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D ATA B A N K- S O U R C E O F

D ATA .

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES

DESIGN DATA BANK

**12ME233 – DESIGN LAB
**

CREDIT – 0:0:1

2 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B - 1 0 M E 2 0 9 . D ATA B A N K- S O U R C E O F

D ATA .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Exercis

Name of the Exercise

e No.

Page

No.

**DESIGN OF A CLOSED COIL HELICAL
**

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

**COMPRESSION SPRING USING C/C++
**

PROGRAM

DESIGN OF A SINGLE DRY PLATE CLUTCH

USING C/C PROGRAM

DESIGN OF A BRAKE DRUM USING C/C++

++

PROGRAM

DESIGN OF A JOURNAL BEARING USING

C/C++ PROGRAM

DESIGN OF A GEAR DRIVE USING C/C++

PROGRAM

DESIGN OF A HELICAL GEAR USING C/C+

+

PROGRAM

3

5

9

11

14

19

turns Lf – Free length of the spring. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) G – Modulus of Rigidity. DESIGN OF A CLOSED COIL HELICAL COMPRISSION SPRING PARAMETERS: Wmax – Maximum service load.3 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . mm (millimeters) Do – Outer diameter of the spring. mm (millimeters) p – Pitch of the coils.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) Ks – Wahl stress factor. dimensionless Wrange – The load for which the spring deflects to the given magnitude (W max − Wmin). mm (millimeters) δmax – Maximum deflection of the spring. mm (millimeters) n – Number of turns of the spring wire. N (Newton) δrange – Axial deflection for the given range of load. turns nf .Number of turns of the spring wire with squared and ground ends. mm (millimeters) ALGORITHM: .S O U R C E O F D ATA . N (Newton) Wmin – Minimum service load. N (Newton) d – Diameter of the spring wire. dimensionless τmax – Permissible shear stress intensity. mm (millimeters) C – Spring index ( ). mm (millimeters) D – Mean diameter of the spring. D ATA B A N K. mm (millimeters) Di – Inner diameter of the spring.

4 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . D ATA B A N K.S O U R C E O F D ATA . .1 0 M E 2 0 9 .

1 0 M E 2 0 9 .Outer radius of the clutch plate. mm (millimeters) R – Mean radius of the clutch plate . N/mm 2 (Newton per millimeters squared) . kW (kilo Watts) N – Speed of rotation of the clutch plate. mm (millimeters) nsprings – Number of helical compression springs. N-m (Newton meter) τshaft – Permissible shear stress intensity of the shaft. mm (millimeters) b – Face width of the clutch plate . numbers C – Spring index ( ). mm (millimeters) Ro . rpm (revolutions per minute) Dshaft – Diameter of the shaft onto which the clutch plate is coupled. dimensionless T – Torque. N/mm 2 (Newton per millimeters squared) τspring – Permissible shear stress intensity of the spring. D ATA B A N K.S O U R C E O F D ATA .5 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . dimensionless Ri . DESIGN OF A SINGLE PLATE FRICTION CLUTCH PARAMETERS: P – Power to be transmitted. mm (millimeters) r – Ratio between mean radius and face width respectively .Inner radius of the clutch plate.

S O U R C E O F D ATA . N (Newton) δmax – Maximum deflection of the spring.6 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . dimensionless Wrange – The load for which the spring deflects to the given magnitude (W max − Wmin). mm (millimeters) n – Number of turns of the spring wire. N (Newton) Wspring – Load acting on each spring. mm (millimeters) G – Modulus of Rigidity.Number of turns of the spring wire with squared and ground ends. mm (millimeters) p – Pitch of the coils. N (Newton) d – Diameter of the spring wire. mm (millimeters) D – Mean diameter of the spring. mm (millimeters) ALGORITHM: . numbers Waxial – Axial load acting on the faces of the friction disc (clutch plate). dimensionless ncontact – Number of pairs of friction or contact surfaces. mm (millimeters) Do – Outer diameter of the spring. N (Newton) Wtotal – Axial load acting on the faces of the friction disc (clutch plate) by considering 25% overload for the transmission of maximum engine torque. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) Ks – Wahl stress factor. D ATA B A N K. turns nf .Coefficient of friction of the friction disc. N/mm 2 (Newton per millimeters squared) . pdisc – Permissible pressure intensity on the friction disc. turns Lf – Free length of the spring.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . mm (millimeters) Di – Inner diameter of the spring.

25 (assume) ∵ Number of pairs of friction or contact surfaces. ncontact = 2 (for single plate clutch) .S O U R C E O F D ATA .1 0 M E 2 0 9 . D ATA B A N K. ∵ Permissible shear stress intensity of the shaft. = 0.7 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . p disc = 0.07 N/mm2 (assume) ∵ Coefficient of friction of the friction disc. τshaft = 40 N/mm2 (assume) ∵ Permissible pressure intensity on the friction disc.

1 0 M E 2 0 9 . n = 4 (assume) ∵ Modulus of Rigidity. G = 84000 N/mm2 (assume) . D ATA B A N K.8 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . ∵ Number of turns of the spring wire.S O U R C E O F D ATA .

mm (millimeters) . D ATA B A N K.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . mm (millimeters) Rrd – Radius of the rope drum . mm (millimeters) Rbd – Radius of the brake drum . mm (millimeters) Dbd – Diameter of the brake drum.9 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . DESIGN OF A BRAKE DRUM PARAMETERS: Drd – Diameter of the rope drum.S O U R C E O F D ATA .

S O U R C E O F D ATA .80665 m/s2). m/s (meters per second) u – Initial velocity of the elevator when it starts from rest. D A T A B A N K . N (Newton) Ft – Tangential force acting on each brake shoe. m/s2 (meters per second squared) ALGORITHM: From the third equation of motion. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) Q – Heat generated in stopping the elevator.Coefficient of friction between the brake drum and brake shoes. ⁰ (degrees) m – Mass of the elevator when loaded.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . n .Number of brake shoes.10 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . mm2 (millimeters squared) w – Width of the brake shoe. dimensionless pb – Allowable pressure on brake shoes. m (meters) . m/s (meters per second) a – Acceleration of the elevation. numbers 2� – Angle subtended by each of the brake shoes. mm (millimeters) g – Acceleration due to gravity (9. N-mm (Newton millimeters) Ftb – Tangential force acting on the brake drum. N (Newton) Ab – Projected area of the bearing on each brake shoe. N (Newton) F – Total load acting on the rope while moving. we have . J (Joules) Fa – Accelerating Force. N (Newton) T – Torque acting on the rope drum (shaft). kg (kilograms) v – Linear velocity of the elevator when loaded. m/s2 (meters per second squared) h – Linear distance moved by the elevator after the application of the brake. N (Newton) RN – Normal load on each shoe.

the equivalent coefficient of friction (µ′) need not be calculated.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . therefore the tangential force acting on each shoe is.11 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . The heat generated in stopping the elevator = Total energy absorbed by the brake = kinetic energy + potential energy . D A T A B A N K .S O U R C E O F D ATA . (If the angle of contact (�) of each shoe is 45⁰. Total load acting on the rope while moving = Load on the elevator in Newton + Accelerating force The brake drum is provided with four number of cast iron shoes. We know that.

W (Watts) Qdissipated – Heat dissipated per second. N (Newton) N – Speed of rotation of the clutch plate. J/kg-⁰C (Joules per kilogram degree Celsius) l/d – Length to the diameter ratio of journal bearing.Coefficient of friction between the journal and the journal bearing. W (Watts) Qremoved – Amount of heat that must be removed per second. m/s (meters per second) Qgenerated – Heat generated per second. dimensionless . W/m2-⁰C (Watts per meter squared degree Celsius) l – Length of the journal bearing.12 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . D A T A B A N K . W (Watts) .Mass flow rate of the oil. ⁰C (degree Celsius) h – Heat dissipation coefficient. dimensionless v – Linear velocity of the journal. kg/m-s (kilograms per meter second) toilFilm – Oil film temperature i. the temperature at which viscosity of the oil is considered. mm (millimeters) p – Pressure acting on the journal bearing as per the load acting on it. kg/s (kilograms per second) Cp – Specific heat capacity of the oil at constant pressure. ⁰C (degree Celsius) pmax – Maximum bearing pressure for pump.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . mm (millimeters) d – Diameter of the journal bearing.S O U R C E O F D ATA . N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) δtoil – Maximum rise in temperature of oil. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) . DESIGN OF A JOURNAL BEARING PARAMETERS: W – Load on the journal.e. rpm (revolutions per minute) Z – Absolute viscosity of SAE 10 oil. ⁰C (degree Celsius) tambient – Ambient temperature.

From Table: 1 we find that the ratio of l/d for centrifugal pumps is in the range between 1 and 2.4 Operating values Absolute viscosity (Z).0013 1-2 First of all let us find the length of the journal bearing (l). if p < pmax. kg/ms 0. It depends upon the ratio of length to the diameter of the bearing (l/d) (k = 0.002. In other words. Assume that the diameter of the journal bearing (d) as 100 mm. N/mm2 0. Otherwise change the dimensions appropriately.S O U R C E O F D ATA . Let us take l/d = 1. for l/d ratios of 0. and centrifuga l pumps Bearing Rotor Maximum bearing pressure. c/d – Clearance to the diameter ratio of the journal bearing. dimensionless k – Factor to correct for end leakage. kg/m-s p. then the design is safe.7 – 1. dimensionless ALGORITHM: Table: 1 Machinery Generator s.8). then the design is safe.1 0 M E 2 0 9 .025 Z. dimensionless K – Bearing modulus (the point at which the coefficient of friction is minimum and at which the bearing must not be operated because a slight decrease in speed or increase in pressure might break the oil film and make the journal operate with metal to metal contact).6 If the pressure induced in the journal bearing by the load acting on the journal is less than the maximum bearing pressure of the pump.75 to 2.13 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . . D A T A B A N K . N/mm2 28 0. motors .

and is denoted by the letter ‘K’. Therefore the minimum value of bearing modulus at which the oil film will break can be represented mathematically as. The The computed computed value value . D A T A B A N K . The value of bearing characteristic number at which the friction is at its minimum is called the bearing modulus.0013. From Table: 1 we find that the operating value of the bearing characteristic number.14 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . we find that the clearance ratio 0. therefore the bearing should be designed for a value of at least three times the minimum value of bearing modulus.S O U R C E O F D ATA . The bearing should not be operated at this value of bearing modulus because it might break the oil film and cause metal to metal contact to occur between the journal and the journal bearing. assumed for convenience for centrifugal pumps is .1 0 M E 2 0 9 . Substitute Substitute the the value value obtained obtained from from Table: Table: 11 Check whether The The comput comput ed ed value value From Table: 1.

S O U R C E O F D ATA . rpm (revolutions per minute) NG – Speed of the gear. mm (millimeters) TG – Number of teeth on gear. If . numbers L – the center distance between the shafts. mm (millimeters) DP – Pitch diameter of the pinion. (Assume) (Assume) DESIGN OF A GEAR DRIVE PARAMETERS: P – Maximum power that can be transmitted. dimensionless NP – Speed of the pinion. D A T A B A N K . W (Watts) i – The gear ratio or velocity ratio . numbers TP – Number of teeth on pinion.15 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . rpm (revolutions per minute) DG – Pitch diameter of the gear. cooling of the journal bearing must be facilitated artificially. mm (millimeters) .1 0 M E 2 0 9 .

m/s (meters per second) WT – Tangential tooth load (beam strength of the tooth). dimensionless b – Face width of gear or pinion. σog = σop – static stress of the material of which the gear and pinion is made of .1 0 M E 2 0 9 . mm (millimeters) m – Module of the gear or pinion . N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) pcp – Circular pitch for pinion . N (Newton) Q – Ratio factor σe – Flexural endurance limit. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) σwp – Permissible working stress for pinion . dimensionless v – Linear velocity of the gear’s or pinion’s pitch circle. mm (millimeters) Ww – Maximum or limiting load for wear.S O U R C E O F D ATA . N (Newton) WD – Dynamic load on tooth. N (Newton) WI – Increment load due to machining error and the pitch line velocity . mm (millimeters) C – Deformation or dynamic factor in Buckingham equation (a factor depending on machining error) K – Material combination factor for wear Cv – Velocity factor.16 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . N (Newton) . D A T A B A N K . N (Newton) Ws – Static tooth load or endurance strength of the tooth. N/mm2 (Newton per millimeters squared) yp – Lewis form factor or tooth form factor for pinion.

r – Ratio between face width and module (assumed for convenience).S O U R C E O F D ATA . the pinion that will be subject to much wear.17 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . D A T A B A N K .1 0 M E 2 0 9 . and rotations. dimensionless ALGORITHM: Since both the gear and pinion will be made of the same material. Thus the design will be based on pinion. tear. .

1 0 M E 2 0 9 .S O U R C E O F D ATA .18 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . D A T A B A N K . .

125 1. Table: 1 (Values of service factor (Cs)) Type of load steady Light shock Medium shock Heavy shock Type of service Intermittent or 3 hours per day 0.25 1.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 Option 1 (mm) 1. and then select the appropriate one. Solve the equation obtained which of the third order.80 Continuous 24 hours per day 1.75 6.5 4.00 Assuming steady load conditions.80 1. the service factor (Cs) as given in Table: 1 be taken as ‘1. and 8-10 hours of service per day.80 2. and compare the value of the module (m) against the standard values given in Table: 2.S O U R C E O F D ATA .5 2 2.5 .00 1.25 1.5 7 9 11 14 18 Option 2 (mm) 3.19 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B .00’.54 1.54 1.25 2.25 3.00 1.75 3.54 8-10 hours per day 1.375 1.1 0 M E 2 0 9 .25 1. Table: 2 (Standard module values in mm (millimeters)) Preferred values of module (mm) 1 1.75 2. D A T A B A N K .5 5.25 1.

and Ww >WD then the design is safe.S O U R C E O F D ATA .N) 160 Flexural endurance limit (σe) in Mpa (N/mm2) 84 Substitute the value from Table: 3 If. . Ws >WD.1 0 M E 2 0 9 .H. D A T A B A N K . Table: 3 Material of pinion and gear Grey cast iron Brinell Hardness Number (B.20 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . Note: Choose the values of modules form the column that specifies the preferred values A check for dynamic and wear load.

dimensionless y – Lewis form factor or tooth form factor for gear. numbers TE – Equivalent number of teeth on gear .Number of teeth on gear. m/s (meters per second) WT – Tangential tooth load (beam strength of the tooth). numbers DG – Pitch diameter of the gear.S O U R C E O F D ATA .Helix angle of the cast steel gear. mm (millimeters) . mm (millimeters) r – Ratio between face width and normal pitch (assumed for convenience). N/mm 2 (Newton per millimeters squared) pN – Normal pitch of the gear. N/mm2 σw – Permissible working stress for gear (Newton per millimeters squared) pc – Circular pitch for gear pN – Normal pitch of the gear . D A T A B A N K .21 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B . mm (millimeters) . W (Watts) NG – of the gear. dimensionless T – Torque transmitted through the gear. mm (millimeters) σo – static stress of the material of which the gear is made of . rpm (revolutions per minute) TG . ⁰ (degrees) P – Power that has to be transmitted. N-mm (Newton millimeter) v – Linear velocity of the gear’s pitch circle.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . DESIGN OF HELICAL GEAR PARAMETERS: α. N (Newton) Cv – Velocity factor. mm (millimeters) b – Face width of gear. dimensionless .

m – Module of the gear . mm (millimeters) WA – Tangential tooth load (beam strength of the tooth). N (Newton) ALGORITHM: .1 0 M E 2 0 9 .S O U R C E O F D ATA . D A T A B A N K .22 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B .

S O U R C E O F D ATA .5 2 2. and then select the appropriate one.375 1.125 1. Table: 1 (Standard module values in mm (millimeters)) Preferred values of module (mm) 1 1. Solve the equation obtained which of the third order.75 3.25 2.25 .25 1. D A T A B A N K . Assume that the peripheral velocity will be between 10 and 20 m/s.75 2. and compare the value of the module (m) against the standard values given in Table: 1.23 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B .1 0 M E 2 0 9 .5 3 Option 1 (mm) Option 2 (mm) 1.

5 5.5 . 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 3.5 7 9 11 14 18 3.S O U R C E O F D ATA .5 4.1 0 M E 2 0 9 . D A T A B A N K .24 | P a g e D E S I G N L A B .75 6.

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