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# Physics 51: Introduction to Classical Mechanics, Fluids and Thermodynamics

1st Exam Reviewer
FS AY 2015-2016

Course Outline (1st Exam Scope):
1. Introduction
1.1. Science and Creativity
1.2. Physics and Its Relation to Other Fields
1.3. Models, Theories and Laws
1.4. Measurement and Uncertainty
1.5. Unit, Standards and the SI System
1.6. Converting Units
1.7. Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimation
1.8. Mathematics in Physics
2. Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
2.1. Reference Frames and Displacement
2.2. Average Velocity and Scalars
2.3. Instantaneous Velocity
2.4. Acceleration
2.5. Motion at a Constant Acceleration
2.6. Free Fall
3. Kinematic in Two Dimension: Vectors
3.1. Vectors and Scalars
3.2. Graphical Addition and Refraction of Vectors
3.3. Multiplication of a Vector with A Scalar
3.4. Adding Vectors by Components
3.5. Projectile Motion
3.6. Relative Velocities
4. Motion and Force: Dynamics
4.1. Force
4.2. Newton’s First Law of Motion
4.3. Mass
4.4. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
4.5. Newton’s Third Law of Motion
4.6. Weight and Normal Force
4.7. Friction
4.8. Free Body Diagrams
5. Circular Motion: Gravitation
5.1. Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.2. Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
5.3. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
5.4. Satellites and Weightlessness
5.5. Kepler’s Law and Newton’s Synthesis

Reminders:
Count proper significant figures
Always indicate units whenever necessary
Scientific Calculator (mode in DEG not RAD)
Class Standing:
75%
Exams (we only have 3 DepExs  )
25%
Others
(Problem
Sets,
HW,
Recitation, Reports, Attendance)
Finals Exemption:
1.
No missed exam
2.
No exam < 50%
3.
Class Standing of 60% (~2.50)
or better
References:
Giancoli, D. C. (2014). Physics Principles With
Applications (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
Giancoli, D. C., Davis, B., & Hendrickson, J. E. (2014).
Physics Principles With Applications
Instructor Solutions Manual (7th ed.). San
Francisco, CA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. (2012). University
Physics with Modern Physics (13th ed.). San
Personal Note:
For questions/ clarifications/ concerns,
magsabi lang po sa Acads Comm Members.
1st time ko pong gumawa ng reviewer so comments and
suggestions are very much appreciated. G lang po 
And check niyo po yung Giancoli and Young kasi the
same po yung order ng contents sa course outline natin.
GLHF and God Bless sa aral time!
(FYI ^ Good Luck, Have Fun hahaha)
\(^_^)/

LCB 2015

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When checking for significant figures.67 (1.00 = 98 Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pages 6-8 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 8-9 LCB 2015 Quantity Unit Length Time Mass Electric Current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity meter second kilogram Unit Abbreviation m s kg ampere A kelvin K mole mol candela cd Metric Prefixes Prefix Abbreviation Value yotta Y 1024 zetta Z 1021 exa E 1018 peta P 1015 tera T 1012 giga G 109 mega M 106 kilo k 103 hecto h 102 deka da 101 deci d 10-1 centi c 10-2 milli m 10-3 micro μ 10-6 nano n 10-9 pico p 10-12 femto f 10-15 atto a 10-18 zepto z 10-21 yocto Y 10-24 Steps in Units Conversion: 1.8 + 76. Example: 1.0 cm x 1 in 2.54 cm) 2.how close a measurement is to the true value (~ bullseye)  Precision . Identify conversion factor (i.2 .45 x 104  Addition of Subtraction: check given with fewest number of decimal places.153 + 138.296 = 3.74 = 153. Classical Physics include:  motion  fluids  heat  sound  light  electricity  magnetism 2. It deals with the behavior and structure of matter (Giancoli.886 ft Note: Conversion factors are constants.60 x 2.11.32578 x107) x (4. Page 2 of 14 .11 x 10-3) = 5. always refer to the given.Measurement Introduction Physics is the most basic of the sciences.6 12 + 9.e.54 cm x 1 ft 12 in = 0.0 cm  __ ft 1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2. Branches: 1. Setup equation and multiply to conversion factor Example: 27.54 cm 27. 2014).repeatability of the measurement using a given instrument Scalar VS Vector  Scalar – quantity w/ magnitude only  Vector – qty w/ magnitude and direction Significant Figures (Applies only to final answer)  Multiplication or Division: check given with the fewest number of significant figures. Example: 27. Modern Physics include:  relativity  atomic structure  quantum theory  condensed matter  nuclear physics  elementary particles  cosmology and astrophysics Accuracy VS Precision  Accuracy . 1in = 2.

25 𝑚⁄𝑠 70m−30m 80s = 40m 80s = 0. SW etc.0) For one-dimensional motion. Displacement change in position of the object.1-D Kinematics Any measurement of position. then 30 m west. Never forget to indicate the direction. NS.  Average velocity is the displacement divided by the elapsed time Average speed = distance travelled time elapsed Average velocity ( )= Δx Δt = displacement time elapsed Applying Example ☼ (t = 80s): Or can be expressed by specifying directions (N. so the walking person’s speed. S. Example: A person walks towards the front of a train at 5km/h. the x-axis (horizontal axis) serves as the frame of reference. distance. or speed must be made with respect to a reference frame. Example ☼: A person walks 70 m east. The train is moving 80km/h with respect to the ground. but the displacement is 40 m to the east (as shown by the blue arrow). or frame of reference [Giancoli (2014) page 22]. In Physics. Average speed VS Average velocity  Average speed is the total distance traveled along its path divided by the time it takes to travel this distance. relative to the ground. W. Page 3 of 14 . LCB 2015 = 1. The total distance traveled is 100 m (path is shown dashed in black). E. a frame of reference is a set of coordinate axes (x and y). how far the object is from its starting point.5 𝑚⁄𝑠 east Note: Speed is scalar but velocity is a vector. is 85 km/h.) Average speed = 100 m 80 s Average velocity ( ) = Origin = (0.

how rapidly the velocity of an object is changing. Graph B: Further reading: Giancoli (2014) page 25 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 38-41 Acceleration and Deceleration  Acceleration . Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion Given the graph of distance as a function of time. we can derive the graph for velocity and acceleration since they are just the slope of the former. Average acceleration =  Δv Δt velocity change in velocity = time time elapsed Deceleration – velocity and acceleration point in opposite directions. Graph C: acceleration x vs t graph’s slope is average velocity since Average velocity ( )= Δx Δt v vs t graph = slope is average acceleration Average acceleration = Δv Δt time Simple Example: Interpretation: Because of the constant velocity.Instantaneous velocity the average velocity over an infinitesimally short time interval. it has a constant positive velocity (derived from slope of Graph A). Interpretation: Since the object is constantly moving forward. acceleration is zero (derived from slope of Graph B). Graph A: distance Further reading: Detailed discussion in Giancoli (2014) pages 39-40 time Interpretation: Object in Constant forward motion LCB 2015 Page 4 of 14 . does not mean that the acceleration is necessarily negative.

00 s We use x = x0 + v0t + ½at2 but replace x with y (bc vertical axis). y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 + (0) (5s) + ½ (-9. “falls freely” means “falls with constant acceleration due to gravity” allowing us to use the constant-acceleration equations.x0 =( 2 Eqtn # 1 2 3 4 )t Quantities present t t t v x x x v v a a a Free Fall At a given location on the Earth and in the absence of air resistance. The initial coordinate and initial y-velocity are both zero. Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9. 8m/s2) (5s)2 y = -122.8m/s2 v0 = 0 m/s y0 = from origin = 0 t = 5. we need to identify and set-up the given.8 𝒎⁄𝒔 𝟐 or in 32 𝒇𝒕⁄𝒔 𝟐 LCB 2015 Page 5 of 14 .00 seconds.Motion at Constant Acceleration (Setting the frame of reference) We take the origin O at the starting point and the upward direction as positive. Note: Check the units because te given g may be expressed in 9. The y-acceleration is downward Derivations can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 28-29 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 46-49 Final equations at constant a: (1) v = v0 + at (2) x = x0 + v0t + ½at2 (3) v2 = v02 + 2a(x-x0) v0x + vx (4) x . all objects fall with the same constant acceleration. From the given we have: a = -9. What are its position and velocity after 5. We are asked for the position (y) at 5s.5 = The coin is 123 m below the origin after 5.8 m⁄s 2 Example: A coin is dropped from the Leaning Tower of Pisa and falls freely from rest.00 s? Solution: First.

0 m/s @ Point B: t=? yB = ? = max height VB = 0 @Point C: t= v− v0 a 0 − 15.0) = (0)2 .53 s)2 y = 11.80 m/s2)t2 Factor out t and solve.0 m/s)t + ½(–9.8m/s2) y = 11. t = 0 and t = 3.06 s t = 0 is Point A t = 3.06s / 2 = 1.8 m/s2) (1.0 m/s LCB 2015 Page 6 of 14 .53 s) + (½)(-9. Use Eqtn (3) [replace x to y] (3) v2 = v02 + 2a(y-y0) (y-y0) = v^2− v0^2 2a (y .0 m/s.8 m/s 2 a = -9.53s Up = Positive Y Down = Negative Y g = a = -9.8 m/s^2 t = 1.53s) + (½)(-9. There are 3 approaches to solve this problem.53s)2 y = 11.8m/s2) (1.0 m/s −9.5m tC = ? yC = 0 m VC = -15.06 is Point C Point B = 3. 1. Recall the contant-acceleration equations.5m 3. Ignore air resistance.0m/s)(1.The Cliché Example: A person throws a ball upward into the air with an initial velocity 15.53s (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 m + (15. Use Eqtn (1) (to find t) then (2) (to find y) [replace x to y]: (1) v = v0 + at t= y0 = 0 m V0 = 15. Calculate how high it goes.(15.5m 2.8 m/s 2 @ Point A: t0 = 0 (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 y = 0 m + (15. Use Eqtns (2) (to find t) [replace x to y] then (2) (to find y) (2) y = y0 + v0t + ½at2 0 = 0 + (15.0 m/s) (1.0 m/s)2 2(-9.

then the person will end up 2 km East of the origin.Accurate drawing using ruler and protractor to measure length and angle but is not always sufficient. Example: But if he walks 8 km east on the first day.0 km east and then 5.  Vector Quantities  A quantity that has direction as well as magnitude (Vector A denoted as: ) o Displacement o Velocity o Force o Momentum o Etc. Tail-to-tip method The resultant is drawn from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the last one added. 1. o Graphical Method: . and 6 km west (in the reverse direction) on the LCB 2015 Page 7 of 14 . Scalar Quantities  A quantity that has only magnitude (Magnitude of A denoted as: | |) o Mass o Time o Temperature o Etc. Vectors in two-dimensions Example: A person walks 10.2-D Kinematics second day. the person’s net or resultant displacement is 14 km East of the origin. Vector Addition  Vectors in one-dimension o Simple arithmetic Example: A person walks 8 km east one day. and 6 km east the next day.0 km north.

10-18 LCB 2015 Page 8 of 14 . If c is a negative scalar. Parallelogram method The two vectors are drawn starting from a common origin.Identify and use components x = | |cosϴ y = | |sinϴ Subtraction of Vectors Vector addition with opposite direction 2 1= 2 + (1) Example: y = x + ϴ y x Pythagorean: √c 2 = √a2 + b 2 | | = √| x|2 + | y|2 | | y| = | |sinϴ | = | |cosϴ x ϴ = tan-1 Ay Ax Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. Example: Analytical Method . and a parallelogram is constructed using these two vectors as adjacent sides Example: o Multiplication by a Scalar Multiplication of a vector by a positive scalar c changes the magnitude of the vector by a factor c but doesn’t alter the direction. 49-57 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. the magnitude of the product is changed by the factor.2.

The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory. R = X = V02 sin2ϴ0 g Page 9 of 14 . and z-axes of a rectangular coordinate system. ϴ. with no units. Φ (if 2D: Φ = 90° = 0) Final Equations: | |= √Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 Unit Vectors Unit vectors describe directions in space. A unit vector has a magnitude of 1. Further reading: Young and Freedman (2012) pp. The unit vectors are aligned with the x-. The x-distance travelled is called the horizontal range (R). y-. Vectors in three-dimension = | |. 19-24 ϴ = tan-1 Ay Ax Az2 Φ = cos-1 √Ax2 + Ay2 + Az2 | | = | |cosϴ sinΦ | | = | |sinϴ sinΦ | | = | |cosΦ LCB 2015 Projectile Motion A projectile is any body that is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined entirely by the effects of gravitational acceleration (air resistance oftentimes neglected).

Read. Choose a time interval. and 2. Examine x and y motions. and draw a diagram. choose the object. t = 0: when the motorcycle leaves the cliff top t = end: before the motorcycle touches the ground 5. Aside from Vx. How fast must the motorcycle leave the cliff top to land on level ground below. Origin: edge of cliff y is positive: upwards x is positive: to the right 4.0m Vy = 0 6. Choose a coordinate system. Kinematic Equations for Projectile Motion: Horizontal Motion ax = 0. Vx = constant Vertical Motion ay = -g = constant V0x = |Vo| cos ϴ Vx = V0x X = X0 + V0xt V0y = |V0| sin ϴ Vy = V0y .0-m-high cliff. air resistance.0m from the base of the cliff where the cameras are? Ignore air resistance. LCB 2015 Page 10 of 14 . 3. etc. Apply relevant equations.0m Vx = unknown Vertical (y): ay = -g = -9.) we can use the constant-acceleration equations and separate each coordinate plane. we also do not know the time (t) when the motorcycle reaches the ground. Problem Solving Steps: 1. 77-85 Example: A movie stunt driver on a motorcycle speeds horizontally off a 50. Object: motorcycle and driver. taken as a single unit.gt Y = Y0 + V0yt – ½gt2 V2y = V20y – 2g (y . Horizontal (x): ax = 0 ∴ vx is constant Xat the ground = +90. 90. 60-64 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp.Since acceleration is due to gravity which is constant (ignoring effects of wind. The time it stays in the air is determined by the y motion—when it reaches the ground. The motorcycle maintains constant Vx as long as it is in the air.y0) Max height (y) of projectile motion: V02sin2 ϴ 2g Max range (x) of projectile motion: ϴ0 = 45° Rmax = V02/g Derivations and further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pp.80 m/s2 Yat the ground = +50. 7. List knowns and unknowns.

The acceleration in the x direction is zero. LCB 2015 Page 11 of 14 . we use the modified Equation #2 with Y = 0 and Vy0 = 0.So we first find the time using the y motion. and then use this time value in the x equations. To find out how long it takes the motorcycle to reach the ground below. the only acceleration is gin the negative y direction. Note: In the time interval of the projectile motion.

what is her weight and what does the scale read? (b) What does the scale read when the elevator descends at a constant speed of 2.8)(65 kg) = 52 kg (b) constant speed of 2.” Weight and Normal Force Mass VS Weight Mass is a property of an object itself Weight is a force.0 m/s ? *acceleration due to gravity.20 g) FN = mg .20 g) = 0.m (0. or of uniform velocity in a straight line.FN = 0 and mg = FN ∴ scale reading is 65 kg.FN = m (0. The direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the net force acting on the object.80mg ∑ F = ma Actual weight = mg = (65 kg)(9. Force exerted by scale = 0. as long as no net force acts on it.20g* downward. 117-120 Free Body Diagrams a diagram showing all the forces acting on each object involved.force when two objects are in contact Normal Force (FN) . the second object exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first. Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. 84-86 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. She stands on a scale that reads in kg.Motion & Force: Dynamics Force as any kind of a push or a pull on an object Newton’s First Law of Motion (Law of Inertia) “Every object continues in its state of rest.0 m/s means no acceleration.80m = (0. not grams (g) Mass (kg) measure of the inertia of an object. the greater the force needed to give it a particular acceleration Solution: (a) Use Newton’s 2nd Law Newton’s Second Law of Motion (Law of Acceleration) “The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it.8 m/s2) = 640 N Mathematically: ∑ F = ma Units of Force = Newton (N) = kg ∙ m / s2 Newton’s Third Law of Motion (Law of Interaction) “Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object. (a) During this acceleration.” Contact Force . Indicates the direction of each force and its relationship to the other forces. Using Newton’s 2nd Law mg . Mathematically: Mass = m Weight = mg (g = acceleration due to gravity) LCB 2015 Page 12 of 14 . and is inversely proportional to the object’s mass. the pull of gravity acting on an object.” mg .Contact force that is perpendicular to the common surface of contact Example: A 65-kg woman descends in an elevator that briefly accelerates at 0. The more mass an object has.

Free-body diagram of the crate: fk = 𝜇 kn fk = magnitude of kinetic friction force (N) 𝜇 k = coefficient of kinetic friction (No unit) n = normal force (Unit: N) 2.40. 1. Friction force exerted with an equal magnitude and opposite direction We need the magnitude of the tension force T. How hard must you pull to keep it moving with constant velocity? Assume that 𝜇 k = 0.Friction Another type of contact force. Using Newton’s 2nd Law. It is always perpendicular to the normal force. The magnitude of the kinetic friction force usually increases when the normal force increases. Static Friction: Acts when there is no relative motion. Kinetic Friction: Acts when a body slides over a surface.93-98 or Young and Freedman (2012) pp. Illustration: LCB 2015 Further reading: Giancoli (2014) pp. we get the Force per component. fs ≤ 𝜇sn fs = magnitude of static friction force (N) 𝜇 s = coefficient of static friction (No unit) n = normal force (Unit: N) Substitute the value of n to solve for T Example: You want to move a crate by pulling upward on the rope at an angle of 30° above the horizontal. 146-151 Page 13 of 14 .

Circular Motion: Gravitation Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion An object moving in a circle of radius r at constant speed v has an acceleration whose direction is toward the center of the circle. uniform circular motion’s net force must be directed toward the center of the circle ∑ F = ma = m Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 112-115 LCB 2015 v2 r Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 122-129 Page 14 of 14 .” FG = G m1m2 r2 G = 6. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation “Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It has centripetal acceleration (“center-pointing” acceleration) or radial acceleration (since it is directed along the radius.67 x 10-11 N ∙ m2 / kg Kepler’s Law and Newton’s Synthesis Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion  Kepler’s first law: The path of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus Equations: v= distance time ar = v2 r = T= = 2πr T 4π2 r T2 1 f Derivations & further readings can be found in: Giancoli (2014) pages 108-112 or Young and Freedman (2012) pages 154-157  Kepler’s second law:Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time  Kepler’s third law:The ratio of the squares of the periods Tof any two planets revolving around the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Applying Newton’s 2nd Law. toward the center of the circle) (ar) Frequency (f) = number of revolutions per second Period (T) = time required to complete one revolution. This force acts along the line joining the two particles.