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The purpose of the present work is to investigate the changes on the statistical properties of horizontal
slug flows caused by flow injection at the pipe wall. Measurements of turbulent flow in a horizontal slug flow
subjected to wall transpiration are presented. Results include data on global flow rates and pressure drop, and on
local mean and fluctuating velocity profiles. The properties of the two-phase flow are measured through a Shadow
Sizer system and laser-based sensors. Two distinct flow transpiration rates are studied, v++
w = vw/Um = 0.0005 and
0.001. The effects of flow transpiration seem to lead to bubble break-up and to changes in the slug frequency. In
addition to the two-phase flow results, single-phase flow measurements are presented with a view to compare the
different turbulent effects introduced by the second phase.

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c

2015

Begell House, Inc.

F. J. S. Bandeira, J. B. R. Loureiro and A. P. Silva Freire

Mechanical Engineering Program (PEM/COPPE/UFRJ)

C.P. 68503,Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Brazil.

jbrloureiro@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br

Abstract The purpose of the present work is to investigate the changes on the statistical properties of horizontal

slug flows caused by flow injection at the pipe wall. Measurements of turbulent flow in a horizontal slug flow

subjected to wall transpiration are presented. Results include data on global flow rates and pressure drop, and on

local mean and fluctuating velocity profiles. The properties of the two-phase flow are measured through a Shadow

++

Sizer system and laser-based sensors. Two distinct flow transpiration rates are studied, vw

= vw /Um = 0.0005 and

0.001. The effects of flow transpiration seem to lead to bubble break-up and to changes in the slug frequency. In

addition to the two-phase flow results, single-phase flow measurements are presented with a view to compare the

different turbulent effects introduced by the second phase.

1. Introduction

Turbulent flow in pipes with porous surfaces is a problem of great industrial interest. Typical applications include the thermal protection of walls, filtration or the production of oil in horizontal

or vertical wells.

For laminar flow, the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved to unveil the dependence of

the velocity components and the pressure on position coordinates, pipe dimensions and fluid

properties. Berman (1953) proposed a classical solution for two-dimensional, incompressible,

steady-flow in a channel. Other authors have examined Bermans solution to consider pressuredependent wall suction (Haldenwang, 2007) or the effect of slip boundary condition (Chellam

and Liu, 2006).

The above mentioned analyses consider symmetric flows in symmetric ducts. Extension of

the solutions to circular pipes were provided, e.g., by Erdogan and Imrak (2005) and Tsangaris

et al. (2007).

For high Reynolds number flow, the search for analytical solutions in much complicated by

the natural requirement of turbulence closure. Additionally, turbulent flow is known to be sensitive to wall roughness. For external flow, some authors have resorted (Stevenson 1963, Simpson

1970, Silva Freire 1988) to simple algebraic closure hypotheses and perturbation arguments to

develop local analytical solutions for the fully turbulent region. These solutions exhibit bilogarithmic terms and incorporate the effects of local Reynolds number and transpiration rate.

One prominent feature is the dependence of an integration parameter on the transpiration rate.

The underlying assumption of all the analytical methods is that flow transpiration at the

wall is homogeneous. Some authors, however, have approached to problem differently. They

consider distributed fluid injection, that is, isolated perforations, so that frictional losses are

described through a decomposition of effects: wall friction, perforation friction and mixing effects. Perforation friction is normally associated with an increase in roughness. The mixing

effects are compared to the problem of multiple interacting jets in a cross flow. This approach

results in such an intricate analysis that only external empirical evidence can be used to determine the correct behavior of the friction contribution.

Limited experimental works have been made for turbulent flow in porous pipes. The investigation of Olson and Eckert (1966) described the effects of continuous mass injection at the

wall in the shape of the velocity profile and in the pressure loss. Results on friction factor and

eddy diffusivity were also discussed. Su and Gudmundsson (1998) and Ouyang et al. (1998)

provided further experimental data; the latter authors, in particular, considered also two-phase

flows.

The purpose of the present work is to carry out reference experiments in horizontal pipes

with flow injection at the wall for single- and two-phase (slug) flow patterns. Measurements

of global flow rates and pressure drop are made for two different injection rates. In addition,

the work presents local mean and fluctuating turbulent profiles obtained through Laser-Doppler

Anemometry. The properties of the two-phase flow are measured through a Shadow Sizer

system and laser-based sensors. The validity of the law of resistance previously advanced by

Loureiro and Silva Freire (2011) is investigated for both the single-phase and slug flows.

Important properties of slug flow including the passage frequency of unit cells (t ) and the

length (`) distribution of long bubbles have not been previously discussed in the literature. The

flow acceleration provoked by the wall injection of fluid and the very high levels of turbulence

observed in the near wall region are bound to exert a large influence on both t and `. These

two aspects of the problem are reported here.

2. Theoretical background

The law of resistance introduced in Loureiro and Silva Freire (2011) is valid for single-phase

flow and incorporates the effects of roughness and wall transpiration. The law is derived from a

perturbation solution (see also Silva Freire (1988)); the main details of the derivation are shown

next.

2.1. Resistance law for smooth pipes

The friction coefficient can be defined by

2

(p1 p2 )L1 = (D1 )(21 )Um

,

(1)

where D denotes the pipe diameter, Um is the mean flow velocity and L the length of a fluid

cylinder.

For very large Reynolds numbers, the velocity distribution in the near wall fully turbulent

region is given by

1

uu1

ln yu 1 + A,

(2)

=

p

where y is the wall distance, u is the friction velocity (= w /), (= 0.4) is von Karmans

constant and A = 5.5.

An integration of Eq. (16) over the cross-sectional area the pipe together with algebraic

manipulations gives the resistance law for smooth pipes,

(3)

with Re = Um D 1 .

2.2. Resistance law for smooth pipes with wall transpiration

For flow subject to wall transpiration, Eq. (3) is clearly not valid anymore. The result of

the injection or suction of fluid into an oncoming flow is to modify the velocity distribution

throughout the boundary layer so that drag is either reduced or increased. Any expression

advanced with the purpose of determining the friction coefficient should therefore reflect this.

Furthermore, an explicit dependence of Eq. (3) on the transpiration rate should be expected.

In Silva Freire (1988) the matched asymptotic expansions method was applied to the equations of motion to find a law of the wall in which the additive parameter A varied with transpiration. The resulting expression is

2

1 W y 1 ,

u+ = 1 ln y + + A + 1 W y 1 + vw+ (2)1 ln y + + 21 A +

(4)

1

+

1

+

+

1

with u = uu , y = yu , vw = vw u , vw = normal velocity at the wall and A is given by:

A = 5 512(vw U 1 ),

(5)

and parameters and

An integration of Eq. (4) over the cross-sectional area of a pipe, gives

2

(6)

with Re+ = Ru 1 .

Some further algebraic manipulations with

Um u 1 = 2 2( )1 ,

(7)

give

1=

1

(2 2) (2, 5 ln(Re+ ) + A 3, 75)

+ vw++ (1, 56 ln2 (Re+ ) + (1, 25A 4, 68) ln(Re+ ) + 41 A2 + 1, 86A + 5, 47),

(8)

where

vw++ = vw Um 1

1

Re+ = (Um D 1 )(4 2

).

and

(9)

The transcedental equation, Eq. (8), gives for given Re+ and vw++ .

2.3. Resistance law for rough pipes

The law of resistance for flow in a rough pipe was shown by Nikuradse 1933 to have the form

uu 1 = 1 ln yks 1 + B,

(10)

where ks is a characteristic length of the roughness and B = 8.5 (completely rough regime).

In fact, B was shown to be a function of Rek (= ks u 1 ). The behaviour of B for the three

types of flow regime discussed by Nikuradse 1933 has been studied by several authors. For

example, Ligrani & Moffat 1986 suggest the following functional dependence

B = 8.5 + (1 ) 1 ln (Rek ) + (1 )C,

(11)

g = ln Rek Re1

k,s

ln Rek,r Re1

k,s

1

(12)

The resistance formula for flow in a rough pipe can be obtained by integrating Eq. (10) over

the cross-sectional area of a pipe. The result is

= [0.88 ln(Rks1 ) + 0.35B 1.33]2 .

(13)

A comparison of Eq. (13) with the experiments of Nikuradse shows that for a fully rough

regime the ln additive term should be replaced by 1.74.

2.4. Resistance law for rough pipes with wall transpiration

A law of resistance for rough pipes with wall transpiration can now be deduced provided the

results of the previous sections are taken into account. Let us define Re+ = R/ks and Ak = B 512 vw++ . It follows immediately from Eqs. (8) and (13) that

1 = (2 2)1 (2.5 ln(Rks1 ) + Ak 3.75) + vw++ (1.56 ln2 (Rks1 )

+ (1.25Ak 4.68) ln(Rks1 ) + 4 1A2k + 1.86Ak + 5.47).

(14)

3. Experiments

The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long porous pipe (34 mm in diameter) with uniform

fluid injection. The test section consisted of three concentric stainless-steel tubes, assembled

as shown in Fig. 1. The piping system consisted of 15 one meter long segments, all connected in line and fitted with independent pressure taps. Two plexiglass inspection windows

were installed to allow local velocity measurements and characterization of the two-phase flow

properties. Air and water were mixed in a T-junction located 1 m upstream of the inlet of the

porous pipe. A schematic diagram of the experimental setup is also shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 1: Description of the test section: a) geometric arrangement, b) photograph of actual test

section, c) schematic diagram.

Turbulent statistics were measured by a two-component Dantec Laser-Doppler Anemometry. The properties of the slug flow were measured through a Dantec Shadow Sizer System.

Additionally, laser diodes and photodetectors were used to measure the statistical properties of

the two-phase flow along the pipe, so that changes in the slug frequency, the bubble velocity

and the lengths of the liquid slug and the liquid film could be measured and spatially correlated.

The pressure losses in a porous pipe with wall injection must increase the momentum flux

and overcome wall friction. A momentum balance on a control volume of length dx and radius

R shows that the wall shear stress in given by

1

dp

d(2m )

w =

+

(15)

4 d(x/D) d(x/D)

where , the momentum flux factor, is the ratio of the real momentum flux through a given cross

section to that based on one-dimensional flow at the mean velocity.

In our estimates, was found to be 1.06.

4.1. Single-phase flow

The roughness length (ks ) of the producing pipe was determined from the single-phase water

flow with no injection at the wall. Various experiments with Reynolds number varying from

6,000 to 100,000 were performed to find ks (= 0.000334 m). Two distinct flow transpiration

rates are studied, vw++ = vw /Um = 0.0005 and 0.001.

To investigate the logarithmic character of the velocity profile, Eq. (4) is re-written in the

form

h

i

1/2

+ 1

+ +

= 2(vw )

vw u + 1

1 = 1 ln y + + A

(16)

For the single-phase flow case, the mean velocity profile for all transpiration rates are shown

in Fig. 2a according to the coordinates defined by Eq. (16). The existence of a bi-logarithmic

region is evident, with the level of the log-region decreasing as vw increases. The agreement

provided by the predictions of Eq. (14) with the experimental data is very good despite the fact

that the parameters in Eq. (14) were not particularly adjusted to fit the present experimental

data. The values of the constants are the values presented in Loureiro and Silva Freire (2011),

based entirely in the analysis of Silva Freire (1988).

Figure 2: Comparison between the results for unblown case and for the two different transpiration rates studied: a) logarithmic mean velocity distributions, b) pressure drop distributions.

Regarding the two-phase flow experiments, mean velocity profiles for the liquid phase for two

different injection rates are shown in Fig. 3a. For the same injection velocity, the single- and

two-phase velocity profiles correspond to flows with about the same top centerline velocity.

The presence of the gas phase makes the liquid velocity profiles less full, as expected. The

injection of fluid through the wall clearly modifies the velocity distribution, reducing the wall

shear stress.

The streamwise velocity fluctuations are shown in Fig. 3b. The presence of bubbles in the

flow naturally increases its degree of agitation, with a corresponding increase in longitudinal

Figure 3: Laser-Doppler anemometry measurements: (a) mean velocity profiles and (b) longitudinal velocity fluctuations for the single and two-phase flow conditions with and without flow

transpiration. Profiles were normalized by pipe diameter D and centerline velocity U0 .

velocity fluctuations. For the highest injection rate, a peak value of 0.17U0 can be observed

near the wall. The very pronounced level of turbulence near the wall induces the observed

break-up of long bubbles and increases the level of aeration of the liquid pistons.

Figure 4: Two-phase flow characterization: (a) general pattern at the inlet of the permeable

pipe; typical noses of bubbles measured 12 m downstream of the inlet: (b) vw++ = 0.0000, (c)

vw++ = 0.0005 and (d) vw++ = 0.001.

The frictional pressure losses are shown in Fig. 5. An increase of the mixture velocity for

unblown flows increases the pressure drop. However, with positive transpiration rates, a definitive assessment could not be made. For the lower injection rate the pressure loss diminished,

whereas for the higher injection rate the pressure loss increased. The two-phase flow problem

in fundamentally different from the single-phase flow problem in two aspects: the passage frequency of unit cells and the length of the large bubbles are strongly influenced by the injection

rate.

The general two-phase flow pattern upstream of the inlet of the permeable pipe is illustrated

in Fig. 4a. To evaluate the influence of the transpiration flow rate on the slug flow behaviour, the

Shadow Sizer System was positioned at a transparent window located 12 meters downstream

of the inlet section. A NanoSense MKIII camera provided high resolution images (1289 x

1024 pixels) at 2000 fps. Figures 4(b-d) illustrates typical noses of bubbles measured at the

transparent test section for the case of no injection (4b), for the lower injection rate, vw++ =

0.0005 (4c) and for the higher injection rate vw++ = 0.001 (4d). An increase in transpiration

flow pushes the noses of the bubbles towards the center of the pipe. The enhanced near-wall

turbulence provokes instability waves on the bubble contour that favor bubble break up and

aeration of the liquid piston.

The Shadow Sizer images and the data obtained from laser-based sensors for bubble detection were processed according with the procedure introduced in Matamoros et al. (2014)

for calculation of the statistical properties of the slug flow along the permeable pipe. Bubble

reconstruction was made through the fixed window method.

The shapes of two typical bubbles are shown in Fig. 6. The perturbations provoked by the

fluid injection increase the mean size of the bubbles and decreases their frequency passage (Fig.

7). to the present experimental conditions the increase in size was about 25%. The frequency

was reduced in 32%.

Figure 6: Bubble shape in the inlet region (top) and test section (bottom, Vw++ = 0.001).

Figure 7: Bubble frequency and length distributions in the inlet and test section regions.

5. Conclusions

The present work has studied the behaviour of single- and two-phase flows in horizontal pipes

with fluid injection at the wall.

Three different flow conditions have been scrutinized through measurements of flow rate,

pressure drop, statistics of the turbulence and characterization of the two-phase flow. The results

have shown that Eq. (14) furnishes predictions that are good with an accuracy of about 3% for

single-phase flows.

The transpiration and the air-bubble interaction were observed to promote near-wall turbulence, imposing considerable changes to the inlet flow. An increase in transpiration tends to

push bubble noses towards the center of the permeable pipe, induce bubble coalescence and

increase the level of aeration on the liquid piston.

References

1. A. S. Berman, Laminar flow in channels with porous walls, J. App. Physics, 24, 12321235, 1953.

2. S. Chellam and M. Liu, Effect of slip on existence, uniqueness, and behavior of similarity

solutions for steady incompressible laminar flow in porous tubes and channels,Physics of

Fluids, 18, 083601, 2006.

3. M. E. Erdogan and C. E. Imrak, On the axial flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a

pipe with a porous boundary, Acta Mechanica, 178, 187197, 2005.

4. P. Haldenwang, Laminar flow in a two-dimensional plane channel with local pressuredependent crossflow, J. Fluid Mech., 593, 463473, 2007.

5. J. B. R. Loureiro and A. P. Silva Freire. Slug flow in horizontal pipes with transpiration at

the wall, Journal of Physics. Conference Series (Online), 318, 2011.

6. L. M. C. Matamoros, J. B. R. Loureiro, A. P. Silva Freire, Length-area-volume of long

bubbles in horizontal slug flow, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 65, 2430, 2014.

7. R. Olson and E. Eckert, Experimental studies of turbulent flow in a porous circular tube

with uniform fluid injection through the tube wall, J. of Applied Mech., 33, 717, 1966.

8. L.-B. Ouyang, N. Petalas, S. Arbabi, D. E. Schroeder, K. Aziz, An experimental study of

single-phase fluid flow in horizontal wells, SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield,

California, 10 pp., 1998.

9. A.P. Silva Freire. An asymptotic solution for transpired incompressible turbulent boundary

layers, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 31:101l-1021, 1988.

10. R. L. Simpson, The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: an experimental study

of the fluid dynamics with injection and suction. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford Univ., Stanford,

California, 1967

11. T. N. Stevenson, A law of the wall for turbulent boundary layers with suction or injection.

Cranfield Rep. Aero., 166, The College of Aeronautics, Cranfield, England, U.K., 1963.

12. Z. Su and J. Gudmunsson, Perforation inflow reduces frictional pressure loss in horizontal

wellbores, J. Petroleum Sci. Eng., 19, 223232, 1998.

13. S. Tsangaris, D. Kondaxakis, N.W. Vlachakis, Exact solution for flow in a porous pipe

with unsteady wall suction and/or injection, Comm. Nonlinear Sci. Num. Simulation, 12,

11811189, 2007.

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