# Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M, 1994
REV. A

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Table of Contents 1. General Rules.................................................... 3 2. Geometric Characteristics and Symbols ........... 8 3. Datum .............................................................. 19 4. Form Tolerance ............................................... 46 5. Orientation Tolerance ...................................... 54 6. Profile Tolerance ............................................. 65 7. Runout Tolerance ............................................ 75 8. Location Tolerance .......................................... 83

Page 2 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1. General Rules
1.1. Rule 1 – Limits of Size 1.1.1. Individual Feature of Size Where only a tolerance of size is specified, the limits of size of an individual feature prescribe the extent to which variations in its geometric form and size are allowed. 1.1.2. Variations of Size The actual size of an individual feature at any cross-section shall be within the specified tolerance of size. 1.1.3. Variations of Form (Envelope Principle) a) The surface or surfaces of a feature shall not extend beyond a boundary (envelope) of perfect form at Maximum Material Condition (MMC). This boundary is the true geometric form represented by the drawing. No variation in form is permitted if the feature is produced at its MMC limit of size.
EXTERNAL FEATURE INTERNAL FEATURE

n20 -0.1

+0.1

n20 -0.1 n20.1 (LMC)

+0.1

n20.1 (MMC)

BOUNDARY OF PERFECT FORM AT MMC
n19.9(LMC) n19.9(MMC)

n20.1 (MMC)

n19.9(MMC)

n19.9 (LMC)

n20.1 (LMC)

b) Where the actual local size of a feature has departed from MMC toward Least Material Condition (LMC), a variation in form is allowed equal to the amount of such departure.

Page 3 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

c) There is no requirement for a boundary of perfect form as LMC.
LMC SIZE

1.1.4. Relationship between Individual Features The limits of size do not control the orientation or location relationship between individual features. Features shown perpendicular, coaxial, or symmetrical to each other must be controlled for location or orientation to avoid incomplete drawing requirements. 1.2. Rule 2 – Applicability of Feature Size Applicability of material condition modifier (RFS, MMC, LMC) is limited to features subject to variations in size. They may be datum features or other features whose axes or centre planes are controlled by geometric tolerances. FOR ALL Applicable Geometric Tolerances: RFS applies will respect to the individual tolerance, datum reference, or both, where NO MODIFYING SYMBOL is specified. . “ASME Y14.5-1994”

j n0.5 A

j n0.5m Am

j n0.5m A

1.3. Rule 3 All other controls is implied Regardless of Feature Size (RFS).

1.4. Pitch Rule a) Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference specified for a screw thread applies to the axis of the thread derived from the pitch cylinder.

j n0.5 A
MAJOR n

A
MAJOR n

Page 4 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

b) Each tolerance of orientation or position and datum reference specified for features other than screw threads, such as gears and splines, must designate the specific feature to which each applies.

j n0.5 A
PD n

A
PD n

1.5. Virtual Condition A constant boundary generated by the collective effects of a size feature’s specified MMC or LMC material condition and the geometric tolerance for that material condition. The virtual condition of a feature is the extreme boundary of that feature which represents the ‘worst case’ for, typically, such concerns as a clearance of fit possibility relative to a mating part or situation. PIN: VC = Size MMC + Tolerance VC = Size LMC – Tolerance VC = Size MMC – Tolerance VC = Size LMC + Tolerance

HOLE:

Page 5 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1.6. Exercise 1. A(n) _________________ is a numerical value expressed in appropriate units of measure, indicated on a drawing and in documents to define the size and/or geometric characteristics and/or locations of features of a part. 2. _________________ is a general term applied to a physical portion of a part. 3. Define Tolerance. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4. All Dimensions shall have a tolerance except for dimensions that are identified as: a) reference. b) maximum. c) minimum. d) stock sizes. e) all of the above. 5. What are the limit of the dimension 25±0.4? ___________________ 6. What is the tolerance of the dimension in question 5?____________ 7. What is the nominal dimension of the dimension shown in question 5? ___________________ 8. Give an example of an equal bilateral tolerance. ________________ 9. Give an example of an unequal bilateral tolerance. ______________ 10. Give an example of a unilateral tolerance. _____________________ 11. Define Maximum Material Condition (MMC). ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 12. What is the MMC of the feature shown below?

n15.00+0.25

Page 6 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

13. What is the MMC of the feature shown below? _________________
n15.00+0.25

14. Define Least Material Condition (LMC). ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 15. What is the LMC of the feature shown in question 12? ____________

16. What is the LMC of the feature shown in question 13? ___________ 17. List the three general groups related to the standard ANSI fits between mating parts. 1) 2) 3) ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

18. Is the fit between the two parts shown below a clearance or a force fit? ______________________________________________________

n

19.43 19.18

n

19.76 19.50

Page 7 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

2. Geometric Characteristics and Symbols
2.1. Symbol

Type of Tolerance For Individual Features Form

Characteristic Straightness Flatness Circularity Cylindricity

Symbol ASME Y14.5M-1994

Symbol ISO

u c e g k d a b f j r i h t

u c e g k d a b f j r i h t

For Profile Individual or Related Features For Related Orientation Features

Profile of a Line Profile of a Surface Angularity Perpendicularity Parallelism Position Concentricity Symmetry

Location

Runout

Circular Runout Total Runout

Page 8 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Symbol for: At Maximum Material Condition At Least Material Condition Regardless of Feature Size Projected Tolerance Zone Diameter Spherical Diameter Square Number of Places Counterbore Countersink Depth All Round Between Arc Length Radius Spherical Radius Controlled Radius Conical Taper Slope Tangent Plane Free State Statistical Tolerance

ASME Y14.5M

ISO

m l
NONE

m l
NONE

p
n Sn o X v w

p
n Sn o X v w

x

x
NONE

10
R SR CR y z

10
R SR NONE y z

T F

T F
NONE

ST

Page 9 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

There are two types of radii tolerance that can be applied, the radius and controlled radius. The radius (R) tolerance is for general applications. The controlled radius (CR) is used when it is necessary to place further restrictions on the shape of the radius, as in high stress applications.

12.7 R 12.3 On drawing Meaning

Max Radius 12.7 Part contour must fall within zone defined by Max and Min radius tolerance

Max Radius 12.7 12.7 CR 12.3 On drawing Meaning Part contour must be a fair curve with no reversals. All radii points must be 12.3 min to 12.7 max.

Page 10 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Statistical Tolerance
Often, tolerances are calculated on an arithmetic basis. Tolerances are assigned to individual features on a component by dividing the total assembly tolerance by the number of components and assigning a portion of this tolerance to each component. When tolerances are stacked up in this manner, the tolerance may become very restrictive or tight. Statistical tolerancing is the assignment of tolerances to related components of an assembly on the basis of sound statistics. An example is, the assembly tolerance is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerance. Statistical Tolerance may be applied to features to increase tolerances and reduce manufacturing cost. To ensure compatibility, the larger tolerance identified by the statistical tolerance symbol may only be used where appropriate statistical process control will be used. A note such as the one shown below shall be placed on the drawing.

n

20.2 19.8

n n

16.07 15.93 16.1 15.9

0.5 0.2 A B

A

B

NOTE: FEATURES INDENTIFIED AS STATISTICAL TOLERANCE SHALL BE PRODUCED WITH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROLS, OR TO THE MORE RESTRICTIVE ARITHMETIC LIMITS

Page 11 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Free State
Unless otherwise specified, all dimensioning and tolerancing applies in a free state condition with no restraint. Some parts, such as sheet metal, thin metal, plastics and rubber are non-rigid in nature. It may be necessary to specify design requirements on the part in a natural or free state as well as in a restrained condition. The restraint or force on the nonrighi9d parts is usually applied in such a manner to resemble or approximate the functional or mating requirements. A note or specification on the drawing should explain how the part is restrained and the force required to facilitate the restraint. A sample note can be found on the drawing below. The free state symbol means that dimensions and tolerances that have the free state symbol applied are checked in the free state and not in the restrained condition.

3 F

2 SURF 2 SURF

4X n 5.4 - 5.6 n 0.2
M

A

A

B

65

25

32

5.6 36.8

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, ALL UNTOLERANCED DIMENSIONS ARE BASIC. PART IS TO BE RESTRAINED ON DATUM A WITH 4 5M SCREWS

Page 12 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

ASME Y14 Series Y14.2 – Lines & Lettering Y14.3 – Sections & Views Y14.5 – Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ISO Standards 3098 128 129, 406, 1101, 1660, R1661, 2692, 5455, 5458, 5459, 7083, 8015, 10579; (also 14660-1 & 14660-2) 6410-1, 6410-2, 6410-3

Y14.6 – Screw Thread Representation Y14.8 – Casting & Forgings Y14.36 – Surface Texture Symbols

1302

Page 13 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Basic Dimension (theoretically exact dimension in ISO) Reference Dimension (auxiliary dimension in ISO) Datum Feature

65

(68)

A

A

Dimension Origin

Feature Control Frame Datum Target Area

Ø 0.5
Ø8 A1

M

A B C
Ø20 A1

Datum Target Point

A1
Datum Target Line

A1

Page 14 of 102

Controls Characteristic Axis or Surface Median Plane X X X X X X X X No No No No No Yes No N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Yes if size features Yes if size features Symbol 2D or 3D Applicability of Feature Modifiers Applicability of Datum Modifiers

Datums Form u 2D 3D 3D 2D 3D 2D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 5 3D 5 3D 5 h t 2D 3D u c e g k d j r i a b f Straightness Axis or Median Plane Flatness Circularity Cylindricity Profile Profile of a Line Profile of a Surface Location Position Concentricity Symmetry Orientation Angularity Perpendicularity Parallelism Runout Circular Runout Total Runout Straightness Line Element

Type of Tolerance

Datums NOT allowed

Geometric Charactieristic Overview

Datums Required

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

1

3 2 2
X X X X X X X X

Yes No No Yes if size features Yes if size features Yes if size features No No

Yes if size features No No Yes if size features Yes if size features Yes if size features No No

Datums Requied

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 15 of 102 4

1 2 3 4 5

There are special case where position and profile may not require datums These characteristics control opposing median points Can also control surface boundary Can control form, orientation and location These characteristics can be made 2D by writing “LINE ELEMENTS” under the feature control frame

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 2.2 Exercise

ASME Y14.5M-1994

A dimensioning and tolerancing template is recommended for drawing proper symbols on this test and on future tests. 1. List the five basic types of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing symbols. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________ 2. Name the five types of geometric characteristic symbols. a) ____________________________________________________________ b) ____________________________________________________________ c) ____________________________________________________________ d) ____________________________________________________________ e) ____________________________________________________________

3. Name each of the following geometric characteristic symbols.

u c e g k d j

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

r i f a b h t

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Page 16 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4. Any letter of the alphabet can be used to identify a datum except for ____, ____, or ____. 5. When may datum feature symbols be repeated on a drawing? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 6. What information is placed in the lower half of the datum target symbol? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 7. What information is placed in the top half of the datum target symbol? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ 8. Label the parts of the following feature control frame.

j n0.05m A Bm C (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G)

Page 17 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 9. Completely define the term “basic dimension”.

ASME Y14.5M-1994

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

10. How are basic dimensions shown on a drawing? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________

11. Name the following symbols.

n R SR CR Sn X v w

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

r o (68) x
y

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

z ___________________

ST
65

___________________ ___________________

Page 18 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

3. Datum
3.1. Datum Concepts A datum is a theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specified datum feature. A datum is the origin from which the location of geometric characteristics of features of a part are established. Datums are established by specified features or surfaces. Where orientation or position relationships are specified from a datum, the features involved are located with respect to this datum and not with respect to one another. Every feature on a part can be considered a possible datum. That is, every feature shown on a drawing depicts a theoretically exact geometric shape as specified by the design requirements. However, a feature normally has no practical meaning as a datum unless it is actually used for some functional relationship between features. Thus a datum appearing on an engineering drawing can be considered to have a dual nature: it is (1) a “construction” datum, which is geometrically exact representation of any part feature, and (2) a “relationship” datum, which is any feature used as a basis for a functional relationship with other features on the part. Since the datum concept is used to establish relationships, the “relationship” datum is the only type used on engineering drawings. By the above definition, a datum on an engineering drawing is always assumed to be “perfect”. However, since perfect parts cannot be produced, a datum on a physically produced part is assumed to exist in the contact of the actual feature surface with precise manufacturing or inspection equipment such as machine tables, surface plates, gage pins, etc. These are called datum simulators which create simulated datum planes, axes, etc., and, while not perfectly true, are usually of such high quality that they adequately simulate true references. This contact of the actual feature with precise equipment is also assumed to simulate functional contact with a mating part surface. Datum feature: The actual surface of the part. Simulated datum: The plane established by the inspection equipment such as a surface plate or inspection table. Datum plane: The theoretically exact plane established by the true geometric counterpart of the datum feature.

Page 19 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Datum Feature Part Datum Plane – theoretically exact

Simulated Datum Surface of manufacturing or verification equipment

3.2. Establishing Datum Planes Datum features are selected based on their importance to the design of the part.

Generally three datum features are selected that are perpendicular to each other. These three datums are called the datum reference frame. The datums that make up the datum reference frame are referred to as the primary datum, secondary datum, and tertiary datum. As their names imply, the primary datum is the most important, followed by the other two in order of importance.

ESTABLISH SECONDARY DATUM PLANE (MIN 2 POINT) CONTACT WITH DATUM SURFACE B

90O

ESTABLISH TERTIARY DATUM PLANE (MIN 1 POINT) CONTACT WITH DATUM SURFACE C

ESTABLISH PRIMARY DATUM PLANE (MIN 3 POINT) CONTACT WITH DATUM SURFACE A

90O

90O 90O

MEASURING DIRECTION FOR RELATED DIMENSIONS

Page 20 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Datum Axis 90o Datum Point 90o Direction of measurements

90o

Datum Axis

Datum Planes origin of measurement

Datum Axis

3.3. Datum Identification When a surface is used to establish a datum plane on a part, the datum feature symbol is placed on the edge view of the surface or on an extension line in the view where the surface appears as a line. A leader line may also be used to connect the datum feature symbol to the view in some applications.
D

C

50

B Datum Feature Symbol placed on edge view of surface or extension line from edge view A

C

B
30

Angled Surface Surface Datum Feature Symbol must be offset from dimension line arrowheads

A

10

Page 21 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

3.4. Datum Axis A cylindrical object may be a datum feature. When the cylindrical datum feature is used, the centre axis is known as the datum axis. There are two theoretical planes intersecting at 90º. These planes are represented by the centrelines of the drawing. Where these planes intersect is referred to as the datum axis. The datum axis is the origin for related dimensions, while the X and Y planes indicate the direction of measurement. A datum plane is added to the end of the object to establish the datum frame.
DATUM AXIS Y
30 30

Y TERTIARY DATUM

X SECONDARY DATUM

B
30 n80 30

X AXIS

A

PART

PRIMARY DATUM PLANE

Placement of the Datum Feature Symbol for a Datum Axis

A

A

n12

A

n12

A
n12

n12

Ø 0.4 M

C B A

Page 22 of 102

D

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Simulated datum axis The simulated datum axis is the axis of a perfect cylindrical inspection device that contacts the datum feature surface. For an external datum feature, the inspection device is the smallest (MMC) circumscribed cylinder. The inspection device for an internal datum feature is the largest (MMC) inscribed cylinder.
DATUM FEATURE (PART)

SIMULATED DATUM SMALLEST CIRCUMSCRIBED CYLINDER

DATUM AXIS

DATUM FEATURE SIMULATOR

Simulated datum axis for an external datum feature

DATUM FEATURE (PART)

SIMULATED DATUM LARGEST INSCRIBED CYLINDER

DATUM AXIS

DATUM FEATURE SIMULATOR

Simulated datum axis for an internal datum feature

Page 23 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.5. Coaxial Datum Features

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Coaxial means two or more cylindrical shapes that share a common axis. Coaxial datum features exist when a single datum axis is established by two datum features that are coaxial. When more than one datum feature is used to establish a single datum, the datum reference letters are separated by a dash and placed in one compartment of the feature control frame. These datum reference letters are of equal importance and may be placed in any order.
t 0.2 A-B

A

B

THE DRAWING

SIMULATED PAIR OF COAXIAL CIRCUMSCRIBED CYLINDERS

THE MEANING

3.6. Datum Axis of Screw Threads, Gears, and Splines When a screw thread is used as a datum axis, the datum axis is established from the pitch cylinder unless otherwise specified. If another feature of the screw thread is desired, then note “MAJOR DIA” or “MINOR DIA” is placed next to the datum feature symbol. A specific feature such as the major diameter should be identified when a gear or spline is used as a datum axis. When this is done, the note “MAJOR DIA”, “MINOR DIA”, or “PITCH DIA” is placed next to the datum feature symbol as appropriate. The use of a screw thread, gear, or spline should be avoided for use as a datum axis unless necessary.

Page 24 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.7. Datum Center Plane

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Elements on a rectangular shaped symmetrical part or feature may be located and dimensioned in relationship to a datum centre plane. The representation and related meaning of datum center plane symbols are as shown in the following.

A

12

28 A

Datum Center Plane

Datum Center Plane

B 12 12 j 0.2 m A Bm C

Page 25 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

The simulated datum centre plane is the centre plane of a perfect rectangular inspection device that contacts the datum feature surface. For an external datum feature the datum centre plane is established by two parallel planes at minimum (MMC) separation. For an internal datum feature, the datum centre plane is established by two parallel planes at maximum (MMC) separation.

Datum Feature Simulator

Datum Feature A

True geometric counterpart of datum feature A parallel planes at mimimum separtation (MMC)

Datum Center Plane A

Datum Center Plane A Datum Feature Simulator

Datum Feature A

True geometric counterpart of datum feature A parallel planes at maximum separtation (MMC)

Page 26 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.8. Pattern of Holes as a Datum

ASME Y14.5M-1994

The center of a pattern of features, such as the holes in the part may be specified as the datum axis when the datum feature symbol is placed under, and attached to, the middle of the feature control frame. In this application, the datum axis is the center of the holes as a group.

6X 60 o

6X n 8.4 8.0 j n0.05m A B

n30

Datum Axis B

A

Page 27 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.9. Datum Targets

ASME Y14.5M-1994

In many situations it is not possible to establish an entire surface, or entire surfaces, as datums. When this happens, then datum targets may be used to establish datum planes. This procedure is especially useful on parts with surface or contour irregularities, such as some sheet metal, sand cast, or forged parts that are subject to bowing or warpage. This method can also be applied to weldments where heat may cause warpage. Datum targets are designated points, lines, or surface areas that are used to establish the datum reference frame.

45

N1

N

45

N1

N

L

20

M

Datum Target Point

N1

Datum Target Line

N1

N L
20

N L

20

M

45

n12 N1

M
45

n6 N1

Datum Target Area Area Shown

Datum Target Area Area Not Shown

Page 28 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

When datum target points are used on a drawing to identify a datum plane, the datum plane is established by locating pins at the datum tangent points. The locating pins are rounded or pointed standard tooling hardware.
X2

15

50

15

35 40

X1

X3

The Drawing

X1, X2

50 The Part

15 X3

Datum Plane X

Datum Feature

Locating Pins

The Fixture Setup

Page 29 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Areas of contact may also be used to establish datums. The shape of the datum target area is outlined by phantom lines with section lines through the area. Circular areas are dimensioned with basic or tolerance dimensions to located the center. The diameter of the target area is provided in the upper half of the datum target symbol or with a leader and dot pointing to the upper half. The locating pins for target areas are flat end tooling pins with the pin diameter equal to the specified size of the target area.
20 60

20

40

n12 X1

n12 X3

50

The Drawing

n12 X2

X3, n12 Datum Plane X

50 X2, n12 The Part

Datum Feature X1, n12

Locating Pins

20

60

The Fixture Setup

Page 30 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

When the area is too small to accurately or clearly display on a drawing, a datum target point is used at the center location. The top half of the datum target symbol identifies the diameter of the target area.

20

60

20

40

n6 X1

n6 X3

50

The Drawing

n6 X2

X3, n6 Datum Plane X

50 X2, n6 The Part

Datum Feature X1, n6

Locating Pins

20

60

The Fixture Setup

Page 31 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

A datum target line is indicated by the target point symbol “X” on the edge view of the surface and by a phantom line on the surface view. If the locating pins are cylindrical, then the datum target line is along the tangency where the pins meet the part. The pins may also be knife-edged. A surface is often placed at 90º to the pin to create the datum reference frame.

Y1

50 Y1

Y

The Drawing

PART

50

LOCATING PIN

The Fixture Setup

Page 32 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Example 1 From ASME Y14.5M-1994, p78

ASME Y14.5M-1994

40

100
A3

B2

A2

n38

C1

45o 15 45o 15

B1 A1

4X n6.3-6.4 j n0.1m A B C

C2

B1

B2

3

20

A
A1 A2

A3 C1 C2

10

Page 33 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.10. Partial Datum Surface

ASME Y14.5M-1994

A portion of a surface may be used as a datum. For example, this may be done when a part has a hole or group of holes at one end where it may not be necessary to establish the entire surface as a datum to effectively locate the features. This may be accomplished on a drawing using a chain line dimensioned with basic dimensions to show the location and extent of the partial datum surface. The datum feature symbol is attached to the chain line. The datum plane is then established at the location of the chain line.

26 THE DRAWING

12

A CHAIN LINE 52

THE FIXTURE SETUP

DATUM FEATURE

SIMULATED DATUM (FIXTURE SURFACE)

THEORETICALLY EXACT DATUM PLANE

Page 34 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 3.11. Exercise

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1. List the 3 primary items that are considered Datum features on an object or part. _________________________________________________________________

2. Draw the symbol that is known as the Datum Reference Symbol.

3. The primary datum requires a minimum of _________ points. The secondary datum requires a minimum of _________ points. The tertiary datum requires a minimum of _________ points.

4. Below are examples of a hole (Figure 1) and a pin (Figure 2) that will be identified as datum features. Sketch on the figure and explain how the datum axis for each would be determined. 5.

Page 35 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

On the following, Figure 3, identify the: datum feature, part, simulated datum, and the datum plane.
c)__________________ a)__________________

b)__________________

d)__________________

Figure 3 On the following exercises, using the drawing provided on next page (Figure 4), 6. Specify the left hand edge as Datum A. 7. Specify the ∅12 hole as Datum D.

8. Specify the right hand edge as Datum G. 9. On the bottom surface, specify a partial Datum K over a distance of 40 from the right edge of the part.

10. Specify the right hand edge of the 13 slot as Datum M. 11. Specify the 13 slot as Datum P. 12. Specify the two ∅6 holes as Datum S. 13. Datum features may be either features of size or features without size. On the drawing, identify features of size by placing a ‘Z’ next to them, and identify the features without size by placing an ‘x’ next to them. Page 36 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

6 THRU

12 THRU

51

114

50

16

70

32

16

Page 37 of 102

25

13

Figure 4

2X

151

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

14. What is the relationship between the center plane of the slot and the center plane of the part? What is the total location tolerance that the center plane of the slot vary from the center plane of the part? Is design intent clear?

14+1 7+ 0.5

PLUS/MINUS METHOD
20+ 0.5 40+1

FUNCTIONAL GAGE

POSITIONAL METHOD

A

Page 38 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

The picture below represents a cast part. It was determined that the part should have datum targets specified to standardise the initial machining set-up. On the drawing next page, sketch the datum targets in proper format as you would expect to see them on an engineering drawing. Surface X should have three ∅10 target pads, Surface Y should have two targets lines of contact and Surface Z should have one point of contact. Arrange these targets on the indicated surfaces to your preference. Show all basic dimensions and just estimate the distances.

Page 39 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

7 0.28 17.5 0.69 0.49 12.5 Z

X

Y

3 80

2.76 70

0.39 10 1.18 30
Page 40 of 102

0.39 10

X

Understanding Datum Reference Frame Application (DRF) Example 1
Degrees of Freedom Matrix Rx Ry Rz Tx Ty Datum Features

Tz

C
0 128 0 120 74 74

152

Ø 38.5 - 40.0 Ø 0.4 M A B C Ø 0.12 A
28

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

A

24

20 20

96 64 50 24
Y

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 41 of 102

Y

X

Z

B

Page 42 of 102

Understanding Datum Reference Frame Application (DRF) Example 2
Degrees of Freedom Matrix Rx Ry Rz Tx Ty Datum Features

Tz

C
128 128 120 120 74

152

Ø 38.5 - 40.0 Ø 0.4 M C B A Ø 0.12 A
28

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

A

24

20

96 64 50 24
Y

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Y

X

Z

B

Understanding Datum Reference Frame Application (DRF) Example 3
Rx Datum Features Ry Rz Tx Ty

Tz

Ø 38.5 - 40.0 Ø 0.4 M A B C Ø 0.12 A D
74 74 46 46

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

C

24

Ø 19.0 - 19.3 Ø 0.25 M A D B A A D
M

B
What effect does the MMC Modifier have in this second FCF arrangement?

24 24 50
Y

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Y

Page 43 of 102

X

Z

B

Page 44 of 102

Understanding Datum Reference Frame Application (DRF) Example 4
Rx Datum Features Ry Rz Tx Ty

Tz

Ø 0.98

22.2 - 22.5
1.

Ø 0.25 M D E A D E
M

Ø 38.5 - 40.0 Ø 0.4 M A B C Ø 0.12 A D

A
M

2.

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

D
M 3. 46 46 48

E A

74 74

C

Ø 19.0 - 19.3 Ø 0.25 M A D B A E

24 50
Y

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Y

X

Z

B

Understanding Datum Reference Frame Application (DRF) Example 5
Degrees of Freedom Matrix Features

Ø 0.98

22.2 - 22.5 Ø 0.25 M A D B G D
74 74 46 46 48

Ø 38.5 - 40.0 Ø 0.4 M A B C Ø 0.12 A

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

C

Ø 19.0 - 19.3 Ø 0.25 M A D - G B A

25.56 24 50
Y

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 45 of 102

Y

X

Z

B

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4. Form Tolerance
4.1. Straightness Line Element – Plane Surface

0.05

0.1

ON THE DRAWING 0.1 Tolerance

0.05 Tolerance

MEANING

Each longitudinal element of the surface must lie between two parallel lines 0.05 apart in the left view and 0.1 in the right view of the drawing.

Page 46 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Line Element – Cylinder

ASME Y14.5M-1994

(a) 0.02

n16.00 MMC

0.02 wide tolerance zone
n 16.00 15.89 (b) n16.00 MMC

ON THE DRAWING 0.02 wide tolerance zone

Each longitudinal element of the surface must lie between two parallel lines 0.02 apart where the two lines and the nominal axis of the part share a specified limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC 16.00 Note: Waisting (b) or barreling (c) of the surface, though within the straightness tolerance, must not exceed the limits of size of the feature

(c) n16.00 MMC

0.02 wide tolerance zone MEANING

Axis at Regardless of Feature Size (RFS)
n 16.00 15.89 n0.04 n16.00

0.04 diameter tolerance zone n16.04 outer boundary

ON THE DRAWING

MEANING

The derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of 0.04 diameter, regardless of the feature size. Each circular element of the surface must be within the specified limits of size.

Page 47 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Axis at Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

ASME Y14.5M-1994

n

16.00 15.89 n0.04m

n16.04 Virtual Condition

MEANING

ON THE DRAWING
Feature Size Diameter tolerance zone allowed 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.14 0.15

The derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of 0.04 diameter at MMC. As each actual local size departs from MMC, an increase in the local diameter of the tolerance cylinder is allowed which is equal to the amount of such departure. Each circular element of the surface must be within the specified limits of size.

16.00 15.99 15.98 15.90 15.89

Acceptance Boundary

The maximum diameter of the pin with perfect form is shown in a gage with a 16.04 diameter hole.

n16.00

n16.04

n16.00

n0.04

With the pin at maximum diameter 16.00, the gage will accept the pin with up to 0.04 variation in straightness.

n16.04

n15.89

n0.15

With the pin at minimum diameter 15.89, the gage will accept the pin with up to 0.15 variation in straightness.

n16.04

Page 48 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Per Unit Length
n 16.00 15.89 n0.4 n0.1/25

ASME Y14.5M-1994

ON THE DRAWING

100

n16.04 outer boundary 100

MEANING

The derived median line of the feature’s actual local size must lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of n0.4 for the total 100mm of length and within a 0.1 cylindrical tolerance zone for any 25mm length, regardless of feature size. Each circular element of the surface must be within the specified limits of size.

n16.04 tolerance zone n0.1 tolerance zone in each n15.89-16.00 25

25mm of length

4.2. Flatness
0.25 wide tolerance zone

0.25

ON THE DRAWING

MEANING

The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.25 apart. The surface must be within the specified limits of size.

Page 49 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 4.3. Circularity (Roundness)

ASME Y14.5M-1994

0.25 wide tolerance zone 0.25 A 90

ON THE DRAWING

SECTION A-A

A

MEANING

Each circular element of the surface in a plane perpendicular to an axis must lie between two concentric circles, one having a radius 0.25 larger than the other. Each circular element of the surface must be within the specified limits of size.

Sn19.2+0.5 0.25 A

0.25 wide tolerance zone

ON THE DRAWING

A

SECTION A-A

MEANING

Each circular element of the surface in a plane passing through a common center must lie between two concentric circles, one having a radius 0.25 larger than the other. Each circular element of the surface must be within the specified limits of size.

4.4. Cylindricity
0.25 wide tolerance zone

n25.0+0.5

0.25

ON THE DRAWING MEANING

The cylindrical surface must lie between two concentric cylinders, one having a radius 0.25 larger than the other. The surface must be within the specified limits of size. Page 50 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 4.5. Exercise

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1. On Figure 1(a), indicate control of element straightness by use of Rule #1 so that maximum possible error is no more than mm if the feature maximum size is ∅16mm. 2. On Figure 1(b), indicate an element straightness maximum of 0.012mm. 3. What is the circularity (roundness) of this pin? ___________________________ 4. On Figure 1(c), indicate that axis straightness may violate Rule #1 and allow a total bend of up to 0.4mm. 5. On Figure 1(d), assume that the pin will assemble with the hole shown in 1 (e). The condition of ______________ is often desired. Indicate this with a straightness tolerance of 0.4mm.

6. What is the cylindricity of this pin? ___________________ 7. What is the Virtual Condition of the pin for the requirement of question 5? _____ 8. On Figure 2, indicate on the bottom surface a control that requires all elements and points relative to each other be within a tolerance zone that is two planes which are 0.05mm apart. This control would be called ____________________

Page 51 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

(a)

Ø 16.00 - 15.97

(b)

Ø 16.00 - 15.97

(c)

Ø 16.0 - 15.9

(d)

Ø (Virtual Condition)

(e)

Figure 1

Page 52 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

28 °

20 ± 0.4 45 40 ± 0.4 45

Ø 12

+ 0.1 -0

30 30 °

18 ± 0.4 45

MAIN VIEW

4545 0.4 ±

110.00 110 ± 0.6

Figure 2

Page 53 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

5. Orientation Tolerance
5.1. Parallelism Surface Plane
Possible orientation of the surface
f

0.12 A

0.12 wide tolerance zone

A

Datum Plane A

ON THE DRAWING

MEANING

The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.12 apart which are parallel to datum plane A. The surface must be within the specified limits of size. Axis related to a Surface Plane
ON THE DRAWING
f

MEANING 0.12 wide tolerance zone

0.12 A

A

Datum Plane A

Possible orientation of feature axis

Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie between two parallel planes 0.12 apart which are parallel to datum plane A. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.
What would be the result if a diameter symbol was added to the callout?

Ø 0.12 A

Page 54 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Axis related to another Axis at Regardless of Feature Size (RFS)

ASME Y14.5M-1994

f

n0.2

A

n0.2 tolerance zone

Possible orientation of feature axis

A

Datum Axis A

ON THE DRAWING

MEANING

Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie within a 0.2 diameter cylindrical zone parallel to datum axis A. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location. Axis related to another Axis at Maximum Material Condition (MMC)
10.022 n10.000 f n0.05m A

Possible orientation of feature axis

A Datum Axis A

Feature Size 10.000 10.001 10.002 10.021 10.022

Diameter tolerance zone allowed 0.050 0.051 0.052 0.071 0.072

ON THE DRAWING

MEANING

Where the feature is at maximum material condition (10.000), the maximum parallelism tolerance is n0.050. Where the feature departs from its MMC size, an increase in the parallelism tolerance is allowed which is equal to the amount of such departure. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

Page 55 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 5.2. Perpendicularity
Surface Plane

ASME Y14.5M-1994

ON THE DRAWING
b

MEANING

Possible orientation of the surface

0.12 A

0.12 wide tolerance zone

Datum Plane A

A

The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.12 apart which are perpendicular to datum plane A. The surface must be within the specified limits of size. Center Plane

ON THE DRAWING

0.12 A

Possible orientation of the feature center plane

MEANING
0.12 wide tolerance zone

b

A

Datum Plane A

Regardless of feature size, the feature center plane must lie between two parallel planes 0.12 apart which are perpendicular to datum plane A. The feature center plane must be within the specified tolerance of location.

Page 56 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Axis to Axis

ASME Y14.5M-1994

ON THE DRAWING
b

MEANING 0.2 wide tolerance zone

0.2

A Datum Axis A

A

Possible orientation of feature axis
Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie between two parallel planes 0.2 apart which are perpendicular to datum axis A. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location. Note: This applies only to the view on which it is specified.

Axis to Plane (RFS)

ON THE DRAWING MEANING
b

n0.4 A

0.4 diameter tolerance zone Feature Height
Page 57 of 102

25+0.5

Datum Plane A

A

Possible orientation of feature axis
Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie within a cylindrical zone 0.4 diameter which is perpendicular to and projects from datum plane A for the feature height. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Axis to Plane (MMC)

ASME Y14.5M-1994

MEANING 15.984 n15.966
b n0.05m

A
Feature Size 15.984 15.983 15.982 15.976 15.966 Diameter tolerance zone allowed 0.050 0.051 0.052 0.067 0.068

Datum Plane A A

ON THE DRAWING

Possible orientation of feature axis

Where the feature is at maximum material condition (15.984), the maximum perpendicularity tolerance is n0.050. Where the feature departs from its MMC size, an increase in the perpendicularity tolerance is allowed which is equal to the amount of such departure. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

ACCEPTANCE BOUNDAY
n15.984 n16.034

Feature Height

25+0.5

n0.050 n15.984 n16.034

n0.068 n15.966 n16.034

Datum Plane A

(A)

(B)

(C)

(A)The maximum diameter pin with perfect orientation is shown in a gage with a 16.034 diameter hole. (B)With the pin at maximum diameter (15.984), the gage will accept the part with up to 0.05 variation in perpendicularity. (C)The pin is at minimum diameter (15.966), and the variation in perpendicularity may increase to 0.068 and the part will be acceptable.

Page 58 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 5.3. Angularity
Surface Plane

ASME Y14.5M-1994

0.4 wide tolerance zone Possible orientation of actual surface 30o

a

0.4

A

30o

A

ON THE DRAWING

Datum Plane A

MEANING

The surface must lie between two parallel planes 0.4 apart which are inclined at 30o to datum plane A. The surface must be within the specified limits of size. Axis to Surface Plane
ON THE DRAWING n16
a

0.2

A

0.2 wide tolerance zone Possible orientation of feature axis

60o A

60o

Datum Plane A

MEANING

Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie between two parallel planes 0.2 apart which are inclined 60o to datum plane A. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

Page 59 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

ON THE DRAWING n16 a n0.2 n0.2 tolerance zone A B Possible orientation of feature axis

B A

60o

60o

Datum Plane A

MEANING

Regardless of feature size, the feature axis must lie within a 0.2 diameter cylindrical zone inclined 60o to datum plane A. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

5.4. Use of Tangent Plane Symbol

ON THE DRAWING
f

MEANING 0.1 T A
Tangent Plane

50.0+.05

A

0.1 wide tolerance zone

A plane contacting the high points of the surface shall lie within two parallel planes 0.1 apart. The surface must be within the specified limits of size.

Page 60 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 5.5. Use of Zero Tolerance at MMC

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Possible orientation of feature axis

A

n

50.16 50.00 A

ON THE DRAWING

b n0 m

Datum Plane A

Feature Size 50.00 50.01 50.02 50.15 50.16

Diameter tolerance zone allowed 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.15 0.16

MEANING

Where the feature is at maximum material condition (50.00), its axis must be perpendicular to datum plane A. Where the feature departs from its MMC size, a perpendicularity tolerance is allowed which is equal to the amount of such departure. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.
Possible orientation of feature axis

A

n

50.16 50.00

ON THE DRAWING

b n0 m n0.1 MAX A

Datum Plane A

Feature Size 50.00 50.01 50.02 50.10 50.16

Diameter tolerance zone allowed 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.10 0.10

MEANING

Where the feature is at maximum material condition (50.00), its axis must be perpendicular to datum plane A. Where the feature departs from its MMC size, a perpendicularity tolerance is allowed which is equal to the amount of such departure, up to the 0.1 maximum. The feature axis must be within the specified tolerance of location.

Page 61 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 5.6. Exercise

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1. On Figure 2, indicate that the right vertical surface in the main view is to be square to the lower surface within 0.08mm. 2. Show below (sketch) how the tolerance zone is established for the requirement of question 1.

3. Working on Figure 2, indicate that the right vertical surface is to be square with the front surface within 0.08mm. 4. Assume that in Figure 2, the ∅12mm hole has been located with position dimensions and tolerance. Add an orientation tolerance to control the relationship of the hole to the bottom surface within ∅0.08mm total. 5. Sketch how the tolerance zone is established for the requirement of question 4.

6. What is the total permissible perpendicularity if the hole size is produced at ∅12mm?

_________.
Page 62 of 102

If the hole is produced at ∅12.1mm? __________

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

7. Suppose the perpendicularity of the produced feature was allowed to increase as the size of the feature increased, how would that be indicated?

8. What THEN is the total permissible perpendicularity if the hole size is produced at ∅12mm? ________. If the hole is produced at ∅12.05mm? __________. If the hole is produced at ∅12.1mm? ___________.

9. On Figure 2, indicate requirements to control the angles within a total tolerance of 0.1mm. 10. Sketch how the tolerance zone is established for the 30° angle.

Page 63 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

28 °

20 ± 0.4 45 40 ± 0.4 45

Ø 12

+ 0.1 -0

30 30 °

18 ± 0.4 45

MAIN VIEW

4545 0.4 ±

110.00 110 ± 0.6

Figure 2
Page 64 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

6. Profile Tolerance
6.1. Bilateral & Unilateral
Profile of a Line k Profile of a Surface d

ON THE DRAWING

0.8 wide tolerance zone equally disposed about the true profile (0.4 each side) MEANING Actual profile

d

0.8 A

Datum Plane A A True profile relative to Datum Plane A

(A) Bilateral Tolerance

ON THE DRAWING d

0.8 wide tolerance zone entirely disposed on one side of the true profile as indicated Actual profile

0.8 A

Datum Plane A A MEANING True profile relative to Datum Plane A (B) Unilateral Tolerance (Inside)

ON THE DRAWING d

0.8 wide tolerance zone entirely disposed on one side of the true profile as indicated MEANING Actual profile

0.8 A

Datum Plane A A True profile relative to Datum Plane A

(C) Unilateral Tolerance (Outside)

ON THE DRAWING d

0.8 wide tolerance zone unequally disposed on one side of the true profile as indicated
0.2

MEANING

0.8 A

Actual profile
0.6

Datum Plane A A True profile relative to Datum Plane A

(D) Bilateral Tolerance unequal distribution

Page 65 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

d
A

0.12 E F
B

d
B

0.1 E F
C

8+0.1 75o R12
B

R82
C

d
C

0.05 E F
D

R8

E

10

A

R80 78.8

7
D

F

ON THE DRAWING
C 49+0.12 8+0.05 7X 7 D E d 0.25 A B C 2X 8.6+0.12 D E A

A

17.5

17.5

21.4 23 23.4 65+0.25 23 21.7

19.8 8+0.12

Datum Plane C 0.25 wide tolerance zone
D E 90o

Datum Plane A

Datum Plane B

MEANING

The surface between points D and E must lie between two profile boundaries 0.25 apart, perpendicular to datum plane A, equally disposed about the true profile and positioned with respect to datum planes B and C.

Page 66 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

26 ± 0.04

12

18

Page 67 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 68 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 6.2. Exercise
0.3 A B C H L

ASME Y14.5M-1994

L C H 70 40

0.09 A B C K

Surface Y Surface Z

A L 60 35

Distance V Distance X

Distance W

K

B

1. On the part shown above, what is the minimum and maximum of the following distances in relation to the datum reference frame, as allowed by the profile callout? (a) Distance V: Minimum ________________ Maximum ________________ (b) Distance W: Minimum ________________ Maximum ________________ (c) Distance X: Minimum ________________ Maximum ________________

2. On the same part, considering the applicable profile callouts, what is the maximum perpendicularity of the following surfaces in relation to Datum A? (a) Surface Y: ________________

(b) Surface Z W: ________________

Page 69 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

3. Profile of a Surface can also be used with a size tolerance to refine the size or shape. Following is an example where the three top surfaces are to be coplanar (in-line) within 0.3mm and in relation to the bottom surface of the part. Each surface is to flat within 0.1mm. Define these requirements on the drawing.

40 400.3 ±

Page 70 of 102

30.00 ± 0.5 12

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

160 ± 0.5

130 90 50 10 20 20 20

20

12 30.00 ± 0.5

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 71 of 102

Unless Otherwise Specified: Tolerance ± 0.05 Angles ± 1°

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 72 of 102

0.05 X Y Z

X 30

18

Y 10 10 20 Z 160 ± 0.5 130 C 90 50 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

20

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

20 20

20

20

20

A

30 18

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 73 of 102
B

Unless Otherwise Specified: Tolerance ± 0.05 Angles ± 1°

0.05 A B C

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 74 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

7. Runout Tolerance
7.1. Coaxial Features There are three types of coaxial feature control. Proper selection is based upon which of the below controls best suits the functional design requirement. Runout - Use where part feature surfaces in a rotational consideration must relate to a datum axis. Runout is applicable only on an RFS basis.
Runout Total Runout
h 0.5 A t 0.5 A

(Surface to axis control, RFS)
Position - Use where part feature surfaces relate to a datum axis on a functional or inter-changeability basis; typically mating parts are involved. Position is normally applied only on an MMC basis (occasionally an RFS datum is used).
j n0.5m Am

(Axis to axis control, MMC)

Concentricity - Use where part feature axis / axes in a rotational consideration must relate to a datum axis. Concentricity is applicable only on an RFS basis.
r n0.5 A

(Axis to axis control, RFS)

Page 75 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 7.2. Runout
n 20+0.5 n 40+0.5 h 0.05 A

ASME Y14.5M-1994

A ON THE DRAWING FIM 0.05 Datum Feature Simulator (Collet) Each Circular Element Individually

Datum Feature A

Rotate Part

Simulated Datum Feature A (True Geometric Counterpart)

Datum Axis A

MEANING

Runout: Each circular element of the feature must be within the runout tolerance and within 0.05 wide tolerance zone (FIM) in relation to datum axis A
n 20+0.5 n 40+0.5 t 0.05 A

A ON THE DRAWING FIM 0.05 Datum Feature Simulator (Collet) All Elements Together

Datum Feature A

Rotate Part

Simulated Datum Feature A (True Geometric Counterpart)

Datum Axis A

MEANING

Total Runout: All surface elements, total, across entire surface must be within the runout tolerance and within 0.05 wide tolerance zone (FIM) in relation to datum axis A.

Page 76 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

7.3. Examples
Part Mounted on Two Functional Diameters

Page 77 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Part Mounted on Functional Face Surface (Datum) and Diameter (Datum)

Page 78 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Part Mounted on Two Functional Diameters

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 79 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 7.4. Exercise

ASME Y14.5M-1994

1. What is the coaxiality requirement between the two diameters as expressed on the following drawing sketch? _____________________

n20+0.05 n6+0.02

2. On the sketch, specify a 0.12mm circular runout requirement on the large 3. After defining the runout requirement, what is the maximum circularity (roundness) for the larger diameter? _________________________

4. With the specified runout requirement, what is the maximum position of the large diameter in relation to the small diameter? ____________________ 5. On the sketch, specify a runout requirement to make the left face perpendicular to the Datum axis within 0.1mm total. 6. On the figure below, sketch how the two runout requirements would be verified.

Page 80 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

7. On the part drawing below, specify a 0.12mm total runout relating the large diameter to both of the two small diameters together.

8. On the figure below, sketch how the runout requirement would be verified.

9. Can runout be used without a datum feature reference?____________________ 10. Can the m or l modifiers be used with runout? _________________________________________________________________ 11. What is the main difference between circular and total runout? _________________________________________________________________ 12. What is the main difference between runout and concentricity? _________________________________________________________________

13. What is the main difference between concentricity and position?
_________________________________________________________________

Page 81 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

80 Ø 80

Ø 25 24

60

C

20

90

70

40

10 10 Ø

D

Page 82 of 102

24 25 Ø

A

20 20 Ø

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

8. Location Tolerance
8.1. Position
Hole Verification Remember that all features have depth. Therefore, when doing design or making measurements, the tolerance zone must be considered from one end of the zone to the other.

Position vs. Plus/Minus

Coordinate Tolerancing

96

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3

52

Tolerance ± 0.5

0.5

0.7

0.5

Page 83 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Position Tolerancing (Round zone)

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 0.7 M A 96 96

A

52

1.3 0.7

♦ ♦ ♦

Each hole has its own positional tolerance zone. The zone size is dependent on the size of the produced hole. When the hole is produced at its MMC size, the positional tolerance zone is the tolerance stated in the FCF. If the hole is produced at something larger than the MMC size, the positional tolerance zone is stated FCF tolerance PLUS the amount that the hole is larger than MMC. Example Features: If Hole #1 = ∅ 16.7 #2 = ∅ 16.9 #3 = ∅ 17.2 #4 = ∅ 17.4 Then tolerance zone tolerance zone tolerance zone tolerance zone = = = =

Page 84 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Position Zone

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Page 85 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

"X" Difference Actual Measurement (from created part) Actual Produced Feature Center Basic Dimension (from drawing) True Position "Y" Difference

"Z" = Actual Positional Diameter

Actual Measurement (from produced part) Basic Dimension (from drawing)

Datum Plane "X" Direction

Datum Plane "Y" Direction

Z X

Y

Formula : Z = 2 X 2 + Y 2

Page 86 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8.2. Composite Positional Tolerance

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Position, Axis to Surface, Coaxial Axis to Axis, Coaxial
B

C 18

4X n10.15 +0.15 0

Pattern Locating Position Tolerance A

9

j n0.15m A

n0.25m A B C

Feature Relating Position Tolerance

n0.15 at MMC, four coaxial tolerance zones within which the axes of the holes must lie relative to each other

n0.25 at MMC, four coaxial tolerance zones located at true position relative to the specified datums within which the axes of the holes as a group must lie

Positional Tolerancing for Coaxial Holes of Same Size

Page 87 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Position, Axis to Surface, Coaxial Axis to Axis, Coaxial

ASME Y14.5M-1994

B

C 18

4X n10.15 +0.15 0

j n0.15m A

n0.25m A B C B

9 A

Orientation

n0.15 at MMC, four coaxial tolerance zones within which the axes of the holes must lie relative to each other

n0.25 at MMC, four coaxial tolerance zones located at true position relative to the specified datums within which the axes of the holes as a group must lie

Positional Tolerancing for Coaxial Holes of Same Size, Partial (Parallelism) Refinement of Feature-Relating Axis

Page 88 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing Position, Axis to Axis, Coaxial

ASME Y14.5M-1994

80 Ø 80

Ø 25 24

60

C

20

90

70

40

10 10 Ø

D

24 25 Ø

A

Page 89 of 102

20 20 Ø

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
150 134 30 96

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3

52 100

24

Tolerance ± 0.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C

150 134 30 96 96 4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 0.7
M

A B C

A 52 100

24 24

B

Tolerance ± 0.5

Page 90 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
150 C 30 134 96

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 1.5 Ø 0.7
M M

A B C A

A 52 100

24

B

Tolerance ± 0.5

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

150 C 30 134 96 4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 1.5 Ø 0.7
M M

A B C A B

A

52 100

24 24

B

Tolerance ± 0.5

Page 91 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
150 C 30 134 96 96

ASME Y14.5M-1994

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 1.5 Ø 0.7
M M

A B C A B

A

52 100

24 24

B

Tolerance ± 0.5

8.3. Position Tolerance Calculation
Floating Fastener

To calculate position tolerance with fastener and hole size known: T=H−F Where T = tolerance, H = MMC hole, and F = MMC fastener
Fixed Fastener

To calculate position tolerance with fastener and hole size known: H−F T= 2 Where T = tolerance, H = MMC hole, and F = MMC fastener

Page 92 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8.4. Projected Tolerance Zone (1)
Positional tolerance zone True position axis Clearance hole axis

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Interference area

Tolerance zone height is equal to height of threaded hole

j n0.5m A B C
Interference diagram, fastener and hole
(2)
Positional tolerance zone

True position axis

Clearance hole axis

Min. tolerance zone height is equal to max. thickness of mating part

j n0.5m p10.0 A B C
Basis for projected tolerance zone

Page 93 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8.5. Concentricity

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Concentricity is that condition where the median points of all diametrically opposed elements of a figure of revolution (or corresponding-located elements of two or more radially disposed features) are congruent with the axis (or center point) of a datum. A concentricity tolerance is a cylindrical (or spherical) tolerance zone whose axis (or center point) coincides with the axis (or center point) of the datum feature. The median points of all correspondingly-located elements of the feature being controlled, regardless of feature size, must be within the cylindrical tolerance zone. The specified tolerance and the datum reference can only apply on an RFS basis.

n 19.8

20.2

A ON THE DRAWING

n

10.2 9.8 A

r n 0.2

Median points of diametically opposed elements of feature

Datum Axis A

n0.2 MEANING Tolerance Zone (RFS)

Page 94 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8.6. Symmetry

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Symmetry is that condition where the median points of all opposed or correspondingly located elements of two or more feature surfaces are congruent with the axis or center plane of a datum feature. The material condition RFS only is to apply.

30.2 29.8

A

10.2 9.8 i 0.2 A

ON THE DRAWING

0.2 Wide Tolerance Zone (RFS) Datum Feature A (RFS) 0.1

MEANING

Datum Centerplane A All median points of opposed elements of the slot must lie within the 0.2 wide tolerance zone, RFS. The tolerance zone being established by two paralle planes equally disposed about datum centerplane A, RFS.

Page 95 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing 8.7. Exercise 1.
150 134 30 96 96

ASME Y14.5M-1994

C

4X Ø 16.7 - 17.3 Ø 0.7
M

A B C

#1

#2

A 52 100
#3 #4

24 24

B

Hole # 1 2 3 4 Hole # 1 2 3 4 X= X= X= X=

Inspection Report Actual “X” Location Actual “Y” Location 29.75 76.5 126.3 75.85 30.4 24.43 125.91 23.48 Actual Location Y= Y= Y= Y= Hole Size Position Tol.

Hole Size 17.2 17 16.9 17.1 Accept Reject

Page 96 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
2.
Drawing Requirements
C 30 100

ASME Y14.5M-1994

3X Ø 15.0 - 15.5 Ø 1.0
M

A B C

A 40

24

B

Tolerance ± 0.5

Produced Part
C 29.47 100.35 Produced Hole 15.30

#1

Produced Hole 15.15 63.66
#2 #3

A

24.25 Produced Hole 15.38

23.48

B

30.62

Hole # 1 2 3

Hole MMC

Hole Actual Size

Position Tolerance Allowed

“X” Distance

“Y” Distance

Position Location

Accept

Reject

Page 97 of 102

3.

Page 98 of 102

32 8 ± 0.1 34.00 - 34.25 Ø 0.1 M A C B 0.5

15

M A B

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

Ø 110

2X 40

A 4X Ø 10.9 - 11.4 Ø1 M A B C 2X 40
ASME Y14.5M-1994

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Inspection Report for Hub Cover
Item # B C 1 2 3 4 Actual Size 34.09 8.05 11.25 11.3 11.04 11.28 X Dimension +0.1 0.59 +0.3 40.25 -0.21 40.48 Y Dimension +0.1 --39.72 +0.55 40.54 +0.26 Comments

Page 99 of 102

Page 100 of 102

32 8 ± 0.1 34.00 - 34.25 Ø 0.1 M A C B 0.5

15

M A B M

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing

Ø 110

2X 40

A 4X Ø 10.9 - 11.4 Ø1 M A B M C M 2X 40
ASME Y14.5M-1994

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
4X Ø 6.45 - 6.80 Ø 2 M X Y Z Z Ø M X

ASME Y14.5M-1994

13

51 X

Y 13 32

6M Cap Screws Hole MMC = - Screw MMC = -------------------------------------Tolerance =

4X Ø 6.45 - 6.80 Ø 2 M A B C Ø M A

C

13 A

51 0.5 2 SURF

B 13 32

Page 101 of 102

Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
4X 6M Ø 2 M X Y Z Ø M X

ASME Y14.5M-1994

Z

13

51 X

Y 13 32

6M Cap Screws Hole MMC = - Screw MMC = -------------------------------------Tolerance =

4X Ø 6.45 - 6.80 Ø 2 M A B C Ø M A

C

13 A

51 0.5 2 SURF

B 13 32

Page 102 of 102