequency of interest.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Q8

741

Q2

Q1

I+

B

I

B

Q3

Q4

Q7

Q5

R1

Q6

R3

R2

Q8

741

Real Op Amp

I+

B

Ideal Op Amp

Vo

I

B

+

Q2

Q1

I+

B

I

B

Q3

Q4

Q7

Q5

R1

Q6

R3

R2

I+

B

I

B

Q8

741

Real Op Amp

I+

B

Ideal Op Amp

Vo

I

B

+

Q2

Q1

I+

B

I

B

Q3

Q4

Q7

Q5

R1

Q6

R3

R2

|IB+ IB | : offset current (IOS )

(IB+ + IB )/2 : bias current (IB ).

I+

B

I

B

Q8

741

Real Op Amp

I+

B

Ideal Op Amp

Vo

I

B

+

Q2

Q1

I+

B

I+

B

I

B

Q3

Q4

Q7

Q5

R1

I

B

Q6

R3

R2

Op Amp

IB

IOS

VOS

741

80 nA

20 nA

OP77

1.2 nA

0.3 nA

10 V

BJT input

411

50 pA

25 pA

0.8 mV

FET input

1 mV

BJT input

|IB+ IB | : offset current (IOS )

(IB+ + IB )/2 : bias current (IB ).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay

Inverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

R1

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Inverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

R1

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

Inverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

R1

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R1 .

Inverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

R1

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R1 .

i2 = i1 IB Vo = V i2 R2 = 0

Vi

IB

R1

R2 =

R2

Vi + IB R2 ,

R1

Inverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

R1

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = 0 V i1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi

IB

R1

i.e., the bias current causes a DC shift in Vo .

i2 = i1 IB Vo = V i2 R2 = 0

R2 =

R2

Vi + IB R2 ,

R1

Non-nverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Ideal

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

I

B

I+

B

Non-nverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Ideal

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

Non-nverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Ideal

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = Vi i1 = Vi /R1 .

Non-nverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Ideal

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = Vi i1 = Vi /R1 .

i2 = i1 IB =

Vi

IB .

R1

Non-nverting amplifier:

i2

R2

Real

i1

Ideal

R1

Vo

Vi

RL

I

B

I+

B

Assume that the Op Amp is ideal in other respects (i.e., VOS = 0 V , etc.).

V V+ = Vi i1 = Vi /R1 .

Vi

IB .

R1

Vi

R2

Vo = Vi i2 R2 = Vi

IB

R2 = Vi 1 +

+ IB R2 .

R1

R1

Again, a DC shift Vo .

i2 = i1 IB =

Integrator:

i2

C

Vc

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Integrator:

i2

C

Vc

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Even with Vi = 0 V , Vc =

1

C

Integrator:

R

i2

C

Vc

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Z

1

C

Connecting R 0 across C provides a DC path for the current, and results in a DC shift

Vo = IB R 0 at the output.

Even with Vi = 0 V , Vc =

Integrator:

R

i2

C

Vc

Real

i1

Vi

Ideal

Vo

RL

I

B

I+

B

Z

1

C

Connecting R 0 across C provides a DC path for the current, and results in a DC shift

Vo = IB R 0 at the output.

Even with Vi = 0 V , Vc =

However, R 0 must be large enough to ensure that the circuit still functions as an integrator.

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