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Chemical Engineering Department

Mehran University of Engineering and

Technology Jamshoro

1. What is a Chain Reaction?

A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or byproduct causes additional reactions to take place.
Chain reactions are one way in which systems which are
in thermodynamic non-equilibrium can release energy or increase entropy
in order to reach a state of higher entropy.
2. What is the concept of free radical?
Most chemical chain reactions have very reactive intermediates
called free radicals. These atoms or fragments are usually derived from
stable molecules due to photo- or heat-dissociation
3. What is meant by Chain carrier?
The intermediate that maintains the chain reaction is called a chain
carrier. .
What are the main steps of chain reaction?
4. What is initiation in chain reaction?
Initiation is the formation of active particles, often free radicals, in either a
thermal or a photochemical step.
5. What is propagation?
Propagation may comprise several elementary steps in a cycle, where the
active particle through reaction forms another active particle which
continues the reaction chain by entering the next elementary step.
6. What is termination?
Termination is an elementary step in which the active particle loses its
activity; e. g. by recombination of two free radicals.
7. What is chain Length?
The chain length is defined as the average number of times the
propagation cycle is repeated, and equals the overall reaction rate divided
by the initiation rate.
8. What is meant by Chain branching?
Chain branching is the case of propagation step when more new active
particles form in the step than enter it.
9. What is the Chain transfer?
Chain transfer is the case in which one active particle enters an
elementary reaction with the inactive particle which as a result becomes
another active particle along with forming of another inactive particle from
the initial active one.
Examples of chain Reactions are?
Nuclear chain reactions
Polymerization growth chain reactions
Explosion reactions
Food Spoilage reactions
What is the Semi batch reactor?
A semi-batch reactor is a variation of a batch reactor in which one
reactant may be added intermittently or continuously to another reactant
contained in a vessel as reaction proceeds. The reaction may be singlephase or multi-phase. As in a batch reactor, the operation is inherently

unsteady-state and usually characterized by a cycle of operation, although

in a more complex manner.
What is a Semi Continuous reactor?
A semi-continuous reactor is a reactor for a multiphase reaction in which
one phase flows continuously through a vessel containing a batch of
another phase. The operation is thus unsteady-state with respect to the
batch phase, and may be steady-state or unsteady-state with respect to
the flowing phase, as in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor or a fixed bed gassolid reactor respectively.
What are the Advantages of Semi-Batch Operation?
In comparison with a batch reactor, the gradual or intermittent addition of
a reactant in a semi-batch operation can result in improved control of the
temperature; particularly for a highly exothermic reaction. This may be
the case if the initial reaction rates are very high, which would result in
uncontrollable temperature rises or gas evolution in the batch reactor
The concentration of a reactant can be kept relatively low (for the reactant
introduced intermittently) or high (reactant charged initially) if either is
advantageous for suppressing side reactions, thus improving product
The withdrawal of a product can result in higher conversion of a reactant,
particularly if the reaction is equilibrium-limited.
To react a gas with a liquid: this is inevitable when a batch reactor is
desired but the gas is only sparingly soluble in the liquid
What are the disadvantages of Semi-Batch Operation?
As in the case of a batch reactor, the production rate may be limited
because of the cyclic nature of the operation.
Also, as in the case of a batch reactor, the operating cost may be
relatively high.
The design or performance analysis is complicated because of the
unsteady-state operation.
Semi-continuous operation may require intricate piping and valves.
What are the advantages of semi batch reactor over
the batch reactor?
Improved selectivity of a reaction
Better control of exothermic reactions
Product removal through a purge stream
Semi Batch reactors are also known as?
Fed batch reactor, because of continuous addition or removal of one or
more components / streams
What is the plug flow reactor?
The plug flow reactor model (PFR, sometimes called continuous tubular
reactor, CTR, or piston flow reactors) is a model used to describe chemical
reactions in continuous, flowing systems of cylindrical geometry. The PFR
model is used to predict the behaviour of chemical of such design, so that
key reactor variables, such as the dimensions of the reactor, can be
What is the key Assumption during the designing of
ideal plug flow reactor?

The key assumption is that as a plug flows through a PFR, the fluid
is perfectly mixed in the radial direction but not in the axial direction
(forwards or backwards). Each plug of differential volume is considered as
a separate entity, effectively an infinitesimally small
continuous, limiting to zero volume.
Which type of equation models are used for the
designing of plug flow reactor?
The PFR is governed by ordinary differential equations, the solution for
which can be calculated providing that appropriate boundary
conditions are known.
Which state of matter work best with the PFR?
The PFR model works well for many fluids: liquids, gases, and slurries.
What are the applications of Plug flow reactor?
Plug flow reactors are used for some of the following applications: Largescale production
slow reactions
Homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions
Continuous production
High-temperature reactions
What are the advantages of Plug flow reactor?
Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion, run for long
periods of time without maintenance, and the heat transfer rate can be
optimized by using more, thinner tubes or fewer, thicker tubes in parallel.
What are the disadvantages of Plug Flow reactor?
Disadvantages of plug flow reactors are that temperatures are hard to
control and can result in undesirable temperature gradients. PFR
maintenance is also more expensive than CSTR maintenance.
What is the Material balance equation for the PFR ?
[accumulation] = [in] - [out] + [generation] - [consumption]
What are the assumptions to be carried out for
industrial plug flow reactor designing?
plug flow
steady state
constant density (reasonable for some liquids but a 20% error for
polymerizations; valid for gases only if there is no pressure drop, no net
change in the number of moles, nor any large temperature change)
single reaction occurring in the bulk of the fluid (homogeneously).
What is the second name of Plug Flow reactor?
The second name of plug flow reactor is tubular flow reactor.
What type of flow is referred in tubular flow reactor?
Turbulent flow generally is preferred to laminar flow, because mixing and
heat transfer are improved. For slow reactions and especially in small
laboratory and pilot-plant reactors, establishing turbulent flow can result
in inconveniently long reactors or may require unacceptably high feed
What are the Features of an ideal reactor?
Uniform distribution
Short residence time
Advanced technique

Smooth appearance
Quality design
Ensure safe heat transfer
Static mixing of components
What is a trickle bed reactor?
A trickle-bed reactor (TBR) is a chemical reactor that uses the downward
movement of a liquid and gas over a packed bed of catalyst particles. It is
considered to be the simplest reactor type for performing catalytic
reactions where a gas and liquid (normally both reagents) are present in
the reactor and accordingly it is extensively used in processing plants.
What are the applications of Trickle Bed Reactor?
Typical applications are liquid-phase hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization,
and hydrodenitrogenation in refineries (three phase hydrotreater)
and oxidation of harmful chemical compounds in wastewater streams or
of cumene in the cumene process.
Trickle bed reactor mostly known as?
Three Phase reactor.
Why trickle bed reactor also termed as three phase
The gas and liquid co-currently flow downward over a fixed bed of catalyst
particles. Concurrent down-flow of gas and liquid over a fixed-bed of
catalyst. Liquid trickles down, while gas phase is continuous.
What are the parameters are to be considered for
trickle bed reactor designing:
Gas flow rate
Liquid Flow rate
Fluid properties
Packing Characteristics
What are the approximate dimensions for trickle bed
Approximate dimensions of commercial trickle-bed reactors are a height of
10 m and a diameter of 2 m.
What is the ideal tubular reactor?
An ideal tubular reactor is one in which there is no mixing in longitudinal
direction and mixing takes place only in radial direction and there is a
uniform velocity across the radius.
Which type of reactor is most suitable for isothermal
Back mix reactor is most suitable for isothermal reactions.
When a semi batch reactor is preferred?
A semi batch reactor is preferred when
A highly exothermic reaction is to be controlled
Undesirable reactions
A gas reacted with liquid
Homogeneous reactors include?
Semi Batch
Heterogeneous reactor include?

Packed Bed
Moving Bed
Fluidized Bed
What are the Reactor type Configuration?
Gas-liquid reactor
Liquid-liquid reactor
Fluid-solid reactor
Gas liquid reactor include?
Absorption column
Bubble column
Tank reactor
Distillation column
Monolith reactor
Liquid-Liquid reactor Include?
Column reactor
Mixer-settler reactor
Fluid-Solid reactor includes?
Packed Bed
Fluidized Bed
What are the advantages of Bed reactor?
Same reactor for multiple fluids
Tube reactor are mostly used for?
Homogeneous reactions
Liquid Phase reaction
Which direction of flow is suitable for the reaction?
Radial turbulent direction of flow is suitable for carry out effective
reactions in reactors.
Define Reactor?
It is reacting vessel designed for chemical reaction.
. How reactor are classified according to method of
Batch reactor
Continuous reactor
Semi batch reactor
How reactors are classified according to shape?
Tank reactor
Tabular reactor
How reactors are classified according to phase of
reacting material?
Homogeneous phase reactor
Heterogeneous phase reactor
Define Batch reactor?
The reactor in which reaction material at feed at begging and bulk of
product is obtained at last.
Define continuous reactor?

The reactor in which reacting is feed continuously and product is also

obtained continuously.
Which reactor is simplest b/w batch and continuous
reactor with respect to maintenance?
Batch reactor because it require minimum auxiliary equipments.
Which is most important parameter in designing batch
Volume of reactor because feed quantity entirely depend on it.
Which type of reactor is most convenient in use when
initial temperature require by reacting substance is too
Continuous type reactor such as kiln.
How reactors are classified according to geometry?
Stirred tank, packed bed. Fluidized bed, gasifier reactor.
Define semi batch reactor?
A reactor that contain characteristics of both batch and continuous
Function of semi batch reactor?
First batch of material is feed then reaction start by feeding other reactant
What is CSTR?
It is continuous stirred tank reactor.
What is BSTR?
It is batch stirred tank reactor.
What is SSTR?
It is single stirred tank reactor.
Is SSTR is batch or continuous type reactor?
It is mostly batch reactor but can be continuous depends on operation
Define Homogeneous phase reactor?
A reactor in which reactant and catalyst used in one phase that may be
liquid or gas.
Define heterogeneous phase reactor?
A reactor in which reactant and catalyst used in different phases.
Which is more efficient b/w BSTR and CSTR?
CSTR because large quantity of product is obtained in low period of time.
Which are other well known names of tabular reactors?
Plug flow reactor, piston flow reactor.
Justify fluidized bed combustor is a reactor?
FBC is a reactor because in which solid particles are combusted after
fluidized by jet of air.
Working mechanism of FBC reactor.
In FBC reactor solid particles are feed inside reactor with proper ratio of
air. Such as at Khanot power plant, 13mm coal and 6mm lime stone is
feed within proper ratio with air.
Why CaCO3 is used in FBC reactor at Khanot?
Because of for capturing SO2 emission.
What is reaction through which SO2 emission is
captured in FBC reactor?
CaO + CO2
CO2 + SO2 + 1/2 O2

How many power generation houses in Pakistan using
FBC reactor?
Only one power generation house at Khanot in Pakistan using FBC reactor.
How many FBC reactors are being used at Khanot
power generation house?
Three FBC reactors.
Enlist the main factors that must be considered during
reactor designing?
Chemical factor, mass transfer factor, heat transfer factor, safety and
economical factor
Define Exothermic reaction?
Reactions which release energy for completion.
Define endothermic reactions?
Reactions which require energy for completion.
Define Kc and K.
Kc is equilibrium constant.
K is rate constant.
Define equilibrium?
The condition at which neither reactant into product nor product into
reactant changes.
Importance of equilibrium in reactors?
Whenever equilibrium in reactor exists there will be no yield of product.
What are two main types of nuclear reactors?
i) Boiling water reactor (BWR).
ii) Pressurized water reactor (PWR).
Define boiling water reactor?
A reactor in which fuel is Uranium oxide and coolant and modector is
water which is directly boiled to produce steam.
Define Nuclear reactions?
Reactions which changes the nucleus of an atom is called nuclear
What are two types of nuclear reactions?
i) Nuclear fission reaction.
ii) Nuclear fusion reaction.
Define nuclear fission reaction?
Fission is the splitting of large nuclei into smaller nucleus.
Define nuclear fusion reaction?
Fusion is fusing of two or more lighter nuclei into larger nuclei.
Which type of reaction occurs at sun?
Nuclear fusion reaction occurs at sun.
Justify gasifier is reactor?
It is reactor because in which reaction take place as a result we get syn
gas as product.
Define coal gasification?
It is a process of producing synthetic gas from coal by reacting coal with
steam and O2 in gasifier reactor.
What are three main sections of coal gasifier reactor?
Define Pyrolysis?

It is thermal decomposition of coal by application of heat to coal in

absence of air.
At what temperature coal begin to decompose in
gasifier reactor?
Coal begins to rapidly decompose when its temperature rises above
around 2400c in gasifier reactor.
What are combustion reactions in gasifier reactor.
+ O2
CO + O2
H2 + O2
For which order of reaction tubular flow gives higher
For a first order reaction tubular flow reactor as compared to stirred
tank reactor Provides higher overall selectivity.
92: At which condition the density of the process fluid in the
tubular reactor holds
When the space time and residence time for an isothermal tubular
reactor is equal then the density of the process fluid is constant.
93. For which order of reaction T.F.R heat generation is maximum?
When an exothermic second order reaction is carried out in an
tubular plug Flow reactor the rate of heat generation is maximum
The value of peclet no in tubular flow reactor is?
The value of peclet no in T.F.R is zero because there isnt any
thermal energy convected o the fl
Q no 95:
Another name of T.F.R i
Ideal tubular plug flow reactor is also called continuous tubular
reactor or piston flow reactor .
Q no 96:
Which function in ideal tubular flow reactor residence
time distribution
refers to
In an ideal P.F.R the residence time distribution is the Dirac Delta
function i.e a function on the real line which is zero every where except at
the origin where it is infinite
Q no 97:
Disadvantage of P.F.R is?
The most common disadvantage is temp is hard to control in P.F.R
and can result in undesirable temp gradient.
Q no 98:
plug flow reactor used for?
* Large scale production.
For slow reactions.
For continous production.
For high temp reactions.
Q no 99 :
Which condition enhance the whole process of ideal
flow reactor?
Ans :
It provides narrow residence time distribution which
enhance the whole
process of the ideal flow reactor.

Q no 100 Who gave the idea of residence time distribution in the

analysis of chemical
reactor performance?
Ans :
The idea of residence time distribution in the analysis of
chemical reactor
Performance was first performed by McMullen and Weber.
Q no 101:
The purpose of long tube in the ideal flow reactor
is ?
Ans :
In the ideal tubular reactor the long tube and the lack of
provision for
stirring prevents complete mixing of fluid.
Q no 102:
In T.B.R which assumption is to be made to
In P.F.R it is to be assumed that there is no mixing in the
axial direction i.e
The direction of flow but complete mixing in the radial
Q no 103:
Flow pattern in T.F.R for fluids and gases are?
Ans :
Flow in tubular reactor can be laminar as with viscous fluids with
diameter tubes and greatly deviate from ideal plug flow behavior
turbulent as with gases.
Q no 104:
Which type of flow pattern is mostly preferred in
Ans :
Turbulent flow preferred to laminar in P.F.R because mixing and
transfer are improved.
Q no 105:
Which conditions are necessary to operate P.F.R?
Ideal plug flow reactor is operated isothermally at constant
pressure and
steady state with unique residence time
Q no 106:
In P.F.R velocity as well as composition profile is?
In plug flow reactor velocity profile is flat and both temp and
composition are uniform at any cross section in the reactor.
Q no 107:
What does it means that flat velocity profile ?
It means that the reactant concentration at a particular axial
position in
the tubular vessel does not vary in the radial direction.
Q no 108:
Which consideration is to be made for sizing of
Ans :
A plug flow reactor can be sized by considering an incremental
of the reactor
Q no 109:
Where P.F.R is applicable in industry?
P.F.R is applicable where high exothermic and explosive energy
Involved in carrying the chemical reaction.
Q no 110:
Which type of mixing is carried out in it?
It ensures the static mixing of the component i.e mixing

utilizing moving parts or Mixing achieved by redirecting the

Q no 111:

At which operating conditions P.F.R work effectively?

P.F.R work effectively at constant density, balanced reactions,
single reaction and plug flow.

Q no 112:
Ans :

Features of ideal flow reactors are?

Features of an ideal reactor
Uniform distribution
Short residence time
Advanced technique
Quality design
Smooth appearance
Q no 113:
Which type of distribution of components is being
carried out by
P.F.R gives uniform distribution of the components that are
to be fed
in it.
Q no 114:
Which type of reactions is being carried out by P.F.R?
Plug flow reactors are used to carry out the following
Hoffman Reaction
Grignard Reaction
Oxidation Reaction
Bourne Reaction
Q no 115:
On which parameters size of plug flow reactor
The ratio of size of plug flow reactor will depend on the
extent of
reaction,stoichiometry and the form of rate equation.
Q no 116:
Which things are neglected in the elementry
treatment of P.F.R?
In the elementary treatment of P.F.R mixing by diffusion
and other
processes in the direction of flow is neglected.
Q no 117:
reactor there
Q no 118:
explained by
Q no 119:

Variation in the temp in reactor will cause?

If there are variations in the temperature across the
will be local variation in the reaction rate
Who describe the deviation from P.F.R?
The deviation from ideal plug flow reactor is best
Robert Turner first.
What is space velocity of a reactor?
Space velocity refers to the quotient of the entering
flow rate of the reactant divided by the reactor volume.

Q no 120:
as a
Q no 121:

What is the function of space velocity in a

Space velocity for a conversion in a reactor is often used
ready measure of the performance of the reactor.
Pressure drop in the plug flow reactor is?
In the plug flow reactor pressure drop corresponding to

desired flow rate is relatively small and does not impose
serious limitations on the condition of operation.
Q no 122:
reactions and

On lab scale T.B.R is used for?

In lab tubular reactor is convenient for gas phase

for the reactions which are so fast.

Q no 123:
For the most accurate data collection P.F.R is
operated on which
In order to obtain most accurate data P.F.R is operated as
closely as possible to the isothermal condition .
Q no 124:
The unit of space velocity is ?
The space-velocity has the unit of time.
Q no 125:
Space velocity of 2 hr-1 means?
That two reactor volumes of feed at specified conditions are
being fed into the reactor per hour
Q no 126:
For identical feed compostion and flow rate, N
plug flow
reactors in series with a total volume V gives the same
conversion as ?
As a single plug flow reactor of volume NV.
Q no 127:
N plug flow reactors in series with a total
volume V gives the
same conversion as a single plug flow reactor
of volume V
The above statement is true for which order
of reaction?
The above statement is true for zero-order reactions
Q no 128:
The assumption of P.F.R is acceptable for
which type of
flow pattern?
The assumption of plug flow is usually acceptable
only for
turbulent pipe flows.
Q no 129:
Which idea supports to calculate the
residence time
distribution in P.F.R
It can be calculated on the basis of the idea that
small groups

of particles sticking together are like tiny

closed batch
micro-reactors, wandering through the apparatus
Q no 130:
exchange and

different paths.
Why in P.F.R reactions are so fast?
Because it provides large surface area of heat
offers high surface to volume ratio.

Q131 what is the another name of stirred tank reactor (CSTR)?

Ans Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) also known as vat or backmix
reactor, Is a common ideal reactor.
Q132 what do you mean by batch stirred tank reactor?
Ans A batch stirred tank reactor is the simplest type of reactor. It is
composed of a reactor and a a mixture such as a stirrer, a turbine wing or
a propeller.
Q133 . what are the purposes of batch stirred tank reactor?
Ans This reactor is useful for substrate solutions of high viscosity, and for
immobilized enzymes with relatively low activity. However, a problem that
arises is that an immobilized enzyme tends to decompose upon physical
stirring. The batch system is generally suitable for the production of rather
small amounts of chemicals.
Q134 Which of the reactor type is more efficient batch or
continuous stirred tank reactor?
Ans The continuous stirred tank is more efficient than a batch stirred tank
reactor but the equipment is slightly more complicated.
Q135 What are the characteristics of continuous stirred tank
reactor (CSTR)?
Ans The characteristics of continuous stirred tank reactors are that they
run at steady state with continuous flow of reactants and products; the
feed assumes a uniform composition throughout the reactor, exit stream
has the same composition as in the tank.
Q136 What kinds of phases are present in (CSTR)?
Ans The phases which are present in (CSTR) are liquid phase, gas liquid
rxns , solid liquid rxns.
Q137 What are the usage of single stirred tank reactors?
Ans The usage of single stirred tank reactor are as under
1 When agitation is required.
2 Series configurations for different concentration streams
Q138 What are the advantages of stirred tank reactors?
Ans There are several advantages of stirred tank reactor as under
1 Continuous operation
2 Good temperature control
3 Easily adapts two phase runs
4 Good controls
5 Simplicity of construction
6 Low operating (labor) cost
7 Easy to clean
Q139 What are the disadvantages of continuous stirred tank

Ans The disadvantages of continuous stirred tank reactors are

1 Convert conversion per unit volume
2 By-passing and channeling possible with poor agitation.
Q140 For what purpose CSTR is demonstrated in lab scale?
Ans The continuous stirred tank reactor is designed to demonstrate the
mechanism of chemical reaction in the stirred as well as the effects of
varying process conditions such as reaction temperature, reactor volume,
stirring rate, feed rate etc.
Q141 For what purpose the continuous stirred tank reactor in
series is demonstrated?
Ans CSTR in series is designed to study the reaction mechanism as well as
the dynamics of reactor with various types of input.
Q142 For what purpose the CSTR are modeled?
Ans The CSTR generally modeled as having no spatial variations in
concentration, temperature or reaction rate throughout the vessel.
Q143 In which of the industries the stirred tank reactor is used?
Ans The continuous stirred tank reactor is used in the corrosion processing
unit in chemical and polymer industries.
Q144 For which feasibility continuous stirred tanks used?
Ans A continuous stirred tank bioreactors are used to optimizefeasible and
reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbons such as
industrial waste water.
Q145 Which type of vessel is their in continuous stirred tank
Ans A reaction vessel in which the feed is continuously added and the
products continuously removed. The vessel (tank) is continuously stirred
to maintain a uniform concentration within the vessel.
Q146 In a continuous flow stirred tank reactor the composition of
the exit stream lies between what?
Ans In a continuous flow stirred tank reactor the composition of the exit
stream is same as that in the reactor.
Q147 How does a continuous stirred tank reactor behave like loop
Ans A continuous stirred tank reactor can alsofunction as a loop reactor
when a heated, pressurized fluid is injected into the system to facilitate
the stirring. This allows for higher heat and mass transfer rates while
simplifying maintenance because there is no agitator.
Q148 What are the continuous usage examples of continuous
stirred tank reactors?
Ans Continuous stirred tank reactors are most commonly used in industrial
processing, primarily in homogeneous liquid phase flow reactions, whose
constant agitation is required. They mabe used by themselves, in series or
in a battery. CSTR are also used in the pharmaceuticals industirs as a loop
Q149 How far the fermenters are known as stirred tank reactors?
Ans Fermentors are CSTR, used in biological processes in many industries,
such as brewing antibiotics, and waste treatment. In fermentors, large
molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, with alcohol produced
as a byproduct.
Q150 What are the cell culture reactor related with CSTR?
Ans the cell culture reactors are CSTR because the initial amount of cells

are placed in the fibrous bed basket. A nutrient rich medium is

continuously fed into the reactor and products are harvested. As the cell
grows they produce byproducts, which are continuously removed from the
Q151 What is the residence time for CSTR reactor?
Ans Residence time- average amount of time a discrete quantity of
resents spend inside the tank.
Residence time= volumetric flow rate / volume of the tank
Q152 Which of the thing s should be considered when making a
stirred tank reactor?
Ans The things which may be considered are
1 Rate of flow of energy in/out
2 Heat of reaction
3 Rate of change of energy (E)
4 Arrhenius temperature dependence
Q153 With what things the stirred tank is fabricated?
Ans The stirred tank reactors usually fabricated in steel, stainless steel,
glass, lined steel,glass or exotic alloy.
Q154 What should be the size of the stirred tank reactor?
Ans The reactors may vary in size from less than 1 litre to more than
15,000 litres.
Q155 With what things STR reactor may whrist of?
Ans A typical STR reactor conisit of a tank with agitator and integral
heating/cooling systems.
Q156 In which of the scales the stirred reactors are used?
Ans The stirred tank batch reactor is still the most widely used reactor
type both in the laboratory and industry.
Q157 STR reactor is particularly useful for what?
The STR reactors are particularly useful when processing toxic or highly
potent compounds.
Q158 What are the heating and cooling parameters for stirred
tank reactor?
Ans These are the parameters
Product within batch reactor usually liberate or absorb heat during
Even the action of stirring stored liquids generates heat.
In order to hold the reactor contents at the desired temperature, heat has
to be added or removed by cooling jacket or cooling pipes.
Within the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, external cooling
jackets are generally preferred as they make the vessel easier to clean.
The performance of these jackets can be defined by 3 parameters
Response time to modify the jacket temperature.
Uniformity of jacket temperature.
Stability of jacket temperature.
Q159 What is the purpose of jacket in STR reactor?
Ans Jacket consists of a agitation nozzles for providing higher turbulence
and hence better heat transfer.
Q160 For what loop reactors are used examples?
Ans Loop reactors are used, for example, in the manufacture of poly
(ethene) and the manufacture of poly (propene). Ethene (or propene) and
the catalyst are mixed, under pressure, with the diluents, usually a

hydrocarbon. A slurry is produced which is heated and circulated around

the loops.
Q161 What are the continuous stirred tank reactors in series?
Ans Continuous flow stirred tank reactors in series are simpler and easier
too design for isothermal operations than are tabular reactors.
Q162 In what parameters the analysis of the STR reactor can be
Ans The analysis of the reactor can be done by evaluating the quantitative
behavior of more complex gas, liquid and solid flow behavior.
Q163 What is the reaction composition in STR reactor?
Ans Because the composition of mixtures leaving a CSTR are those within
the reactor, the reaction driving forces, usually the reactant concentration,
are necessarily low. Therefore, except for reaction orders. Zero and
negative, a CSTR requires the layer volume of the reactor type to obtain
desired conversion, however the low driving force makes possible better
control of rapid exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Q164 What are the applications of ideal stirred tank in chemical
Ans In chemical engineering, reactors that features well-mixed conditions
and liquid level control are quite common. Within such ideal stirred tank
reactors, perfect mixing is assured and the output composition of material
within the reactor. In such systems, reactants are constantly introduced
into the reactor and products are continuously removed.
Q165 Why it is economically beneficial to operate CSTR reactors
in series?
Ans Often it is economically beneficial to operate several CSTR in series.
This allows, for example, the first CSTR to operate at a high reagent
concentration and therefore a higher reaction rate. In these cases, the the
size of the reactors maybe varied in order minimize the total capital
investment required to implement process.
Q166 What should be the behavior of stirred tank reactor?
Ans A behavior of a CSTR is often approximated or modeled by that of a
continuous ideally stirred tank reactors CSTRs assume perfect mixing
time, this approximation considered valid for engineering purposes.
Q167 Why CSTR reactors are easily constructed?
Ans The continuous stirred tank reactor is an easily constructed, versatile
and cheap reactor, which allows simple catalyst charging and
Q168 What are the applications included in CSTR reactors?
Ans The applications which are included ibn CSTR reactors are
Homogeneous liquid phase reactions
Heterogeneous gas liquid reactions
Heterogeneous liquid-liquid reactions
Heterogeneous solid-liquid reactions
Heterogeneous gas-liquid-solid reactions
Q169 What is the principle of CSTR reactors?
Ans The principle continuous stirred tank reactor is that one or more fluid
reagents are introduced into a tank reactor equipped with aan impeller
while the reactor efficiency is recovered. A stepped up concentration
gradient exits.
Q170 What are the limitations of continuous dtirred tank

Ans The limitations are that more complex and expensive than tabular
units. All calculations performed with CSTRs assume perfect mixing. At
steady state, the flow rate in must equal the flow rate out, otherwise the
tank will overflow or go empty.
Q171 What are the areas involving CSTR?
Ans The areas involving are chemical industry especially liquid/gas
Q172 Why CSTR reactors are used as multiphase?
Ans Multiphase CSTR can also be used when two immisible liquids or
visous liquids are present and require a high agitation rate.
Q173 How sizing of CSTR reactors are done in series?
Ans One can also design any sequence of reactors in series provided there
are no side streams by defining the overall conversion at any point.
Q174 What should be done to know the dynamic behavior of CSTR
Ans TO describe the dynamic behavior of a CSTR mass component and
energy balance equations must be developed. This requires an
understanding of the functional expressions that describe chemical
Q175 What do you mean by stirring blades?
Ans Stirring blades also called agitators are used to mix the reactants.

176. What is activated complex?

Activated complex is that assembly of atoms which corresponds to an
arbitrary infinitesimally small region at or near the col (saddle point) of
a potential energy surface".[1] In other words, it refers to a collection of
intermediate structures in a chemical reactionthat persist while bonds are
breaking and new bonds are forming.
177. What is meant by activated complex theory?
which studies the kinetics of reactions that pass through a defined
intermediate state withstandard Gibbs free energy of formation G .
178. What are the differences between activated complex and
transition state?
The activated complex is often confused with the transition state and is
used interchangeably in many textbooks. However, it differs from the
transition state in that the transition state represents only the highest
potential energy configuration of the atoms during the reaction while the
activated complex refers to a range of configurations near the transition
state that the atoms pass through in the transformation from products to
179. What is the role of role of activated complex in reaction?
An activated complex acts as an intermediary between the reactants and
the products of the reaction.
180. What are the effects of energy of activated complex?
The energy of the activated complex is higher than that of reactants or
the products, and the state is temporary. If there is not sufficient energy to
sustain the chemical reaction, the activated complex can reform into the
reactants in a backward reaction. With proper energy, though, the

activated complex forms the products in a forward reaction.

181. When was activated complex theory developed?
The activated complex theory, which enables the rate constants in
chemical reactions to be calculated using statistical thermodynamics, was
developed by American chemistry Henry Eyring in 1930.
182. Who proposed collision theory?
Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in
1916[1] andWilliam Lewis in 1918.
183. What collision theory explains qualitatively?
Collision Theory qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and
whyreaction rates differ for different reactions.
184. What does collision theory states?
The collision theory states that when suitable particles of the reactant hit
each other, only a certain percentage of the collisions cause any
noticeable or significant chemical change; these successful changes are
called successful collisions.
185. What is the effect of catalyst in collision?
When a catalyst is involved in the collision between the reactant
molecules, less energy is required for the chemical change to take place,
and hence more collisions have sufficient energy for reaction to occur. The
reaction rate therefore increases.
186. What is the second name of collision theory?
Collision theory also known as kinetic molecular theory
187. Which phase of reaction collision theory applies?
The collision theory explains that gas-phase chemical reactions occur
when molecules collide with sufficient kinetic energy.
188. What are energetic collisons?
Energetic collisions are collisions between molecules with enough kinetic
energy to cause the reaction to occur.
189. What is the relation of activation energy to the collision?
Activation energy is the key to breaking the initial bonds. When collisions
are too gentle, the adequate amount of energy is not brought to the bonds
and a reaction fails to occur. The activation energy is crucial in the
reaction rate because depending on how much kinetic energy is brought
to the collision, the reaction will vary in speed and frequency.
190. What is unimolecular reaction?
A unimolecular reaction occurs when a single reactant molecule
transforms into one or more products. Examples of a unimolecular
reaction include racemization, thermal decomposition, and isomerization.
191. What is bi molecular reaction?
A bimolecular reaction occurs when two reactant molecules collide in one
elementary step. Bimolecular reactions are the most common
reactions. An example of a bimolecular reaction is the collision of N2O and
NO, forming the products N2 and NO2. Another is the collision of glucose
and O2, forming CO2 and water.
192. What is termolecular reaction?
A termolecular reaction occurs when three reactant molecules collide
simultaneously to cause a reaction and formation of products.
Termolecular reactions are extremely rare.
193. What is the effect of orientation of collision?
In any collision involving unsymmetrical atoms, the orientations of the

atoms during collision determine whether a reaction occurs; without the

proper orientations during the collision, the reaction will not occur at all.
Collisions need to be oriented in a specific way to generate a reaction.
194. What is the collision frequency?
Collisional Frequency is the average rate in which two reactants collide for
a given system and is used to express the average number of collisions
per unit of time in a defined system.
195. What are the assumption for collision frequency?
All molecules travel through space in straight lines.
All molecules are hard, solid spheres.
The reaction of interest is between only two molecules.
Collisions are hit or miss only.
They occur when distance between the center of the two reactants
is less than or equal to the sum of their respective radii. Even if the
two molecules barely miss each other, it is still considered a
complete miss.
The two molecules do not interact (in reality, their electron clouds
would interact, but this has no bearing on the equation)

Q. No: 196 List any three guidelines for mass and energy balance.
Following are few basic guidelines for mass and energy
For a complex production stream, it is better to first draft the overall
material and energy balance.
While splitting up the total system, choose, simple discrete sub-systems.
The process flow diagram could be useful here.
Choose the material and energy balance envelope such that, the number
of streams entering and leaving, is the smallest possible.
Always choose recycle streams (material and energy) within the
Q. No: 197 How material and energy balance helps in energy
Ans: In material and energy balance study by assessing the input,
conversion efficiency, output and losses helps in establishing the basis for
improvements and potential savings. It helps in finding improvements in a
prioritized manner.
Q. No: 198 How material and energy balance helps in energy
In material and energy balance study by assessing the input,
efficiency, output and losses helps in establishing the basis for
improvements and potential savings. It helps in finding improvements in a
prioritized manner.
Q. No: 199 In reheating furnace, which loss component will be
recovered (or) recycled energy?
Ans: In reheating furnace, a part of the waste heat in the flue gas losses

is recoverable.
Q. No: 200 Why evaluation of energy and mass balance is
Ans: Material and energy balances are important, since they make it
possible to identify and quantify previously unknown losses and
emissions. These balances are also useful for monitoring the advances
made in an ongoing project and while evaluating cost benefits.
Q. No: 201 Why Sankey diagram is useful in energy balance
Ans: The Sankey diagram is very useful tool to represent an entire input
and output energy flow in any energy equipment or system such as boiler
generation, fired heaters, furnaces after carrying out energy balance
calculation. This diagram represents visually various outputs and losses so
that energy managers can focus on finding improvements in a prioritized
Q. No: 202 Differentiate exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Exothermic reaction: A chemical reaction in which Heat is
Endothermic reaction: A chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed.
Q. No: 203 List any three energy loss components in chemical
Energy loss components in chemical plants are:
1. Flue / exhaust gas losses (from boilers, reactors etc.)
2. Evaporation loss (from cooling tower, condenser)
3. Surface heat losses (boilers, process equipment etc.)
Q. No: 204 Which one is second form of energy?
Electricity is second from of energy.
Q. No: 205 In an utility steam boiler, what is the range of heat loss
due to radiation?
Q. No: 206 What Sankey diagrams show in graphics?
It shows energy input, energy output and energy balance.
Q. No: 207 Losses in energy and material balance is considered
It is considered as outputs.
Q. No. 208: What is heat of reaction?
Ans: Heat of reaction is the amount of heat that must be added or
removed during a chemical reaction in order to keep all of the substances
present at the same temperature
Q. No. 209: What are the most important assumptions for
mathematically modelling of continuous stirred tank reactor?

Ans: Following are the basic assumptions.

The mixture density (p) and heat capacity (Cp) are assumed constant.
The reacting mixture is assumed to be well mixed.
The heat losses from the process to the atmosphere are negligible.
The overall heat transfer coefficient is assumed constant.
Q. No. 210: What is activation energy?
Ans: Activation energy is defined as the minimum energy required
starting a chemical reaction. The activation energy of a reaction is
denoted by E, and unit is kilojoules per mole. Activation energy can be
thought of as the height of the potential barrier (sometimes called the
energy barrier) separating two minima of potential energy (of the
reactants and products of a reaction). For a chemical reaction to proceed
at a reasonable rate, there should exit an appreciable number of
molecules with energy equal to or greater than the activation energy.
Q. No: 211 What is continuous stirred tank reactor?
Ans: Continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) are the most basic of the
continuous reactors used in chemical processes.
Q. No: 212 Highlight some advantages of CSTR?
Following are the advantages of CSTR:

Good temperature control is easily maintained

Cheap to construct
Reactor has large heat capacity
Interior of reactor is easily accessed

Q. No: 213 What are disadvantages of CSTR?

Ans: Conversion of reactant to product per volume of reactor is small
compared to other flow reactors is the main disadvantage of CSTR.
Q. No: 214 What is Fluidized bed reactors?
Ans: Fluidized bed reactors are heterogeneous catalytic reactors in which
the mass of catalyst is fluidized. This allows for extensive mixing in all
directions. A result of the mixing is excellent temperature stability and
increased mass-transfer and reaction rates.
Q. No: 215 Where Fixed film reactors are used?
Ans: Fixed film reactors see much use in water treatment.
Q. No: 216 From Where nuclear reactors produce power?
Ans: Fission is the source from where power is produced in nuclear
Q. No: 217 What are the various levels of mass and energy
Ans: The material and energy (M&E) balances required to be developed
at the various levels are:
1. Overall M&E balance: This involves the input and output streams for
complete plant.

2. Section wise M&E balances: In the sequence of process flow, material

and energy balances are required to be made for each
section/department/cost centres. This would help to prioritize focus areas
for efficiency improvement.
3. Equipment-wise M&E balances: M&E balances, for key equipment would
help assess performance of equipment, which would in turn help identify
and quantify energy and material avoidable losses.
Q. No: 218 List the items to be represented for a preparation of a
process flow chart.
Ans: Items to be represented in flow charts are:
1. Input to the process
2. Process steps
3. Wastes / by products
4. Output from the process (or) final products
Q. No: 219 List any three energy loss components of induction
Induction furnace energy loss components
1. Cooling coil loss
2. Auxiliary system losses
3. Radiation heat loss
Q. No: 220 List any three guidelines for mass and energy balance.
Ans: For a complex production stream, it is better to first draft the
overall material and energy balance.
While splitting up the total system, choose, simple discrete sub-systems.
The process flow diagram could be useful here.
Choose the material and energy balance envelope such that, the
number of streams entering and leaving, is the smallest possible.
Always choose recycle streams (material and energy) within the
Q. No: 221 Differentiate between CSTR and BSTR (Batch Stirred
tank reactor)?
A CSTR has input and outlet flows; the BSTR has none.
Q. No: 222 What is batch reactor?
Ans: The stirred tank batch reactor is still the most widely used reactor
type both in the laboratory and industry. A batch reactor is one in which a
feed material is treated as a whole for a fixed period of time. Batch
reactors may be preferred for small-scale production of high priced
products, particularly if many sequential operations are employed to
obtain high product yields. Batch reactors also may be justified when
multiple, low volume products are produced in the same equipment or
when continuous flow is difficult, as it is with highly viscous or sticky
solids-laden liquids. Because residence time can be more uniform in batch
reactors, better yields and higher selectivity may be obtained than with
continuous reactors.
Q. No: 223 Why Batch reactors are used in laboratory

Ans: Batch reactors often are used because of their suitability and
convenient use mainly in laboratory experimentation.
Q. No: 224 Where CSTR configuration is widely used?
Ans: The CSTR configuration is widely used in industrial applications and
in wastewater treatment units (i.e. activated sludge reactors).
Q. No: 225 What is anaerobic filter?
Ans: The anaerobic filter is similar to a trickling filter in that a biofilm is
generated on media. The bed is fully submerged and can be operated
either upflow or downflow. For very high strength wastewaters, a recycle
can be employed.
Q. No: 226 What is anaerobic contact?
Ans: This process can be considered as an anaerobic activated sludge
because sludge is recycled from a clarifier or separator to the reactor.
Since the material leaving the reactor is a gas-liquid-solid mixture, a
vacuum degasifier is required to separate the gas and avoid floating
sludge in the clarifier.
Q. No: 227 What is packed bed reactor?
Ans: Packed beds can either be run in the submerged mode (with or
without aeration) or in the trickle flow.
Q. No: 228 What are fixed stationary particles or surface reactors?
Ans: The most common reactor configuration used for immobilized cells
is that of packed bed of particles. The advantages of packed beds include
simplicity of operation and reasonable high mass transfer rates. Problems
in the operation of packed beds include obstruction by uncontrolled cell
growth and compression of the particles leading to excessive pressure
drops. For these reasons simple packed bed reactors are mostly used for
the case of non viable cells.
Q. No: 229 What is Air lift or Bubble column reactors?
Ans: In these reactors mixing circulation and aeration is performed by
gas injection and if needed by additional external liquid circulation to
obtain the required mixing pattern.
Q. No: 230 Define the phases of reactors?
Ans: Most reactors contain three phases:
Solid phase (biomass aggregates or biomass immobilized on carrier
Liquid phase (water phase with pollutants / nutrient and products)
Gas phase (air or gas feed, gaseous products CO2, N2, CH4).