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AD-B 183 085

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE


FOR AERONAUTICS

REPORT 1231

NACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL


TEST SECTIONS
By RAY H. WRIGHT and VERNON G. WARD

APP
060

fLE 'E
a

n0

1955

94-10498

*
44

REPORT 1231

NACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL


TEST SECTIONS

Acces!on For
NTSCA&I
DTIC TAB
Unannounced

Justification......

By ...............
Distribution/

........
.

1-

Availability Codes

By RAY 11. WRIGHT and VERNON G. WARD

Dit
and/or
DitAvail
Special
Langley Aeronaufical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.

Fal

DTIC QUALITY INSECTED 3

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics


Hleadquarters, 1612 UI Street AIM, lVashington 25, DA

Crcated-by act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, for the supervision and dlirection of the scientific, study
of the problems of flight (U. S. Code, title 50, sec. 151). Its membership was increased from 12 to 15 by act
and serve as such wvithout compensation.

JE1r.ms

C. llUX8At~ta, SC.

LEONAND CARIIICIIAE,

D).,

Nlaqachoscetts Institute of Technology, Chairman

P~it. D)., Secretary, Smithsonian Institution,-Irice, C'hairmnan

Josen
P.AIMOL I1., Vice Chiairman, Civil Aeronautics Iloari.
A,EN V. ASTIN,-Pfl. D)., D)irector, National Blurcau of Standards.
l'imSTON Rl. BA68trv, '.%.A., Vice Pre. Idcnt, Sperry ]lad Cori).
Dt-rz.rV W. 13no:,K, 11ii. D).,P'resident, Rlockefeller Institute for
Medlical Recsearch.
TilomstsS. Cojimos, Vice Admiral, United States Navy, Deputy
Chicf of Naval Operations (Air).
FRnEDERICK C. Cwkwronis, Se. Dl., Chairman of the Board,
Thompson Products, Inc.
RLPH~ii S.-DAMoN, D~ Eng,. President, Trans World Airlines, Inc.
JAMES It. )ooL~Ir~s, So. D).,Vice Presidlent, Shell Oil-Co.
0AIILJ. PfINGST.ee, Rear Admiral, United States Navy, Assistant
Chief for Field Activities, Bureau of Aeronautics.

DoNAILn 1,

P'urr, Lieutenant-General, United States Air Force,

D~eputy C.hief of Staff (D~evelopmnit).


DoNAY.Y
A. QUAimns, D. Rag., Secretary of fli,, Air Force.
ARITHUR B. RtAYMOND, Sc. D., Vice President-Engnecring,
Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.
Fitmnics W. tmmemern Se. P)., Chief, United States
Weather Biureau.
LIommS
S. RTHnSCHILD, Im It., Unader Secretary Af Commerce
for Trransportation.
NATHWAN
P. T%%Iimm,
General, United States Air Force, Chief

of staif.

Ilumi L. Dimms, Pan.D., Director

JOHN F. Vicromy, L. -D., fixecufirc Secretary

Joux WV.Cnows~nv, Ju., 13.S., Associate Directorfor-Resrarch

ED~WARD
11. CIIASIDEIAN, IfRCCCtire Officer

0'

-IENOiy J. r. RID, 1). Eng., Director, -1augley Aeronautical Labsoratory,-Langlcy Field, Va.
SMT

J. DFMTRAoct,

D). Eng., Director, Ames Aeronautical Labsoratory, NMoflett Field, Calif.

EDIVAOD It. Smiwwm,


Sc. D,, Director,-Lewis Flight, Propumlsion Laboratory', Cleveland, 01110
IVALTen C. WVILIJA~MS,
It. S., Chief,

Iligh-Speed Flight Station, EdadCalif.

-- -- --

REPORT 12310
NACA TRIANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL TEST SECTIONS'
By RAY H1.WR5IGHT
RlniVHsxox 0. W~ARD
SUMMARY

,Inapproximatesboi hoywsdedpdfrtesld
blockage inteulterence inl circular windI tunndIs with walls s1lttedl
in the direction of flouw. This thery indimcated the p)ossibility
of obtaining zero blockage interference.
ests inl a circular
-

slotted tunnel based onl the theory confirmed the -theoretical


predictions. The slotted~wind tunnel-twas-operable at supersonic speeds

merely by increasing the power input, and mnoreorer, the-super-

sonic Mu!ch number produced-could be ied by virying the


power. The phenomenon of choking, characteristic- of closed,
tunnels, mid-not-oecur in the slotted tunnel,
Comnparison of pressure -measurements on a -practical size
nonlifting rnoddi-in the slotted tunnel with measurements obtained
onl the same-model in a muck-larger closed tunnel, inzwhich the
interference ejects were negligible, showed good-agreement at
I subsonic lf1404-numnberq not- reatly exceeding the critical and
fair agreement orer most (of the-model surface at Mach numbers
t~jm
o
LI.(late.
The transonic operation of-this type of test section requires
considerable-further experimentation- and analysis.
-

numnber 1.0 region. Fundamental-

considerations of thie
problein of windl-tunnel-wall corrections and choking liinitatis led to the ideal of at"porous wall."
Theoretical consideration of the prolein withi subsonic
floundarliestby
th eusl of slotsing the sinterfornedary
to onaisb
en fsosi h oi ~udi
extendling inl the direction of flow.

On (lhe basis of approxi-

mt

hoeia eutsc
lte
idtne
a
designed. Trests of a mlodel in thi-s slotted wind -tunniel
iiudicatec ua the-primary object of -iniiniing the-interference, ef ~cts duie to-constriction-bad I e attained. At
h aemntetsssoedta-tesotdts.eto
cud100ortdcniuusvtho~-tetrnoi ag
to-low supe.rsonic Maclh numbers -without change in -tunnel
configurat~in. No-hr'r -I yet-been developed-for tipperC
transonic andl supe,c'~if operation. Trhe submsonic theory
wits first ilevell _)einu-6.!ul formi inl September 1946. This
report prieents thie-signiw canit research results obt(ainied to
SUBlSONIC THEORY

'lelmtivsiainu~etkni ti

of wind-tunnel testing limitations for the Macli

g umwskAle
NAM~ Rt 15305IMi.

f.~s0(2)

~oet-a

-INTRODUCTION
theoretical study of-the solid blockage-in-a windl tunnel-with
cylindrical boundary1H
colitailling 01)011Slots plarallel to the(
Model testing inl wind tunnels at, high subsonic Machi
flow. It wats tlioughtcpossible, sinceie interference velocinuinbers-presents spiecial difficulties that increase in-Severity
ties duie to the boundaries aire of opposite signs wvith free-and
as Matclh number 1.0 is approached. To obviate timmitel
solid-boundaries, that-the opposite effects inight, he-so-comichoinganl-svee
iterernceefect (le o cnsriction of
billed inl a slot ted-t unnel as to p~rodluce -zero solid- blockage.t
= solid walls -il -closed wind( -tunnels, thie inodlel siz.e niust, be
Theztheoretical development follows.i
continously dlecreasend as thle Mach number- applroachles
Consider atdoub~letz placed onl the-axis-of atcircular slotted
unityv fromn ither direction -so that at Maclh nuinbers3-near
wind tunnel (fig. 1). Onl the assumjption of incomplressible
unity, vanishingly smnall miod cls are required. This-requirepotential flow, the-potential due to this dloublet is
moint prevents, imiclosed winal- tunnels, a study of model
charatcterisics continuously -through thle sonic region. It
rn
x
was recognizedl that ollem-throat, tunnels, because of thenr
4(I)4f+1
constant pressure boundary,-could not lerriit-tle-existemice0
- of the strong-axial pressure gradients characteristic of chjok~d
whlere
,n dloublet, strength
closed-throat-tutnels. Ini fact,,the very first. efforts to coilstruct high-speed winld tunnels -were made by ulse of open-, z coordinate ili axial nlirectiont
throat tunnels. Lar-ge power requirements aund flow um1i- r radial coordlinate
The total disturbancexpotential within-the tunnel is assumed
steadiness of open-throat tunnels tt high Muchu inumbers,
b owever, interposed serious (lisadlvant(ages, annl-thus closedto-be given by thle sui of thle dolublet-potential 0 audva-disturbance potential 0* determnined froni-the following-boundAs the lie(do~dut
__ throat tunneIs were employed,
lry-omliliomls:
research facilities for the range -of-.\ach iumber-near and
through l.0-grew, niew efforts-were instituted to solve the At; tle slots
plrolem

~REPORT
123 I-NATIONAL

ADVISORY COMMITTEiP FOR- AERON1AUTICS

Rb
0

Sot

Floam 1.-Circular clotted wind-tunnel configuiration.

At thle soli(I-boundaries

0001

=0

0/

(3)

whiere 11-is thle tunnel radius. The p)erturbation p)otentil

0*,like,

(4)

-=

r
()
2.
in
figure
as
indicated
where 0-is'the angular coordlinate

Letit

lotsbe-pace
syinericaly-n-th

bondar.

I-IS

then-possible and-convenient to-trIeat thle flow in only one,


of thie il idlentical stotors p~roduced- by drawing radii to- tile
centers of Ithe it open segnetsof the boundary. (See fig.2.
With theitranlsfolimation
Oiit0(5

to covers- a-rauge of 2v in each sector. Moreover, if thie


origin for co-is-taken at (lie radius dirawn to the center of-thec
closed segment, tile range 0 to -ir is seen to be exactly
symmletrical- to the range 0 -to -7r, so that-only thte p~ositive
values of (o-in) -tile range 0 to 7r need -be considered. With
the transformation (5), equiation-(4)-becoines
r Or r-_f
-

lFinua 2.-Cross-section slio%%big .slots and-angle relations.


css~I
co-nO. For mae shiow,n-4.

mst satisfy Laplace's equation. Thtus, in

6i=

[117ij
,-

Wf_,W+

='(10)

where 1P.is thle finlite cosine transformation of 0*withl respect


to (0atd is given by
ip (r r,

0*Cs(.t

aind-s=0, 1, 2,3,.Equation (o)-isrobtainled uinder thie


considerationk that

OWco00
where w, is tile value-of woat thke edge of tie slot. A similar
consideration-applics to equation (10). The-assmptionl is
now inade that equation (8) can be solved-by thke method

of separation of-variables.
(6)~Pr,~

'Thus, let

Use of equation -(12)-in equation (8) gives

apply. Thme use of the finite Fourier-cosine transformation


with respect to to is therefore suggested. (See ref. L)
Application of-tlte-finite cosine transfornv-to equation (6)-and
to thle boundary conditions (2) andit(3), with considleration
of equation-(7), yields

where the subscripts r and x indicate derivatives with respect.0


to those variables. Division of equation- (13) by XP? gives

~~Fi

n2+! ,

0,

-0

P+PX,,=0

r-

(12)

From symmetry, ats inay be seemmfroni figure 2, the boundary


condlitionsLi].
P i -' =0
(7

rr

00

(81)

r8

(13)

X(4

x(4
4

$iice, the sunm of-tile first three termns of this equation -is
(8)

-siii(8w)i~a~io~c~a

independent of-x and-the last termn is independent of r and's


-L=Sone Quantity Independent of z, r, and s

*0

NACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL, TEST SECTIONS


where ytis to be considered a parameter that, may be varied
at will. The solution with respect to the variable x is the
same as that obtained in reference 2. -Equatioll (15) is

Also, from reference 1,


---

r,)+-

i(r,x,s)cos(sw)

solved by terms of the type

where A~, is atconstant for-any given value of -y and~ solutions


may be added-to obtain a function of x satisfying the bound-

Lrsiltx
BO cos (fto)'AAk L,
a",
and if, iil equation (23), jiswritten instead of s

aryv conditions. For the-variable r, use of equation (1-5)in


equation (14) and multiplication by P gives
oP,,+L--(2+'1

k ) s il

(17)

P=O

A solu1tion of equation (18) is

anld
(19) r

,coj

where 1-is the x-lngtb over which Xis to-be der


equation (16) becomes

.I B.I

.
' 7=A'
k-.-i
L-rJ,.

kxfA1

1k---

kx

)-

sil.

kx
z

(27)

are- expanded- in

al d

',

also that

Fourier series with sill

(22)

sm---

OF\

(26)

Suppos
,,

.
kr
$,"in

Then

and equation (12) becomes


(r,a,s)=

s ) 1
, L

(20)

(21)
~

k~r) krx

ko.

where the primes indicate derivatives with respect to the


arguments of the Jessel'functions. From equation (22)

(2a)

xaloA sill'

sinl A

(25)

Now write

7=k2

sn(4

k.

chapter Ill.) The corresponding function of the second


kind fails to appear because of the necessity that, the solution

be regular within the tunnel.

(24)

sill

IB
0

D),-

'

A1

k!t ..

[-i

where ,., is-a constant- for any given value of Is, and1"I,, is
the :nodified-Bessel function of the first kind. (See ref. 3,

('23)
(sin

B., Cos ( /co)t~Zlk 1.1

.'HP- O(1=);PF
r P,,m~l.rrIt--n's'

sin

=,

(16)

sin Yx

so tlat

k-

F61-=- -L

Q,5n
,sill k-)
k:-,-

(2s9)

('-9)

where Q.kand Qt, are the -constants. 'Tihe boundary condition (9) now-becomes, by use ofequations (24), (26), and (28):

A 5 1B,4, k

sil (s)-sins

.k

kr

(Sco)l

B.,

sll

c,

k,

Cos (w) Cos W) d.

and tie-boundary condition- (10) becomes, by use of equations (25), (27), and (29):

- kB,4h.' (kL 1
71.T~lo
k-1

QkRsi , (

k,

( co ..- 7. t

kcss)
00

Equating-coefficients of sin

.. . .

Fsin (SWi)]

1 k=-

T)
t1
- Asill k,

k=-R-).,-_ Co-s (jc) Cos w,

and performing the indicated integrations gives


) -sin

] A A; B o+,

, ).)

L , (

) ol,, +Ssn ( JJi(0


) [sin (- s8)

01___

-2

-)--_

_,

(30)

:i

'

00

(COIMtflt*F FOR AFltO'AUTICS

IMPORTP 123 1-IATIONAL, ADVISORY1

and0

I')+"w-) [81107

~,A.
(wBQ,

V7"'l
i

Q,, Qk,, and14-thleiessel

Ineutos(23), (30), and (31) elk,

~~

2'0)_2(-s

(31)~~)J

and, if the functionls-A(q) aire colmbinled. With (110coetlicients

functions depend uipon k, which takes onl only integral

B)., Or 13.1, equat11ion (23) is replaced with

valnes. In reference 2, however, the length I wasyextenided.


to infinity and the Fourier series woas rceplacedI -y at-Fourier
integral. With the integral forin, thie coeff(icints A,, Qt,,
anld Q, atrc replaced by continnous functions ofk11 or,
otherwise of2
(32)
q R
q
If, also,
r

1j.
0
o

Coq l11 sl qZ

q
q

~~)I~j)sn(~
s$W
o(sf

0.q)I&psil(t
() (p)sn()dq34

C4

(.33)

and (equations (30)-andi(301 with


sir(ain
L 8

(',()
,,q)-,()

r n~~

co Sil j8)W
sill
2 '. (q) F
~(q) Silt~(scj,) + 2 Es4)-,q
L 12U-:8-) +' 2js
_j-,I
___

and

--

2(j-s)

j.
7r]?

Since Q, and-Q2 aire now thie functions which whenl multiplied


by silt (9 ) make tip the immegrands in the Fourier integral

expression of fo

antI

-and

_)IA)
___

sJ

Integ'ration by parts-and-considcration of reference 4 alhows


that.
Qq=-i- !1 qKoQq

respectiv.ely, consideration

(.39)

of equation (1) gives-a

Q
sill (qt) d
27r

y
A/e

Qo=!-U

r I(q

sintsml)

kind.

mq

2R2

and the relations (39) and-(40) are used, the following equation for determminmg-tlic functions ',vreits

(8

(jT

1o()Fsill(87)-Sill (swmfl
J.Aq)
Sill(j-e.,l

h(q)
1.)

Sill (j-8)w.+Sill (j+)c~m1-

-Sill UJ+#0o 1 }

raft-in (sr)-sin 4&)1 K(q) Fsinlsw.,l'~


8
J+
1.Qis Jf

\~qL -

(40)

where Ko and K, are modilu'dllesi'el functions of the second


If thc equationis- (35) anid (36) tirc solved for -CQ,,q)
and if tile right-hand -sides -aire then equated to each other

(.37)

-21)3

~2wJ1j'Ie44

O,40

j ffK~q)

tI

0t

NACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL TEST SECTIONS

F'or convenience, take


I1qoq
2W

L
lI!)

and let+the argument q of the Bessel functions be understood.


Then, since 0'=11, equation (41) can be written, after some
rearrangement, and after multiplication with tihe productt

JY"=

;,~P.s~}+

(..' K-

(42) ,,,I41+
IOIOi/
,o'

,{1

.,

.u

L..

Equations (43) provide at each value of q an infinite system


of simultaneous linear algebraic equations for the determination of tile values of the functions P,(q) at that point. With
use of equation (42)-the interference potential (34) can be
written
*g ()j,,2co

'r.0I)( sil(W q

(44)

rom -which the interference velocity in the dlirection of th


tunnel axis is

2cos s

P().&pco q d
,~p o q)l

(45
5

1t seems Ikely 'that, if the first few functions-PI, could be


obtained, the interference velocities not. only in the axial
direction but also -i, the radial-and angular directions (ohtailned by differentiating equation (44) with respect to radial
and axial distanees) could be satisfactorily expressed. Unfortunately, every function P,,,depends upon every other
one according to equations (43) and-even P0 maytherefore
be very difficult to obtain with a sulficient degree of approximation. Some information may be obtained, however. from
time formwof the solution. On the axis of the tunnel (p=0),
which is in the region of greatest interest because the model
is located at the center, the interference velocity is determined by the function P0 alone; for all tie Bessel-functions
1,,(0) are zero except for Io(0), which is equal to unity.
Moreover, as the argument, is decreased, tie value of the
Bessel function I., decreases ever more strongly as the order
is increased; therefore, if a value of w, can be chosen such
that, the interference-velocity at the tunnel axis-is zero, the
interference slightly off the axis will-be less as the number
of slots a becomes greater. In-any case, the-variation of
interference velocity with angular position near the tunel
axis will be decreasedhby increasing the number of slots, since
the interference corresponding to P is invariant with respect
to c. The angular variation of the axial and radial velocities
will-be symmetrical about, c=0. The angular interference
eoc~itic-, will lie -atl.yinmntrieal -bout w 0. Since the

(L-

i+

-k

sJI- , 3

(~r1

(43

only function of x appearing in equation (45) is the even


function cos (q), the variations of tie Axial velocities will
be symmetrical about ;X=0 (the position of tie doublet.).
The radial and angular variations, however, will be antisymmetrical-about x=O.
'ite infinite integral appearing iu equations (44) and (45)
causes no-trouble and canlbe graphically obtainted, since it
appears toconverge in tie region of q=8. For the closed
tnnel
u
(wl=1) anl for the open tunnel (wj1=0), for-both of
which-P, is-zero except, for P and for which P degenerates
to known functions of q including Bessel functions,-this convergence has been proved through the use of asymliptoti
exp~ansions of the Bessel fiuactions.
'Pie system of equations (43) has been set up-in matrix
form fill iJ of the equations and 10 of the unknown functions
P,.(q). (See-table L) For each row the value of-,s is constant.; for each column the-value of jis constant. The argument of the-Bessel functions is q in every case. The determinant, of the left side of equations (43) is contained in the
space below and to the-left of the doutlle lines in table .
This determinant is symmetrical about a diagonal; squares
containing ilentical quantities are inlicated with identical
numbers. In each square the function of Bessel functions
is to be multiplied by the function of trigonometric functions
appearing in that same square. The functions P,, applying
to their respective columns are given in the row above and to
the left of the double lines. The K at-the toll of the colunn
to the right of the double -fues indicates that the colunn
contains the constants given by the right-hand side of
equations (43).
The system of-equations (43) has-not been shown to beconvergent. Tihe Fourier-series in cos (sw) is required not
only to express a function 0* and its first, and second derivatives but also -to satisfy t.wo simultaneous equations expressing two different kinds of bouiblauy -comlitions. 1 1e
boundary conditions are discontinuous at the edges of the
slots (w=w,), and, by analogy with thin airfoil heory, the
velocities at the edges -are expected to be infinite. Such
boundary conditions cannot be exactly satisfied-by ayourier
scries al=it wuldnot-be surprisig, therefore, if-the ystem

AD

......

, ,: +,+,m]

ADVISORY

IMRPORT 1231-NATIONAL.

__

COMIUrEE FOR AERONAUTICS

AL I_

____

SCHIEDUL.E FOR- COMTPUTATION OF THlE CO'NSTANTS p~WITH TEN EQUATIONS

(1)

(2)

(11)

(12)

(14)

(23)

013)

(C)

~I

sit,...
ss+*I

+ 'I12

(23)03 (3

(8)

(7)

(2)

(3

01n7.

,n4

OD.sn2.

4)

(M)
21)

(21

K(1.)

(31)

(42)

29)

n_!I..

(7)

(43)

3)

(1)(0

14)
2

'1
9)

(13

0)

(1)

(16)

(M)(1

(40)

(43)

4)

aveageC~ilijt~l~s
taild bonday
nd -hes
COk~lti~lS,
ouie ere.
nay
col~ e xreselbyIealso-

oIt illreasnalt

24

lo9 I)...sn

I
J3)

34bsi

.si)nl2&M(1).n3

tila,
(eltetleislarely(l~~l'flhledb
lltrfeelle Iefi-til
Pleti2e
a.) ()OliaVaterhalb

(4s wer irtepo


Iuthat
le itefeeance

(4*)

(39)

M)

4 -

1.43

it4,.

(2))

(33)

s rasoableto
ioweer,
(43)wer divlgeit.It.
((i1305,

avrg
~(lt.li

(40)

(43)

al

-!In
0

~4ns1-In!

9.~

(4)

24
(1

(1321)

(10)

(16)

(0M(0

sutios, fovr,

(0I)

(4.)

sin)

ileCorrspOl~ing-vi(Is fr tie oen ~ld losd t!IQlcis7- t


wa relizd tat-til ilmberof quaion usd-ii tle oh7
0banigacrae)d
tioll
(c
s ent0el ilfd(1a fo
of ile nteferecebut ille tie itersrin e at tiinccltc
it.
bonay oin,
m~s, ieeidagey nth in

lhe
ie cquarel

exprvlesd and ahpn aecloe.tunels.t

funcmions
Ceithe ifely
(43)th
nO de
ariousr -aue ofaforby
aveag conditionresole at
7
aerag0.8 5w.on
tiled aondahle o l-itois andr,-theseO7

ealteize
Chath
numb9welre in fqatilure busei tile iltobtaioning5 bcae posi-s
ga w1 elltil inaeqatera
oftea~
inteierecey-tincie t.ea int.frec aitteranero

axiid-inerfernce elociesdiatutier seies.ofThe prolblem.


(p==O)
dAlcceorelis~ toe eiatio (4o a sfient debyrthe

Tie-cioretofileca
obltegain.
sandetile suchavioreoerileacalculations

cice

i.fgr
p.lt
.leetlynyb

nciedofaile Foigr3
nwere
such, however

h
tile iltrcodicattiposiioudnofary
slpreoit
ht.reit.,was sumielat

it afistatemt
sluiosforo btinmllerca
fth b aeqatlyexrese,

n a ate t-t clclae h


p

eimultancous~
4 )wt

le-fr-tfu
eqain

fntos

itrir-c---

'~.5riie

nfiur

eas

h-~-

-.

' ACA TI1A1SON10 WIND-TUNNEt, TEST SECTIONS


316

120 QZl slots; 10 equations


12l A Rectangular tunnel; a open-sides (ref.5)
10-l

I on the interferenice would be approximately zero.


ith reg il to com presibility effects, thle miethod d tlie whole system is stretched in tile flow direction
1U
kvbthe ratio
where 11 ik tIi, free-stream Matclh num-

-IW

-method,

--

it

~2.-

- -

~~ ~ ~

Ficeac
-

On
ie

com
til vlctie inffect of
-riediboudar(lie
eor.

8--ttrleam directistregth,

Rotin of

~ ~ ~ ~lotditnt~~~la

Raiofhesedeageryets, ant

eietal

to thfedoublet.
r
pressibleto lo increasedaxa
andopre
thbe
intuer-

nefrnea
toAin-atrerie-eoei
strini
delocitin her aie

inference velocities

41_ _A

ber. InthtItis process, thle t unnel botitidary remains utnelhanged


since-in the theory it, already extends unliforly
Ivto infiluity.

Sice
~~~

~~
.6aitreeneclctesaerorin

-00~~~

0'

e aio th
stream
ie
irectiyoneer
and
stor-~
ver thebe cresble induced
of the dulustead dipriont

Ii

verify-0hc assumption previously muade that for this conlfigira-

equolone
o Ice~us4
s~l~ s'm llon

in-drysretsile
comp

are-portonl
th xito nt

doblt

ai

~pressibilit
fstnces
li. arxiil

efowct. is alozr

ficaionillordr
t kel) he umbrs nvovedwitin
h
regnab oites iode
coldbetae into acolie inerl
raiig o (lie colitilig mreiialcin)wa nexit
olve l one
thebliraiigte(otbe.steghstl uthrcie mtr
BellTelpliimeLabratrie
X-0744rely cmpuer or
fe(lie tunel-wllostiti
on effect. reiliaaxi
s
uncliatiged.
i
the dblesof W1 eol ze2ro0.ao
lue~
0fwn49;
lsvau
.5r
the
A fdorto lcsth
thatiicaei interference-szrfo(leiOtili bhosiiistiof es er eusthBll epmahntas nt
veocitiessawayfom
ithlserd
poiin
oumresblet
folw Tihaiiis
sttio arr
thpeolann
cet titol
pear inmayof
bysonini~rs-iblitd mighter ecve toog le ctoal toleed
ap
a
(locie
pthrefrce spearsi
lie
asi- afhebdiuber unityediscus
lof.r te
valueSobined fuow
The squbyares or
eze of
w nintnnel,
wIllthco l e t ake
ou
ha., a is(rle
t.th psiio of(le lolbet rslow
intrfreceveocty
ubri
n
erae steMc
-2wasthon theisodlms.
byathiamd
re
in- oke ige nuTher vled
tll-ert
heer, (ietoulde
for
creas Atn ie ulet strnch
beaue of-it.
olptngnihe
bledth.wih
was
nexth veo tile
s unslott
ed.ilo
ber
oile to est.l munrch larger
io mo els i
zeo iTerfereone, waoouldesof-6a7loweae formwichler
Aydsierthn
aatu
(presentbe
tete ill ancreaseI i ier fer(lie
proleand vauso o f02r .5, 1n 0.9r til
salities
size
ot.iedule oiinwu( eianf
ie w~as ot
instigate (li.easctin ofl th
(being those
(se io"ar
tie rego underfce themost
favoral
d oilinglcOf
Obiy thoupe
ssoiamigegiohas reae (lie tnnaewall
btweene inr- the theoryc humern eite is hpoeloigc ld. A osiereoa-ar
fo cmar iso.Tvaues
(tils.lu
chktinicaeszoweer
tion of (lis ntueWlicetofa
wind-tunnels
lar
oiino te] tdou(le iterfereiic
inferenceovlet-lotcircu
iiee ocrsbecus the e~cness mas ltlitt, cokingust
forilie reaigudsia tiunlwt wre3.evle sieswh wase
moutl throug led sulot inof
cal psslie oest byclowge
(ltoeintefrefeice,
wo.l be fact.w tha le iferce
lte
-ligain
r
thughO (ilie
-ie" nk aha oli-eoesld
voO)l5les
n i a
(lee
velociblufov(erectangular tubie it
b1ne
in(le. Iidl
slotsycoi
the
dsr owntuigoh. strialeionif.)falabv
valus iithiseifor (lier tw ost cirabule oputin
Asnmayc
bhe
se1eroiiiire or
hslo
,
wihdths grnelartll,
th us sufiint toesecue zero ionterference it (lcner
(lie
r
dictes (ha iosmaesoni incoreret becaueneitr
strongly forfecte
lo ceitrulairo thnellosd sufae ies leru
(ile operatn of lilotd tuinel igrelate ihieive
iiles exsome psslowi
'rlii
cr-eisti
toatsloith.ee
tunluihlwlfe idles thic in(ies
tor (lie (ubltlOtilii-ierectangular
ioe
lue
mightfrenocom-bpro lie with egardtlowving (lit slrotil sidth
5The
i
-tefarctc-thaty
circulard(irfe,
etIlern
tlire
to-educ alend f ilte me an cal ene again
vh~eorek valeexpected to lie nearer-to the Wolli (WOeOpenSides
tigaslted, iid ith roegadtl. ebesliesli lnrtoi
sitig.3)flswitbove
(shewimbyrfilencprat.tt leidolet
grase small
(lie
on
ollBe-ltcrclrtnelde
Otheris e t seens (les-ireo3, forlslot width
vadlues
5 a rcnlyben
calculated
Telaehn e
ares Xr-06744 relay bcauter it14
moe
ta-tsfiien
sprcale
oereoilize
iefere requirement..
equatios ofle psytem (43).The reulrtne
shown in ie 3
ciclr

unl

nefrec-eoct

ad-ie

iecoe-une

_brfr-e-xetdt

Til

auemgt

interference__

at

and
be

au
*iO

ii

(ledultpsto
itcalulatd
j=05_rImsrecntl

tie

Bll

Ino t t-ihrear,
his

trabeistic promie fie

o-opoms

ih

ordc
iaeadwt
thewis,

eadtovrig

ie

helf-nefrn-%h-tIsnty~eiiv
eadtpg
i

sems

esirbleto

l
t e

3 that liey

lo

it

re

0i-errt

uesncoeai
th

slt

wdthas

mal

RE~PORtT 123~1-X1OXA1,

ADVISORY commr'ib FORt


AELtJYAUTICS

greater- tho-imumber of slots thle smialler is thie ratio of open


peripheryq to closedl leriphlery requiired- to -at tain the zero-

iterferenice conditjin. Tl'e power required -for a slotted


tunnel should-be inuch less thanu tliaL needed for anl open

''IA I
TRtANSON leSt, vt1DTEAs~lro

AITEhRS

tunnilel;
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

I'lanfl~ .4

SYMBOLS

Cwinig

11

D'

free-stream 'Macl inurber-(V7/a)


free-stream Machlinber- at-nudpoiiit of test
section
11"
free-st ream M achi iumber-at. positionl Of body
nlose
mf
free-streamn M ach iluillel- at positionl Of body
tail
1
albsolute static prssr
(p~ffb"
critical pressure ratio (4f1I;0)
I?
test section radius of circular tunnel
I'
effective radius of octagoinilst~section
S
distance front midpoint. of test section afloag
tiiel loingitudinal axis
1V
free-streamit velocity
TO
distanice along body aixis from-nose
( istance along wimng cliord-from-leadiiig edge
ydistance along wing span -frontu plate Of Symainetry
it

A,

TIL
PRtOIAT-$l'tEtOLD. ORtI)INAI'ES
- --U.-IflCIA4lo1)-("ii0tlSI
_____n_____

Saion

0
I

The test.-model was a 3.5-inch-diaineter-prolate spheroid


of fineiiess-ratio 6 (table Il1). The-ratio of body diamneter
to tuiinel diameter is, 0.292. Thme selection of a body of
quell large size was muado in order to magnify the wall-

iterferenmce effect to permit an-accuirate treatinent of tile

(n)

17
.2ii)

0
.012W
im)

i~

-2.i0

3.1"

'20

ii

iniclnned- in- figure 4. Some of the important, slotted(l tstspetion-prmltr r inicluded in tableM..

Sim

The local Static pressures over the body were -recorded


sirinultaneouslv wi th the free-st ream Mach unumber inl all
tne-ongraii.
InI order to obtain for iomjparisonl nix,' -. !erimnenta- "freeair"' or essentially interference-free condition for the 'nodel,
tests--vame also p~erformied onl-the $latte Iiiodel iii the I'llngley
8-foot- high-spevd tunniel. For fuither comparison, -tests
were ande it%12--inch-diunleter openi and closedl test sections,
and-the-restults were correctedl -by mneans of it potential- flow
method. The (hitiL frotn~lie $-foot -diameter closed- tunnel
Wet'e essentially free of interference as recorded.
Results and -discussion.-Surveys of thle pressure (list ribiltioiis at the center amid rtitlie wall of life slotted test~section
indicated it siltisfaetoril- uiinte-rgona-llsbnIc
Macli numibers. (See fig. 5.) Snoeroiii Macli nmnbers were
obtained merely hy increasing the pressure (drop across-tile

than tllat -at, thle throat. area. At, this-station the effuse,'
bell became tangent to thie diffuser. A closed lank 24 inches

(dianmeter surrounded the test, sectioni. A loniuinl~


Scelirmatic (hilgram of the Slottedl test section aiid~a scaled
cross-sectional -view of t(lie circular- slott(ed - est, section-are

~ll

walI-interfert-nee effects. Static-pressure orifices were installed inl the body along tot) andl bottom ineridians-mnd- at,
several angular sta1 Xons about ]te cente of the body.

TMlTS WITH 3.3.INlII-DIiAMELTER BDiY

Apparatus- and -methods.-.Prelimillary tests in thlis inlvestigatioll were - coxi tic ted in a 12-inchi-diameter circular test,
sect ion slotted-iii thle (directioni of -flow. This test sect ion
wmas
(lesigiled-on the basis of thme
plrecedinig theory to p~rodlue
zero blockage inlterferenlce at the position of the model.
TIeti evenmly spaced loilgit uinial -slots -comin;sedl one-eighth
of tImetotal-circular tteripiery. The -slot- -width remiained
constant along- its leimgth aiid extended dlownmstreamm to a0
station mi-the diffuser where the area-was 20 percent. greate

Amro lIemso no
minimum 2) IA'lwuS)*
o
%twsoVi~nr 1*11toosu A.0o
"Aent todlusk1r(pin),
-n
fiin." bell
ann~Rgo
of tank dIhiners
S-t-st-2.

1-

(diamneterof tunnel at(,throat.


effective diameter of octagonal (tunnel
total-pressure
body-length

alR10tlo
o il'Ot ill%K.
tivaarOlwo(nJ~ti.).

Spll

chordl

l~

I~lkd .1.01 0*10im~~

velocity of sound1(ill air


bwing

1i(IT.

11.11of sl It 'Alot U1,10hs$10iS

'I'e following symnbols tire used inl preseinting the results


of he xj~rilenal-llvstiati:Inled
it

L.530
8.34M
9501
U"
R5"
54311.4U

:O)
270)

4548

mw

5,X0
17&

QW,

9.

.I-L2

70

adius

stlol

I lia-5IrU

(n)

(i.

I.

0
5m
-2497
.4
UWa4 1
1.71147
IH1374
U,.
1:41
i00

.rs au
m

14
.3

210
NO.S

10)
I00
2.40.
32LMl

3AWJ
01

4"
73
1111Z
W2

.6334
.1w,

4'61

Li7.2

.35
1.247
9450

11
&W4(
74290

U
5w

7
4761

00

-VACA TRANSONIC WIN )VrUNNb V.iST SUCTIONS9

TCCNk

SkAS

00

Elfusef bell

to)

0-

Inches

(o

()

(a) $c denlatic dIlLigramu


ot transouiloSlottCel tunnel,
(b) Cromsection ol12.lincli-diaiter dircular transaoic slotted tunn1el.
(c) Cro&5 section of-12.iricb-effectlve-diaineter octagonal trausoic slott&d tunnel.

FDmrun 4.-Trasol-slotte.tuunnl configurations.4

10

REPORT 123 I-ATOVAL ADVISORY CO1NIM1FrEE FORt AERONAUTICS

-~-

-{4~--

D tbtion al funnel wall

~isrb
~ ~ tuna

elcenelire

Air flow
slotted lest-seclion wall-,

Entrance lip

Toni,

I-

-Model

Elluser b0!l

location

99

S901-

.1

0 0

-- '4

--

1097-

Slolion frm rndpotnt of test tectie/Ttwoot dneler, SID.0

2.

(b) 12-inch-diameter circular transonicisletted tunnel.


FiauxF 5.-Axial pressure distributions along ivall and center line of circular closed anid slotted tunnuels for several ifacl' nuinbers.
bola are for distributions at center- hue.

test sectionl. With a sulpersonliec I tllnber of 1.O97, the


Macit numnber variations appcared to-b110 .02 ovcr-a length
of one throat iamtieter. Cenitcr-liie pressuires wer-eobtaiincd
by mneans-of a li-incli-diancter -axial statie-pressurc suirvey
tube that extendcd upstreamn to the tunnlel entrance bell.
'fhe axial -pressure distribution at anl indicated streamMfacit number of 0.060 in the 12-inch-diameiter closed
tuinnel is inlulded in this figure -for comparison. Small
axial Pressure gradients existedi in tile 12-inch-diamieter
open1and closed tunniels aind-at tilt hlighlest subsonic \)1achi
numb -ers in thle 8-foot-dianieter-cioseLI tunnel. Trie Maclh
nuemnber calibrations for all tunnels were based onl pressures
at orifices-located ill thle closed -entranlce section upstream
of- the throat.
With the-3.5-inch-diamecter body ill time 12-inch -diameter
closed test section, thle facli number was limited to 0.7~2 by
choking -at the model, whereas -in tile open1 test section
choking at the efluser bell limited tie maximnum test Macli
o0.89.
-llne In tile slotted -test section choking-again

(Flagged sym-

occurred, at- tile effuser bell, but sine tile luixilng region was
now limnited onily to thle slots allilthe low-enlergy air at tile
boundary was therefore less than 'that produced ill thle
openI tunnel, a-mllaxitnulin Macli nmber of 0.07 couldl be
obtained. -In the S-foot. closedl test section a mnaximumn test
Maclh ntlilber of-0.94 was obtained-rathier thanl tile valee
0.06 intdicated- by tiheoretical one-dimensionad choking at
tilo model. 'T, S8-foot tillilel is therefore believed to Lave
choked -at tile sPort. strult. behind tile-Iioliel.
Thle measured local pressure ratios-at the mlidipoint of tile
3.5-inchi-diaineter prolate sphleroid in- tile 12-inil-dinineter
alld 8-foot-diamieter tllnel conifigulrationls corrected for thle
small presstwe-gradliellts that existed ini tile elosed-tilroat
tulieis -- re ntedl as a function -of' Mach number in,
figure 6. Even-with tilis large smsotel ill-tile 12-incli-dialnieter
slotted tumll., -the pressulre ratios show reasonably good
agreement over-ailnost tile enitire test 'Mach Ilimber range
with vailues-obtained ill tIle 8-foot.-diameter closed tummiel1.
'Thlis behlavior is-ii siarp contrast with that in tile 12-inch-0

XACA TRfANSONIC WVlND-TUNNEL TrEST SECTIONS

____

12-inch-diometer ckculor closed tunmet


8-fot-doeter circulor closed tu~rjel
o--- 12-inch-diometer circular sltted tunnel

.-.-----a0--

---

12-einchdim nter circular open tunnel

t----

.8

-1

IZ
0

'0 '

.1

.2

.3

5
.6
Steorn Moch rkxrber, M0

.7.8

.9

10

Fieunt. G.--Comparison of wecalpresmuro as a fuictior of Mach munber at midpoint of-3.5-ich-diuzmeter prolato gplieroid inl cirealar opoo, closed,
awl Slottedt 6111110s.

diameter closed tunnel, for which- (lie blockage interference


of this phase of OhL problem has boon-deferred, however, in
is very large. A largo high subsonic Mach number range
order to proceed'to thle more imnportant invcstigationl-of thle
is coveredl ill the 12-inchi-diameter slottced tunnel which
transonie -behanvior of this-typo of test- section with models00
cannot. be reached in the 12-inch-diamneter closedl tunnel
of more reasonable size.
because of choking at the model.
Figure 7 presents toe measured -local pressure ratios 2)111TSSWT
M.~t~l~cFRMIE
Apparatus and methods-2he second mode10 itsedl inl this
inl the Slotted tunnel comnparedl withi thle pressulre ratios
investigation consisted of a l.333-inch-(lialnoer prolate
obtained front thle corrected data front thle 8-foot-diamecter
spheroid, of fineness ratio 6, fitted -with anl NAOA- 65-010
closed tunnel andl from thle 12-inchi-diamneter opei ond
wing" of L5-incls chord--and 6-inch span. (See tables III
closed tunnels. Thle curve front the slotted testsection falls
andl IV.) The orifice -locations os- the model tire presented
between thie twn zero-iterference curves and extends to
in figure 9.
high subsonic Mnch-numbers for which adlequate correction
TABLE 1%r
for the-interference cannot he mnadl.
The pressure (distributions over thle 3.5-inch-diamecter
ORDINliTES OF -NACA 65-010 AIRFOIL
prolate spheroid are compared tt several Maclh numbersrdi
rdii
SttOn
with the two zero interference curves inl figure 8. The
pressure (listribution- obtainedI from thie linearized -potential
111o
c hvnot131r)
lcen5l
Chord)
crd)
theory is also shown. A rotation- of tile pressure diagram
inl the slotted test section is evidelit in thle sense of-increasing
I
15.0 Z064~
.75
pressures toward thle niose of thle body. Tilhe pressureratio -scale has been doubled relative to that, ill previous
2-0
m.
1,5
(4
4.15
believed that this distortion of thle pressure dist rilnt ion is
due tozthe inordlinately large model-uised in these preliminary
exlpcrilnents. Even so, it. is also-believed that-the distortion
might be corrected by tapleimng 'thle slot, widths. StudyI

la70
&

20.00 ,1
2&O
1,60
3000 4.11

10M.s)

1W

S&un I.n
MO

1~mo

_4

12

IMPORIT 123St-NINATOA

CONMMITr'ElP

ADVlISORIY

FORl AnloNAUTICS

8-foot-dometet circulor closed tiuet


12-h-dTeter c.rculor open ond closed tunnels
12ch-dmeter civcuior slotted twdel

--

-9

- --

0__
2

fr~iLzz ILT -i--~~"I


2

Stre~~-_
resu~ ato 3
Fiun
ictonofMah
7- orcei ocl umeratpojienofniipitt

eriher w
slots, 7Conring-ocpeeitm ofth mtontiono
(S l
ornrpeen c thd
lased side
Cat~
atathe

midoin
er
po
of umt
o at~Mc
mer
hed r s litirto

rrcfg.4)lt

7.

91

Moch
f

>~e~A

.ichdilnlciiolteSpI~oi mcicua

liv
ncdmvngterte s 11101lit rulrem
ditoa
ofyi thre8footttunnel,

t
.
slotted test sectinwssbtintwasfoehl
Ahelent octagonal
e i
ledeimn test so. Eih choice
th ego-tcircular-scin
of
(le fasieslt ofStue 4.rn
coe the ctaon-setn

e
ose pomints alwer uptenegMli nble,See s
roe Maclh number gradient wofbt.a0.03
tae-iwith

(lthe application of- this type of 1'roat-to -arge wind tunnels,


specifically, the -Langley 16-foot and 8-foot high-speed tonimiels. Factors -affct img thie choice Of- test-section shape are
installation of optical apparatus, simplicity of construlctioni,
and cost.
A calibration-based onl thle measuired tank pressure ahiead
of thle slotted region was used to give Maclh number variation both in the-subsonic and iii thle suipersoniic region. The
streant-Mach-niumber, calibrated in this-mnanner, is used iii
the octagonal transomnic slotted tunnel tests. Because of
the existing supersonic Maclh number gradliemnts, aill Macli
numbers above tlie speed of sound are presented for the nose
position of thc-test, inodel A-h..
For comparison, data front the Langley 8-foot high-speed
tunnilel, wemre litilizcdas tilie zcro, nitcrfercnce-couiditioii. The
8-fook.-iametcr closed tunnel was -limited to a subsonic
Mach nmber of 0.99 by chuokinug at or -ntear thle modlel.
The interferenmce effeclts onl the niodll-at-all-silbsonic Macli

were -tile best. available for this Maclh number range, anhi
as the \mc utmber gradient- was relatively siliall, thle restits in thie 8-foot, closed tunniel were treated as conitinuiouls
data for these comparisons. -Unless otherwise indicated,
the Mach numbers specified for these (la tire those existing at~tlie nose position of the model.
Results-and discussion. -Ile-axial lpresstlre distrib~utions
along the center line ainl wall of- thie l2-incli-eifetive-diametei octalgonal transonic slotted-tcst, section aire p~resentedh
in figure 10. The fact that higher-supersonic Macli Iumbers
were obtained in the octagonal slotted test section than in
the circular test section is believed to be (hil to thle shorter
length of-test. sectioni, since wvith this shorter leingth less lowcenergy air is required to pass-into thle dliffulser. The Maclih
liumhcr-variation-near Manch-number 1.27 k applroxinmately
0.65 and decreases as thie stream Macli number is reduced.
iumiiber imi the
At all subsonic Macli numulbers, th *Maclh
testa-region is satisfactorily uniforin.

the-suestoitheotaie of the -oA

hitee ateionts

.9

NA-9

~92
~

TRqiANSONIC WIND-TUNNlEL

-T--I" TT
FT-T

Lbetween

90

-r

.80

76

------

7nel

...L

8fooidome~r eculo cloed iM~l

-inc-damreler c reulor slotted tunel


12-nh 0el ei c
0
o l-ro
tu-nhoelerc oo pnadcoe

74

.72
70

-~

..

5.68

(lhe model. At. xrSI=O.9O,

over

the pressure

thie data inl the two tunnel Configurations

diffrenkes

larger
~fif~Ljmbthan at (lth-forward stat ions andl appear to inica teairea (liffer
4
ence inl the rate. of shock movement with Maclh number.
tF
Examiinationi of-referencee 8 imidictes (hat this effect mlay be

.78

13

TRST SFCT1ONS

-65-0

66

00

(tile to the 25-perenlt greater Reynolds niumnber and to tlie


higher turb~ulence -level in tIke I2-inch-diameter slottedl- t unas complared-z to the S-foot-diameter closed tunnel. Tile
ature of the psressure dlifferenice is such ats to indicate this
possibility. -J lie Machi number gradient ill the S-foot (tilnnel for tie low su1)ersomiic values lead~s also to show these0
points ait. at Maeh nmiber lower than actually exists, thereby
exaggerating (lie aforementioned difference. Th'le lowersurface and radlial-station pressure variations tire also presented ili figure 11.
Figure 12 presemnts comnparisomis simiilar to those inl figure I I
on (lie I .333-inch-diunseter prolate spheroid sw'len-the NACA.
10 wing is afixed symmetrically tot
the body. A pressure

566

izrti
.8.

.
SIolIon/Length, Xr./L
FiGR~Rn 8-Corrected

0'

pres sure (Hitribtiots along top) rneridian of

.3.5.incli-diamzeter prolato sp~licroild for several 'Manch antbers in


circular open and clo'crl tunnel,, complaredl vilik uncorrccted presmire
distributions along body In circular qclotted t unnel, (oeta
cl
of pll hisdouble that wsed in figq. Guiid 7.)

A point-by-point, comparison of thie lockil- pressures oe


tlie I .333-inch-dianieter body in thke 12-inchi-diameter tramisonic slotted tunnel with (hose inl the 8-toot-diameter closed
tuninel arc presemitetl as a function of Mach-number inl figure
I.'I'lie pressures Over most-of (ile body appear to agree
quite satisfactorily in (ilie two tunnel. coiiratos even
in (ilie 'Machi-number range-between 0.88 and-1.13, for which
this body cannot be tested, because of choking, ili a closed
tunnlel Of lie salle size us that, of the slotted-(tunnel. Above
a\ach umber-of 1.08 ili (lie slotted tunmiel, elisagemew
exists over-a forward portion of (ile belly in-the nature of it.a'
pressuire rise relative to (lie-pressure variations obtaiiied-in
(lhe 8-foot-diamecter closed tunnel. T1hiis pressure rise does
fut, Cuitolob, withi tlie fitiuifuliuiCes ill tile- tlliliei-ell)ty
Macli nuimber distributions. lNeither do these-nonuniforin-

itmes appear to affect substanitially thie prmsure distributfions

---

--

orimclo~tn

I-

w,

nIs

__
elr

Sro

(OLtSr~o~0

Mf'
lb!a
010
.02

Vnrc

0.70

1e7

upe_..,o

319

uf

TIC2

00.
11 totm~e

1-0

nir..-

60~i

'j
-e
.0)
-

.51rdialsa

Loner

( oJ

-i

FlIown; 9O-Irolato spheroid of 1.333.,iicli diameter with


S ACA-65-010 wing atlivedsymmietrically.

14

'123 I-ATIONAL ADV'ISORlY CONIl'lUF


IMP~1ORT

OR
0l AiflONAUTICS

Airflow

Entronce lp-,

Slotted-lest-section woll.

0V
2

0~

:l.i

eirln

I
20
-.

-.960~..

-0

-~0,otri1.05n

S2

0.50

Station frommidpoioof lest section/Effective throat diameter,~ 3/0'


Fiou

10-Axial pressure (listr ijlun alonig %%all


and-center Him~ df 12-incli-efivetve-diainetcr octagonal transonio slotted tunnel for moerat

Mach num11bers.

rise over the forward-portion of tho body above-a Mfach


niumber of-1.0S is again noted inl tile transonic slottedl tunnel.
'Because of tile large number of inuiividilal test-rulls nlecessary
to ob~tainl tile-supersonlic -test p~oints ill tile 8-foot-dialneter
closedi tunnlel, tile-(iata ipresentedi for tils configuration are
linitedl to-two poinltszill tile gradlielt, flow- ibet~ween- a .\lli
nlumber of 1.0 and 1.2. Thel acculraicy of time Compa)rison ill
tis M\acih nulnbelrauge is tiherefore severely limtitedi. Again
the lilli disllgrfeinellts bietweenI tile data ill tile two tunmlb/
conlfiguratiolns occur at-tile rear, of tile body, b~t- thle differenees are sinalier t(ban with thle body alOlle, a cir-Cuinstamice
whlicih Supports tlie plossiiliity that tlile (liffcreilcesz bay be
due inl part to Reynolds-number and turbulilee effects.
Trie local pressumres over tile NACA 65-010 willg-lllre conipalredI for tile two-tunnel configurations ill figiires-13 1111114.
Figure 13 presenlts variations witli Macil iluber-at-several
stationls alon~g tile-cllordi. Figture 14 presents sim~ilar v'ariationls at spalI)wiseApbsitiolls. Tihe, loan)l diff( rnnle~e..hu1weu

the data inl tile two tufliell configurations agail- occur ait tile

rearward chordwise stations. TVhe disagreemnrt-is most, sev'ere above (lie critical speed of tlie wing ibut -below a Machs
mnber of unity. Again these effects may be due-ill part0
to Reynolds nlumber-anid turbulence dlifferences. The spanwiecon isolls-(fig. 14) appear to agree Satisfactorily evenI
1
at, tile wilg-tip-positioil,
I .000.
Th'ie (lata- are ipresented as pressuire (list ributiolls inl figures
15 to 18. Thie (distributions oil tile bsody alonle are shlownl for
several \jachs nunmbers inl figure 15. Thie (lisagreelnent-JreVilously (iisctlssedi-inly 1)0 noted ill these clistriisutioiis '1'il
relative p)ressulre rise that occurs ill tile slottei- tunnel over
tile forward p)ortionl of thme body is illustratedl at Mach-Runher 1.120. At zb1=0.90 tlie lpress re lclifferelnces obtained -inl
tlie two tuniel conflgguraitiollsare viclleltfor-sulj~esoliie Naicil

nmbrIfr

1-f201-tO.78.

0
41

15

NACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNL TEST SECTIONS

(uppefsurface)
0.01

10

.7-

.5-

.-

_0_a.-

IS10

circular c
tumel,-8foot-ldueter
----l2*ich-effecriye-dometer octagonal transonic slatted tunnel

--

II

.5- .3
1.0-

1
.

11L

i.

__

.L

.o1L'I
.9.....-

__

__

iF

-L

006

I
7-

---- I
.5*.......

-:

4L .2(b)
Stream Mach number,

FiGunF I1.-Cornparisoii of local pressuresq as a function of Machi nuinber-for several Iongitudhial stations along I.333-icl-diarneter prolato*0
spheroid in thitrainsuo.ottcdItunniel and in a larve closed tunnel.

16

IMPORT 123 1-'ATIONAL, ADVISORY COMINMF

--

-N --

FORl AERONAUTICS

uf-

200

a.8

I-

E5

.5-.--11.

I.

.3P/

Fa0n 11-Cntnud

- 8-fool-domnete* cic0fcosdfn

.6

.4

17

NACA TRlANSONIC AVIND-TUNNEL TEST SECTIONS

.9-i

.4

L -,--

A---_

_2

_________________________________________-

18

REPORT 1231-NATIONAI,

------

ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

9.--

1.0-

'-.--

o.r surface)

o.

..

uI

.8

I00

.r

6- .

-0
(PI

.8

1.0{

---

.4

.lo*.r suroc~

2V

i~LF

.8- .6

.-

8foot-diormter cular closed funnel


slotted tuninel1
12-ich-efferfive-JL,.mr octagonal lrcrnsor~ic,

*,.

J1

.4

.5
.6
.7
Streamo
Mach nwnber, M0

.8

.9

t0

12

Fiountr 11.-Continued.

A,

If0

19

NACA 'ITRANSONIC
WINXD-TUNNEI, TEST SECTIONS

to

to

~~~

_8_

9
.9

Q70 (lower surfo


ce)

.7--

If

.6-

.
J0

47'

71

85

~O.~V

8-foo-ioner circulor closed tunnel

.2

.3

Ai

-4

5t(4t*
_ I st

.
6
.7
Streomn
Moc, rnwnber,
&b

Finuime I
Figure 10 presents comparisons similar to those of figure
15 over thle body with wing affixed symmetrically. Again
thle pressure rise over the forward portion of tile body is-iiluistrated at Mach itumber 1.120. For further comparison
a test -point at a 'Mach number-of 1.200 in-the transonic
slotted- tunnel has -beeni added. Trho large- negative Mach
number gradient- exist ing over the rear portion of the body
for this test point (see fig. 10) increases thle pressures beyond
the body stationixt.1= 0.30. T1'li distributions presented -are
of necesity limited-because, of (lie small number of pressure
orifices-in this small body.
Figure 17 presents limited cliordwise (list ribuitions on (lie
NAQA 05-010 wing mounted on (ile body. Th'le pressure
differenices indicated for thmetwo tunnel. config-urations occur
miainily in the region onf (lie airfoil where (lie local speed- of
sound hifts been exceeded. A- clearer comparison of these
(differenices caii be-noted in thbe- individual- pressure comparisons in -figure 13.
tions alongt(le wing. 'J'ii iportanitlpressuire (lifferenees between the two tuninel conifigiirationis occur nfear a Macli
number of 0,900. These differences may be -iore clearly
semi in figure 14.

0~

LUn

.8

.9

10

if

1t2

..-Czicluded.

'rue flow p~henomnsla, es viewed by tile schlieren flowvisuialization method, ovcr the 1.3.33-inchl-diamieter prolate
splieriod, with INACA 05-010-wing affixed-symmeitrically,
are presentedl throughout the transonic ranlge of thle 12-inlcheffective-dianieter octagonal slotted tunntel in figure 19. T1he
schilicren system used necessitated separate exposures for the
front-an(I rear of the test model. T'ie test-Macl itnumbers
are therefore not obtained siniult aneously -for thle froit, andl
rear port ions oftthe model. Tilhepositionl of (ile wing relative
to (lie-body has-been indicated by placimig-as aeccurately-as
possible t(lie wing sil houet te onl tlie sclilicen negat ives. TIheise
sebliereni observations were made early iinthe investigation in
order to substantiate further the measured pressures over
(hle body, and no particular attentiomi was given to the photographic-impressions. Consequently, the quality of the resulting photographs is pioor. It is believed, however, that.
these photographs-tend to portray (ile deovelopment of tile
about (li body and-wing is three dimensional and (Ie( interpretation of (tie sclilieren phlotographs is therefore difficult;
however, certain-aspects of (lie-flow pliemineia are interesting ats well as enllighteming.

20

RIEPORlT 123 I-NTIONAL, ADVISORY COMMAr'EN FOR AERONAUTICS0


1.0

--

.5

..

6[

--

-----

t0-

.8I

-4

r2-nch-effective-6ariefer octogonoi tronson~c


sloited tunnel

_ _~

-.-.1

.35

.
Z4
.6
.7
Streorn Moch number,
Mo0

.8

.9

tO0

splicrold, with wing affixed syminctrically,-in tlio transonic slotted tunriel-and-inna large closed tunnel.

12

21

NACA TRANSONIC WV1ND-TUNNEI, TEST SECTrIONS


t.0

-.

7- .----

j~--.--

--

~pe$d~)---

- A

.3
11

--

.2

-4

1.0*

.7--

(P/141

.2

.3

.5

.6

.7

.8

.9

10

We=boMochnfer, MO

Firum0

12-otii

3.l

1 3.2

22

RE~PORtT 12,11-ATIONALj ADVISORIY COMMITTEE FOR AEMlONNUT1CS

Fi

10.80

(e)~
TJ

1.0-

---.

A5

L9-.
.8

-IA

9.-A-

4-

~~

2-4--

---

*s

.6
--

~-.----

--

----

XACA

TRANSONMC WINi).TUNNEL

23

TEST SFCTIONS

II01
f:

5liii

1-

8-

Wrx~e.
~edlunnel

octorx

12;heff

1
Xr

- 7

ii
L1..L

__foe

(E0 --_
01

4-

StreomMoch rnjmbef, MO
Fiouitr 12-Contimiied.

24

REaPORT' 123 1-ATIOVAIa ADVISORYV


comNirrEI

-~

(lowersutfocel

-,-

.7 5_
.6
6-

--

.3 1

.21

-5

.3

0)

.~t~I1II~
-. -

.2

.3

INIi

4--~

..

__

.50t
J-

z3-

--

A4

0.70

FOR AERIONAUTICS

.5

84 -fotdoreter ircular closed funnel


I-ch-efeclive-diometer octaonaol
lionsonic sloted urm

.6

.7

.8

.9

I0

_11

I.1

1.2

StreomMachnumber, Mo

Ficut 12.-Concluded.

Th'e Ilocal supersonic region over tho-wing increases as the


streamn Maclh number is increased until the shocks from theo
wing extend beyond the body-and are visible- at A1=0.86
(fgs. 19(a) and 10(b)). Increases in M\ach number concentrate and- move the almost two-dimiensional-wing shock
rearward (igs. 19(c) amid 19(d)) until- at f=0.94- the shock
appears to increase its angle with respect. to a normal to the
flow and to lbe nearly attached to-tbe wing trailing edlge.
(See figs. 10(e) and 19(0.) A supersonic-region -also -exists
over the center of the body (fig. 10) and-its three-dimensional
shock is included in the combined disturbances at the
trailing edge of the wing at Maclh number approximately
0.97 (figs. 10(g) and 19(h)). A -comnpression region exists
onl the body slightly forward-of the -wing. The following
sudden expansion over the body is noted -in-the light regioil
above thie wing iii figures I0(g)-anl- 19(h).
At Macli number 1.00 a local supersonic region exists
over (lie forward portion of the boidy, followed by an ex.
treinely light, three-dimnsional shock (fig. 19(i)), With
further increase in INI'dh number thme
-compression region

at the rear of the body (lips. ]9kj), 19(l), 19(n), I9(p), and
19(r)) expands rearwardI- and eventually what appears to
be a normnal shock moves off' the taiL. rThe origin of this
disturbance is at present unknown, nor is it known whether
the phenomenon is-characteristic of-the body, of the tunlnel
configuration,or of- the observational techinique.
For Mlach nutmbers near 1-.0the bowv wave for the b~ody
has not appeared in the slieren field (figs. 19(i) and 19(k)).0
At, 'Mach number 1.01 (fig. 19(k)) a weak wing 1)ow wave
appears. As the Machi number is increased to 1.04 (ig.
19(mi)), the wing bow-wave-increatses in intensity. At these
Macli numbers large movements of the bow waves occur
for smrall changes in -strean 'Maclh number, amid at 'Maclh
mnmber 1.09 a strong -how wave has mnovedl into the field
of view ahead of the body (fig. -19(o)). A strong wing bow
wave is also present in the selilieren -field. 'The applarent
abnormnal widthi of thiebow waves is due to three-dhimnensional
curvature. The wing-bow wave-also-possesses tliree-dimlenlsiomial characteristics at the-wing Lip)s.

XACA TRtANSONIC WV1ND-TUNNEL,

25

TI'ST SECTIONS

(upper

8~

~~oe

8-fool-dometer cwuloc closed lurl


12lonchelfecive-dometee octogonkal
tronsoroc
slotted tunaet

TI

.4-8

(b)

.1

'

.8

.9

tO

1.

1.2

$Iteoch fyumber,M

FtitI

U. Coniparion of local preamoees


Lw a function of-%Maclj number- for oercal, ciort~iao
istatuons along tIke 61 1wrcetit senw-pla ikof N ACA
65 010 winig allixedl%$nlltricall) on 1.3-icbdae
prolate spheroid i tMetramlsoi Blotted tunnel andl in itlargo closed tunlnel.

26

lIMPORtT 123 I-NATIOXAT

1.-

0..l..-

----

-8

AD)VISORY COMMITTrEE -FORl AELROXAUTIcS

.9 .7k
.70.

.- A--

-t

2L

8-fool--trieter cfrculo cloed tunnel


---- ta-nch-ftetiv
6ntroctgnal
-traonic slotted tne

'(UP~si ace)-

L --L
06

.3

A4

Z5
.
7
Stieoin Mach number,
Mo0

Ficumi:13.-Conclttded.

II

NACATRANONICWINDTUNNI,
TST
SCTIOS42

100

10
.8h2
17

9-

.8

.6

.3L

bT2~ ~

.6~~-1

surtoce)

__(upper

10.319

I-

A- .2--I.Zi
. I I

f
-

--

--

Ii)

footd.Omeer etrculor cloed turtt


-12.inch-eftve-orneter
octogtrxet
troasonic
slolled toMC

(upper sufface)

.900

.4-.2_
.3

I (b).3

.71
.6
.7
Streom Machnmbter, A40

.9

LO0

1.

Fiut 14. - Conparlsoii of local pressuresias a function of.Micli number for seea pn o ttosalong the 50)percmit cliord of NACA 65-010
wing affixed symnmetrically on I.333-ineh-diturieter prolate spheroid In (hw tranlsonic slottol tunnel and i atlatrge closed tinnel.

II

28

IMEPO~RT 1231-ATIONAL ADVISORIY

COINMIfl'EF

FORlAERIONAUTICS

3-:

10-

1000 (1;p)

-(P/H)C,

Q*,

-5

.5

-901 (lower rk).--.

.0

---12-bch-effecive-diornetef octogonal tmonsoric


slotted Isrmel

Z.70

0.776

(86

~O

I .3

.3-

.2 A

u~rface)

.5

.7

.9

10

'4AD69

1,

29

WACA TRANSONIC WIND-TUNNEL TEST SECTIONS


.92

--

--

4oot-diometer circular cloud twroell

'VolO500

.84

_-

_i-I-

.762

*
0.

'0

4950
.. 9501
"A
.56-

.4

.4

.6

0S

.9

:007
J23

000

30

ltIPORT 123 1-NATIONAL ADVISORY COMINUTTE FORl AERONAUTICS

00

78 -4-2J-_

.70 C

70-

LLA.p

_950

A-5

.500

.5.7*

XACA TRANSONIC

-81footdiometer

.84

76

31

circulor closed funnel

$jltted funnet
12-inchelfective-diomeer oclogonol tronson~c

.88---

.80

IID-TUNNYEL TEST SECTIONS

-t

--

_JA.5

.80

VkK

tz~z~zL~tiz~zztzk977

950

Chordwloe stotion/Chord, xl
Fiounr 17.-Conpar~on of cliordwiso pressure distributions at 6I-percent seilspan-of IXACA 65-010 i1ing
affixed symmetrically on 1.333-inchdiameter p~rolate spheroid, for several Mach numbers in tho transonic octagonal slotted timnel and in a largo
closed tunnel.

32

IIMPORT 1231-NATIONAL

.86

ADVISORY COMMITTE

FOIl AFRIONAUTICS

8-fool-doee citctc' closed tunnel


,86

.......-

12-;nch-effectie-d6ometef

octaonal fronsoni sloted funnel -'

'

.781i
_74

,i

it

.70

g-

..........

ii

.6

.4.

-1%77

.34

.......
.
. Solo
----..
-o,.--/ - tolo/ei

.I

.2

.3

A4

.5

.6

.7

I.0

Sponse sttn/enspn
Fivun

I 8-Comparison of spains%6 pressure distributions At50 percent cIhord of-NACA 65 010 v ing affixed symmetrically on 1.333-inchdianeter
prolato spheroid for several Mlach iumbers-in the transonic octagonal slotted-tunnel and In a large closed titel.

O,

(a) Moz

0.86.

(b) M 0 0O.86.

F tt1 ii -

1)71

(C) M0 :0-.88.

(d)No0 08
. 9

(e)M0 -0,94.

(M M0: 0.94.

li I' of I.I'm Mwim.~imna. ,%tr I


tiv~Iamb
r mi I 2-inch-o

oi ai
.~juti
r 1w i.
*ro*-jinhI

rf

.pII.rtom mib wmu a.imF\ t1 x%imn ttrtiIM

goiial tr.oki

ttvi7

*
(itr nti~reaj-ujg Xhu-b

-mmoIjit I

3-1

Utiln
1,1:1NA'rIONA

hIx COM17.A
oI I r

1 4 1i %IxuRxNIc.

(g) M 0O.9z.

(h) Af~O0.98.

(k) M0 : 1.01.

(1)Af0: 1.01.

-I)

(in)

(n)MO=I.03.

M1
0 : 1,04.

" "
(P)MO= 1.06.

(o)M0 :I.09.

0:I

Fi.

(.ll

Ili2.l

IMPOT 121-NOMMI
ONALMATIRY
J, 11t LMOV11,r-i1

(S)
I)V~.oll'

vro.'~I.
I2~1
-'
nl~aoat'

Mol.

14

llOAII

lr.Itl

(t) No 1.2 1

1'Oill'i 19
At .11

LI.2

tIh I

altiippnut'iit
Z9
VV, OI
Il*(
Imel

of the b~o%
1iialapieo,

'etiie

igl.

lIlt'

I il 41f t.

ain
Ile Il I vtlIIeIi Iuk%

oditlie

hue
Ilkagla

altev'tt lul

vu-Ivatla e a I tli, e ar of tlhe N Ive'


liolv eviieeaoe of 'Ilaotk wieleet ion ott'uN,
A 1/-- 1.1-1 Ow
iolad till,"4ellet-tioll 11i11tt1u to tii Iut' flu t -poal lti die
liite-thiiiivlll Io %%11e ibt'lf. iii Ilit'l Ihalt ft thu diW
Itolio (iaf lie "aill i f1loi l o t '"".""ig at'"l
SOIl(it
Itave mithIa
of fil. ltot~ bO%%
fig. 19(-)). Thle ltlte'ednt''
thelit illivelli wiaidow, is again aioted behindut thle bow wa t't'
Th i nttgbow wavvly appea" to miove foi-waa d. pa obttbly on
ad itaaiiht' glradient 1tOt'tl ia:1
leol1t Of OWlen'ga liVe MIR1
ilite di~ta jlaa olus \Vitl the slot ted tuiaaael emplhty Ifig 1111

('tetattt'I

At IIIIIll

illt

tile

paolnbibv aat

dil-let'tialt'at rtaaal-mtl

I ho.t' obtainted ill

-for

=
-

Ii6)

otainued

il

te

is MucIhri li11laltt
hotl slta ioai ni t11
te S-foot -tilliait't t'etlositl tuilliel frl

I2-invti~ldillilletea' slottttd tiaaaiu'l


wet

ei et'stttivt' of (Ilie Matla1 1111lllbea'

'iu' ra tios5 (fig.

ait t
of thet 0.301

blm'is foa volipili alil ttiatI, to -,ix v' pm%0


I 11aiiM0iiav
ilelilt'
td 11111
foi
Itl40

li

toot

Ililgi

(1 Auiithik
a11
Iaulge beta ua~t',ftali tkVCOloel I Willd ItI~ OIJk'i
shlatel 11111a1
x(v1wil
o. Ilit eireetike (e-I t'elit
'aa
v)be taiaploved,
%%
outali1 1-o1111allv
V bet It 4 MIIC([t
uppe
t
ltltpa tIeaI III ilt %a
lit ilieil
'F AIV
0 throait tliolagl t hu
t, (lie pi 011(11 of opel a (oll of "il
ti'
idibul 10 aa aae. anld lao p~artittai t'rl~t 1i ll bt-11
i
M
a
i114ttP to obtaaa 1)1)1illmial j)o\%t-r peaforaiaaaue1e.

~-

42

f--

--

38

~nre

'ee

334

exilggeate thvs el'eet


lihe ju teulang wivt* awlay 216~o
At .11 A.21I and 1.22: the' bowv-wvJ' t'(iglatioll allead
of the model ]IIas beenl tleiil-tt'v t'stalilled. followed by,
t.il opo~)0ilig s'lliea'eaa tjildows (fig,*,
t it, 'lttit ii llt'
- wilig 1)ovw tti ' ill Iigltaes 19(t) antd
MI1t) atnd 19 (ta .'Il

intdicattetd. site til-he

t'~tiitest'

'

.-

.,.

30-7

I*

T
44

2 &6
Q2

t-w-le V'ele
2.cln~onc
if

rk

1i8

-..

'

ra' o to 'ItiC-~~~trcocOise
'21 ilbi ~uatt . -kypoal lhor~vpowi
1 a~Fgurv
12-.iI tla-e'rettI i ve-diaanIletIea t~i-11 a0lic ;lot tttl lllilleIt'I
to-1______________________________________________
T3
i2
ii
t0
9
8
7
5
C
4
t 3
iaael. 'Thit I2-illt'I-hii anttt't
(te I2-imoh il itll't'a opet'l
~
d'osedl t111110 Operatinig saipt'rsoiitallyv WithI st ilaiglat \Vlll~rer
ratio
uuu,ai
itmtimi of Machi oiuuiiur
h -t i.
t. 20- 'l~ ptcaI lwrurnv' umr
tivcagealte ik w15(1u it baise Whetreby Jill intdication of a 1t'htVI
ittwrlt~,
m
for 4u,wd idit )pv-iIiutu
Il(iletto ' ill tlit ol)t'li tand slotu' tltoaifigtlii tlioli is otibiillitt

XACA *rRANsONIC WIND-TUNNEL TFST ISECTIONS


GENERAL DISCUSSION

Inumber

mstiay he seen fromt figure 0, the principal prediction of


thie Subsonic theory, inl regard to mniniiza tion of thie interference dlie to coiist rictiont of thie tunnel Wallis by meaing of
thie circular 10-slot tuone with one-eighthi of the totalperiphery open, has heenk realiz.ed with lte largo 3.5-inchdiameter body. Tile 'Macli numbter to which the slot tedl
tunnel canilbe sattisfactorily operated-is much greater thanl
thie choking Maclh number in lte closed- tunael. As seen inl
figure 7, thie pressures a(Ithle center of the boudy appear to be
apiproximately correct. till to thie highest Match nun11)ier
obtuiiiied. With regard to thie complete distribuutio ove
tis large body,, however, the slot ted tunniel appears les
so tisfiictory. As seenl in figure 8, atdistortion of the piressurme
diligmanti Occurs, byv which tlit. pressures over thie foraini
Imitiomi of tit,, hoil are increased and those over thet rear of
the body aire decre ased. Th'lis distortion canmiot be (lite to at
pressure gravliemit iii time empty (tuniel hecTause thle piressure
wvas essentially uniform over the test. sveedon. The subsonic
theory based[ Oil potential flow about, a symumetrical body'
cannomt indicate anyv such aisvinnietrical distortiov. The;(
distortioni indicated can lie at result- of too much out flow
throuigh thie-forwaid portion of t(lie slots anld miiy he idim to
intrac
beweeio th lage odyamltheslots ill thle

37

gradients inl this legion, since fo, Malsupersonic

r'
lalnumbers
less than 1.2 in thie 8-foot tunnel, the modelI
wits tested inl atpositive Mach nunih11er gradient of ahout
0.3orthlegh ftemdl, hreintb lt cl
tnmh, atnegative gradient, somietimies existed. IU.the flow~
over-the rear of the-io
molei were critical, large ditferences inl
pressure might, therefore exist. Similar differences might

occr because of thle Reynlolds numnher and turbulence


differen ces inl the two tunnels. Onl the ohfer hand, the
op~erat ion of thle Slot ted(lunel ma11y
be such as' to exert an1.,1
in1terference effect over the real- of thle muodel.
ile geometric design of the originid ci rci iti slot ted tunnemml
was Intended to represent thie boundary conditions assumed
inl the theory. The geometric mnininmm occurred two inches
ahi'ail of the upst relim end of the slots, anld- thle divergence
downst ream through-the test. sectioni was-only sufficient to
coipmisate for thie boundary layer that would be developed
il it closed tunnel. The ent lanco lip) at the upst ream eniis
of thie Slots was m11ae sharp so as to insure ecl separatIion
of theiflow tit this point. (See fig. 4 (n).) The edges of the
slots Were rounded and the mnaterial tielindl the solid port ions
wits cull away from behind thie slots to insure constant
potential tit lie slot -posit ions (fig. 4(b)). Theluse last two
refinuemnents Wert not aldhered to inl designling (t(eOctagonal

presence of thle tunniel boundarly layer. With 11smaller


model, therefore, the distoit ion should be reduced; anch W~illi
thie 1~.33-incli-dianeter body, which Wits less t him half
the sizie of thie moidel used in thie prelinmary tests, this (us(oction ill the subsonmic range was not. aippa rent. (See fig.
15~.) With regard- to angular variations, pressures ilielislre(I
at various iimgular stationis around tlie cenuter of t(lie large
boils showed iio detectable variations (lime to thie slots.
Wit i ~lacl
~er mimbes
tan miliy, he fac nuber
(listrilm tiomi ill tile test. sect ion of Idhe t ranisonic slot ted w~indh
tuinel is (litle satisfactorily unuforn, as-may lie seen for the
Wlli andl(center-line- posi t ion s from figures 5 iind 10. With
atM ach Illmbler greater than unity, thie (list ribii t iok herolies
progressively less satisfactory as thle Miachl11immnhiem
Is Ill
creased, lfip to a -Macli nimmh1er of 1.1, however thie variatiolis tire lnt-greater t han mnight. be expected ill at closed
imimmel,
atconclusion thiit, has been simbstamitiat ed by sebllieren
observatiolis, which show no sharp dlisturbanlces ink the
flow. Thle slottled-tuin presents the great adviintage thattile suilerollie Macli numbher may be chaniged simply bY
vairyinig the power iniput, to thle tunnel.
As seen inl figures I I to 18, models -may lie tested in tile

slot ted tunnel (fig. 4(c)). Otherwise the characteristics of


thslttutnel
rg'ninabeI.Teetscio
was iade long, both because a large body~ for which the in terference 1ollilbe apprecialble, wats to be tested it ml becaluse
the theory assumed anl infinlitely long ylimidrical test sect ion.
Thet size of the tank wes governeid by consideration of space
availale~ al lv probable initerferenice -effects. Dowvnstream of the slotted test section, a slot ted ifruser portion
faired inito thle efruser hbell lit its junektllr0 With the soliid
(lfusr At this point, the cross-sectional-area was iiboiit
20 piercent groatter -thlan thle uphstreamniIniiniuli area.
[le ar-ea ratio betweenu downstream amid upst ream closed
sections niay be somewhatt too large bilt experience has inch cated that, thke highest. sulpersonic Mfacli numuber obltiled
dlepends onl this ratio. -Wit lliusollic operation, too 8sn1iil1
""i area ratiq results- ill -tunnel choking- at- lte downst ream
effective iniiiiinn -before It Mitch number of unity has beeni
olaiticil ill thle test section.
rhe power required (see fig. 20) would he less with at
shorter slotted test, sectionl. Withi somewhat Wider slots
-thanl those uised in the tests repiorted herein, essentially Open
tumliel Opierationi could lie Obtained, at least, for sulbsollic

tranlsoic slotted tunniel thi ougliout -the range of Macli

Matcli numbers, wit Ii a considerabile reduction of power ats

been eliminated, a-fact that has been confirnitt kvbselilieren

Of t0mP
samle lenigthu. The piower also (depends-upon _1
tlle ratio
of the area at the beginning of lte closedi diffuser to that, of
the lupstream muinilmlin. 'It. appears desirable to shorten the
slotted test sectionk ill order to reduce the-power. Sulch a
nModificat ion may have practical limits Withi supersonic
oe01pAtioP, beceukse-acrtaiu test section length ira-rccjircd
for tile flow to settle out. into at fairly uniform Maclh nuimbei
(list ribiti(on. (Sec fig. 10.)
Th'lis ilivestigatiomi hag (demonustratedl tile possibility of
reducing the solid-bloekiigc interference and(1climniatiiig the

photographs (fig. 19), whlich show progressive changes about


the( whole mnoidel thuroiughiout thie transonic range. Over
c11051
of the mod0(el-surfaice thmecorrectness of-the pressures,
us, indiicated liy compaurisoni with results fronti the 8-foot.
t~u~mPI,~failysatsfctoy.Tile reli vehireesue-incren~
ovei the forward portion of the body-at-Mach umnbers above
1.08 is believed-to-be (lite to some type of tunnlel-wall utlterference. The disagreement with the 8-foot-tunnel results
ait the tail of the mnlouel 1m113
lie (lite to the difference ill Macli

38

MEORT 1231-NATIONAL ADVISORY COM1M1ITEN FORl AERlONAUTICS00

choking limitations of conventional wind tunnels. It therefore appears possible not only to test models larger thani
those usually empjloyed l it windl tunnel of given sizeo but
also to cover a near-unity test Maclh naumber range not heretoforo practicable inl wind tunnels. Ftirther-advanitagczs inlchide p)owe'r consumption consiileraly less -than that re-

thie two sets of data, appear' to occur, but reasoniably good


agreement is obtained over most of thle model surfac~e
Ca.Theo transonic operation of this type of test section
r-equires further experinientattion and analysis before design-,
canl 1) undertaken with certainty of complete adequacy.
Particuilarly-atre data requiredl for models of large lift. Tile

the Maclh number at supersonic as well as subsonic speeds


inerely by varying tile piower. Thto practical realization of
these advant(ages- depends oi thie future dlevelopament of thle
slotted winld tumanlel.

-power performance also require further study.

IJANOLEW FIELD, VA., Juno1 20,

CONCLUSIONS

On (lie basis of thie (data,herein reported, thle following


conclusions are believed justified:
1. The interference due to solid blockage inl a-winl tunnel
operating at subsonic speedls canl be minimized by meanis of
aitslttedtestsecton.2.
sottd tet Scti~l.
2. The closed-tumunel choking limitation cain-be elinminated
bv-Ileanls of the-slotted test sectionl.
3. A slottedl wind innuel call le opieratedltat low supersonic
sp~eedls merely by- increasing tile powe~r, andl thle supersonic
ontiumosly ~' var~imagdac
mnnibe caui
I~hwli vaied
Alah nmbe
e vrle
cll

cntiuouly

aryng

he

powe~r.

4. Test regions witha satisfactorily uniform Match naumnber

dlistribiutioni canl be obtained ili tile slotted test section at all

sumbsoic speeds anal at sumpersonmic Mauch numbers up to-at


leaust I. I.
frota tsts f ~
ilatatolittine
5. Pessue~ditrilmtio

tets f a
0. resuredisribtio
dait btanedfro
alonlliftilag bodyv ini-a slotted test section with the ratio-ofcaoss-sectionmal area-of tle liou-to cross-sectional-arva of time
tumnnel of 0.0123 show good agreement, up to-Mach nuanbers
tme exeedng
ritcau, wih tattm fr t~e sme ody
somelma
soliewatexcedi.-thecriicl,

LJANOi.ay AtnovAUrICAr. TkAnovRomi,


N.ATmONAi, Avimsouf Co~umintrE FR

ithdait or hesaio bdy

obtained from tests inl at closed-tunncl for which time correspendling area-ratio is 0.00019. For high Maclh nunmbers
iuldiaig passage-throughi 'Mact- nulmbler 1.0, divergenceCszOf

AmtoNAc'rmCS,

1055.

REFERtENCES
1. Churchill, ltucl-V.. Modern Op~cratioaaal 'Matheumatics in Eaagiaaecr.
iag. 'McGraw-Hill Milk Co., Inc., 1911; pp. 272-274.00
v, itarnantlf, A.: Tunnael Correction for Compressible Stilb~sanic Flow.

NACA'rM 1162, 1917.

3. Gray, Andrew, 'Ma(lacws,-G. It., anad MNacRobert, '1.M..:

ATrcati~e
onl Btesel Fit tc Iions and-Tneir Applications to Physics. Second
ed., Mncaailln & Co.,-Ltd., 1931.
4).Wat.,au, G. IN. A T1rcai1o onl thle Theory of Besel Functions.

Second eid., Titoe Macmllhan Co., 1914, p. 172.00

5. lWiesel~lerger, Carl: Oiber dena Hinflaass der WilaaikanaallbegroaaZlag


asaf den-Wideretaad iaasbesoaaatre ian-]trelche der koaapressiblma
Stromng. lDaiftalartfoa'schaaag, liad. 19, Mg. I1,Maly-1, 1942,

pap.12-4-128.

aaaaGardner, Clifford S.; Stuaay bkytlae-Prauadl.


lauarrt Aetlaod of Comaapressibality Efftects anal Critacal Muach
Various Aspect liatlos anad Thlickaaess
Ellipsolals-of
Numboer-for
Ratios. NACA TX 1792, 1949. (Supermcals INACA 11M
1,7113a.)
7. Matlews, -Clarenace W;; Pressumre Dist risutioma Over at- WingFuaselage Model at Macla Nuaaahrs of 04 to 0.99 anad at 1.2.
NACA-1tM 1,81100, 1018.
8. Cliapaaaa, D)eal, it., amad1'eckima, Edtward W.; Ex~perimntal Illveitigatieaa of tiac Effects-of Visco',ity oaa-ttao Drag-of Bodies of
Revolution at a -Macla Nuimber of 1.5. XACA Rep. 1030, 1951.
(Saap rseaes NACA IM AA31In.)
0. Iless, Rtobert V.,

PAIIRC1
V.S GQV1flXWNT

Mlsh