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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Low-Frequency

Electromagnetic Analysis Guide

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Table of Contents
1. Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1. How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis ............................................................................ 2
1.2. Types of Static, Harmonic, and Transient Magnetic Analysis ................................................................ 9
1.3. Comparing Magnetic Formulations ................................................................................................. 10
1.3.1. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetic Analysis ........................................................................................... 10
1.3.2. What Is the Magnetic Scalar Potential Formulation? ................................................................ 10
1.3.3. What Is the Magnetic Vector Potential Formulation? ................................................................ 11
1.3.4. What Is the Edge Formulation? ............................................................................................... 11
1.3.5. Comparing Formulations ........................................................................................................ 11
1.3.6. Static Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 12
1.4. Summary of Electromagnetic Elements ........................................................................................... 13
1.5. GUI Paths and Command Syntax ..................................................................................................... 15
2. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis ................................................................................................................. 17
2.1. Elements Used in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis ................................................................................ 17
2.2. Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements .................................................................... 19
2.3. Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis .................................................................................................. 21
2.3.1. Creating the Physics Environment ........................................................................................... 21
2.3.1.1. Setting GUI Preferences ................................................................................................. 21
2.3.1.2. Defining an Analysis Title ............................................................................................... 21
2.3.1.3. Specifying Element Types and Options ........................................................................... 22
2.3.1.4. Defining the Element Coordinate System ....................................................................... 26
2.3.1.5. Defining Element Real Constants and a System of Units .................................................. 26
2.3.1.5.1. Choosing a System of Units for Your Analysis ......................................................... 27
2.3.1.6. Specifying Material Properties ....................................................................................... 27
2.3.1.6.1. Accessing Material Library Files ............................................................................. 27
2.3.1.6.2. Additional Guidelines for Defining Regional Material Properties and Real Constants ................................................................................................................................. 28
2.3.1.7. Source Conductor Regions ............................................................................................. 31
2.3.1.8. Moving Conductor Regions ........................................................................................... 31
2.3.1.9. Permanent Magnet Regions ........................................................................................... 32
2.3.1.10. Voltage-fed Stranded Coil Regions ............................................................................... 34
2.3.2. Building and Meshing the Model and Assigning Region Attributes .......................................... 36
2.3.3. Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads .............................................................................. 36
2.3.3.1. Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................................... 37
2.3.3.1.1. Magnetic vector potentials (AZ) ............................................................................ 37
2.3.4. Excitation Loads ..................................................................................................................... 38
2.3.4.1. Source Current Density (JS) ............................................................................................ 38
2.3.4.2. Voltage Drop (VLTG) ...................................................................................................... 38
2.3.5. Flags ...................................................................................................................................... 39
2.3.5.1. Force Flags .................................................................................................................... 39
2.3.5.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF) .............................................................................................. 39
2.3.6. Other Loads ........................................................................................................................... 39
2.3.6.1. Current Segments (CSGX) .............................................................................................. 39
2.3.6.2. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF) .............................................................................................. 40
2.3.6.3. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI) .......................................................................... 40
2.3.7. Solving the Analysis ............................................................................................................... 40
2.3.8. Defining the Analysis Type ...................................................................................................... 40
2.3.9. Defining Analysis Options ...................................................................................................... 41
2.3.10. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database .................................................................................. 41
2.3.11. Starting the Solution ............................................................................................................ 41
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2.3.12. Tracking Convergence Graphically ........................................................................................ 42
2.3.13. Finishing the Solution ........................................................................................................... 42
2.3.14. Calculating the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage .............................................................. 42
2.3.15. Reviewing Results ................................................................................................................ 43
2.3.15.1. Primary data: ............................................................................................................... 43
2.3.15.2. Derived data: ............................................................................................................... 43
2.3.16. Reading in Results Data ........................................................................................................ 43
2.3.16.1. Flux Lines .................................................................................................................... 44
2.3.16.2. Contour Displays ......................................................................................................... 44
2.3.16.3. Vector Displays ............................................................................................................ 44
2.3.16.4. Tabular Listings ............................................................................................................ 44
2.3.16.5. Magnetic Forces .......................................................................................................... 44
2.3.16.6. Magnetic Torque .......................................................................................................... 45
2.3.16.7. Coil Resistance and Inductance .................................................................................... 46
2.3.16.8. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 47
2.4. 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis .............................................................................................................. 47
2.4.1. Elements Used in a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis ........................................................................ 47
2.4.2. Legacy vs Current-Technology 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis ....................................................... 48
2.4.3. Performing a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis ................................................................................. 49
2.4.4. Reviewing Results from a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis ............................................................... 50
2.5. Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses ............................................................................................. 51
2.5.1. Example: Basic 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis ............................................................................ 51
2.5.1.1. Description ................................................................................................................... 51
2.5.1.2. Analysis Parameters ....................................................................................................... 51
2.5.1.3. Approach and Assumptions ........................................................................................... 52
2.5.1.4. Command Method ........................................................................................................ 53
2.5.2. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis ........................................................................ 54
2.5.2.1. Description ................................................................................................................... 54
2.5.2.2. Input Listing .................................................................................................................. 54
2.5.3. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis with Velocity Effects ..................................................... 57
2.5.3.1. Description ................................................................................................................... 57
2.5.3.2. Input Listing .................................................................................................................. 58
2.5.3.3. Results .......................................................................................................................... 61
2.5.4. Other Examples ...................................................................................................................... 61
3. 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis .................................................................................................. 63
3.1. Linear Versus Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis ...................................................................................... 63
3.2. Elements Used in Harmonic Magnetic Analysis ................................................................................ 64
3.3. Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment ................................................................................ 65
3.3.1. Using DOFs to Manage Terminal Conditions on Conductors .................................................... 66
3.3.2. The AZ Option ........................................................................................................................ 66
3.3.3. The AZ-VOLT Option ............................................................................................................... 66
3.3.4. The AZ-CURR Option .............................................................................................................. 67
3.3.5. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model .................................................... 68
3.3.6. Velocity Effects ....................................................................................................................... 73
3.4. Building and Meshing the Model and Assigning Region Attributes ................................................... 74
3.4.1. Skin Depth Considerations ..................................................................................................... 74
3.5. Applying Boundary Conditions Loads (Excitation) to Harmonic Problems ......................................... 74
3.5.1. Using the PERBC2D Macro ...................................................................................................... 75
3.5.2. Amplitude, Phase Angle, and Operating Frequency ................................................................. 75
3.5.2.1. Amplitude ..................................................................................................................... 75
3.5.2.2. Phase Angle .................................................................................................................. 75
3.5.2.3. Operating Frequency ..................................................................................................... 75

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3.5.3. Applying Source Current Density to Stranded Conductors ....................................................... 76
3.5.4. Applying Current to Massive Conductors ................................................................................ 76
3.5.5. Applying Voltage Load Across a Stranded Coil ......................................................................... 76
3.5.6. Flags ...................................................................................................................................... 77
3.5.6.1. Force Flags .................................................................................................................... 77
3.5.6.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF) .............................................................................................. 77
3.5.7. Other Loads ........................................................................................................................... 77
3.5.7.1. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF) .............................................................................................. 77
3.5.7.2. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI) .......................................................................... 78
3.6. Obtain a Solution ............................................................................................................................ 78
3.6.1. Defining the Harmonic Analysis Type ...................................................................................... 78
3.6.2. Defining Analysis Options ...................................................................................................... 79
3.6.3. Selecting the Equation Solver ................................................................................................. 79
3.6.4. Setting the Analysis Frequency ............................................................................................... 80
3.6.5. Setting General Options ......................................................................................................... 80
3.6.6. Setting Output Controls ......................................................................................................... 81
3.6.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database ................................................................................... 81
3.6.8. Starting the Solution .............................................................................................................. 81
3.6.9. HMAGSOLV Command Macro ................................................................................................. 82
3.6.10. Tracking Convergence Graphically ........................................................................................ 82
3.6.11. Finishing the Solution ........................................................................................................... 83
3.7. Reviewing Results ........................................................................................................................... 83
3.7.1. Commands or GUI Paths to Help You in Postprocessing ........................................................... 84
3.7.2. Reading in Results Data .......................................................................................................... 86
3.7.2.1. Contour Displays ........................................................................................................... 86
3.7.2.2. Vector Displays .............................................................................................................. 87
3.7.2.3. Tabular Listings .............................................................................................................. 87
3.7.2.4. Magnetic Forces ............................................................................................................ 87
3.7.2.5. Magnetic Torque ........................................................................................................... 88
3.7.2.6. Coil Resistance and Inductance ...................................................................................... 90
3.7.2.7. Calculating Other Items of Interest ................................................................................. 90
3.8. Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses ...................................................................................... 91
3.8.1. Example: Harmonic Magnetic Analysis .................................................................................... 91
3.8.1.1. Command Input Stream Using PLANE233 ...................................................................... 92
3.8.1.2. Command Input Stream Using PLANE53 ........................................................................ 93
3.8.2. Example: 2-D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis ............................................................................. 94
3.8.2.1. Description ................................................................................................................... 94
3.8.2.2. Command Input Stream ................................................................................................ 95
3.8.3. Other Examples ...................................................................................................................... 97
4. 2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis ........................................................................................................... 99
4.1. Elements Used in Transient Magnetic Analysis ................................................................................. 99
4.2. Creating a 2-D Transient Magnetic Physics Environment ................................................................. 101
4.3. Building a Model, Assigning Region Attributes and Meshing the Model .......................................... 101
4.4. Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation) ................................................................... 101
4.4.1. Applying Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................. 102
4.4.2. Applying Excitation (Voltage Load) ....................................................................................... 102
4.4.3. Applying Current .................................................................................................................. 103
4.4.4. Other Loads ......................................................................................................................... 103
4.5. Obtaining a Solution ..................................................................................................................... 103
4.5.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor ......................................................................................... 103
4.5.2. Defining the Analysis Type .................................................................................................... 103
4.5.3. Defining Analysis Options ..................................................................................................... 104
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4.5.4. Load Step Options ................................................................................................................ 104
4.5.5. Nonlinear Options ................................................................................................................ 105
4.5.6. Output Controls ................................................................................................................... 106
4.5.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database .................................................................................. 107
4.5.8. Starting the Solution ............................................................................................................ 107
4.5.9. Finishing the Solution ........................................................................................................... 107
4.6. Reviewing Results ......................................................................................................................... 107
4.6.1. Reading Results in POST26 ................................................................................................... 108
4.6.2. Reading Results in POST1 ..................................................................................................... 109
4.6.2.1. Coil Resistance and Inductance .................................................................................... 109
4.6.2.2. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 110
4.7. Example Transient Magnetic Analyses ........................................................................................... 110
4.7.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Analysis ................................................................................... 110
4.7.1.1. The Example Described ................................................................................................ 110
4.7.1.2. Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................................... 111
4.7.1.3. Approach and Assumptions ......................................................................................... 111
4.7.1.4. Command Method ...................................................................................................... 122
4.7.2. Other Examples .................................................................................................................... 123
5. 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method) .................................................................................... 125
5.1. Elements Used in 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis ..................................................................... 125
5.2. Scalar Potential Formulation .......................................................................................................... 126
5.2.1. Singly Versus Multiply Connected Domains ........................................................................... 127
5.3. Analysis Considerations ................................................................................................................. 127
5.4. Steps in a 3-D Static Scalar Analysis ............................................................................................... 128
5.4.1. Create the Physics Environment ............................................................................................ 128
5.4.1.1. Setting GUI Preferences ............................................................................................... 128
5.4.1.2. Specifying Material Properties ...................................................................................... 129
5.4.1.2.1. Accessing Material Library Files ........................................................................... 129
5.4.1.3. Additional Guidelines for Defining Regional Material Properties and Real Constants ...... 130
5.4.1.3.1. For Air Regions: ................................................................................................... 130
5.4.1.3.2. For Free-Space Permeable Material Regions: ........................................................ 130
5.4.2. Build the Model .................................................................................................................... 131
5.4.2.1. Modeling Current Conduction Regions ........................................................................ 133
5.4.2.2. Building a 3-D Racetrack Coil ........................................................................................ 137
5.4.3. Apply Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation) ............................................................... 138
5.4.3.1. Applying Loads to a 3-D Scalar Static Analysis ............................................................... 138
5.4.3.2. Boundary Conditions ................................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.2.1. Magnetic Scalar Potentials ................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.3. Excitation .................................................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.4. Flags ........................................................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.4.1. Component Force ............................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.4.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF) ................................................................................... 139
5.4.3.5. Other Loads ................................................................................................................. 140
5.4.3.5.1. Maxwell Surface (MXWF) ..................................................................................... 140
5.4.3.5.2. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI) ............................................................... 140
5.4.4. Solve the Analysis (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method) ......................................................................... 140
5.4.4.1. Solve Using the RSP Method ........................................................................................ 140
5.4.4.1.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor ........................................................................ 140
5.4.4.1.2. Defining the Analysis Type .................................................................................. 140
5.4.4.1.3. Defining Analysis Options ................................................................................... 140
5.4.4.1.4. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database ................................................................ 141
5.4.4.1.5. Starting the Solution ........................................................................................... 141

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5.4.4.1.6. Finishing the Solution ......................................................................................... 141
5.4.4.2. Solve Using DSP Method .............................................................................................. 141
5.4.4.3. Solve Using the GSP Method ........................................................................................ 142
5.4.5. Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage ................................................................. 143
5.4.6. Review Analysis Results (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method Analysis) .................................................... 143
5.4.6.1. Reading in Results Data ............................................................................................... 144
5.4.6.2. Flux Lines .................................................................................................................... 144
5.4.6.3. Vector Displays ............................................................................................................ 144
5.4.6.4. Contour Displays ......................................................................................................... 144
5.4.6.5. Charged Particle Trace Displays .................................................................................... 144
5.4.6.6. Tabular Listings ............................................................................................................ 145
5.4.6.7. Magnetic Forces .......................................................................................................... 145
5.4.6.8. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 145
5.5. Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method) .................................................................. 146
5.5.1. Example of a 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis ............................................................................. 146
5.5.1.1. Description .................................................................................................................. 146
5.5.1.1.1. Material Properties .............................................................................................. 146
5.5.1.1.2. Approach and Assumptions ................................................................................ 147
5.5.1.1.3. Expected Results ................................................................................................. 147
5.5.1.2. Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 147
5.5.1.3. Command Method ...................................................................................................... 154
5.5.2. Other Examples .................................................................................................................... 156
6. 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis ........................................................ 157
6.1. Elements Used in Edge-Based Analysis .......................................................................................... 158
6.2. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model .......................................................... 159
6.3. Analysis Considerations ................................................................................................................. 162
6.4. Performing a Static Edge-Based Analysis ........................................................................................ 162
6.5. Reviewing Results from a Static Edge-Based Analysis ..................................................................... 164
6.5.1. Reading in Results Data ........................................................................................................ 165
6.5.1.1. Flux Lines .................................................................................................................... 165
6.5.1.2. Contour Displays, Vector Displays, Tabular Listings, and Magnetic Forces ....................... 165
6.5.1.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays .................................................................................... 165
6.5.1.4. Calculating Magnetic Force and Torque ........................................................................ 165
6.5.1.5. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 167
6.6. 3-D Stranded Coil Analysis ............................................................................................................. 167
6.6.1. Elements Used in a 3-D Edge-Based Stranded Coil Analysis .................................................... 167
6.6.2. Performing a Stranded Coil Analysis ...................................................................................... 167
6.6.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Stranded Coil Analysis ............................................................. 169
6.7. Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses ................................................................... 169
6.7.1. Example: Current-Carrying Conductor ................................................................................... 170
6.7.1.1. Analysis Description .................................................................................................... 170
6.7.1.2. Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................................... 171
6.7.1.3. Target Data .................................................................................................................. 171
6.7.1.4. The Analysis Input ........................................................................................................ 171
6.7.2. Example: Force Calculation Between Two Permanent Magnets .............................................. 173
6.7.2.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 173
6.7.2.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 177
6.7.3. Example: Two-Plate Hall Sensor ............................................................................................. 179
6.7.3.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 179
6.7.3.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 182
6.7.4. Other Examples .................................................................................................................... 185
7. 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based) .................................................................................. 187
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7.1. Analysis Considerations ................................................................................................................. 187
7.2. Performing a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis ................................................................................. 187
7.3. Reviewing the Results from a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis ......................................................... 189
7.3.1. Commands to Help You in Postprocessing ............................................................................ 190
7.3.2. Reading in Results Data ........................................................................................................ 192
7.3.2.1. Contour Displays ......................................................................................................... 192
7.3.2.2. Tabular Listings ............................................................................................................ 192
7.3.2.3. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 193
7.4. Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses ............................................................... 193
7.4.1. Example: 3-D Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis ........................................................................ 193
7.4.1.1. The Analysis Described ................................................................................................ 193
7.4.1.2. Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................................... 194
7.4.1.3. Target Data .................................................................................................................. 194
7.4.2. Example: Eddy Currents Induced in a Ferromagnetic Plate .................................................... 195
7.4.2.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 196
7.4.2.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 198
7.4.3. Example: Magnetic Field in a Parallel Plate Capacitor ............................................................. 200
7.4.3.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 200
7.4.3.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 204
7.4.4. Example: Transformer Analysis ............................................................................................. 206
7.4.4.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 206
7.4.4.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 210
8. 3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based) ................................................................................... 215
8.1. Analysis Considerations ................................................................................................................. 215
8.2. Performing a Transient Edge-Based Analysis .................................................................................. 215
8.2.1. Time Option ......................................................................................................................... 217
8.2.2. Number of Substeps or Time Step Size .................................................................................. 217
8.2.3. Automatic Time Stepping ..................................................................................................... 217
8.2.4. Newton-Raphson Options .................................................................................................... 218
8.2.5. Number of Equilibrium Iterations .......................................................................................... 218
8.2.6. Convergence Tolerances ....................................................................................................... 218
8.2.7. Terminate an Unconverged Solution ..................................................................................... 219
8.2.8. Control Printed Output ......................................................................................................... 219
8.2.9. Control Database and Results File Output ............................................................................. 219
8.2.10. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database ................................................................................ 219
8.2.11. Starting the Solution .......................................................................................................... 219
8.3. Reviewing Results ......................................................................................................................... 220
8.3.1. Reading Results in POST26 ................................................................................................... 221
8.3.2. Reading Results in POST1 ..................................................................................................... 222
8.3.2.1. Calculating Other Items of Interest ............................................................................... 222
8.4. Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses ................................................................... 222
8.4.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Field in a Conducting Block ...................................................... 222
8.4.1.1. Problem Description and Results .................................................................................. 223
8.4.1.2. Command Listing ........................................................................................................ 228
8.4.2. Other Examples .................................................................................................................... 231
9. 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) .............................................................. 233
9.1. Elements Used in a Static Nodal-Based Analysis ............................................................................. 233
9.1.1. Specifying Real Constants ..................................................................................................... 235
9.1.2. Incorporating Velocity Effects ............................................................................................... 236
9.2. Defining Analysis Settings ............................................................................................................. 236
9.2.1. Defining the Analysis Type .................................................................................................... 236
9.2.2. Defining Which Solver to Use ................................................................................................ 236

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9.3. Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses ............................................................................................... 236
9.3.1. Example: 3-D Static Magnetic MVP Analysis ........................................................................... 236
9.3.1.1. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution ................................................................. 236
9.3.1.1.1. Magnetic Vector Potentials (AX, AY, AZ) ................................................................ 237
9.3.1.1.2. Force Flags .......................................................................................................... 237
9.3.1.1.3. Voltage Drop (VLTG) ............................................................................................ 237
9.3.1.1.4. Current Segments (CSG(X,Y,Z)) ............................................................................ 237
9.3.1.1.5. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF) ................................................................................... 237
9.3.1.1.6. Source Current Density (JS) ................................................................................. 238
9.3.1.1.7. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI) ............................................................... 238
9.3.1.2. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database ......................................................................... 238
9.3.1.3. Starting the Solution .................................................................................................... 238
9.3.1.4. Finishing the Solution .................................................................................................. 238
9.3.1.5. Calculating the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage ..................................................... 239
9.3.1.6. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Static Magnetic MVP Analysis .......................................... 239
9.3.1.6.1. Reading in Results Data ....................................................................................... 239
9.3.1.6.1.1. Flux Lines ................................................................................................... 239
9.3.1.6.1.2. Contour Displays, Vector Displays, Tabular Listings, and Magnetic Forces ...... 240
9.3.1.6.1.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays ................................................................... 240
9.3.1.6.1.4. Coil Resistance and Inductance ................................................................... 240
9.3.1.6.1.5. Calculating Other Items of Interest .............................................................. 240
9.3.2. Example: 3-D Nodal-Based Harmonic Analysis ....................................................................... 241
9.3.2.1. Creating a Harmonic 3-D Physics Environment ............................................................. 241
9.3.2.1.1. Using DOFs to Manage Terminal Conditions on Conductors in 3-D Analyses ......... 241
9.3.2.1.1.1.The AX, AY, AZ, VOLT Option ......................................................................... 241
9.3.2.1.1.2. The AX, AY, AZ, CURR Option ........................................................................ 242
9.3.2.1.2. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model ................................ 242
9.3.2.1.3. Velocity Effects .................................................................................................... 246
9.3.2.1.4. Power Loss .......................................................................................................... 247
9.3.2.2. Applying Loads to and Solving 3-D Nodal-Based Harmonic Analyses ............................ 247
9.3.2.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Harmonic (Nodal-Based) Analysis .................................... 248
9.3.3. Example: 3-D Transient (Nodal-Based) Analysis ...................................................................... 248
9.3.3.1. Create the 3-D Transient Physics Environment .............................................................. 248
9.3.3.2. Apply Loads and Solve the Transient Analysis ............................................................... 248
9.3.3.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Transient (Nodal-Based) Analysis ..................................... 248
10. Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis ................................................................................. 249
10.1. Performing an Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis ....................................................... 249
10.2. Example: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis ............................................................... 250
11. Electric and Magnetic Macros ........................................................................................................... 255
11.1. Using Electric and Magnetic Macros ............................................................................................ 257
11.1.1. Modeling Aids .................................................................................................................... 257
11.1.2. Solution Aids ...................................................................................................................... 259
11.1.2.1. MAGSOLV ................................................................................................................. 259
11.1.2.2. HMAGSOLV .............................................................................................................. 259
11.1.2.3. CMATRIX ................................................................................................................... 259
11.1.2.4. LMATRIX ................................................................................................................... 259
11.1.2.4.1. Overview .......................................................................................................... 259
11.1.2.4.2. Procedure ......................................................................................................... 260
11.1.2.4.3. SOLID97 Solenoidal Formulations ...................................................................... 261
11.1.2.5. Example LMATRIX Calculation for an Inductor Device (Command Method) .................. 262
11.1.2.5.1. Problem Description ......................................................................................... 262
11.1.2.5.2. Command Listing .............................................................................................. 262
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11.1.2.5.3. Expected Results ............................................................................................... 264
11.1.3. Postprocessing Calculations ................................................................................................ 265
12. Far-Field Elements ............................................................................................................................. 273
12.1. Tips for Using Far-Field Elements ................................................................................................. 275
12.2. Example Far-Field Analysis ........................................................................................................... 277
12.2.1. Problem Description ........................................................................................................... 277
12.2.2. Results ............................................................................................................................... 278
12.2.3. Command Listing ............................................................................................................... 279
13. Electric Field Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 281
13.1. Elements Used in Electric Field Analysis ....................................................................................... 282
13.2. Element Compatibility ................................................................................................................. 284
13.3. Current Densities ........................................................................................................................ 287
13.4. Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis ................................................................................... 288
13.4.1. Building the Model ............................................................................................................. 288
13.4.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution ........................................................................... 289
13.4.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor .............................................................................. 289
13.4.2.2. Defining Analysis Type ............................................................................................... 289
13.4.2.3. Defining Analysis Options .......................................................................................... 289
13.4.2.4. Applying Loads .......................................................................................................... 290
13.4.2.4.1. Current ............................................................................................................. 290
13.4.2.4.2. Voltage (VOLT) .................................................................................................. 290
13.4.2.5. Starting the Solution .................................................................................................. 290
13.4.2.6. Finishing the Solution ................................................................................................ 290
13.4.3. Reviewing Results .............................................................................................................. 290
13.4.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1 ....................................................................................... 291
13.4.4. Extracting Conductance from Multi-Conductor Systems ...................................................... 292
13.4.4.1. Ground Conductances and Lumped Conductances .................................................... 293
13.4.4.2. Procedure .................................................................................................................. 294
13.5. Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis ......................................................................................... 295
13.5.1. Building the Model ............................................................................................................. 296
13.5.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution ........................................................................... 297
13.5.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor .............................................................................. 297
13.5.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type ......................................................................................... 297
13.5.2.3. Defining Analysis Options .......................................................................................... 297
13.5.2.4. Applying Loads .......................................................................................................... 298
13.5.2.4.1. Current ............................................................................................................. 298
13.5.2.4.2. Charge .............................................................................................................. 299
13.5.2.4.3. Voltage (VOLT) .................................................................................................. 299
13.5.2.5. Starting the Solution .................................................................................................. 299
13.5.2.6. Finishing the Solution ................................................................................................ 299
13.5.3. Reviewing Results .............................................................................................................. 299
13.5.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1 ....................................................................................... 301
13.5.3.2. Reviewing Results in POST26 ...................................................................................... 301
13.6. Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis .......................................................................................... 302
13.6.1. Building the Model ............................................................................................................. 303
13.6.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution ........................................................................... 303
13.6.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor .............................................................................. 303
13.6.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type ......................................................................................... 304
13.6.2.3. Defining Analysis Options .......................................................................................... 304
13.6.2.4. Applying Loads .......................................................................................................... 305
13.6.2.5. Starting the Solution .................................................................................................. 305
13.6.2.6. Finishing the Solution ................................................................................................ 305

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13.6.3. Reviewing Results .............................................................................................................. 305
13.6.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1 ....................................................................................... 306
13.6.3.2. Reviewing Results in POST26 ...................................................................................... 306
13.7. Example Electric Field Analyses ................................................................................................... 306
13.7.1. Example: Steady-State Conduction Current Analysis ............................................................ 306
13.7.1.1. Results ....................................................................................................................... 307
13.7.1.2. Command Listing ...................................................................................................... 308
13.7.2. Example: Conductance Calculation ..................................................................................... 309
13.7.2.1. Command Listing ...................................................................................................... 310
13.7.3. Example: Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis .................................................................. 310
13.7.3.1. Results ....................................................................................................................... 312
13.7.3.2. Command Listing ...................................................................................................... 312
13.7.4. Example: Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis ................................................................... 314
13.7.4.1. Problem Description .................................................................................................. 314
13.7.4.2. Results ....................................................................................................................... 315
13.7.4.3. Command Listing ...................................................................................................... 316
13.7.5. Other Examples .................................................................................................................. 318
14. Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method) ............................................................................................ 321
14.1. Elements Used in h-Method Electrostatic Analysis ........................................................................ 321
14.2. Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis ................................................................................. 322
14.2.1. Building the Model ............................................................................................................. 322
14.2.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution ........................................................................... 324
14.2.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor .............................................................................. 324
14.2.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type ......................................................................................... 324
14.2.2.3. Defining Analysis Options .......................................................................................... 324
14.2.2.4. Apply Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................... 325
14.2.2.5. Applying Loads .......................................................................................................... 325
14.2.2.5.1. Voltage (VOLT) .................................................................................................. 325
14.2.2.5.2. Charges (CHRG) ................................................................................................. 325
14.2.2.5.3. Surface Charge Densities (CHRGS) ..................................................................... 325
14.2.2.5.4. Infinite Surface Flags (INF) ................................................................................. 325
14.2.2.5.5. Volume Charge Densities (CHRGD) .................................................................... 326
14.2.2.6. (Optional): Specifying Load Step Options .................................................................... 326
14.2.2.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database ....................................................................... 326
14.2.2.8. Starting the Solution .................................................................................................. 326
14.2.2.9. Applying Additional Loads ......................................................................................... 326
14.2.2.10. Finishing the Solution .............................................................................................. 326
14.2.3. Reviewing Results .............................................................................................................. 326
14.2.3.1. Contour Displays ....................................................................................................... 327
14.2.3.2. Vector Displays .......................................................................................................... 327
14.2.3.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays .................................................................................. 328
14.2.3.4. Tabular Listings .......................................................................................................... 328
14.2.3.5. Electrostatic Forces .................................................................................................... 328
14.3. Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems ................................................................. 329
14.3.1. Ground Capacitances and Lumped Capacitances ................................................................ 330
14.3.2. Procedure .......................................................................................................................... 331
14.4. Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method) .......................................................................... 333
14.4.1. Example: h-Method Electrostatic Analysis ............................................................................ 333
14.4.1.1. Description ................................................................................................................ 334
14.4.1.2. Assumptions and Modeling ....................................................................................... 334
14.4.1.3. Expected Results ........................................................................................................ 334
14.4.1.4. Command Method .................................................................................................... 342
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14.4.2. Example: Capacitance Calculation ....................................................................................... 342
14.4.2.1. Description ................................................................................................................ 343
14.4.2.2. Modeling ................................................................................................................... 343
14.4.2.3. Results ....................................................................................................................... 344
14.4.2.4. Command Listing ...................................................................................................... 344
15. Electric Circuit Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 347
15.1. Elements Used in Circuit Analysis ................................................................................................. 348
15.2. Using the CIRCU125 Element ....................................................................................................... 348
15.3. Using the Circuit Builder .............................................................................................................. 349
15.3.1. Building a Circuit ................................................................................................................ 349
15.4. Avoiding Inconsistent Circuits ..................................................................................................... 350
15.4.1. DC and Harmonic Analyses ................................................................................................. 351
15.4.1.1. Voltage Generators Should Not Form a Loop .............................................................. 351
15.4.1.2. Current Generators Should Not Form a Cut ................................................................. 352
15.4.2. Transient Analyses .............................................................................................................. 352
15.4.2.1. Capacitors and Voltage Operators Should Not Form a Loop ........................................ 352
15.4.3. Inductors and Current Generators Should Not Form a Cut ................................................... 353
15.5. Static (DC) Electric Circuit Analysis ............................................................................................... 354
15.5.1. Building a Circuit for Static Analysis ..................................................................................... 354
15.5.2. Applying Loads and Solving the Static Analysis ................................................................... 354
15.5.2.1. Enter the SOLUTION Processor ................................................................................... 354
15.5.2.2. Define the Analysis Type ............................................................................................ 354
15.5.2.3. Apply Loads on the Model ......................................................................................... 354
15.5.2.4. Copy the Database ..................................................................................................... 355
15.5.2.5. Start the Solution ....................................................................................................... 355
15.5.2.6. Apply Additional Loads .............................................................................................. 355
15.5.2.7. Finish the Solution ..................................................................................................... 355
15.5.3. Reviewing Results from a Static Circuit Analysis ................................................................... 355
15.6. Harmonic (AC) Electric Circuit Analysis ......................................................................................... 356
15.6.1. Building a Circuit for Harmonic Analysis .............................................................................. 356
15.6.2. Applying Loads and Solving the Analysis ............................................................................ 356
15.6.2.1. Enter the SOLUTION Processor ................................................................................... 356
15.6.2.2. Define the Analysis Type ............................................................................................ 356
15.6.2.3. Specify an Equation Solver ......................................................................................... 356
15.6.2.4. Specify a Solution Listing Format ............................................................................... 356
15.6.2.5. Apply Loads on the Model ......................................................................................... 357
15.6.2.6. Specify Load Step Options ......................................................................................... 357
15.6.2.7. Copy the Database ..................................................................................................... 357
15.6.2.8. Start the Solution ....................................................................................................... 357
15.6.2.9. Apply Additional Loads .............................................................................................. 357
15.6.2.10. Finish the Solution ................................................................................................... 357
15.6.3. Reviewing Results from a Harmonic Circuit Analysis ............................................................ 358
15.7. Transient Electric Circuit Analysis ................................................................................................. 358
15.7.1. Building a Circuit for Transient Analysis ............................................................................... 358
15.7.2. Applying Loads and Solving the Static Analysis ................................................................... 358
15.7.2.1. Enter the SOLUTION Processor ................................................................................... 358
15.7.2.2. Define the Analysis Type ............................................................................................ 359
15.7.2.3. Choose an Equation Solver ......................................................................................... 359
15.7.2.4. Apply Loads on the Model ......................................................................................... 359
15.7.2.5. Specify Load Step Options ......................................................................................... 359
15.7.2.5.1. General Options ................................................................................................ 359
15.7.2.5.2. Output Controls ................................................................................................ 360

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15.7.2.6. Create Load Step Files ................................................................................................ 360
15.7.2.7. Copy the Database ..................................................................................................... 361
15.7.2.8. Start the Solution ....................................................................................................... 361
15.7.2.9. Finish the Solution ..................................................................................................... 361
15.7.3. Reviewing Results from a Transient Circuit Analysis ............................................................. 361
15.7.3.1. Using POST26 ............................................................................................................ 361
15.7.3.2. Using POST1 .............................................................................................................. 362
15.8. Example Electric Circuit Analyses ................................................................................................. 362
15.8.1. Example: Harmonic Circuit Analysis ..................................................................................... 363
15.8.2. Example Diode Circuit ........................................................................................................ 364
15.8.3. Other Examples .................................................................................................................. 365
16. Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods ........................................................................ 367
16.1. Loading Options for 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis ........................................................................ 368
16.1.1. On Keypoints ..................................................................................................................... 368
16.1.2. On Lines ............................................................................................................................. 368
16.1.3. On Areas ............................................................................................................................ 369
16.1.4. On Volumes ........................................................................................................................ 369
16.1.5. On Nodes ........................................................................................................................... 369
16.1.6. On Elements ....................................................................................................................... 370
16.2. Using the Alternative Solution Option for 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis ......................................... 370
16.2.1. Specify Load Step Options for the Initial Solution ................................................................ 370
16.2.1.1. General Options ........................................................................................................ 370
16.2.1.2. Nonlinear Options ..................................................................................................... 371
16.2.2. Write Load Data or Start the Solution .................................................................................. 371
16.2.3. Specify Load Step Options for the Final Solution .................................................................. 371
16.2.3.1. General Options ........................................................................................................ 371
16.2.3.2. Nonlinear Options ..................................................................................................... 371
16.2.3.3. Output Controls ......................................................................................................... 372
16.2.4. Write Load Data or Start the Solution .................................................................................. 373
16.2.5. Initiate the Solution ............................................................................................................ 373
16.3. Loading Options for 2-D or 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) ................................. 373
16.4. Load Step Options for 2-D or 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) .............................. 373
16.4.1. Dynamic Options ............................................................................................................... 373
16.4.2. General Options ................................................................................................................. 374
16.4.3. Output Controls ................................................................................................................. 374
16.5. Loading Options for 2-D or 3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) .................................. 374
16.6. Load Step Options for Nodal-Based Transient Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) ............................ 374
16.6.1. Dynamic Options ............................................................................................................... 374
16.6.1.1. Initial Conditions ....................................................................................................... 375
16.6.1.2. General Options ........................................................................................................ 375
16.6.1.3. Nonlinear Options ..................................................................................................... 376
16.6.1.4. Output Controls ......................................................................................................... 377
16.7. Loading Options for 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method) ................................................ 377
16.8. Using the RSP Method for 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis ...................................................... 378
16.8.1. Specify Load Step Options .................................................................................................. 378
16.8.1.1. Newton-Raphson Options .......................................................................................... 378
16.8.1.2. Biot-Savart Options .................................................................................................... 378
16.8.1.3. General Options ........................................................................................................ 379
16.8.1.4. Nonlinear Options ..................................................................................................... 379
16.8.2. Start the Solution ............................................................................................................... 380
16.8.2.1. Specify Additional Loading Conditions (Optional) ....................................................... 380
16.8.2.2. Review Results ........................................................................................................... 380
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16.9. Using the DSP Method for 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis ...................................................... 380
16.10. Using the GSP Method for 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis .................................................... 381
16.11. Loading Options for 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) ................................................ 382
16.12. The Alternative Solution Option for 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (MVP Method) ......................... 382
16.12.1. Specify Load Step Options for the Initial Solution .............................................................. 382
16.12.2. Write Load Data or Start the Solution ................................................................................ 383
16.12.3. Specify Load Step Options for the Final Solution ................................................................ 383
16.12.4. Write Load Data or Solve the Second Load Step ................................................................. 383
16.12.5. Initiate the Solution .......................................................................................................... 383
16.13. Loading Options for an Electric Field (Current Conduction) Analysis ........................................... 383
16.14. Load Step Options for an Electric Field (Current Conduction) Analysis ......................................... 383
16.15. Loading Options for an Electrostatic Field Analysis ..................................................................... 383
16.16. Load Step Options for Electrostatic Field Analysis ....................................................................... 384
Index ........................................................................................................................................................ 385

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List of Figures
1.1. Current-Fed Stranded Source - Current Density Known ............................................................................ 3
1.2. SOURC36 Current-fed Stranded Conductor ............................................................................................. 3
1.3. Current-Fed Solid Conductor - Current Known ......................................................................................... 4
1.4. Voltage-Fed Solid Conductor - Voltage Known ......................................................................................... 4
1.5. Circuit-Fed Solid Conductor .................................................................................................................... 4
2.1. B-H and Reluctivity vs. B Squared Curves ............................................................................................... 30
2.2. Applicable Configurations for Considering Velocity Effects of Moving Bodies ......................................... 31
2.3. Actual and ANSYS (Shifted) Demagnetization Curves ............................................................................. 33
2.4. B-H Curve for Bar Magnet Example ........................................................................................................ 34
2.5. Stranded Coil Cross-Section .................................................................................................................. 35
2.6. MVDI Specifications for Virtual Work Force Calculation ........................................................................... 40
2.7. Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature ................................... 42
2.8. Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator ............................................................................................................. 51
2.9. Element Plot Showing Independent Meshes .......................................................................................... 54
2.10. Flux Line Plot ...................................................................................................................................... 56
2.11. Flux Density Plot ................................................................................................................................. 57
2.12. Finite Element Model .......................................................................................................................... 58
2.13. Current Density in the Conductive Cylinder ......................................................................................... 61
3.1. Stranded Coil Cross-Section .................................................................................................................. 67
3.2. Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors ........................................................ 68
3.3. Relationship Between Real / Imaginary Components and Amplitude / Phase Angle ................................ 75
3.4. MVDI Specifications for Virtual Work Force Calculation ........................................................................... 78
3.5. Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature ................................... 83
3.6. 2-D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis .......................................................................................................... 95
4.1. Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves ................................................................................................. 102
4.2. Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator ........................................................................................................... 111
5.1. Connected Domains ........................................................................................................................... 127
5.2. B-H and mu-H Curves With Extrapolation ............................................................................................. 131
5.3. A Coil Source Represented by SOURC36 Elements ................................................................................ 134
5.4. Solenoid Actuator ............................................................................................................................... 146
6.1. Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors ...................................................... 159
6.2. Reluctance Force ................................................................................................................................. 166
6.3. Coil Constants for 1/8 Symmetry Sector of Circular Stranded Coil ........................................................ 168
6.4. Current-Carrying Conductor in a Slot Within an Iron Region ................................................................. 170
6.5. Volume Model of the Conductor .......................................................................................................... 170
6.6. Finite Element Model of the Magnets .................................................................................................. 174
6.7. Magnetic Forces vs. Upper Magnet Displacement ................................................................................ 175
6.8. Magnetic Field Distribution in the Magnets ......................................................................................... 176
6.9. Magnetic Force Distribution in the Magnets ........................................................................................ 177
6.10. Finite Element Model of the Two-Plate Hall Sensor ............................................................................. 180
6.11. Electric Potential Distribution in the Plates ......................................................................................... 181
6.12. Vector Plot of Applied Magnetic Field on the Plates ............................................................................ 182
7.1. Volume Model of the Conductor .......................................................................................................... 193
7.2. Finite Element Model of the Ferromagnetic Plate and Coil .................................................................... 196
7.3. Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate (Real Solution) ......................................................................... 197
7.4. Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate (Imaginary Solution) ................................................................ 197
7.5. Temperature Distribution in the Plate ................................................................................................. 198
7.6. Finite Element Model of the Lossy Capacitor ........................................................................................ 201
7.7. Electric Field in the Capacitor .............................................................................................................. 201
7.8. Magnetic Field Induced by the Conduction Current ............................................................................. 202
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7.9. Magnetic Field Induced by the Displacement Current .......................................................................... 203
7.10. Computed and Analytical Real Magnetic Fields Hr .............................................................................. 204
7.11. Computed and Analytical Imaginary Magnetic Field Hi ....................................................................... 204
7.12. Finite Element Model of the Transformer (1/4 Symmetry) ................................................................... 207
7.13. Magnetic Field (Real) in the Core ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200) .......................................................... 208
7.14. Magnetic Field (Imaginary) in the Core ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200) ................................................. 208
7.15. Current Density (Real) in the Coils ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200) ........................................................ 209
7.16. Current Density (Imaginary) in the Coils ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200) ............................................... 209
8.1. Finite Element Model of the C-Magnet and the Conducting Block ........................................................ 223
8.2. Current Density in the Coil .................................................................................................................. 224
8.3. Magnetic Field in the Copper Block at Successive Time Intervals ........................................................... 225
8.4. Eddy Currents in the Conducting Block ................................................................................................ 227
8.5. Magnetic Field between the Pole-Pieces with and without the Copper Block ........................................ 228
9.1. Stranded Bar and Circular Coil ............................................................................................................. 235
9.2. Coil Constants Applied to a Voltage-Fed Stranded Coil ......................................................................... 242
9.3. Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors ...................................................... 243
11.1. Racetrack Current Source .................................................................................................................. 257
11.2. Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes at Constant Angles ......................................................................... 258
11.3. Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes Parallel to the Y Axis ....................................................................... 258
11.4. Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes Parallel to the X Axis ....................................................................... 258
11.5. Inductor Device ................................................................................................................................ 262
11.6. General Path for Torque Calculation ................................................................................................... 265
11.7. PATH for Circular Calculation ............................................................................................................. 266
11.8. Sample Paths for Magnetic Force Calculation ..................................................................................... 266
11.9. MMF Paths ........................................................................................................................................ 266
11.10. Flux Calculations ............................................................................................................................. 267
11.11. Energy and Co-energy for Nonpermanent Magnets ......................................................................... 268
11.12. Energy and Co-energy for Permanent Magnets ................................................................................ 269
12.1. Flux Lines Without Far-Field Elements ................................................................................................ 273
12.2. Flux Lines With Far-Field Elements ..................................................................................................... 273
12.3. Interface between FE and Infinite Element Domains .......................................................................... 276
12.4. IFE Constructions for Non-Smooth FE to IFE Domain Interface ............................................................ 276
12.5. 2-D Infinite Element Structures .......................................................................................................... 276
12.6. Relative Dimensions of FE and IFE Domains ....................................................................................... 277
12.7. Grounding Plate with Current Loading .............................................................................................. 278
12.8. Electric Current Distribution .............................................................................................................. 278
13.1. Three Conductor System ................................................................................................................... 293
13.2. Lumped Conductor Equivalence of Three Conductor System .............................................................. 294
13.3. Conducting Disk with Current Loading .............................................................................................. 307
13.4. Potential Distribution ........................................................................................................................ 308
13.5. Current Distribution .......................................................................................................................... 308
13.6. Problem Geometry ............................................................................................................................ 310
13.7. Parallel Plate Capacitor with Time-Harmonic Voltage Load ................................................................. 311
13.8. Axisymmetric Model ......................................................................................................................... 311
13.9. Parallel Plate Capacitor Connected to a Voltage Source ...................................................................... 314
13.10. Computed and Target Electric Fields ................................................................................................ 316
13.11. Current Density (Conduction, Displacement, and Total) .................................................................... 316
14.1. Reluctance Force ............................................................................................................................... 329
14.2. Three Conductor System ................................................................................................................... 330
14.3. Lumped Capacitor Equivalence of Three Conductor System ............................................................... 331
14.4. Modeling Scenarios ........................................................................................................................... 333
14.5. Model Areas of Capacitance Example Problem ................................................................................... 343

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14.6. Elements of Capacitance Example Problem ........................................................................................ 344
15.1. Voltage Generators Forming a Loop ................................................................................................... 351
15.2. Voltage Generators in Parallel With Resistors ...................................................................................... 351
15.3. Voltage Generators in Parallel With Other Circuit Components ........................................................... 351
15.4. Current Generators in Parallel ............................................................................................................ 352
15.5. Circuit Generators and a Supernode .................................................................................................. 352
15.6. Voltage Generator and Capacitor Equivalence .................................................................................... 352
15.7. Velocity Generators Forming a Loop .................................................................................................. 353
15.8. Current Generator and Inductor Equivalence ..................................................................................... 353
15.9. Current Generators Forming a Cut ..................................................................................................... 353
15.10. Half Wave Rectifier Circuit ................................................................................................................ 364
15.11. Half Wave Rectifier Output ............................................................................................................... 365

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List of Tables
1.1. Formulation Comparison ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.2. 3-D Edge Formulation ............................................................................................................................. 5
1.3. 2-D MVP Formulation .............................................................................................................................. 6
1.4. 3-D Nodal MVP Formulation .................................................................................................................... 7
1.5. 3-D Nodal MSP Formulation .................................................................................................................... 9
1.6. List of Electromagnetic Elements ........................................................................................................... 14
2.1. 2-D Solid Elements ................................................................................................................................ 18
2.2. Far-Field Elements ................................................................................................................................. 18
2.3. General Circuit Elements ....................................................................................................................... 19
2.4. Contact Elements .................................................................................................................................. 19
2.5. Voltage-Fed Stranded Coil Input Data Mapping ..................................................................................... 48
2.6. Circuit-Coupled Stranded Coil Input Data Mapping ................................................................................ 48
2.7. Real Constant Comparison .................................................................................................................... 48
3.1. 2-D Solid Elements ................................................................................................................................ 64
3.2. Far-Field Elements ................................................................................................................................. 65
3.3. General Circuit Elements ....................................................................................................................... 65
3.4. Contact Elements .................................................................................................................................. 65
3.5. Postprocessing GUI Paths and Commands ............................................................................................. 84
4.1. 2-D Solid Elements ................................................................................................................................ 99
4.2. Far-Field Elements ............................................................................................................................... 100
4.3. General Circuit Elements ..................................................................................................................... 100
4.4. Contact Elements ................................................................................................................................ 100
5.1. 3-D Solid Elements .............................................................................................................................. 125
5.2. 3-D Source Elements ........................................................................................................................... 126
5.3. 3-D Infinite Elements ........................................................................................................................... 126
5.4. Contact Elements ................................................................................................................................ 126
6.1. 3D Solid Edge-Based Elements .......................................................................................................... 158
7.1. Postprocessing Commands ................................................................................................................. 190
7.2. Coil Voltage and EMF ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200) ............................................................................ 207
7.3. Secondary and Primary Coil Voltage Ratio as a Function of Core Permeability (NS/NP = 200) ............... 209
7.4. Secondary and Primary Coil Voltage Ratio as a Function of Ratio of Turns NS/NP ( = 100000) ................ 210
11.1. Application of Electric and Magnetic Macros ...................................................................................... 256
12.1. 2-D Far-Field Elements ....................................................................................................................... 274
12.2. 3-D Far-Field Elements ....................................................................................................................... 274
13.1. Conducting Bar Elements .................................................................................................................. 282
13.2. 2-D Planar Elements .......................................................................................................................... 282
13.3. 3-D Solid Elements ............................................................................................................................ 282
13.4. Shell Elements .................................................................................................................................. 283
13.5. Specialty Elements ............................................................................................................................ 283
13.6. General Circuit Elements ................................................................................................................... 284
13.7. Reaction Solutions for Elements with VOLT DOF ................................................................................. 284
13.8. Current Densities in Low-Frequency Analyses .................................................................................... 287
13.9. Elements Used in a Steady-State Analysis ........................................................................................... 288
13.10. Reviewing Results ........................................................................................................................... 291
13.11. ETABLE Results ................................................................................................................................ 292
13.12. Elements Used in a Current-Based Harmonic Analysis [1] ................................................................. 296
13.13. Elements Used in a Charge-Based Harmonic Analysis [1] .................................................................. 296
13.14. Load Types ...................................................................................................................................... 298
13.15. Command Labels ............................................................................................................................ 300
13.16. Defining Variables ........................................................................................................................... 302
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xix

Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide


13.17. Graphing and Listing Variables ........................................................................................................ 302
13.18. Elements Used in a Transient Analysis .............................................................................................. 303
13.19. Electric Potential at Points with Coordinates r = a and ................................................................... 307
13.20. Electric Admittance (Y) .................................................................................................................... 312
14.1. 2-D Solid Elements ............................................................................................................................ 321
14.2. 3-D Solid Elements ............................................................................................................................ 321
14.3. Specialty Elements ............................................................................................................................ 322
14.4. Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to muMKSV .............................................................................. 323
14.5. Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to muMSVfA ............................................................................. 323
15.1. Circuit Elements ................................................................................................................................ 348

xx

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Chapter 1: Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


Magnetic analyses, available in the ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Emag programs, calculate the magnetic field in devices such as:
Power generators

Magnetic tape/disk drives

Transformers

Waveguides

Solenoid actuators

Resonant cavities

Electric motors

Connectors

Magnetic imaging systems

Antenna radiation

Video display device sensors

Filters

Cyclotrons
Typical quantities of interest in a magnetic analysis are:
Magnetic flux density

Power loss

Magnetic field intensity

Flux leakage

Magnetic forces and torques

S-parameters

Impedance

Quality factor

Inductance

Return loss

Eddy currents

Eigenfrequencies

Magnetic fields may exist as a result of an electric current, a permanent magnet, or an applied external
field.

Solid
conductor
J

Air:
Nonconductive
Nonpermeable
m
s=0
Stranded
conductor
J

Soft
magnetic
permeable
m

Hard
magnetic
permeable
mM

In general, parts/components of an electromagnetic analysis can be categorized by their electric and


magnetic properties. Possible electric characteristics are:
No current exists in a body

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Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


Solid conductor, current, no eddy current effects (see Figure 1.3: Current-Fed Solid Conductor - Current
Known (p. 4), Figure 1.4: Voltage-Fed Solid Conductor - Voltage Known (p. 4), and Figure 1.5: CircuitFed Solid Conductor (p. 4))
Stranded conductor, no eddy current (see Figure 1.1: Current-Fed Stranded Source - Current Density
Known (p. 3) and Figure 1.2: SOURC36 Current-fed Stranded Conductor (p. 3))
Solid conductor, eddy current present (harmonic or transient analyses only)
Magnetic characteristics include:
Non-magnetic: typically air, copper, aluminum
Soft magnetic: typically iron or steel
Hard magnetic: typically samarium cobalt or Alnico
The use and combination of these electric and material properties is described in How Mechanical APDL
Handles Magnetic Analysis (p. 2).
The following low-frequency electromagnetic topics are available:
1.1. How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis
1.2.Types of Static, Harmonic, and Transient Magnetic Analysis
1.3. Comparing Magnetic Formulations
1.4. Summary of Electromagnetic Elements
1.5. GUI Paths and Command Syntax

1.1. How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis


The program uses Maxwell's equations as the basis for electromagnetic field analysis. The primary unknowns (degrees of freedom) that the finite element solution calculates are magnetic and electric potentials. Other magnetic field quantities such as magnetic field flux density, current density, energy, forces,
loss, inductance, and capacitance are derived from these degrees of freedom. Depending on the element
type and element option you choose, the degrees of freedom may be scalar magnetic potentials, vector
magnetic potentials, or edge flux, as well as non-time integrated and time integrated electric potential.
The program offers several formulations, depending on the type of analysis, the material properties in
your analysis, and the overall physics of your analysis. Electromagnetic analysis may be coupled to circuit,
heat transfer, mechanical, or fluid dynamics analyses.
Options available for low frequency electromagnetic analyses are summarized in the following figures
and tables. High frequency electromagnetic analyses are discussed separately in the High-Frequency
Electromagnetic Analysis Guide.
To understand which formulation may be suitable for your analysis, you need to understand how current
is introduced into the model. The following graphics show the basic current loading configurations for
3-D models. These configurations are referenced in the tables that follow.

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How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis


Figure 1.1: Current-Fed Stranded Source - Current Density Known

J = ni
A

Where:
J = current density
n = number of turns
i = current in a filament
A = coil cross section area
In this case, the current density is specified on each element via body force loading (BFE,,JS).
Figure 1.2: SOURC36 Current-fed Stranded Conductor
y

y
x
CUR

J
I
DY

CUR

DY

DZ
DZ
a) Type 1 - Coil

b) Type 2 - Bar
y

DY

CUR

x
I

K
DZ

z
c) Type 3 - Arc

In this case, the current loading is fed in via SOURC36 coil primitives. The coil primitives are simple
predefined geometric shapes that you use to locate and prescribe current, without the need to physically
create a finite element model and mesh of the coil domain.
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Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


Figure 1.3: Current-Fed Solid Conductor - Current Known

It

VOLT = 0

F,,AMPS

Couple VOLT

Figure 1.4: Voltage-Fed Solid Conductor - Voltage Known

  

D

 ad

Figure 1.5: Circuit-Fed Solid Conductor

  

 


R U124 r R U125

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How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis


The following tables summarize the physics regions, elements, and loading options available for each
of the various formulations.
Table 1.1: Formulation Comparison
Formulation

Conductor Model

Dim.

Applications

Element
Types

Analysis
Type

MSP

SOURC36 current-fed
stranded conductor
- coil not meshed,
underlying region
meshed

3-D

Magnetostatic
without eddy current.

SOLID5,
SOLID96,
SOLID98

Static

Nodal
MVP

Current, voltage, or
circuit-fed solid conductor - Coil meshed
as part of model

2-D, 3D

Magnetostatic, eddy
current.

SOLID97,
PLANE53,
PLANE13,
PLANE233

Static, harmonic,
transient

EdgeBased

Both stranded and


solid conductor permitted. Supports current, circuit, and
voltage fed, and direct current specification

3-D

Magnetostatic, eddy
current, magnetic allowed.

SOLID236,
SOLID237

Static, harmonic,
transient

Table 1.2: 3-D Edge Formulation


The 3-D Edge Formulation uses SOLID236and SOLID237 elements, with KEYOPT(1) = 0 unless
otherwise noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Non-magnetic
(air, copper, aluminum)

None

Soft Magnetic
(typically iron or
steel)
Hard Magnetic
(such as Alnico or
samarium cobalt)

DOFs

Current
Loading

MURX (Y,Z)
=1

AZ

N/A

None

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

N/A

None

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],
MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

N/A

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y,Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

BFE,,JS

Stranded Conduct- Current


or (typically cop(neglectper)
ing eddy
current)

Electric Material Props

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Notes

Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


The 3-D Edge Formulation uses SOLID236and SOLID237 elements, with KEYOPT(1) = 0 unless
otherwise noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Solid Conductor
(typically copper,
aluminum, etc.)

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

Stranded Coil

Electric Material Props

DOFs

Current
Loading

Notes

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y,Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
VOLT

F,,AMPS,
D,,VOLT,
or circuit
loading

Uses SOLID236 or
SOLID237
with KEYOPT(1) = 1
in a static
analysis and
with KEYOPT(1) = 1
and KEYOPT(5) = 1
in a harmonic or transient analysis.

Eddy current

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y,Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
VOLT

F,,AMPS,
D,,VOLT

Uses SOLID236 or
SOLID237
with KEYOPT(1) = 1

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
VOLT,
EMF

F,,AMPS,
D,,VOLT,
or circuit
loading

Uses SOLID236 or
SOLID237
with KEYOPT(1) = 1

RSVX

Table 1.3: 2-D MVP Formulation


The 2-D MVP Formulation uses PLANE53, PLANE13, and PLANE233 elements with KEYOPT(1)
= 0 unless otherwise noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Non-magnetic
(air, copper, aluminum)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
=1

AZ

N/A

Soft Magnetic
(typically iron or
steel)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

N/A

Hard Magnetic
(such as Alnico or
samarium cobalt)

None

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],
MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

N/A

Electric Material Props

DOFs Current
Loading

Notes

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How Mechanical APDL Handles Magnetic Analysis


The 2-D MVP Formulation uses PLANE53, PLANE13, and PLANE233 elements with KEYOPT(1)
= 0 unless otherwise noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Electric Material Props

DOFs Current
Loading

Notes

Stranded Conduct- Current


or (typically cop(neglectper)
ing eddy
current)

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],
MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ

BFE,,JS

Solid Conductor
(typically copper,
aluminum, etc.)

Eddy current

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y,Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
VOLT

F,,AMPS
or circuit
loading

Solid Conductor circuit-coupled

Eddy current

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y,Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
circuitCURR, coupled
EMF

Uses
PLANE53
with KEYOPT(1) = 4

Stranded Coilvoltage-fed

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX

RSVX

AZ,
voltageCURR fed

Uses
PLANE53
with KEYOPT(1) = 2

Stranded Coil circuit-coupled

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX

RSVX

AZ,
circuitCURR, coupled
EMF

Uses
PLANE53
with KEYOPT(1) = 3

Stranded Coil

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

RSVX

AZ,
F,,AMPS,
VOLT, D,,VOLT,
EMF or circuit
loading

Uses
PLANE233
with KEYOPT(1) = 2

Uses
PLANE53
with KEYOPT(1) =
1,PLANE13
with KEYOPT(1) = 6,
or PLANE233
with KEYOPT(1) = 1

Table 1.4: 3-D Nodal MVP Formulation


The 3-D Nodal MVP Formulation uses SOLID97 elements with KEYOPT(1) = 0 unless otherwise
noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Non-magnetic
(air, copper, aluminum)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
=1

Electric Material Props

DOFs Current
Loading
AX,
AY,
AZ

Notes

N/A

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Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


The 3-D Nodal MVP Formulation uses SOLID97 elements with KEYOPT(1) = 0 unless otherwise
noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Soft Magnetic
(typically iron or
steel)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AX,
AY,
AZ

N/A

Hard Magnetic
(such as Alnico or
samarium cobalt)

None

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],
MURX (Y, Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AX,
AY,
AZ

N/A

Stranded Conduct- Current


or (typically cop(neglectper)
ing eddy
current)

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y, Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AX,
AY,
AZ,
VOLT

BFE,,JS

Solid Conductor
(typically copper,
aluminum, etc.)

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y, Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AX,
AY,
AZ,
VOLT

F,,AMPS
or circuit
loading

Uses SOLID97 with


KEYOPT(1) =
5 or 6

Eddy current

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y, Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AZ,
VOLT

F,,AMPS,
D,,VOLT

Uses SOLID97 with


KEYOPT(1) =
1

Solid Conductor circuit-coupled

Eddy current

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],RSVX, RSVY,
MURX (Y, Z)
RSVZ
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

AX,
circuitAY,
coupled
AX,
VOLT,
EMF

Uses SOLID97 with


KEYOPT(1) =
4

Stranded Coil voltage-fed

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX

RSVX

AX,
voltageAY,
fed
AX,
CURR

Uses SOLID97 with


KEYOPT(1) =
2

Stranded Coil circuit-coupled

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

MURX

RSVX

AX,
circuitAY,
coupled
AX,
CURR,
EMF

Uses SOLID97 with


KEYOPT(1) =
3

Electric Material Props

DOFs Current
Loading

Notes

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Types of Static, Harmonic, and Transient Magnetic Analysis


The Nodal MVP formulation is not recommended for soft magnetic or hard magnetic regions due to
inaccuracies in permeable domains. It is acceptable for non-magnetic regions.
Table 1.5: 3-D Nodal MSP Formulation
The 3-D Nodal MSP Formulation uses SOLID5 with KEYOPT(1) = 10, SOLID96, and SOLID98
with KEYOPT(1) = 10 elements, unless otherwise noted.
Physical Region

Current

Magnetic
Material
Props

Non-magnetic
(air, copper, aluminum)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
=1

MAG

N/A

Soft Magnetic
(typically iron or
steel)

None

MURX (Y,Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

MAG

N/A

Hard Magnetic
(such as Alnico or
samarium cobalt)

None

MGXX(YY,ZZ)[1],
MURX (Y, Z)
> 1 (linear)
or B-H curve
(nonlinear)

MAG

N/A

Stranded Conduct- Current


or (typically cop(neglectper)
ing eddy
current)

Any of
above

N/A

MAG

SOURC36

Solid Conductor
(typically copper,
aluminum, etc.)

Any of
above

N/A

MAG

SOURC36

Current
(neglecting eddy
current)

Electric Material Props

DOFs Current
Loading

Notes

Uses KEYOPT(1) = 1
or 9 on SOLID5 or SOLID98 only

1. Coercive force in terms of vector components, MGXX, MGYY, MGZZ. Polarization direction is determined
by coercion force (magnetization) terms MGXX, MGYY and MGZZ in conjunction with the element coordinate system.

1.2. Types of Static, Harmonic, and Transient Magnetic Analysis


You can do the following types of static, harmonic, and transient magnetic analysis:
2-D static magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by direct current (DC) or permanent
magnets. A 2-D static analyses use a magnetic vector potential (MVP) formulation. See 2-D Static
Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) in this manual for more information.
2-D harmonic magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by low frequency alternating current
(AC) or voltage. Permanent magnets are not permitted. This type of analysis uses a MVP formulation.
For details about this analysis type, see 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63).
2-D transient magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by arbitrary electric current or external field that varies over time. Permanent magnet effects also can be included. This analysis type
uses a MVP formulation. 2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (p. 99) describes this analysis type in detail.
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Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


3-D static magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by direct current (DC) or permanent
magnets using a magnetic scalar potential (MSP) formulation. See 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis
(Scalar Method) (p. 125) for more information.
3-D static magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by direct current (DC) or permanent
magnets using an edge-based formulation. 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based
Analysis (p. 157) describes this type of analysis in detail.
3-D harmonic magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by low frequency alternating current
(AC), using an edge-based formulation. Permanent magnets are not permitted. The edge-based formulation is recommended for most harmonic magnetic applications. See 3-D Harmonic Magnetic
Analysis (Edge-Based) (p. 187) for a description of this analysis type.
3-D transient magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by arbitrary electric current or external field that varies over time, using an edge-based formulation. Permanent magnet effects also
can be included. The edge-based formulation is recommended for most transient magnetic applications.
3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based) (p. 215) discusses edge-based transient analysis.
3-D static magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by direct current (DC) or permanent
magnets using a MVP formulation. For more information, see 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233).
3-D harmonic magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by low frequency alternating current
(AC), using a MVP formulation. Permanent magnets are not permitted. 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis
(Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233) describes 3-D harmonic magnetic analysis.
3-D transient magnetic analysis, analyzing magnetic fields caused by arbitrary electric current or external field that varies over time, using a MVP formulation. Permanent magnet effects also can be
included. See 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233) for more information.

1.3. Comparing Magnetic Formulations


When should you use a 2-D model or a 3-D model? What are the differences between the scalar and
vector potential formulations? How do the edge-based and nodal-based formulations for 3-D magnetic
analyses differ? The next few topics provide some answers.

1.3.1. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetic Analysis


A 3-D analysis uses a 3-D model to represent the geometry of the structure being analyzed. A 3-D
model is the most natural way to represent a structure. However, 3-D models usually are more difficult
to generate than 2-D models and usually require more computer time to solve. Therefore, you should
first consider using a 2-D model for your analysis.

1.3.2. What Is the Magnetic Scalar Potential Formulation?


The magnetic scalar potential (MSP) formulation is recommended for most 3-D static analysis applications.
The scalar approach allows you to model current sources as primitives rather than elements; therefore,
the current sources do not need to be part of the finite element mesh. The scalar method offers the
following:
Brick, wedge, pyramid, and tetrahedral element geometries
Current sources defined by primitives (coils, bars, and arcs)

10

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Comparing Magnetic Formulations


Permanent magnets
Linear and nonlinear permeability
Node coupling and constraint equations
In addition, modeling of current sources (current conducting regions) is simpler with the scalar formulation. This is so because you can simply specify current source primitives (coils, bars, and so forth) in
the proper locations to account for their magnetic field contribution.

1.3.3. What Is the Magnetic Vector Potential Formulation?


The magnetic vector potential (MVP) formulation is one of the two nodal-based methods for 3-D static,
harmonic, and transient analyses which the program supports. (The scalar potential formulation is the
other nodal-based method.)
The MVP formulation has more (three) degrees of freedom per node than the scalar method: AX, AY,
and AZ, the magnetic vector DOFs in the X, Y, and Z directions. Voltage-fed or circuit coupled analysis
may add up to three additional degrees of freedom to the magnetic vector DOFs: current (CURR),
electromotive force drop (EMF), and electric potential (VOLT). You must use the MVP formulation for a
2-D static magnetic analysis; doing so results in a single magnetic vector potential degree of freedom,
AZ.
With the MVP formulation, you model current sources (current conducting regions) as an integral part
of the finite element model. However, the MVP formulation runs more slowly than the scalar formulation
because of the added DOFs.
You can also use the MVP formulation for 3-D static, harmonic or transient magnetic analysis. If you do,
however, you should be cautious when including permeable materials in the model due to a loss of
accuracy using the 3-D MVP formulation. (The solution has been found to be inaccurate when the normal
component of the vector potential is significant at the interface between elements of different permeability.)

1.3.4. What Is the Edge Formulation?


The edge formulation is similar to the MVP formulation. It associates degrees of freedom (DOFs) with
element edges rather than element nodes. The method offers 3-D static and dynamic solution capability
for low frequency electromagnetics. You perform 3-D edge-based analyses using essentially the same
procedures you use for 3-D nodal-based analyses. The edge-based analysis is not available for 2-D
models.
The Mechanical APDL Theory Reference discusses the edge formulation in more detail.

1.3.5. Comparing Formulations


The edge formulation is more accurate than the nodal-based formulations in cases where both methods
share the same functionality, particularly when models contain iron regions. Edge-based analysis also
is more efficient than the nodal-based methods in terms of the active degrees of freedom.
The edge formulation is the recommended method for most 3-D harmonic and transient electromagnetic analyses. However, currently the methods do not support identical capabilities. You should use
the MVP formulation in these situations:
When your model requires motion effects and circuit coupling
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11

Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


When your model requires circuit and velocity effects
When you are analyzing a model containing no iron regions.

1.3.6. Static Analysis


You can solve most 3-D static problems using the MSP formulation or a MVP or edge formulation. In
accuracy critical applications, it is a good idea to solve your problem using both MSP and MVP or edge
formulations. The difference between the MSP and MVP or edge solutions is your best measure of accuracy.
Except for coil regions, you can generally apply the same mesh for MSP and MVP or edge formulations.
To switch from MSP formulation to MVP or edge formulation, you switch element type.

Note
You must also switch boundary conditions (flux-normal-flux-parallel).
The following are important additional points to remember about accuracy:
Energy is the most accurate quantity.
The finite element method is a variational procedure minimizing or maximizing the energy stored in
the studied domain. Thus, energy is the most accurate single number characterizing a solution.
Monitoring the convergence of energy is a prudent way to check accuracy.
The MSP and MVP or edge formulations converge monotonously to the exact energy from above
and below, respectively. Therefore, without knowing the exact energy, you can obtain a good accuracy
measure by checking the energy difference between MSP and MVP or edge solutions. If you refine
the mesh, this energy difference must theoretically decrease.
The LMATRIX command macro computes the inductance matrix of a coil system based on the stored
energy. Therefore, the difference between MSP and MVP or edge inductance coefficients is also a
good accuracy measure.
In accuracy critical applications, rely on centroidal field values.
Field quantities are less accurate than nodal solutions because they are obtained from derivatives of
the potential solution. The derivatives are first evaluated at the element integration points then extrapolated to corner nodes. Consequently, integration point field values are more reliable than corner
data. Centroidal field values are averaged integration point values.
The finite element variational procedure converges in the energy space. In most situations the energy
convergence implies convergence of local field values. However, field values at special locations, like
corners and edges, may not converge.
Continuity conditions are a reasonable measure of solution accuracy.
The satisfaction of continuity conditions is a reasonable measure of solution accuracy. The MSP and
MVP or edge formulations must satisfy continuity of tangential magnetic field, Ht, and normal flux
density, Bn, respectively. Therefore, the difference in Ht and Bn continuity is a good measure of MSP
and MVP or edge convergence, respectively.

12

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Summary of Electromagnetic Elements


MMF and flux are better accuracy measures than continuity conditions.
Although the difference in Ht and Bn is a reasonable measure of the accuracy of a magnetic finite
element solution, these values contain differentiation and extrapolation errors, especially when evaluated at element nodes. Integration can smooth these fluctuations.
MMF (magnetomotive force) is the closed loop integral of Ht. When MMF is evaluated over various
loops enclosing the same current, according to Ampere's law, the loop integral should theoretically
be equal to the enclosed current. Therefore, the difference in MMF values over different loops enclosing
identical current is a good measure of MVP or edge solution accuracy. See the MMF macro for a
convenient way to evaluate magnetomotive force.
The flux is the surface integral of Bn over a closed loop. Since there are no magnetic poles, the flux
crossing the surfaces of a flux tube is constant. In general, it is impractical to predict a flux tube.
However, for accuracy check purposes, you can select elements on opposite sides of a surface to
obtain two faces of a flux tube. The flux difference crossing the same surface is a good measure of
MSP solution accuracy.
In accuracy critical applications, tighten the Biot Savart tolerance for MSP solutions.
In MSP solutions, the program applies the Biot Savart integration procedure to evaluate source
magnetic field values exited by SOURC36 current source elements. The accuracy of the Biot Savart
calculations is most critical at corners and edges. The default tolerance value is satisfactory for most
applications. However, in accuracy critical applications, you may need to tighten the tolerance
(SOURC36 element real constant EPS).
For MSP solutions, apply a pseudo iron material around iron domains.
To avoid cancellation errors, the MSP formulation applies certain physical assumptions in the iron
region. These assumptions may not prove to be good approximations where iron regions are heavily
saturated (for example, near corners and edges). Sometimes air regions may behave similar to iron.
Violated assumptions may degrade accuracy.
The program differentiates air and iron regions by the relative permeability. A material with a relative
permeability larger than one is considered to be iron. To avoid a violation of the air-iron behavior
assumptions, apply a couple layers of pseudo iron material around iron domains. Set the relative
permeability to slightly above one (for example 1.0001).
Eelements occupying the air space of coils must be "real" air elements (that is, the relative permeability is exactly one).

1.4. Summary of Electromagnetic Elements


The program includes a variety of elements you can use to model electromagnetic phenomena.
Table 1.6: List of Electromagnetic Elements (p. 14) summarizes them briefly. For detailed descriptions
of the elements and their characteristics (DOFs, KEYOPT options, inputs and outputs, etc.), see the Element
Reference.
Not all elements listed in the table below apply to every type of electromagnetic analysis described in
this manual. To see which elements apply to a particular analysis type, read the chapter(s) discussing
that analysis type.

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13

Overview of Magnetic Field Analysis


All 3-D electrical circuit elements require that you specify the solenoidal current density to obtain a
solution, or to perform any postprocessing operations.
Table 1.6: List of Electromagnetic Elements
Element

Dim.

Element Type

No.
Shape
of
Nodes

DOFs[1] and Other Features

PLANE53

2-D

Magnetic solid vector

Quad AZ, AZ-VOLT, AZ-CURR, AZ-CURREMF

SOURC36

3-D

Current source

n/a

No DOF; coil, bar, and arc shape


primitives

SOLID96

3-D

Magnetic solid scalar

Brick

MAG; reduced, difference, general


potential formulations

SOLID97

3-D

Magnetic solid vector

Brick

AX, AY, AZ; AX, AY, AZ, VOLT; AX,


AY, AZ, CURR; AX, AY, AZ, CURR,
EMF; AX, AY, AZ, CURR, VOLT; velocity effects and circuit coupling

SOLID236

3-D

Low-frequency edge

20

Brick

AZ (edge), AZ (edge)-VOLT

SOLID237

3-D

Low-frequency edge

10

Tet

AZ (edge), AZ (edge)-VOLT

CIRCU124

1-D

Circuit

26

Line

VOLT, CURR, EMF; resistor, capacitor, inductor, current source, voltage


source, stranded coil, 2-D massive
coil, 3-D massive coil, mutual inductor, controlled source

CIRCU125

1-D

Diode

Line

VOLT

PLANE121

2-D

Electrostatic solid

Quad VOLT

SOLID122

3-D

Electrostatic solid

20

Brick

VOLT

SOLID123

3-D

Electrostatic solid

10

Tet

VOLT

INFIN9

2-D

Infinite boundary

Line

AZ-TEMP

INFIN110

2-D

Infinite solid

Quad AZ, VOLT, TEMP

INFIN47

3-D

Infinite boundary

Quad MAG, TEMP

INFIN111

3-D

Infinite solid

20

Brick

MAG, AX, AY, AZ, VOLT, TEMP

LINK68

3-D

Thermoelectric bar

Line

TEMP-VOLT

SHELL157

3-D

Thermoelectric shell

Quad TEMP-VOLT

PLANE13

2-D

Coupled solid

Quad UX, UY, TEMP, AZ UX-UY-VOLT

SOLID5

3-D

Coupled solid

Brick

UX-UY-UZ-TEMP-VOLT-MAG; TEMPVOLT-MAG UX-UY-UZ; TEMP, VOLT,


MAG

SOLID98

3-D

Coupled tetrahedral

10

Tet

UX-UY-UZ-TEMP-VOLT-MAG; TEMPVOLT-MAG UX-UY-UZ; TEMP, VOLT,


MAG

CONTA171

2-D

Surface-to-surface contact

n/a

AZ,VOLT

CONTA172

2-D

Surface-to-surface contact

n/a

AZ,VOLT

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GUI Paths and Command Syntax


Element

Dim.

Element Type

No.
Shape
of
Nodes

DOFs[1] and Other Features

CONTA173

3-D

Surface-to-surface contact

n/a

MAG,VOLT

CONTA174

3-D

Surface-to-surface contact

n/a

MAG,VOLT

CONTA175

2Node-to-surface contact
D/3D

n/a

AZ, MAG,VOLT

TARGE169

2-D

Target segment

n/a

n/a

n/a

TARGE170

3-D

Target segment

n/a

n/a

n/a

PLANE230

2-D

Electric solid

Quad VOLT

SOLID231

3-D

Electric solid

20

Brick

VOLT

SOLID232

3-D

Electric solid

10

Tet

VOLT

1. Degrees of freedom available depend on an element's KEYOPT settings.

1.5. GUI Paths and Command Syntax


You will often see references to commands and their equivalent GUI paths. Such references use only
the command name, because you do not always need to specify all of a command's arguments, and
specific combinations of command arguments perform different functions. For complete command
syntax descriptions, see the Command Reference.
The GUI paths shown are as complete as possible. In many cases, choosing the GUI path as shown will
perform the function you want. In other cases, using the given GUI path takes you to a menu or dialog
box; from there, you must choose additional options that are appropriate for the specific task being
performed.
For all types of analyses, specify the material that you intend to simulate using an intuitive material
model interface. The interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories intended to assist
you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. See Material Model Interface in the Basic
Analysis Guide for details about the material model interface.

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15

16

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Chapter 2: 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


A static magnetic analysis calculates the magnetic fields produced by one of the following:
Permanent magnets
The steady flow of direct electric current (DC)
An applied voltage
A moving conductor
An applied external field.
Static magnetic analyses do not consider time-dependent effects such as eddy currents. You can model
both saturable and non-saturable magnetic materials, as well as permanent magnets in a static magnetic
analysis.
The procedure for a static magnetic analysis depends on several factors:
Whether your model is 2-D or 3-D.
Which method you wish to use for your analysis. If your static analysis is 2-D, you must use the vector
potential formulation discussed in this chapter. For a 3-D static analysis, you can choose among a
scalar formulation (described in 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method) (p. 125)), a vector potential
formulation (described in 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233)), or an
edge element formulation (explained in 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157)).
Whether you're modeling two contacting bodies with dissimilar meshes (such as the air gap in a rotor/stator configuration). See Modeling Magnetic Contact for more information on modeling contact
problems using surface-to-surface or node-to-surface contact elements.
The following 2-D static magnetic analysis topics are available:
2.1. Elements Used in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis
2.2. Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements
2.3. Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis
2.4. 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis
2.5. Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses

2.1. Elements Used in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


A 2-D model uses 2-D elements to represent the geometry of the structure. Although all objects and
structures are 3-D, you can and often should consider using a 2-D model for your analysis when the
geometry lends itself to planar or axisymmetric modeling. This is because a 2-D model usually is much
easier to generate and takes less time to solve.
The ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Emag programs include several elements (described below) to help
you perform 2-D static magnetic analyses.
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17

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


For detailed information about the elements, see the Element Reference.
Table 2.1: 2-D Solid Elements
Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

PLANE13

2-D

4-node quadrilateral
or 3-node triangular

Up to four at each node;


these can be magnetic
vector potential (AZ),
displacements, temperature, or time-integrated
electric potential

PLANE53

2-D

PLANE233 2-D

Notes

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

Up to four at each node;


these can be magnetic
vector potential (AZ),
time-integrated electric
potential, current, or
electromotive force drop

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

Up to three at each
node; these can be
magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric potential/voltage drop or
time-integrated electric
potential/voltage drop
(VOLT), electromotive
force or time-integrated
electromotive force
(EMF)

Legacy element
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis.
Legacy element
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis.
Current-technology
element
[1]
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis.

1. Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic
element) rather than PLANE13 or PLANE53 (legacy magnetic elements). See Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19) for a list of the capabilities that are only available with PLANE233. PLANE233
does not support nonlinear harmonic analysis, velocity effects, or LMATRIX calculations.
Some of the procedural steps in this chapter are not applicable to PLANE233. For information on
the differences between PLANE233 and PLANE53 (and PLANE13), see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).
Table 2.2: Far-Field Elements
Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

INFIN9

2-D

2-node line

18

DOFs
Magnetic vector potential (AZ)

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Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

INFIN110

2-D

4-node or 8-node quadrilateral

Magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric potential, temperature

Table 2.3: General Circuit Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

CIRCU124

None

General circuit element;


up to 6 nodes

DOFs

Notes

Up to three at each node; Used to couple


these can be electric poten- with a magnetic
tial, current, or electromot- domain
ive force

Table 2.4: Contact Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

Notes

TARGE169 2-D

Target segment

n/a

Used to model the


target region for a
contact analysis

CONTA171

2-D

Surface-to-surface contact element (2-node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA172

2-D

Surface-to-surface contact element (3-node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA175

2-D

Node-to-surface contact
element (1-node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

The 2-D elements use a magnetic vector potential formulation. (In other words, the degrees of freedom
used to solve the problem are vector potentials.) Because the elements are 2-D, each node has only
one vector potential degree of freedom: AZ (vector potential in the Z direction). The electric potential
and time-integrated electric potential (VOLT) is used for current-fed massive conductors and for enforcing
terminal conditions on conductors.
When using PLANE53, an additional degree of freedom, current (CURR), is used in the source coil region
to make voltage loads easier to apply. CURR, representing the current flowing in each turn of the coil
winding, is used for voltage-fed coils and circuit coupling. Applying a voltage or current load through
an external circuit requires the AZ, CURR, and EMF (electromotive force drop or potential drop) degrees
of freedom along with the CIRCU124 element. (See the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide for more information
about electromagnetic-circuit coupling.)

2.2. Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements


Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic
element) rather than PLANE13 or PLANE53 (legacy magnetic elements).
PLANE233 supports the magnetic (KEYOPT(1) = 0), electromagnetic (KEYOPT(1) = 1), and stranded coil
(KEYOPT(1) = 2) analysis options. For these analyses, the current technology element has more advanced
features than PLANE13 or PLANE53. The following capabilities are available only with the PLANE233
element type:

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19

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


Thickness (plane geometry) or fraction of the 360 basis (axisymmetric geometry) input
Nodal Maxwell and Lorentz forces
Displacement current effect in a harmonic electromagnetic analysis
Coupling to circuit elements through the electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom
This feature supersedes the circuit-coupled massive conductor option (KEYOPT(1) = 4) and the circuitcoupled stranded coil option (KEYOPT(1) = 3) with PLANE53.
New stranded coil formulation (see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47))
Linear perturbation analysis.
PLANE233 does not support nonlinear harmonic analysis.
Some of the procedural steps in Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 21) of this chapter and in the
respective sections of Chapters 3 and 4 are not applicable to PLANE233. Before setting up your analysis,
consider the following differences between PLANE233 and PLANE53 (and PLANE13):
PLANE233 always behaves as a stranded conductor (no eddy current effects are modeled) in a harmonic
or transient analysis when the element does not have the VOLT degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 0).
By default, the meaning of VOLT degree of freedom with PLANE233 is electric potential. To do an electromagnetic analysis with time-integrated electric potential as a VOLT degree of freedom, use KEYOPT(2) =
2 with PLANE233.
With PLANE233, you do not need to apply any force flags to calculate magnetic forces. Depending on the
KEYOPT(8) setting, Maxwell (KEYOPT(8) = 0) or Lorentz (KEYOPT(8) = 1) forces will be calculated and output
as FMAG either at each element node (KEYOPT(7) = 0) or condensed to the corner nodes (KEYOPT(7) =
1). Lorentz forces are calculated for current carrying elements only. To summarize magnetic forces and
torques, use the EMFT command.
When summarizing Maxwell forces, select all the nodes in the region of interest and select all the elements
attached to these nodes prior to issuing EMFT. For regions with corners, use KEYOPT(7) = 1 to obtain
more accurate Maxwell forces.
When summarizing Lorentz forces, select all the nodes in the conductor and issue EMFT.
When performing an electromagnetic analysis of a moving conductor using PLANE233, specify the translational or angular velocity via the BF,,VELO command. The angular velocity units are radians/sec.
See 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47) for the differences in the stranded coil analysis procedures using
PLANE233 and PLANE53.
The following examples of a 2-D magnetic analysis using the current technology element are available:
Command Method (p. 53)
Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis (p. 54)
Example: Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (p. 91)

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis

2.3. Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis


The procedure for doing a static magnetic analysis consists of five main steps:
1. Create the physics environment.
2. Build and mesh the model and assign physics attributes to each region within the model.
3. Apply boundary conditions and loads (excitation).
4. Obtain the solution.
5. Review the results.
The next few topics discuss what you must do to perform these tasks. At the end of this chapter, you
will find a 2-D static analysis example based on an actual analysis of a solenoid actuator. The example
walks you through doing the analysis by choosing items from ANSYS GUI menus, then shows you how
to perform the same analysis using ANSYS commands.

2.3.1. Creating the Physics Environment


In defining the physics environment for an analysis, you enter the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) and establish a mathematical simulation model of the physical problem. To do so, you follow the steps listed
below. (Subsequent topics discuss each step in more detail.)
1. Set GUI Preferences.
2. Define the analysis title (/TITLE card).
3. Define element types and options (KEYOPT settings).
4. Define element coordinate systems.
5. Set real constants and define a system of units.
6. Define material properties.

2.3.1.1. Setting GUI Preferences


If you are running ANSYS via the GUI, the first thing you should do after the GUI becomes active is choose
menu path Main Menu> Preferences. Then, on the dialog box that appears, select Magnetic-Nodal
from the list of magnetic analysis types. Because the GUI filters the elements available to you based on
the preference you choose, you must set preferences before doing anything else, and you must specify
Magnetic-Nodal to ensure that you can use the elements needed for 2-D static analysis.

2.3.1.2. Defining an Analysis Title


Give your analysis a title that reflects the problem being analyzed, such as "2-D solenoid actuator static
analysis." Be sure to choose a unique title to distinguish this analysis problem from others that may use
similar model geometry or physics. To assign a title, use either of the following:
Command(s): /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Title

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2-D Static Magnetic Analysis

2.3.1.3. Specifying Element Types and Options


The tasks you perform to choose element types are the same for a static magnetic analysis as they are
for other analysis types, and the Basic Analysis Guide explains these procedures at length.
Element types establish the physics of the problem domain. Depending on the nature of the problem,
you may need to define several element types to model the different physics regions in the model. For
example, a permeable iron region may require one element type, and a stranded coil may require a
different element type. The element types you choose and their options (KEYOPTS, discussed next)
define the nature of the domain to be solved. Once you have specified element types and options, you
can assign them to different regions of the model.
The tables and figures below show you regions that can exist within a 2-D model. Details on specifying
material properties and real constants noted in the tables and figures follow in the next few sections.
Air

DOF: AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX) (if Joule heat losses
are desired)
DOF: AZ

Iron

Material Properties: MUr (MURX) or B-H curve (TB command)


Permanent magnet

DOF: AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX) or B-H curve (TB command);
Hc (coercive force in terms of vector components, MGXX,
MGYY)

Note
Polarization direction is determined by coercion force (magnetization) terms MGXX and MGYY
in conjunction with the element coordinate system.

n p n


i

rea ""
Tur s " "
JS = ni
A

(ource
Curre t
De sty)

Curre t-fed ta dard Col

22

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis


Current-fed stranded coil

DOF: AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX)
Special characteristics: Apply source current density, JS (using
BFE,,JS command)

Note
Assumes a stranded insulated coil producing a constant DC current, unaffected by surrounding
conditions. You can calculate current density from the number of coil turns, the current per
turn, and the cross-section area of the coil.

CURR

+
V
-

Voltage-fed Stranded Coil


Voltage-fed stranded coil

DOFs:
AZ, CURR (with PLANE53)
AZ, VOLT, EMF (with PLANE233)
Material Properties:
MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Real constants:
CARE, TURN, LENG, DIRZ, FILL (with PLANE53)
SC, NC, RAD, TZ, R, SYM (with PLANE233)
Special characteristics:
Apply voltage drop (VLTG) via BFE command.
Couple CURR DOFs in region.

Applied voltage is unaffected by surroundings.

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2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


The real constant FILL is especially important for stranded coils, and for other conductors where the
conductor area (or volume) is not exactly represented by the element profile.
For more details about voltage source modeling, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

OMEGAZ
y

Global
origin

(X C,Y C)

V
S

S
Solid Rotor Induction Machine

Linear Induction Machine

Moving conducting bodies with constant velocity


Moving conducting
bodies

DOFs:
AZ
Material Properties:
MUr (MURX), or B-H curve (TB command), rho (RSVX)
Real constants:
VELOX, VELOY, OMEGAZ, XLOC, YLOC (with PLANE53)
Special characteristics:
Apply velocities VELOX, VELOY, OMEGAZ via BF,,VELO
command (with PLANE233)

Note
Moving body must not undergo spatial change in the "material". See Step 1d for more details.

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis

PLANE13 / 53

TARGE169
Exploded view
of interface

PLANE13 / 53
CONTAC171 / 172

Dissimilar mesh interface

DOFs: AZ
Contact elements: TARGE169, CONTA171, CONTA172, CONTA175
CONTA17x KEYOPTS: KEYOPT(1)=7 (AZ), KEYOPT(2)=2 (MPC
approach), KEYOPT(4) = 1 or 2 (n/a for CONTA175), KEYOPT(12)=5

Use PLANE13 , PLANE53, or PLANE233 elements to represent all interior regions of your model magnetic
(permeable) regions, current-conducting regions, permanent (i.e., magnet) regions, and air (free space),
etc.
To model an unbounded problem domain, use of either INFIN9, the two-node boundary element for
planar analysis, or INFIN110, the four- or eight-node boundary element, for planar or axisymmetric
analyses is recommended. INFIN9 or INFIN110 can model the far-field decay in the magnetic field, and
will give better results than an assumed flux-parallel or flux-normal boundary condition.
Most element types have additional options known as KEYOPTS, which you use to modify element
characteristics. For example, element PLANE233 has the following KEYOPTS:
KEYOPT(1)
Selects the element's DOFs
KEYOPT(2)
Select coupling method between magnetic and electric degrees of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 1); also define
the meaning of the VOLT degree of freedom
KEYOPT(3)
Selects plane or axisymmetric option

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2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


KEYOPT(5)
Activate or suppress eddy currents in electromagnetic harmonic or transient analyses (KEYOPT(1) = 1)
KEYOPT(7)
Select electromagnetic force output at each element node or at element corner nodes only
KEYOPT(8)
Select a Maxwell or Lorentz electromagnetic force calculation
Each element type uses different KEYOPTS, and the characteristics that KEYOPTS define vary from one
element to another. KEYOPT(1) controls the use of additional degrees of freedom. These additional
DOFs are used to model different physics in the electromagnetic domain (for example, a stranded
conductor, a massive conductor, a circuit-coupled conductor, etc.). To see which KEYOPTS and KEYOPT
settings apply to a particular element, see its description in the Element Reference.
To specify KEYOPT settings, use one of the following:
Command(s): ET, KEYOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete

2.3.1.4. Defining the Element Coordinate System


After defining element types and options, if you have laminated materials or permanent magnets aligned
in an arbitrary manner you need to identify the element coordinate system or systems to be used. The
Global Cartesian coordinate system is the default. You can specify a different coordinate system by
specifying its origin location and orientation angles. To do so, use either of the following:
Command(s): LOCAL
GUI: Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Local Coordinate Systems> Create Local CS> At Specified Loc
The coordinate system types available are Cartesian, cylindrical (circular or elliptical), spherical (or
spheroidal), and toroidal. Once you have defined one or more element coordinate systems, you can set
a pointer that identifies the coordinate system to be assigned to subsequently defined elements (area
and volume elements only). Set the pointer using one of the following:
Command(s): ESYS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes

2.3.1.5. Defining Element Real Constants and a System of Units


Element real constants are properties that depend on the element type. You specify real constants using
the R family of commands (R, RMODIF, etc.) and their equivalent GUI paths. In electromagnetics, you
use real constants to define stranded coil geometry and winding characteristics, or to describe velocity
effects. Observe two rules when defining real constants:
1. You must enter real constants in the order in which they are listed in the Element Reference.
2. For models using multiple element types, use a separate real constant set (that is, a different REAL
reference number) for each element type. However, a single element type may reference several
real constant sets.
See Getting Started in the Basic Analysis Guide for more information about defining real constants.

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis

2.3.1.5.1. Choosing a System of Units for Your Analysis


The default system of units is MKS (meter-ampere-second). You can change this to any other system
you prefer using one of the methods shown below. Voltage-fed or circuit-fed conductors may use only
the MKS system of units. Once you choose a system of units, all input data must be in that system.
Command(s): EMUNIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Electromag Units
Based on the input units you specify, the free-space permeability o is determined automatically as
follows:
o= 4 x 10-7 H/m in MKS units
or
o= the value specified with the EMUNIT command or its GUI path equivalent.

2.3.1.6. Specifying Material Properties


Your model may have any or all of the following material regions: air, (free-space) permeable materials,
current-conducting regions, and permanent magnets. Each type of material region has certain required
material properties.
The ANSYS material library contains definitions of several materials with magnetic properties. Instead
of defining material properties from scratch, you can read these material properties into the ANSYS
database and, if necessary, modify them to match the materials in your analysis problem more closely.
Materials with magnetic properties defined in the ANSYS material library are as follows:
Material

Material Property File Containing Its Definition

Copper

emagCopper.SI_MPL

M3 steel

emagM3.SI_MPL

M54 steel

emagM54.SI_MPL

SA1010 steel

emagSa1010.SI_MPL

Carpenter (silicon) steel

emagSilicon.SI_MPL

Iron cobalt vanadium steel

emagVanad.SI_MPL

The copper property presents temperature-dependent resistivity and relative permeability. All other
properties are B-H curves.
The property definitions in the material library specify properties "typical" for the materials listed. ANSYS,
Inc. has extrapolated these properties to cover high saturation conditions. Your actual material values
may differ from those supplied; therefore, you may need to modify the ANSYS material library files you use.

2.3.1.6.1. Accessing Material Library Files


The next few paragraphs explain basic procedures for reading and writing material library files. You can
find a more detailed discussion of these procedures and the ANSYS material library in Getting Started
of the Basic Analysis Guide.
To read a material library file into the ANSYS database, do the following:
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1. If you have not already specified the system of units you are using, issue the /UNITS command.

Note
The default system of units for ANSYS is MKS. The GUI lists only material library files
with the currently active units.

2. Define the material library read path for the material of interest. (You will need to know which directory path your system administrator has used to store the material library files.) To do so, use
either of the following:
Command(s): /MPLIB,READ,pathdata
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Library Path
3. Read the material library file into the database using one of the following:
Command(s): MPREAD,filename...LIB
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
To write changes to a material library file, perform these steps:
1. Edit the material property definition using either the MP command (Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Material Props> Material Models, Isotropic). Make sure that your revised definition includes a
material number and at least one material property value (for example, magnetic permeability or
MURX).
2. From the PREP7 preprocessor, issue the command shown below:
Command(s): MPWRITE,filename,,,LIB,MAT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Export Library (material
library file)

2.3.1.6.2. Additional Guidelines for Defining Regional Material Properties and Real Constants
The next few paragraphs provide some guidelines for setting up physics regions for your model. In
addition, you may want to consult 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63); it pictures and describes
the regions that can exist within a 2-D model.
For air regions:
Specify a relative permeability of 1.0. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): MP,MURX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> Relative
Permeability> Constant
For permeable material regions:
For linear magnetic material, you can specify relative permeability values MURX, MURY, and MURZ using
the MP command. To specify a linear isotropic material, you only need to specify MURX. MURY and
MURZ default to MURX. Free-space permeability MUZRO is set by the EMUNIT command. Ignoring
permanent magnet effects, the B-H equations for linear magnetic materials are:

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Bx = (MUZRO) (MURX) (Hx)
By = (MUZRO) (MURY) (Hy)
Bz = (MUZRO) (MURZ) (Hz)
For nonlinear soft magnetic material, specify the B-H curve by reading from a material library or by
creating your own B-H curve:
Command(s): MPREAD,filename, ...
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
Command(s): TB, TBPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH Curve
If you specify a B-H curve, it should meet the following requirements for the material to be represented
accurately:
The B values must be unique for each H value, and must start at the origin and monotonically increase
with H, as shown in Figure 2.1: B-H and Reluctivity vs. B Squared Curves (p. 30)(a). By default, the BH curve will pass through the origin (that is, the 0.0 point is not to be explicitly defined). You can
verify this by plotting B versus H using one of the methods shown below. (For more information, see
the Element Reference.)
Command(s): TBPLOT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH Curve
The -B2 curve that Mechanical APDL calculates internally (where is the reluctivity) should be smooth
and continuous. You can verify this by plotting versus B2 using the TBPLOT command. (See Figure 2.1: B-H and Reluctivity vs. B Squared Curves (p. 30)(b).)
The B-H curve should cover the complete operating range of the material. If a point beyond the end
of the curve is required, the B-H curve is extrapolated with a slope equal to the free-space permeability. You can view values in the extrapolated region by adjusting the X-axis range. To do so, use one
of the following together with the TBPLOT command:
Command(s): /XRANGE
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs

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Figure 2.1: B-H and Reluctivity vs. B Squared Curves

If a nonlinear B-H curve is specified without any relative permeability values, the B-H equations are:
Bx = F(|H|) / (|H|) (Hx)
By = F(|H|) / (|H|) (Hy)
Bz = F(|H|) / (|H|) (Hz)
where:
|H| = {(Hx)2 + (Hy)2 + (Hz)2}1/2
If a nonlinear B-H curve and relative permeability (MURX label) are specified for the same material, the
relative permeability will be used.
Orthotropic material relative permeability may be assigned using the MURX, MURY, and MURZ labels
on the MP command. A B-H curve may be used in conjunction with relative permeability to model
nonlinear effects along any one of the three orthogonal axes (such as for laminated iron material). To
invoke the usage of a B-H curve along one of the axes, set the relative permeability for that axis explicitly
to zero. For example, assume a B-H curve is defined for material number 2. You want to have the curve
active along the Y-axis, while assigning the X and Z axes a relative permeability of 1000. Your input
would be:
mp,murx,2,1000
mp,mury,2,0! read B-H curve for material 2
mp,murz,2,1000

If a B-H curve is specified along with zero permeability in two directions and a non-zero permeability
in one direction, the B-H curve will be applied to the two axes with zero permeability. For example, if
MURX and MURY are zero and MURZ is non-zero, the B-H equations are:
Bx = F(|H|) / (|H|) (Hx)

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By = F(|H|) / (|H|) (Hy)
Bz = (MUZRO) (MURZ) (Hz)
where:
|H| = {(Hx)2 + (Hy)2 + (Hz)2}1/2

2.3.1.7. Source Conductor Regions


A source conductor is a conductor connected to an external current "generator" that supplies a constant
current. Specify resistivity if you wish to have the ANSYS program calculate Joule heating losses. Resistivity may be isotropic or orthotropic. To specify resistivity, use one of the following:
Command(s): MP,RSVX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> Resistivity>
Constant
In a static analysis, resistivity is used only for loss calculations.

2.3.1.8. Moving Conductor Regions


For a moving conductor analysis (velocity effects), specify isotropic resistivity (using the command or
GUI path shown above).
You can solve electromagnetic fields for special cases of moving bodies. Valid special cases are those
in which the moving body presents itself as a homogeneous moving body for which the moving "material" undergoes no spatial change. Figure 2.2: Applicable Configurations for Considering Velocity Effects
of Moving Bodies (p. 31) shows two valid cases:
In the first case, a solid rotor is rotating about an axis at a constant rotational speed.
In the second case, an "infinitely" long conductor is translating at a constant velocity.
Figure 2.2: Applicable Configurations for Considering Velocity Effects of Moving Bodies

An invalid case would be a "slotted" rotor rotating at constant speed. In this case, the slots in the motor
present a discontinuity in material as the body rotates. Another invalid case would be a translating
conductor of finite width moving in a magnetic field. Typical valid applications are solid rotor induction
machines, linear induction machines, and eddy-current braking systems.
A static analysis requires input to specify the translational velocity or the rotational speed of the conductor. With PLANE53, activate velocity effects via element KEYOPT options. With PLANE233, specify
the velocities via the BF,,VELO command. Velocity effects can be suppressed (KEYOPT(5) = 2) if they are
undesirable in the electromagnetic elements adjacent to the domain with a specified velocity.

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When using PLANE53, specify the following real constants:
VELOX, VELOY - Velocity components in the global Cartesian coordinate system X and Y direction
respectively.
OMEGAZ - Angular (rotational) velocity (cycles/sec or Hz) about the global Cartesian system Z axis,
located at the pivot point (XLOC, YLOC).
XLOC, YLOC - Global Cartesian coordinate point locations of the rotating body in the X and Y directions,
respectively.
When using PLANE233, specify the following nodal velocities (BF,,VELO):
VELOX, VELOY - Velocity components in the global Cartesian coordinate system X and Y direction,
respectively.
OMEGAZ - Angular (rotational) velocity (in rad/sec) about the global Cartesian system Z axis.
Accuracy of analysis results for electromagnetic problems with moving bodies depend on the mesh
refinement, permeability, conductivity, and velocity. A magnetic Reynolds number is defined to characterize the problem:
Mre = vd/
In the equation above, is permeability, is resistivity, v is velocity, and d is characteristic length (in
the directional motion) within a finite element of the conducting body. The magnetic Reynolds number
is meaningful only in a static or transient analysis.
The motion formulation is valid and accurate for relatively small values of the Reynolds number, typically
on the order of 1.0. Accuracy for higher Reynolds number values will vary from problem to problem.
The magnetic Reynolds number is calculated and available in the postprocessor for viewing. In addition
to a field solution, the motion solution includes currents in the conductor due to motion. This is available
in the postprocessor.

2.3.1.9. Permanent Magnet Regions


Requirements are the normal demagnetization B-H curve (or relative permeability, if linear) and components of the magnetic coercive force vector (values MGXX, MGYY, or MGZZ for either of the following):
Command(s): MP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH Curve
The demagnetization B-H curve, which normally lies in the second quadrant, must be defined in the
first quadrant. To do this, you need to add a constant "shift" to all H values, as shown in Figure 2.3: Actual and ANSYS (Shifted) Demagnetization Curves (p. 33). The shift, given by:
c=

2+

2+

represents the magnitude of the coercive force. The coercive force components are used to align the
magnetization axis of the magnet with the element coordinate system.

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Figure 2.3: Actual and ANSYS (Shifted) Demagnetization Curves

The example below shows a bar magnet that lies along an axis 30o to the global x-Y plane. The elements
in the magnet are assumed to be assigned to a local element coordinate system whose X-axis is aligned
with the polarization direction. The example also shows the magnet's demagnetization characteristics
and the corresponding material property input.

/PREP7
HC=3000
BR=4000

! Coercive force
! Residual induction

THETA=30
! Permanent magnet orientation
*AFUN,DEG
! Angular parametric functions in degrees
MP,MGXX,2,HC! X component of coercive force
! B-H curve:
TB,BH,2
TBPT,DEFI,-3000+HC,0
TBPT,,-2800+HC,500
TBPT,,-2550+HC,1000
TBPT,,-2250+HC,1500
TBPT,,-2000+HC,1800
TBPT,,-1800+HC,2000
TBPT,,-1350+HC,2500
TBPT,,-900+HC,3000
TBPT,,-425+HC,3500
TBPT,,0+HC,4000
TBPLOT,BH,2

! B-H curve for material 2


! Shifted B-H curve
! First field defaults to "DEFI"

! Plot of B vs. H

Figure 2.4: B-H Curve for Bar Magnet Example (p. 34) shows the B-H curve for the permanent magnet
as created in the first quadrant. For more information, read the descriptions of the *AFUN, MP, TB, and
TBPLOT commands in the Command Reference.

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Figure 2.4: B-H Curve for Bar Magnet Example

You can represent nonlinear orthotropic materials (laminated structures) by combining a single B-H
curve with orthotropic relative permeability. ANSYS will use the B-H curve in each element coordinate
system direction where a zero specified value of relative permeability is assigned. (For related information,
see the description of the ESYS command in the Command Reference.)

2.3.1.10. Voltage-fed Stranded Coil Regions


For voltage-fed stranded coils, you can specify the electrical resistivity, using one of the following:
Command(s): MP,RSVX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> Resistivity>
Constant
You can specify only isotropic resistivity. Stranded coils are coils built from winding a single continuous
loop of wire, similar to the example coil constructed of "N" winding turns shown in Figure 2.5: Stranded
Coil Cross-Section (p. 35):

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis


Figure 2.5: Stranded Coil Cross-Section

Axis of symmetry

1 turn

X
When using the PLANE53 element, you need to specify the following real constants to completely describe
the stranded coil:
CARE

Coil cross-sectional area. This constant represents the true physical


cross-section of the stranded coil regardless of any symmetry
modeling considerations.

TURN

Total number of coil turns. This constant represents the total


number of winding turns in a stranded coil regardless of any symmetry modeling considerations.

LENG

Coil length in Z-direction. For 2-D planar problems, this constant


represents the true length of the coil and allows for modeling coils
of varying length to account for proper electrical characterization.

DIRZ

Current direction. This constant assigns a direction to the current


flow. The current can flow either into the coil or out of the coil.
For details, see the description of element PLANE53 in the Element
Reference.

FILL

Coil fill factor. The fill factor represents the fraction of the coil crosssection that the coil windings occupy. This factor affects the coil
resistance (and you can use it to "adjust" coil resistance).

Note
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on
using PLANE233, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).
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2.3.2. Building and Meshing the Model and Assigning Region Attributes
To build your model, use the procedures discussed in the Modeling and Meshing Guide. Then, assign
attributes to each region in your model. (Attributes are the element types and options, element coordinate systems, real constants, and material properties you defined in Creating the Physics Environment (p. 21).)
To assign attributes via the GUI, perform these tasks:
1. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Areas. The Meshing Attributes dialog box appears.
2. Pick the area(s) comprising one of the regions in your model.
3. On the dialog box, specify the material number, real constant set number, element type number,
and element coordinate system to use for the area or areas. Click OK.
4. Repeat the process for the next region, the region after that, and so on until all regions have defined
attributes.
If you are modeling two contacted bodies, follow the steps for a magnetic contact analysis, explained
in Modeling Magnetic Contact.
To assign attributes via commands, issue the ASEL command to select a region's area or areas. Then,
issue these commands: MAT (specifies the material number), REAL (specifies a real constant set), TYPE
(assigns an element type number), and ESYS (assigns an element coordinate system). Issue the same
command sequence for each area until all model regions have assigned attributes. (The Command Reference contains detailed information about the commands.)
When you have assigned all regional attributes, mesh the model using the procedures explained in the
Modeling and Meshing Guide.

2.3.3. Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads


You can apply boundary conditions and loads to a 2-D static magnetic analysis either on the solid
model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). The ANSYS
program automatically transfers loads applied to the solid model to the mesh during solution.
You access all loading operations through a series of cascading menus. When you choose Main Menu>
Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic, the ANSYS program lists available boundary conditions
and three load categories. You then choose the appropriate category and the appropriate boundary
condition or load. The boundary conditions and loads you can choose for a 2-D static analysis are as
follows:
-Boundary-

-Excitation-

-Flag-

-Other-

-Vector Poten-

-Curr Density-

Comp. Force

-Curr Segment-

On Keypoints

On Keypoints

-Infinite Surf-

On Keypoints

On Nodes

On Nodes

On Lines

On Nodes

-Flux Par'l-

On Elements

On Areas

-Maxwell Surf-

On Lines

Voltage Drop

On Nodes

On Lines

On Nodes

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-Boundary-

-Excitation-

-Flag-

-Other-

-Flux Normal-

On Nodes

On Lines

-Virtual Disp-

On Nodes

On Keypoints

Periodic BCs*

On Nodes

*For periodic boundary conditions, use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability.


For example, to apply current density to elements, follow this GUI path:
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr Density> On
Elements
You may see other load types or loads listed on the menus. If they are grayed out, either they do not
apply to 2-D static analysis or the appropriate KEYOPT option on the element type has not been set.
(However, the grayed-out items will be valid for other types of magnetic analysis; the ANSYS GUI filters
menu choices.)
Alternatively, you can issue ANSYS commands to specify loads. See Alternative Analysis Options and
Solution Methods (p. 367) of this manual for information on how to do so.
To list existing loads, follow this GUI path:
GUI:
Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type
The next few paragraphs describe the loads you can apply.

2.3.3.1. Boundary Conditions


2.3.3.1.1. Magnetic vector potentials (AZ)
These loads specify flux-parallel, far-field, and periodic boundary conditions, as well as an imposed external magnetic field. The following table shows the AZ values required for each type of boundary
condition:
Boundary Condition

Value of AZ

Flux-normal

None required (naturally occurring)

Flux-parallel

Specify AZ = 0, using the D command (Main Menu> Preprocessor>


Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector Poten
or Flux Par'l> On Lines or On Nodes).

Far-field

Uses element INFIN9 (planar analyses only) or element INFIN110

Periodic

For static analyses, use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability. For harmonic
or transient analyses, use the PERBC2D macro (described in Electric
and Magnetic Macros (p. 255)) to create odd or even symmetry periodic
boundary conditions on nodes (only). Or, use GUI path Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary>
Vector Poten> Periodic BCs.

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Boundary Condition

Value of AZ

Imposed external field

Apply nonzero values of AZ. Use Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads>


Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector Poten or Flux
Par'l> On Lines or On Nodes.

Flux-parallel boundary conditions force the flux to flow parallel to a surface, while flux-normal boundary
conditions force the flux to flow normal to a surface. You do not need to specify far-field zero boundary
conditions if you use boundary elements INFIN9 or INFIN110 to represent the "infinite" boundary of the
model. Use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability to apply periodic boundary conditions in models that
take advantage of periodic or repeating flux patterns. For an imposed magnetic field, specify the appropriate nonzero value of AZ.

2.3.4. Excitation Loads


2.3.4.1. Source Current Density (JS)
This specifies applied current to a source conductor. The units of JS are amperes/meter2 in the MKS
system. For a 2-D analysis, only the Z component of JS is valid; a positive value indicates current flowing
in the +Z direction in the planar case and the -Z (hoop) direction in the axisymmetric case.
Usually, you apply current density directly to the elements. You specify source current density in location
number 3 (for the BFE command), using either of the following:
Command(s): BFE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Elements
Refer to the Command Reference for further information.
Alternatively, you can also apply source current densities to areas of the solid model by using the BFA
command. You can then transfer the specified source current densities from the solid model to the finite
element model by using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.

2.3.4.2. Voltage Drop (VLTG)


This load specifies a voltage drop across a stranded coil. Voltage loading requires you to perform the
analysis in MKS units. Voltage-drop loading is available only in the PLANE53 element using the AZ and
CURR degrees of freedom. (See the KEYOPT(1) options for PLANE53.)
You can apply voltage-drop loadings directly to the elements by using the BFE command. Alternatively,
you can apply voltage-drop loadings to areas of the solid model by using the BFA command. You can
then transfer the specified voltage-drop loadings from the solid model to the finite element model by
using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.
To obtain a correct solution, you must couple all nodes of the coil together in the CURR degrees of
freedom. (Failure to do so will lead to errors in the solution.) This is required, because CURR is a unique
number representing the current per turn of the winding and is single-valued.
To define or modify a set of coupled DOFs, use either of the following:
Command(s): CP

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GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs

Note
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on
using PLANE233, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

2.3.5. Flags
2.3.5.1. Force Flags
When using PLANE13 or PLANE53, an ANSYS macro, FMAGBC, is used to identify a body for force and
torque calculations. The macro automates applying virtual displacements and the Maxwell surface flag
(discussed later). The body must be surrounded by at least one layer of "air" elements. Simply group
the elements in the body on which forces or displacements are to be calculated into a component.
Then, use either of the following:
Command(s): FMAGBC,Cnam
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq
You then use the FMAGSUM and TORQSUM macros in POST1 to summarize the force and torque results,
respectively.

Note
Lorentz forces are applicable to current carrying conductors and they are calculated automatically. Do not apply Maxwell or virtual displacement flags to any current carrying conductor
surfaces.
With PLANE233, you do not need to apply any force flags to calculate magnetic forces. To summarize
magnetic forces and torques, you use the EMFT command. Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends
using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE13 or PLANE53
(legacy magnetic elements). For more information, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic
Elements (p. 19).

2.3.5.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF)


These are not loads, but they are required to flag the surface of an infinite element which is pointing
towards the open (infinite) domain.

2.3.6. Other Loads


2.3.6.1. Current Segments (CSGX)
This infrequently-used load type applies nodal current loads. To compute the current segment for an
axisymmetric analysis, you must multiply the current at a node by 2 r. Units for current segments are
ampere-meters in the MKS system.
Current flows in the Z direction, consistent with the degree of freedom AZ. You can specify a known
sheet current, for example, through current segments. Take care in distributing a current segment load
along nodes. For a discussion of load distribution on nodes, see the Modeling and Meshing Guide.
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2.3.6.2. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF)


Maxwell surfaces are not really loads, but indicate surfaces on which the magnetic force distribution is
to be calculated. The presence of the label MXWF sets the flag.
Typically, you specify MXWF on the surfaces of air elements adjacent to an air-iron interface. Mechanical
APDL calculates forces at the air-iron interface (by the Maxwell stress tensor approach) and stores them
in the air elements. You can then review and sum the forces in the POST1 (general) postprocessor to
obtain the global forces acting on the body. Then, you can use these forces as loads in a structural
analysis if you wish.
You can specify more than one component, but the components must not share adjacent air elements.
(Sharing air elements is typical when a single element layer separates two components.)

2.3.6.3. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI)


These loads initiate the calculation of forces on a body in the model. The MVDI method provides an
alternative to the Maxwell force method. The ANSYS program calculates the forces as it processes the
solution, using the virtual work approach.
To trigger the calculation, specify MVDI = 1.0 at all nodes in the region of interest and MVDI = 0.0 (default
setting) at all adjacent air nodes. You can enter MVDI values greater than 1.0; but normally, you should
not do so. Forces will be calculated and stored in the air elements adjacent to the body.
The band of air elements surrounding the region of interest should be uniformly thick. Then, in POST1,
you can review and summarize the forces calculated for each air element to get the total force.
Figure 2.6: MVDI Specifications for Virtual Work Force Calculation
MVDI = 0.0 (default)
MVDI = 1.0

Iron

Air

2.3.7. Solving the Analysis


This section describes the tasks you perform to solve a 2-D static magnetic analysis problem.

2.3.8. Defining the Analysis Type


Before you define the analysis type and the type of equation solver the analysis will use, you need to
enter the SOLUTION processor. To do so, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and then
choose a static analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to restart an unconverged solution or to specify
additional excitation), issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you
previously completed a 2-D static magnetic analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and
Jobname.DB from the previous run are available.

2.3.9. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solver you want to use. You can specify any of these values:
Sparse solver (default)
Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver
Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver (PCG)
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
We recommend that you use the sparse solver for 2-D or shell/beam models. However, the JCG or PCG
solvers may be more useful for extremely large and bulky models. Models that are voltage-fed or that
include velocity effects produce unsymmetric matrices and can use only the sparse solver, the JCG
solver, or the ICCG solver. Circuit-fed models can use only the sparse solver.

2.3.10. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

2.3.11. Starting the Solution


In this step, you specify magnetic solution options and initiate the solution. For a nonlinear analysis,
use a two-step solution sequence:
1. Ramp the loads over three to five substeps, each with one equilibrium iteration.
2. Calculate the final solution over one substep, with five to 10 equilibrium iterations.
You can specify the two-step solution sequence and initiate the solution using either of the following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV (with OPT field set to zero)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt & Solv

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2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


If you like, you can step manually through the two-step solution sequence. See Alternative Analysis
Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) for the procedure to follow for manual solution.

2.3.12. Tracking Convergence Graphically


As nonlinear electromagnetic analysis proceeds, ANSYS computes convergence norms with corresponding
convergence criteria each equilibrium iteration. Available in both batch and interactive sessions, the
Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence norms and criteria while
the solution is in process. By default, /GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. To turn
/GST on or off, use either of the following:
Command(s): /GST
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track
Figure 2.7: Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature (p. 42) below
shows a typical GST display:
Figure 2.7: Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature

2.3.13. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

2.3.14. Calculating the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage


For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to calculate the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil.
To initiate the solution use the following:
Command(s): LMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Induct Matrix
Calculating the differential inductance matrix and the total flux linkage in each coil requires assigning
components to coil elements, defining nominal currents, and performing a nominal solution about an
operating point using the sparse equation solver. For procedural details and an example analysis, see
Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).
For a system of coils modeled with PLANE233, use linear perturbation analysis to calculate the self- and
mutual differential inductances and the total flux linkage in each coil.

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Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis

2.3.15. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a 2-D static analysis to the magnetic results
file, Jobname.RMG. Results include the data listed below:

2.3.15.1. Primary data:


Nodal magnetic DOFs (AZ, CURR)

2.3.15.2. Derived data:


Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, SUM)
Nodal reaction current segments (CSGZ)
Element source current density (JSZ)
Total electric current density (JT)
Joule heat per unit volume (JHEAT)
Additional data, specific to each element type, also is available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, by choosing either in the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
The following section, "Reading In Results Data," discusses some typical postprocessing operations for
a static magnetic analysis. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic
Analysis Guide.

2.3.16. Reading in Results Data


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RMG) must be available.
To read the data from the results file into the database, use either in the following:
Command(s): SET
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
If the model is not in the database, restore it using the command or menu path listed below and then
use the SET command or its equivalent menu path to read in the desired set of results.
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
To review the solutions available in the results file, specify the LIST option. You can identify the data
set by the load step and substep numbers or by time. If you specify a time value for which no results
exist, the ANSYS program performs linear interpolation to calculate the results at that time.

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2.3.16.1. Flux Lines


Flux lines show lines of constant AZ (or constant radius-times-AZ for axisymmetric problems). Display
flux lines using either of the following:
Command(s): PLF2D
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Flux Lines

2.3.16.2. Contour Displays


You can contour almost any result item (including flux density, field intensity, and total current density
(JTZ)) using the following commands or menu paths:
Command(s): PLNSOL, PLESOL
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem Solution
Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution

Caution
Nodal contour plots for derived data, such as flux density and field intensity, are averaged
at the nodes.
In PowerGraphics mode (default), you can visualize nodal averaged contour displays which account for
material discontinuities. Should you need to activate PowerGraphics, use either /GRAPHICS,POWER or
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden-Line Options.

2.3.16.3. Vector Displays


Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) offer an effective way to view vector quantities
such as B, H, and FMAG. For vector displays, use either of the following:
Command(s): PLVECT
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot
For vector listings, use either method shown below:
Command(s): PRVECT
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Vector Data

2.3.16.4. Tabular Listings


You can produce tabular listings of results data, either unsorted or sorted by node or by element. To
sort data before listing it, use any of the following:
Command(s): ESORT, NSORT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems
To produce tabular data listings, use any of the following:
Command(s): PRESOL, PRNSOL, PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu

2.3.16.5. Magnetic Forces


Three types of magnetic forces are usually available when using PLANE13 or PLANE53:

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Lorentz forces (the J x B forces) are calculated automatically for all current carrying elements. (Exercise
caution in interpreting Lorentz forces in permeable (r > 1r ) materials.) To list these forces, select all currentcarrying elements and use either the PRNSOL,FMAG command or its equivalent menu path. You can also
sum these forces. First, move them to the element table using either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,FMAG,X (or Y)
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Then, calculate the sum using either method below:
Command(s): SSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item
You can summarize Maxwell and virtual work forces quickly for element components on which those
forces were specified as boundary conditions (via the FMAGBC macro or GUI path). To summarize
the forces, choose one of the following:
Command(s): FMAGSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Force
Maxwell forces are calculated for all elements at which the surface flag MXWF is specified as a surface
"load." To list Maxwell forces, select all such elements, then select either of the following:
Command(s): PRNSOL, FMAG
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
The sum of these forces gives the total force on the surface. To sum the forces, use the procedure
described in the foregoing for Lorentz forces.
Virtual work forces are calculated for all air elements with an MVDI specification adjacent to the body of
interest. To extract these forces, select these elements and use the ETABLE command along with the sequence number (snum) for the data requested to store the forces from the element NMISC record (see
Tables 4.13-3 and 4.53-3 in the Element Reference). Do so by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,snum
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Once you move the data to the element table, you can list them using the PRETAB command (shown
with its menu path equivalent below) and sum them with the SSUM command or its menu path
equivalent. You can also access the force data using the PLESOL and PRESOL commands (or their
equivalent menu paths) with the NMISC item label.
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List Elem Table
The sum of these forces gives the total force on the surface. To sum the forces, use the procedure
described in the foregoing for Lorentz forces.
For information on calculating magnetic forces when using PLANE233, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

2.3.16.6. Magnetic Torque


Lorentz, Maxwell and virtual work torque computations are usually available when using PLANE13 or
PLANE53:
Lorentz torque (the J x B torque) is calculated automatically for all current carrying elements. (Exercise
caution in interpreting Lorentz torque values in permeable (mr > 1) materials.) To extract these torque values,
select all current-carrying elements and use the ETABLE command along with the sequence number

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(snum) for the data requested to store the torque values from the element NMISC record (see Tables 4.133 and 4.53-3 in the Element Reference). Do so by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,snum
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Once you move the data to the element table, you can list the torque values using the following
command:
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List Elem Table
The torque data can also be listed using the PLESOL and PRESOL commands, respectively, with the
NMISC item label.
You can also sum the torque values to obtain the total torque on the body. To calculate the sum use
the following:
Command(s): SSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item
Maxwell torque values are calculated for all elements at which the surface flag MXWF is specified as a
surface "load." To extract and sum Maxwell torque values, you can use the procedure described in the
foregoing for extracting and summing Lorentz torque values or, if the forces were specified as boundary
conditions via the FMAGBC macro, you can quickly obtain the values using either of the following:
Command(s): TORQSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Torque
Virtual work torque values are calculated for all air elements with an MVDI specification adjacent to the
body of interest. To extract and sum virtual work torque values, you can use the procedure described in
the foregoing for extracting and summing Lorentz torque values or, if the forces were specified as
boundary conditions via the FMAGBC macro, you can quickly obtain the values using either of the following:
Command(s): TORQSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Torque
For information on calculating magnetic torques when using PLANE233, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

2.3.16.7. Coil Resistance and Inductance


For stranded coils with the voltage-fed or circuit-fed options, you can calculate the resistance and inductance of the coil. Each element stores values of resistance and inductance. Summing these values
gives the total resistance and inductance of the modeled region of the conductor. To store and sum
these values, select the conductor elements using the ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,n command or its
equivalent menu path. (For the n value, use 8 for resistance and 9 for inductance.) Use the SSUM
command or its menu path equivalent to sum the data.
Inductance values calculated for voltage-fed stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 2 for PLANE53) or circuitcoupled stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 3 for PLANE53) are only valid under the following conditions:
The problem is linear (constant permeability).
There are no permanent magnets in the model.
Only a single coil exists in the model.

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2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro (with PLANE53) or the linear perturbation procedure to
calculate the differential inductance matrix and the total flux linkage in each coil. For information about
the LMATRIX macro, see Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage (p. 143) and LMATRIX (p. 259).
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic
element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on using PLANE233, see 2D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

2.3.16.8. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as global forces, torque, source input energy, inductance, flux linkages, and terminal voltage) from the data available in the database in postprocessing.
The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros for these calculations:
The CURR2D macro calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
The EMAGERR macro calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
The FLUXV macro calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
The FMAGSUM macro summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components.
The FOR2D macro calculates magnetic forces on a body.
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The PLF2D macro generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.
The SENERGY macro determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
The TORQ2D macro calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field.
The TORQC2D macro calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field based on a circular path.
The TORQSUM macro summarizes electromagnetic Maxwell and Virtual work torque calculations on
element components for 2-D planar problems.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).
For information on the macros applicable to PLANE233, see the element's description in the Element
Reference.

2.4. 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


This section describes how to perform a 2-D stranded coil analysis.

2.4.1. Elements Used in a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


To do a stranded coil analysis, you need to use one of these elements:
PLANE53 8-node quadrilateral solid (legacy element), KEYOPT(1) = 2 or 3
PLANE233 8-node quadrilateral solid (current-technology element), KEYOPT(1) = 2

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2.4.2. Legacy vs Current-Technology 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


Whenever possible, use the current technology element PLANE233 for a stranded coil analysis. For information on the advantages of using this current-technology element, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).
The following tables show how to set PLANE233 input data to reproduce the voltage-fed and circuitcoupled stranded coil behavior of PLANE53.
Table 2.5: Voltage-Fed Stranded Coil Input Data Mapping
Input Data

PLANE53

PLANE233

KEYOPTs

KEYOPT(1) = 2

KEYOPT(1) = 2

Degrees of Freedom

AZ, CURR

AZ, VOLT, EMF

Loading

Body voltage loading


BFE,,VLTG

Nodal voltage constraint using D,,VOLT [1]

Real Constants

See Table 2.7: Real Constant Comparison (p. 48)

1. All the VOLT and EMF degrees of freedom of the coil should be coupled (CP,,VOLT and CP,,EMF) prior
to applying nodal voltage.
Table 2.6: Circuit-Coupled Stranded Coil Input Data Mapping
Input Data

PLANE53

PLANE233

KEYOPTs

KEYOPT(1) = 3

KEYOPT(1) = 2 and KEYOPT(2) = 0 or 1

Degrees of Freedom

AZ, CURR, EMF

AZ, VOLT, EMF

Loading

Nodal voltage constraint D,,VOLT


Voltage or current loading using KEYOPT(1) = 5 of CIRCU124
Nodal electric current using F,,AMPS
Voltage or current loading using KEYOPT(1) = 3,4, or 9 through 12 of CIRCU124
[1]

Real Constants

See Table 2.7: Real Constant Comparison (p. 48)

1. All the VOLT and EMF degrees of freedom of the coil should be coupled (CP,,VOLT and CP,,EMF) prior
to applying nodal voltage or current loads or attaching CIRCU124 elements.
The following table compares the PLANE53 and PLANE233 real constants.
Table 2.7: Real Constant Comparison
PLANE53

PLANE233

Real Constant Description

Real Constant

Real Constant

Real Constant Notes

Coil cross-sectional area

CARE (R1)

SC (R2)

Total number of coil turns

TURN (R2)

NC (R3)

THK (R1)

For axisymmetric models, you need to specify


the mean radius of the

Coil length in Z-direction (for plane LENG (R3)


models only)

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2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


PLANE53

PLANE233

Real Constant Description

Real Constant

Real Constant

Real Constant Notes


coil using real constant
RAD (R4).

Current polarity (1 or -1) with respect to Z-axis

DIRZ (R4)

TZ (R5)

Coil fill factor

FILL (R5)

not used

Directly specify the total


DC resistance real constant R (R6) [1].

1. With PLANE53, the total DC resistance R was derived from the electrical resistivity (MP,,RSVX), the number
of turns TURN, the cross-sectional area CARE, the fill factor FILL and the coil volume VC (not specified
directly) as follows:
R = (RSVX) (TURN/CARE)2 (VC/FILL)

2.4.3. Performing a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


This section describes how to do a stranded coil analysis using PLANE233. To set up a stranded coil
analysis using PLANE53, see Voltage-fed Stranded Coil Regions (p. 34) in this guide and 2-D Circuit
Coupled Stranded Coil in the Coupled-Field Analysis Guide.
To perform a stranded coil analysis using PLANE233, you need to do the following:
1. Select PLANE233 element type and set KEYOPT(1) = 2.
2. Specify magnetic properties using MP,MURX or TB,BH.
3. Optionally, for a Joule heat calculation, you can specify isotropic electrical resistivity using MP,RSVX .
4. Specify coil parameters using the element real constants on the R command:
THK (R1) Out-of-plane thickness for the plane geometry (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and fraction of the 360
basis for the axisymmetric geometry (KEYOPT(3) = 1). For 2-D planar problems, this constant represents
the true length of the coil. Defaults to 1.
SC (R2) Coil cross-sectional area. This constant represents the true physical cross-section of the coil
regardless of symmetry modeling considerations. It includes the cross-sectional area of the wire and
the non-conducting material filling the space between the winding.
NC (R3) Number of coil turns. This constant represents the total number of winding turns in a coil
regardless of any symmetry modeling considerations.
RAD (R4) Mean radius of the coil. This constant applies to the axisymmetric geometry (KEYOPT(3) =
1) only. If the mean radius is not known, input VC/((2)(SC)(THK)) , where VC is the full symmetry true
physical volume of the coil. VC includes the volume occupied by the wire and the non-conducting
material filling the space between the winding.
TZ (R5) Current polarity. This constant assigns a direction to the current flow with respect to the Zaxis. It defaults to 1 for plane (KEYOPT(3) = 0) and to -1 for axisymmetric (KEYOPT(3) = 1) geometries.

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R (R6) Coil resistance. This constant represents the total coil DC resistance regardless of any symmetry
modeling considerations. If the wire electrical resistivity , total length L, and diameter D are available
instead, the total coil DC resistance can be calculated as follows R = 4L/(D2).
SYM (R7) Coil symmetry factor. This constant represents the ratio of the full symmetry coil crosssectional area (SC) to the modeled coil area. The input should be greater or equal to 1.
5. Specify the analysis type. The stranded coil analysis can be static, transient, or harmonic.
If you perform a static analysis, you can use KEYOPT(2) to select a strong (matrix) or weak (load vector)
electromagnetic coupling. The strong coupling option (KEYOPT(2) = 0) produces an unsymmetric
matrix. In a linear analysis, a strong coupled response is achieved after one iteration. The weak coupling
option (KEYOPT(2) = 1) produces a symmetric matrix and requires at least two iterations to achieve a
coupled response.
If you perform a transient or harmonic analysis, you can use KEYOPT(2) to choose between the strong
coupling with 'true' and strong coupling with time-integrated electric degrees of freedom (VOLT and
EMF). The strong coupling option with 'true' voltage drop and back-EMF (KEYOPT(2) = 0) produces a
nonsymmetric matrix. The strong coupling option with time-integrated voltage drop and time-integrated
electromotive force (KEYOPT(2) = 2) produces a symmetric matrix provided the symmetry factor (SYM)
is 1.
6. Couple VOLT and EMF degrees of freedom for each coil: CP,,VOLT and CP,,EMF.
7. Apply magnetic and electric boundary conditions.
8. Apply electric loading:
Nodal constraints for VOLT and EMF degrees-of-freedom: D,,VOLT and D,,EMF. Applicable when KEYOPT(2) is set to 0 or 1.
Nodal total electric current: F,,AMPS.
Voltage or current loading using KEYOPT(1) = 3,4,or 9 through 12 of CIRCU124. Applicable when KEYOPT(2) is set to 0 or 1.

2.4.4. Reviewing Results from a 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis


In addition to the degrees of freedom results AZ, VOLT and EMF, the following derived data is available
with the PLANE233 stranded-coil analysis:
Nodal magnetic flux density B (X, Y, SUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity H (X, Y, SUM)
Nodal magnetic forces FMAG (X, Y, SUM)
Element conduction current density ( JTZ or JSZ) at the element centroid [1]
Joule heat rate per unit volume (JHEAT) [2]
Element magnetic energy (SENE) (valid for linear materials only)
1. JTZ and JSZ are the effective current densities as they are calculated based on the coil cross-sectional
area (SC) that includes the wire and the non-conducting material filling the space between the winding.

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses


2. JHEAT represents the effective Joule heat generation rate per unit volume as it is calculated based on
the modeled coil volume that includes the wire and the non-conducting material filling the space between
the winding.

2.5. Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses


The following examples are available:
2.5.1. Example: Basic 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis
2.5.2. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis
2.5.3. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis with Velocity Effects
2.5.4. Other Examples

2.5.1. Example: Basic 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


The following example is a 2-D static magnetic analysis of a solenoid actuator.

2.5.1.1. Description
The example analysis, based on a solenoid actuator, analyzes the actuator as a 2-D axisymmetric model.
The example calculates the force on the armature (the moving component of the actuator) and the inductance of the coil. Figure 2.8: Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator (p. 51) below shows you the solenoid
actuator:
Figure 2.8: Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator

Armature
(iron)

td
space

gap
ta

tc

 -
 : stationary iron
component of the actuator that
completes the magnetic circuit
around the coil.

wc

Backiron
(iron)

hc

Coil (copper)
650 turns
: stranded, wound coil
1 amp/turn supplying a predefined current.
G: thin rectangular region
of air between the armature
and the pole faces of the
backiron.

Axis of
symmetry
Y
Z X

: moving component


of the actuator.

tb
wc

2.5.1.2. Analysis Parameters


The analysis uses the parameters listed below to model the actuator geometry:

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Parameter

Description
Number of turns in the coil; used in postprocessing

I=1.0

Current per turn

ta=.75

Thickness of inner leg of magnetic circuit

tb=.75

Thickness of lower leg of magnetic circuit

tc=.50

Thickness of outer leg of magnetic circuit

td=.75

Armature thickness

wc=1

Width of coil

hc=2

Height of coil

gap=.25

Gap

space=.25

Space around coil

ws=wc+2*space
hs=hc+.75
w=ta+ws+tc

Total width of model

hb=tb+hs
h=hb+gap+td

Total height of model

acoil=wc*hc

Coil area

jdens=n*i/acoil

Current density of coil

2.5.1.3. Approach and Assumptions


The magnetic flux that the coil current produces is assumed to be small enough that no saturation of
the iron occurs. This allows a single iteration linear analysis. To simplify the example model, the flux
leakage out of the iron at the perimeter of the model is assumed to be minimal. Under normal conditions,
the model would include air surrounding the iron to model the effects of flux leakage.
Because no leakage is assumed at the perimeter of the model, the flux flows parallel to the surface. You
enforce this by placing a "flux parallel" condition around the model.
For a static (DC) current, you may enter the current in the form of current density over the area of the
coil. The ANSYS APDL is used to compute the current density from the number of turns, the current
per turn, and the coil area. The armature is flagged for a force calculation.
In postprocessing, the forces are summarized for the armature, using both a Maxwell stress tensor and
a virtual work calculation. Flux density also is displayed. The final postprocessing operation computes
the terminal parameters including coil inductance.

Note
The example analysis is only one of many possible 2-D static magnetic analyses. Not all such
analyses follow exactly the same steps or perform those steps in the same sequence. The
properties of the material or materials being analyzed and the conditions surrounding those
materials determine which steps a specific analysis needs to include.
For a detailed step-by-step procedure for the magnetic analysis of a solenoid actuator, see the Electromagnetics Tutorial.

52

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses

2.5.1.4. Command Method


You can perform the example static analysis of a solenoid actuator using the commands shown below
rather than via the GUI method. All text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/PREP7
/TITLE, 2-D Solenoid Actuator Static Analysis

ET,1,PLANE233
KEYOPT,1,3,1
KEYOPT,1,7,1
MP,MURX,1,1
MP,MURX,2,1000
MP,MURX,3,1
MP,MURX,4,2000

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Define PLANE233 as element type


Use axisymmetric analysis option
Condense forces at the corner nodes
Define material properties (permeability)
Permeability of backiron
Permeability of coil
Permeability of armature

/com,
n=650
i=1.0
ta=.75
tb=.75
tc=.50
td=.75
wc=1
hc=2
gap=.25
space=.25
ws=wc+2*space
hs=hc+.75
w=ta+ws+tc
hb=tb+hs
h=hb+gap+td
acoil=wc*hc
jdens=n*i/acoil

!
!
!
!

Set parameter values for analysis


Number of coil turns
Current per turn
Model dimensions (centimeters)

! Cross-section area of coil (cm**2)


! Current density (A/cm**2)

/PNUM,AREA,1
RECTNG,0,w,0,tb
! Create rectangular areas
RECTNG,0,w,tb,hb
RECTNG,ta,ta+ws,0,h
RECTNG,ta+space,ta+space+wc,tb+space,tb+space+hc
AOVLAP,ALL
RECTNG,0,w,0,hb+gap
RECTNG,0,w,0,h
AOVLAP,ALL
NUMCMP,AREA
! Compress out unused area numbers
APLOT
ASEL,S,AREA,,2
AATT,3,1,1,0
ASEL,S,AREA,,1
ASEL,A,AREA,,12,13
AATT,4,1,1
ASEL,S,AREA,,3,5
ASEL,A,AREA,,7,8
AATT,2,1,1,0
/PNUM,MAT,1
ALLSEL,ALL
APLOT

! Assign attributes to coil

SMRTSIZE,4
AMESH,ALL
ESEL,S,MAT,,4
CM,ARM,ELEM
ALLSEL,ALL
ARSCAL,ALL,,,.01,.01,1,,,1
FINISH

!
!
!
!

/SOLU
ESEL,S,MAT,,3

! Assign attributes to armature

! Assign attributes to backiron

! Turn material numbers on


! Plot areas
Set smart size meshing level 4 (fine)
Mesh all areas
Select armature elements
Define armature as a component

! Scale model to MKS (meters)

! Select coil elements


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53

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


BFE,ALL,JS,1,,,jdens/.01**2 ! Apply current density (A/m**2)
ESEL,ALL
NSEL,EXT
! Select exterior nodes
D,ALL,AZ,0
! Set potentials to zero (flux-parallel)
ALLSEL,ALL
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
PLF2D

! Plot flux lines in the model

CMSEL,S,'ARM'
NSLE
ESLN
EMFT
ALLSEL,ALL
PLVECT,B,,,,VECT,ELEM,ON
/GRAPHICS,POWER
AVRES,2
PLNSOL,B,SUM
FINISH

! Select nodes attached to the armature


! Select elements attached to the selected nodes
! Summarize magnetic forces
!
!
!
!

Plot flux density as vectors


Turn PowerGraphics on
Don't average results across materials
Plot flux density magnitude

2.5.2. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Contact Analysis


This example presents a 2-D model of a coil actuator that demonstrates the use of surface-to-surface
contact. Contact is typically used when multiple runs are required with re-positioning of a pole piece
in a static or transient analysis, or for convenience in meshing regions with non-connecting meshes.

2.5.2.1. Description
The contact region is located at the mid-span of the air gap. Two independent meshes are created; one
for the lower portion of the model consisting of the back iron, coil, and lower air, and the upper portion
consisting of the pole and the upper air. Target elements (TARGE169) are created using the ESURF
command on the upper air elements at the air gap (coarser mesh). Contact elements (CONTA172) are
created using the ESURF command on the lower air elements at the air gap (finer mesh). The MPC
option is selected using bonded contact.
Figure 2.9: Element Plot Showing Independent Meshes

2.5.2.2. Input Listing


/prep7
/title, Actuator model using surface to surface contact
et,1,233
et,2,169
et,3,172,7,2,,2
keyopt,3,12,5

!
!
!
!

plane233
Target
Contact, MPC option
Bonded contact

mp,murx,1,1

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses

tb,bh,2,,40
tbpt,,355,.7
,,405,.8
,,470,.9
,,555,1.
,,673,1.1
,,836,1.2
,,1065,1.3
,,1220,1.35
,,1420,1.4
,,1720,1.45
,,2130,1.5
,,2670,1.55
,,3480,1.6
,,4500,1.65
,,5950,1.70
,,7650,1.75
,,10100,1.8
,,13000,1.85
,,15900,1.9
,,21100,1.95
,,26300,2.
,,32900,2.05
,,42700,2.1
,,61700,2.15
,,84300,2.2
,,110000,2.25
,,135000,2.3
,,200000,2.41
,,400000,2.69
,,800000,3.22

! BH curve

mp,murx,3,1

! coil

! create backiron
rectng,0,.06,0,.01
rectng,0,.01,.01,.02
rectng,.05,.06,.01,.02

! create coil
rectng,.02,.04,-.005,0
rectng,.02,.04,.01,.015
aglue,all
! create lower air domain
rectng,-.02,.08,-.01,.021
aovlap,all
numcmp,area
cm,lower,area
! create pole
rectng,0,.06,.022,.032
! create upper air
rectng,-.02,.08,.021,.04
aovlap,7,8
asel,s,area,,7,9
cm,upper,area
asel,s,area,,4,6
aatt,2,1,1
asel,s,area,,7
aatt,2,1,1
asel,s,area,,2,3
aatt,3,1,1

! backiron
! pole
! coil

cmsel,s,lower
esize,.002
amesh,all

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55

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


cmsel,s,upper
esize,.003
amesh,all
esla,s
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,y,.021
real,2
type,2
esurf

! target element needs a real constant ID


! mesh target elements

cmsel,s,lower
esla,s
nsle,s
nsel,r,loc,y,.021
type,3
esurf
allsel,all

! mesh contact elements

nsel,s,loc,x,-.02
nsel,a,loc,x,.08
nsel,a,loc,y,-.01
nsel,a,loc,y,.04
d,all,az,0

! flux parallel

asel,s,area,,3
esla,s
bfe,all,js,,,,5e6
asel,s,area,,2
esla,s
bfe,all,js,,,,-5e6
allsel,all
finish

! coil current density

/solu
solve
finish
/post1
plf2d
plnsol,b,sum
fini

Figure 2.10: Flux Line Plot

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses


Figure 2.11: Flux Density Plot

2.5.3. Example: 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis with Velocity Effects


This example demonstrates the use of the velocity effects in a 2-D model of a hollow conductive cylinder
rotating around a stationary permanent magnet.

2.5.3.1. Description
A long conductive hollow cylinder rotates about its axis. A stationary solid cylindrical permanent magnet
resides with the hollow rotating one. The two bodies are concentric, and the permanent magnet is
poled in a direction normal to its axis. The ends of the rotating hollow cylinder are electrically insulated,
so the net current flowing in the axial direction is zero (open terminal conductor).
The objective is to determine the Joule heat per unit length in the rotating conductive cylinder and
display the eddy currents induced in it by the velocity effects. The evaluation is made half-way along
the length of the rotating cylinder, well away from insulated ends where the induced current will reverse
direction and have significant non-axial components.

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57

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


Figure 2.12: Finite Element Model

2.5.3.2. Input Listing


/title, Velocity Effects in a Hollow Cylinder
/nopr
/pnu,mat,1
/num,1
C*********************************************************
C*** PARAMETERS
C*********************************************************
pi=acos(-1)
r_PM=0.010
r1_cyl=0.012
r2_cyl=0.015
r_dmn=0.025
l=0.050
Hc_PM=1e6
mur_PM=1.04
rsv_cyl=3e-8
mur_cyl=1

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses


omga=50

! ANGULAR VELOCITY, RPM

C*********************************************************
C*** GEOMETRY
C*********************************************************
/prep7
asel,none
pcir,r_PM,,0,90
aatt,2,2,2
asel,none
pcirc,r1_cyl,r2_cyl,0,90
aatt,3,3,3
alls
cm,keep_a,area
asel,none
pcirc,r_dmn,,0,90
cm,scrap_a,area
alls
asba,scrap_a,keep_a,,dele,keep
cmse,u,keep_a
aatt,1,1,1
alls
aplo

C*********************************************************
C*** ATTRIBUTES, MESH
C*********************************************************
et,1,233
mp,murx,1,1
et,2,233
mp,murx,2,mur_PM
mp,mgyy,2,Hc_PM
et,3,233,1 ! CYLINDER
mp,murx,3,mur_cyl
mp,rsvx,3,rsv_cyl
alls
ames,all
csys,1
agen,4,all,,,0,90,0
numm,node,1e-8,1e-8
numm,kp,1e-8,1e-8

C*********************************************************
C*** BCs
C*********************************************************
alls
nsel,s,ext
d,all,az
esel,s,mat,,3
nsle
cp,1,volt,all
alls
C*********************************************************
C*** LOAD
C*********************************************************
bf,all,velo,,,,,,omga*(2*pi)/60
! Angular velocity, rad/sec

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59

2-D Static Magnetic Analysis


C*********************************************************
C*** SOLVE
C*********************************************************
/solu
solve
fini
C*********************************************************
C*** RESULTS
C*********************************************************
/post1
set
etab,,jhea
etab,,volu
smul,ht,jhea,volu
ssum
*get,ht_total,ssum,,item,ht
ht_total=ht_total*l
/ann,dele
/tla,-0.25,0.90, Net Heat in Cylinder: %ht_total% W
/vie,1,1,2,3
plve,jc,,,,vect,,on
/com,
/com,
/com,
fini

60

Net Heat in Cylinder: %ht_total% W

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Example 2-D Static Magnetic Analyses

2.5.3.3. Results
Figure 2.13: Current Density in the Conductive Cylinder

2.5.4. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc., publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains several additional
examples of 2-D static magnetic analyses:
VM165
VM172
VM188
VM270

Current-Carrying Ferromagnetic Conductor


Stress Analysis of a Long, Thick, Isotropic Solenoid
Force Calculation on a Current Carrying Conductor
Forces in permanent magnets

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61

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Chapter 3: 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


Harmonic magnetic analysis calculates the effects of alternating current (AC) or voltage excitation in
electromagnetic devices and moving conductors. These effects include:
Eddy currents
Skin effects (eddy currents in current conductors carrying an impressed current)
Power loss due to eddy currents
Forces and torque
Impedance and inductance
Two contacting bodies with dissimilar meshes (such as the air gap in a rotor/stator configuration).
Typical applications for harmonic analysis are transformers, induction machines, eddy-current braking
systems, and most other electromagnetic devices that work on AC.
Permanent magnets are not permitted in a harmonic analysis. Material hysteresis effects are neglected.
The following 2-D harmonic analysis topics are available:
3.1. Linear Versus Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis
3.2. Elements Used in Harmonic Magnetic Analysis
3.3. Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment
3.4. Building and Meshing the Model and Assigning Region Attributes
3.5. Applying Boundary Conditions Loads (Excitation) to Harmonic Problems
3.6. Obtain a Solution
3.7. Reviewing Results
3.8. Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses

3.1. Linear Versus Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis


For low saturation cases a linear time-harmonic analysis can be run with assumed constant permeability
properties. For moderate to high saturation conditions a nonlinear time-harmonic or time-transient (2D Transient Magnetic Analysis (p. 99)) solution should be considered.
In moderate to high saturation cases, an analyst is often most interested in obtaining global electromagnetic force, torque and power losses in a magnetic device under sinusoidal steady state excitation, but
less concerned with the actual flux density waveform. Under such circumstances, an approximate nonlinear time-harmonic analysis procedure may be pursued. This procedure can predict the time-averaged
torque and power losses with good accuracy, and yet at much reduced computational cost compared
to a transient time-stepping procedure.
The basic principle of the nonlinear time-harmonic analysis is to replace the DC B-H curve with a fictitious
or effective B-H curve based on an energy equivalence method.

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63

2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


With the effective B-H curve, a nonlinear transient problem can be effectively reduced to a nonlinear
time-harmonic one. In this nonlinear analysis, all field quantities are all sinusoidal at a given frequency,
similar to the linear harmonic analysis, except that a nonlinear solution is computed.
It should be emphasized that in a nonlinear transient analysis, given a sinusoidal power source, the
magnetic flux density B has a non-sinusoidal waveform. While in the nonlinear harmonic analysis, B is
assumed sinusoidal. Therefore, it is not the true waveform, but rather represents an approximation to
the fundamental time harmonic of the true flux density waveform. The time-averaged global force,
torque and loss, which are determined by the approximated fundamental harmonics of fields, are then
subsequent approximations to the true values.

3.2. Elements Used in Harmonic Magnetic Analysis


A harmonic model uses only the vector potential formulation for eddy-current regions. Therefore, you
can use only the element types described below to model eddy current domains.
For detailed information about the elements, consult the Element Reference. That manual organizes
element descriptions in numeric order. The Mechanical APDL Theory Reference manual also contains information about the elements.
Table 3.1: 2-D Solid Elements
Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

PLANE13

2-D

4-node quadrilateral
or 3-node triangular

Up to four at each
node; these can be
magnetic vector potential (AZ), displacements,
temperature, or timeintegrated electric potential

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

Up to four at each
node; these can be
magnetic vector potential (AZ), time-integrated electric potential,
current, or electromotive force

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

Up to three at each
node; these can be
magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric potential/voltage drop or
time-integrated electric
potential/voltage drop
(VOLT), electromotive
force or time-integrated
electromotive force
(EMF)

PLANE53

2-D

PLANE233 2-D

Notes
Legacy element
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis, static only.
Legacy element
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis, static only.
Current-technology element
[1]
Supported for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analysis.

1. Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic
element) rather than PLANE13 or PLANE53 (legacy magnetic elements). See Legacy vs. Current-Technology

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Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment


2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19) for a list of the capabilities that are only available with PLANE233. PLANE233
does not support nonlinear harmonic analysis, velocity effects, or LMATRIX calculations.
Some of the procedural steps in this chapter are not applicable to PLANE233. For information on
the differences between PLANE233 and PLANE53 (and PLANE13), see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).
Table 3.2: Far-Field Elements
Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

INFIN9

2-D

Line, two nodes

Magnetic vector potential (AZ)

INFIN110

2-D

Quadrilateral, four or eight


nodes

Magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric


potential, temperature

Table 3.3: General Circuit Elements


Element
CIRCU124

Dimens.
None

Shape or Characteristic
Six nodes

DOFs
Up to three at each node; these can be
electric potential, current, or electromotive force

Table 3.4: Contact Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

Notes

TARGE169 2-D

Target segment

n/a

Used to model the target region for a contact


analysis

CONTA171

2-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (2node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA172

2-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (3node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA175

2-D

Node-to-surface contact element (1-node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

3.3. Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment


As in any other type of analysis, for harmonic magnetic analyses you create a physics environment,
build a model, assign attributes to model regions, mesh the model, apply boundary conditions and
loads, obtain a solution, and then review the results. Most of the procedures for conducting a 2-D harmonic magnetic analysis are identical or similar to the procedures for performing 2-D static analyses.
This topic discusses the tasks specific to harmonic analysis.
A 2-D harmonic magnetic analysis uses the same procedures to set GUI preferences, the analysis title,
element types and KEYOPT options, element coordinate systems, real constants, and a system of units.
2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) describes these procedures.

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65

2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


When specifying material properties, in general use the same methods discussed in 2-D Static Magnetic
Analysis (p. 17); that is, where possible, use existing material property definitions from the material
library or that other users at your site have developed.
The next few topics provide some guidelines for setting up physics regions for your model, including
an illustrated discussion of terminal conditions you can model within a simulated physical region.

3.3.1. Using DOFs to Manage Terminal Conditions on Conductors


The program offers several options to handle terminal conditions on conductors. These options offer
enormous flexibility in modeling, for example, stranded and massive conductors, short circuit and open
circuit conditions, and circuit-fed devices. To model each of these entities, you perform these tasks:
Add extra degrees of freedom (DOFs) to the conducting region.
Assign required real constants, material properties, and special treatments to the DOFs. Element types
and options, material properties, real constants and element coordinate systems are defined as "attributes" of the solid model; you assign them using the AATT and VATT commands or equivalent
GUI paths.

3.3.2. The AZ Option


Conductors modeled with the AZ DOF simulate short-circuit conditions, due to the absence of electric
scalar potential which implies zero voltage drop along the length of the conductor.
PLANE233 always behaves as a stranded conductor (no eddy current effects are modeled) in a harmonic
or transient analysis when the element does not have the VOLT degree of freedom (KEYOPT(1) = 0).

3.3.3. The AZ-VOLT Option


The AZ-VOLT option allows you to model massive conductors with various terminal conditions by including an electric potential in the overall electric field calculation:
E = A/t - V
The program replaces V with = Vdt (time-integrated potential), allowing additional flexibility for
considering open circuit conditions, current-fed massive conductors, and multiple conductors with end
connections, by allowing control over the electric field (VOLT).
The potential has units of volt-seconds and uses the VOLT degree of freedom. In a planar or axisymmetric analysis, is constant over the conductor cross-section (that is, the voltage drop is in the outof-plane direction only). To enforce this requirement, you must couple nodes in each conducting region
using one of the following:
Command(s): CP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs
The coupling essentially reduces the unknowns to a single potential drop unknown in the conducting
region.
By default, for PLANE233, the meaning of VOLT degree of freedom is electric potential. To do an electromagnetic analysis with time-integrated electric potential as a VOLT degree of freedom, use KEYOPT(2)
= 2.

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Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment

3.3.4. The AZ-CURR Option


You use the AZ-CURR option to model a voltage-fed stranded coil. The CURR DOF represents the current
per turn in the coil. You can apply a voltage drop to the coil using one of the methods shown below
(this applies to all coil elements):
Command(s): BFE,VLTG
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Voltage drop> On Elements
Alternatively, you can apply voltage-drop loadings to areas of the solid model by using the BFA command. You can then transfer the specified voltage-drop loadings from the solid model to the finite
element model by using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.
No eddy currents are calculated in a stranded coil source, because it is assumed that the strands are
insulated. The coil is described by "real" constants that the ANSYS program uses to calculate the coil
resistance and inductance.
Figure 3.1: Stranded Coil Cross-Section

Axis of symmetry

1 turn

Voltage-fed stranded coils are available for the PLANE53 and SOLID97 elements. For them, you must
specify real constants which characterize the stranded conductor. All nodes in a stranded coil region
must be coupled in the CURR degree of freedom, which will result in a single equation solving for the
current flowing in the coil. When using PLANE53 or SOLID97 elements, the real constant FILL is especially
important for stranded coils, and for other conductors where the conductor area (or volume) is not
exactly represented by the element profile.

Note
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on
using PLANE233, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

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67

2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis

3.3.5. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model


The ANSYS program offers several options you can use to handle terminal conditions on conductors in
2-D magnetic analyses. Figure 3.2: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors (p. 68) below pictures a physical region for a 2-D magnetic analysis and the conditions (options)
that can exist within it.
Figure 3.2: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors

x(r)

Planar

Axisymmetric

Massive Conductor - Short Circuit

Short circuit conductor

DOFs: AZ
Material Properties: MUr, (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Eddy currents flow in a closed loop; there is no voltage drop
due to a short-circuit condition.

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Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment


Y


AZ-VOLT
VOLT Coupled
x(r)





Planar

Axisymmetric
Massive Conductor - Open Circuit Conditions
Open circuit conductor

DOFs: AZ, VOLT


Material Properties: mur (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Special characteristics: Couple VOLT DOF

Note
No net current flows in an open circuit conductor. The axisymmetric case simulates a conductor with a finite cut (slit).



 

 " !S" #$% F &&%'


**'+f
Current-fed massive
conductor

%,,$# '.+*

DOFs: AZ, VOLT


Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)

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69

2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


Special characteristics: Couple VOLT DOF in region; apply total
current (F,,AMPS command) to single node
Assumes a short-circuit condition with a net current flow from
a current source generator. Net current is unaffected by surroundings.

CURR

+
V
-

Voltage-fed Stranded Coil


Voltage-fed stranded coil

DOFs: AZ, CURR


Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Real constants: CARE, TURN, LENG, DIRZ, FILL
Special characteristics: Apply voltage drop (VLTG) using the
BFE command (or alternatively using the BFA command and
transferring the load to the finite element model by using the
BFTRAN or the SBCTRAN command); couple CURR DOFs in
region
You can use element PLANE53 to model this source. Applied
voltage is unaffected by surroundings.

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Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment

Ground Plane

AZ-VOLT
VOLT Coupled
Simulates multiple conductors terminated at common ground
Multiple massive
conductors terminated by a common
ground plane

DOFs: AZ, VOLT


Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Special characteristics: Couple VOLT DOF of all conductor regions into a single coupled node set.

Note
Used to simulate devices such as squirrel cage rotors where end effects can be ignored.

   


 ""
 ""
J = 

( 

D y)


f   
Current-fed stranded coil

DOF: AZ
Material properties: MUr (MURX)

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Special characteristics: No eddy currents; can apply source
current density (JS ) using BFE,,JS command (or alternatively
using the BFL or BFA command and transferring the load to
the finite element model by using the BFTRAN or SBCTRAN
command)

Note
Assumes a stranded insulated coil producing a constant AC current, unaffected by surrounding
conditions. Current density can be calculated from the number of coil turns, the current per
turn, and the cross-section area of the coil.

External Circuit
(CIRCU124)

Circuit-fed Stranded Coil

Circuit-fed stranded
coil

DOFs: AZ, CURR, EMF


Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Real constants: CARE, TURN, LENG, DIRZ, FILL
Special characteristics: Couple CURR DOF and couple EMF DOF
in region.

Note
Model stranded coils fed by an external circuit (CIRCU124 element). See the Coupled-Field
Analysis Guide for details on electromagnetic-circuit coupling.

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Creating a Harmonic 2-D Physics Environment

External Circuit
(CIRCU124)

Circuit-fed Massive Conductor

Circuit-fed massive
conductor

DOFs: AZ, CURR, EMF


Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)
Real Constants: CARE, LENG
Special characteristics: Couple CURR DOF, and couple EMF
DOF in region.

Note
Model massive conductor fed by an external circuit (CIRCU124 element). See the CoupledField Analysis Guide for details on electromagnetic-circuit coupling.
Laminated iron

DOF: AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX) or B-H curve
Simulating permeable regions where eddy currents can be
neglected. Requires only the AZ DOF.

Air

DOF: AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX = I)

Moving conductor
(velocity effects)

Model velocity effects from conductors moving at constant velocity


using PLANE53 or PLANE233 elements. For more information about
moving conductors, see the sections on velocity effects in this
chapter and 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17).

3.3.6. Velocity Effects


You can solve electromagnetic fields for special cases of moving bodies under the influence of an AC
excitation. Velocity effects are valid for static, harmonic, and transient analyses. 2-D Static Magnetic
Analysis (p. 17) discusses applications and limitations for motion analysis. For harmonic analysis with
PLANE53, velocity effects are limited to linear analysis (no B-H curves permitted).
The procedure for solving a 2-D harmonic analysis with a moving conductor is identical to that for a
static analysis in terms of element KEYOPT options, real constants (PLANE53), or body loads (PLANE233).
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Applied velocities are constant and do not vary sinusoidally (as do the coil or field excitation) in a harmonic analysis.
The magnetic Reynolds number characterizes the velocity effect and numerical stability of the problem.
The equation used to produce this number is shown below:
Mre = d/
In the above equation, is permeability, is resistivity, is velocity, and d is characteristic length (in
the directional motion) within a finite element of the conducting body. The magnetic Reynolds number
is meaningful only in a static or transient analysis.
The motion formulation is valid and accurate for relatively small values of the Reynolds number, typically
on the order of 1.0. Accuracy for higher Reynolds number values will vary from problem to problem.
With PLANE53, the magnetic Reynolds number is calculated and available in the postprocessor for
viewing. In addition to a field solution, the motion solution includes currents in the conductor due to
motion.

3.4. Building and Meshing the Model and Assigning Region Attributes
For information on building a model, assigning attributes to regions within the model and meshing
the model, see 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) of this manual and the Modeling and Meshing Guide.
For information on modeling two contacted bodies, see Modeling Magnetic Contact.

3.4.1. Skin Depth Considerations


Electromagnetic field penetration in conducting bodies is a function of frequency, permeability, and
conductivity. Calculating the field and Joule heating losses accurately requires that the finite element
mesh be fine enough at the surface of the conductor to capture the surface phenomena. In general,
you should model one or two elements at a minimum through the skin depth. You can estimate the
skin depth from the following equation:
=

In the equation above, is the skin depth (in meters), f is the frequency (in Hertz), is the absolute
permeability (in Henries/meters), and is conductivity (in Siemens/meter).

3.5. Applying Boundary Conditions Loads (Excitation) to Harmonic


Problems
You can apply boundary conditions and loads to a harmonic magnetic analysis either on the solid
model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). To apply
boundary conditions and loads to a 2-D harmonic analysis, use the same GUI paths and macros described
for a 2-D static analysis in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17)
For a harmonic magnetic analysis, you can specify three types of load step options: dynamic, general,
and output controls. Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) describes these load
step options.

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Applying Boundary Conditions Loads (Excitation) to Harmonic Problems


For static analyses, use the ANSYS cyclic symmetry capability to define periodic boundary conditions.
For harmonic or transient analyses, use the PERBC2D macro.

3.5.1. Using the PERBC2D Macro


Using the PERBC2D macro, you can define periodic boundary conditions automatically for a 2-D analysis. PERBC2D writes constraint equations or assigns node coupling necessary for two periodic symmetry
planes. To invoke the macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): PERBC2D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector Poten>
Periodic BCs
Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255) discusses and illustrates options for using PERBC2D.

3.5.2. Amplitude, Phase Angle, and Operating Frequency


By definition, a harmonic analysis assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with
time. Specifying a harmonic load completely usually requires three pieces of information: the amplitude
(zero to peak value), the phase angle, and the operating frequency.

3.5.2.1. Amplitude
This is the maximum value of the load (zero-to-peak) which you specify.

3.5.2.2. Phase Angle


Phase angle measures the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference. On the complex
plane (see Figure 3.3: Relationship Between Real / Imaginary Components and Amplitude / Phase
Angle (p. 75)), phase angle is the angle measures from the real axis. The phase angle is required only
if you have multiple loads that are out-of-phase with each other (for instance, in three-phase analysis).
For out-of-phase current densities or voltages, use the PHASE field on the BF, BFE, or BFK commands
(or their equivalent menu paths) to specify the phase angle in degrees. For out-of-phase potentials or
current segments, use the VALUE and VALUE2 fields on the appropriate load commands or menu
paths to specify the real and imaginary components of the complex loads. Figure 3.3: Relationship
Between Real / Imaginary Components and Amplitude / Phase Angle (p. 75) shows how to calculate
the real and imaginary components.
Figure 3.3: Relationship Between Real / Imaginary Components and Amplitude / Phase Angle

3.5.2.3. Operating Frequency


This is the frequency of the alternating current (in Hz). You specify if as a load step option via either
method shown below:
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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


Command(s): HARFRQ
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps

3.5.3. Applying Source Current Density to Stranded Conductors


To apply source current density (JS) as a load directly to the elements of a stranded conductor, you can
use either of the following:
Command(s): BFE,,JS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Curr
Density> On Elements
Alternatively, you can apply source current densities to areas of the solid model by using the BFA
command. You can then transfer the specified source current densities from the solid model to the finite
element model by using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.

3.5.4. Applying Current to Massive Conductors


Current (AMPS) is a nodal current load that applies only to massive (solid) conductor regions with an
impressed current. In 2-D for the PLANE13, PLANE53, and PLANE233 elements, this load requires the
AZ-VOLT degree of freedom set in the conductor region. Current represents the total measurable current
flow through the conductor (units of current), and you can apply it only to 2-D planar and axisymmetric
models.
To apply a uniform current load through a cross-section of the skin-effect region, you must couple the
VOLT degree of freedom across that cross-section. To do so, use either of the following:
Command(s): CP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs
In 2-D planar or axisymmetric models, select all nodes in the skin-effect region and couple their VOLT
DOFs. Then, apply the current at one node in the cross-section, using one of the following:
Command(s): F
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Impressed
Curr> On Nodes

3.5.5. Applying Voltage Load Across a Stranded Coil


This load specifies a voltage drop (magnitude and phase angle) across a stranded coil. Units for voltage
drop are always in MKS units. Voltage-drop loading is available only in the PLANE53 element using the
AZ and CURR degrees of freedom. To apply voltage drop, use either of the following:
Command(s): BFE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Voltage
drop
Alternatively, you can apply voltage-drop loadings to areas of the solid model by using the BFA command. You can then transfer the specified voltage-drop loadings from the solid model to the finite
element model by using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.

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Applying Boundary Conditions Loads (Excitation) to Harmonic Problems


To obtain a correct solution, you must couple all nodes of the coil together in the CURR degrees of
freedom. (Failure to do so will lead to errors in the solution.) This is required, because CURR is a unique
number representing the current per turn of the winding.

Note
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on
using PLANE233, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

3.5.6. Flags
3.5.6.1. Force Flags
For PLANE53 (and PLANE13), an ANSYS command macro, FMAGBC, is used to identify a body for force
or torque calculations. The macro automates applying virtual displacements and the Maxwell surface
flag (discussed later). The body must be surrounded by at least one layer of "air" elements. Simply group
the elements in the body on which forces, torque or displacements are to be calculated into a component.
Then, use either of the following:
Command(s): FMAGBC,Cname
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq
Use the FMAGSUM and TORQSUM macros in POST1 to summarize the force and torque results, respectively.

Note
Lorentz forces are applicable to current carrying conductors and they are calculated automatically. Do not apply Maxwell or virtual displacement flags to any current carrying conductor
surfaces.
For PLANE233, you do not need to apply any force flags to calculate magnetic forces. To summarize
magnetic forces and torques, you use the EMFT command. For more information, see Legacy vs. CurrentTechnology 2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

3.5.6.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF)


These are not loads, but they are required to flag the surface of an infinite element which is pointing
towards the open (infinite) domain.

3.5.7. Other Loads


3.5.7.1. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF)
Maxwell surfaces are not really loads, but indicate surfaces on which the magnetic force or torque distribution is to be calculated. The presence of the label MXWF sets the flag.
Typically, you specify MXWF on the surfaces of air elements adjacent to an air-iron interface. Mechanical
APDL calculates forces or torque at the air-iron interface (by the Maxwell stress tensor approach) and
stores them in the air elements. You can then review and sum the forces or torque in the POST1 (genRelease 15.0 - SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information
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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


eral) postprocessor to obtain the global forces or torque acting on the body. Then, you can use these
forces or torque as loads in a structural analysis if you wish.
You can specify more than one component, but the components must not share adjacent air elements.
(Sharing air elements is typical when a single element layer separates two components.)
When using PLANE233, you do not need to apply any force flags to calculate magnetic forces. For more
information, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

3.5.7.2. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI)


These loads initiate the calculation of forces or torque on a body in the model. The MVDI method
provides an alternative to the Maxwell method. The ANSYS program calculates the forces or torque as
it processes the solution, using the virtual work approach.
To trigger the calculation, specify MVDI = 1.0 at all nodes in the region of interest and MVDI = 0.0 (default
setting) at all adjacent air nodes. You can enter MVDI values greater than 1.0; but normally, you should
not do so. Forces or torque will be calculated and stored in the air elements adjacent to the body.
The band of air elements surrounding the region of interest should be uniformly thick. Then, in POST1,
you can review and summarize the forces or torque calculated for each air element to get the total
force or torque.
Figure 3.4: MVDI Specifications for Virtual Work Force Calculation
MVDI = 0.0 (default)
MVDI = 1.0

Iron

Air

For information on calculating magnetic forces when using PLANE233, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

3.6. Obtain a Solution


Most of the tasks you perform to solve a 2-D harmonic magnetic analysis are the same as the tasks
described in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) for solving a 2-D static magnetic analysis. The main
differences are that you specify a different analysis type and that the harmonic analysis yields different
results that may require different postprocessing methods.

3.6.1. Defining the Harmonic Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:

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Obtain a Solution
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and then
choose a Harmonic analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,HARMIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to restart an unconverged solution or to specify
additional excitation), issue the command ANTYPE,HARMIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you
previously completed a harmonic magnetic analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV,
and Jobname.DB from the previous run are available.
Most 2-D nonlinear harmonic problems run at a single frequency can be set up and solved using either
of the following:
Command(s): HMAGSOLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Harmonic Analys> Opt&Solv
Details on the HMAGSOLV macro are described in HMAGSOLV Command Macro (p. 82). Defining
Analysis Options (p. 79) through Starting the Solution (p. 81) describe the analysis options that can be
used if the HMAGSOLV macro is not used. HMAGSOLV is only applicable to a new harmonic analysis.

3.6.2. Defining Analysis Options


You can use the following "Full" method to solve harmonic electromagnetic problems. It is the default
method.
First, define the solution method, using either of the following:
Command(s): HROPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options
Next, define how the harmonic degree of freedom solution is listed in the printed output (the Jobname.OUT file). You can choose either real and imaginary parts (default) or amplitudes and phase
angles. This option is used mainly with circuit-coupled problems using the CURR and EMF degrees of
freedom. To specify the solution listing format, use either of the following:
Command(s): HROUT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options

3.6.3. Selecting the Equation Solver


You can choose the sparse direct (SPARSE) solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver,
or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver.
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options

Note
You must "OK" the dialog box containing the HROPT and HROUT commands to reach the
equation solver dialog box.
For nonlinear problems, the program continues to do equilibrium iterations until the convergence criteria
are satisfied (or until the maximum number of equilibrium equations is reached.
To specify the convergence criteria, use either of the following:
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Command(s): CNVTOL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
You can either use the default convergence criteria or define custom criteria.
Default Convergence Criteria
By default, the program checks for degree of freedom (AZ, VOLT, CURR, EMF) convergence by
comparing the square root sum of the squares (SRSS) of the degree of freedom imbalances
against the product of VALUE X TOLER. The default value of VALUE is based upon the selected
NORM and the current total DOF value (program chosen), or MINREF, whichever is greater. In
general, you do not set MINREF. The default value of TOLER is 0.001.
For degrees of freedom, the program bases convergence checking on the change in degree of
freedom (Du) between the current (i) and the previous (i-1) iterations: Du = ui-ui-1.
Custom Convergence Criteria
You can define custom convergence criteria, instead of using the default values.
Using tighter convergence criteria improves the accuracy of your results, but at the cost of more
equilibrium iterations. If you want to tighten (or loosen) your criteria, you change the TOLER by
one or two orders of magnitude. In general, you continue to use the default value of VALUE;
that is, change the convergence criteria by adjusting TOLER, not VALUE.

3.6.4. Setting the Analysis Frequency


For most electromagnetic problems only a single frequency is used. You set the frequency (in Hz), using
either of the following:
Command(s): HARFRQ
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
You can input a single frequency in either the FREQB or FREQE field.

3.6.5. Setting General Options


You can specify the number of harmonic solutions to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps) is evenly
spaced within the specified frequency range. For example, if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30
to 40 Hz, the program calculates the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated
at the lower end of the frequency range.
To specify the number of harmonic solutions, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSUBST
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
You can specify whether the excitations are stepped or ramped. By default, they are ramped, that is,
excitation amplitude is gradually increased with each substep. By stepping the excitations, the same
excitation amplitude is maintained for all substeps in the frequency range. For electromagnetic problems
excitations are normally stepped. The ramp option is useful for converging nonlinear problems at a
single frequency.
To specify whether the excitations are stepped or ramped, use either of the following:
Command(s): KBC

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Obtain a Solution
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequency> Freq and Substps
You can specify the number of equilibrium iterations performed for a nonlinear harmonic analysis at
each frequency. The default is 25. It is recommended that the number of equilibrium iterations be set
to 50 or higher to ensure convergence.
To specify the number of equilibrium iterations, use either of the following:
Command(s): NEQIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter

3.6.6. Setting Output Controls


You can set output control options.
An option enables you to include any results data in the printed output file (Jobname.OUT). To control
printed output, use either of the following:
Command(s): OUTPR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
Another option controls what data goes to the results file (Jobname.RTH). To control database and
results file output, use either of the following:
Command(s): OUTRES
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

3.6.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

3.6.8. Starting the Solution


For linear problems you can initiate a solution using either of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
For a nonlinear analysis, a two-step solution sequence at each frequency is recommended to ensure
convergence:
1. Ramp the excitation over three to five substeps, each with one equilibrium iteration.
To specify a ramped or stepped excitation, you use either of the following:
Command(s): KBC
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequency> Freq and Substps
To specify three to five substeps, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSUBST
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
To specify one equilibrium iteration, use the following:
Command(s): NEQIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter

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To initiate a solution, use either of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
2. Calculate the final solution over one substep, with up to 50 equilibrium iterations.
To specify one substep, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSUBST
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
To specify up to 50 equilibrium iterations, use either of the following:
Command(s): NEQIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter
To define custom convergence criteria, instead of using the default values, use either of the following:
Command(s): CNVTOL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
To initiate a solution, use either of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

3.6.9. HMAGSOLV Command Macro


Instead of specifying the two-step solution sequence and initiating the solution manually using the
analysis options documented above, you can take advantage of the HMAGSOLV command macro. To
do so, use either of the following:
Command(s): HMAGSOLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Harmonic Analys> Opt&Solv
The HMAGSOLV command macro allows for changing the default convergence criteria for each valid
degree of freedom. Due to the nature of the nonlinear harmonic equation set, convergence is slower
than it is for a static analysis. The default values should provide adequate solution accuracy.

3.6.10. Tracking Convergence Graphically


As nonlinear electromagnetic analysis proceeds, ANSYS computes convergence norms with corresponding
convergence criteria each equilibrium iteration. Available in both batch and interactive sessions, the
Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence norms and criteria while
the solution is in process. By default, /GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. To turn
/GST on or off, use either of the following:
Command(s): /GST
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track
Figure 3.5: Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature (p. 83) shows
a typical GST display:

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Reviewing Results
Figure 3.5: Convergence Norms Displayed by the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) Feature

3.6.11. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

3.7. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a harmonic magnetic analysis
to the magnetics results file, Jobname.RMG (or to Jobname.RST if the electric potential (VOLT), current
(CURR), or EMF degrees of freedom are active). Results include the data listed below, all of which vary
harmonically at the operating frequency (or frequencies) for which you calculated the solution:
Primary data: Nodal DOFs (AZ, VOLT, CURR)
Derived data:

Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BSUM)


Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, SUM)
Nodal Lorentz magnetic forces (FMAG; components X, Y, SUM)
Nodal reaction current segments (CSGZ)
Total electric current density (JT)
Joule heat per unit volume (JHEAT)

Note
For nonlinear time-harmonic analysis, the values of flux density (B) may exceed the values
input on the DC B-H curve. These values represent an approximation to the fundamental
harmonic component of the true waveform, not the actual measurable value.
Additional data, specific to each element type, also are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, or POST26, the time-history postprocessor. The results are out-of-phase with the input loads (that is, they lag the input loads), and
therefore are complex. They are calculated and stored in terms of real and imaginary components.

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Use POST1 to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies. Use POST26 to review results
at specific points in the model over the entire frequency range.
For a harmonic magnetic analysis, the frequency range usually consists of only the AC frequency.
Therefore, POST1 is typically used to review the results.
To choose a postprocessor, use one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1, /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro

3.7.1. Commands or GUI Paths to Help You in Postprocessing


The ANSYS program provides a number of commands or GUI paths (see Table 3.5: Postprocessing GUI
Paths and Commands (p. 84)) which you may find helpful in postprocessing analysis results:
Table 3.5: Postprocessing GUI Paths and Commands
Task

Command(s)

GUI Path

Select the real solution

SET,1,1,,0

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Results Summary

Select the imaginary solution

SET,1,1,,1

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Results Summary

Print vector potential DOF (AZ)[5] PRNSOL,AZ

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution

Print time-integrated potential


DOF (VOLT)[5]

PRNSOL,VOLT

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution

Print magnetic flux density at


corner nodes[1,5]

PRVECT,B

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data

Print magnetic field at corner


nodes[1,5]

PRVECT,H

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data

Print total current density at


centroids[5]

PRVECT,JT

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data

Print force at corner nodes[2,6]

PRVECT,FMAG Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data

Print magnetic flux density at


element nodes[5]

PRESOL,B

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

Print magnetic field at element


nodes[5]

PRESOL,H

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

Print total current density at element centroid[5]

PRESOL,JT

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

Print force at element nodes[2,6]

PRESOL,FMAG Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

Print magnetic energy[3,5]

PRESOL,SENE

Print Joule heat per unit


volume[4,6]

PRESOL,JHEAT Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

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Task

Command(s)

GUI Path

Create element table item for


centroid flux density[5], X component. (Issue similar commands
for Y and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,B,X Main Menu> General Postproc> Element


Table> Define Table

Create element table item for


centroid magnetic[5] field, X
component. (Issue similar commands for Y and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,H,X Main Menu> General Postproc> Element


Table> Define Table

Create element table item for


Joule heat per unit volume[4,6]

Main Menu> General Postproc> Element


ETABLE,Lab,JHEAT
Table> Define Table

Create element table item for


centroid current[5] density, X
component. (Issue similar commands for Y and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,JT,X Main Menu> General Postproc> Element


Table> Define Table

Main Menu> General Postproc> Element


Create element table item for
ETABLE,Lab,FMAG,X
Table> Define Table
magnetic force[2,6] over element,
X component. (Issue similar
commands for Y and SUM components.)
Create element table item for
element stored energy[3]

ETABLE,Lab,SENEMain Menu> General Postproc> Element


Table> Define Table

Print the indicated element table PRETAB,Lab,1,... Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Elem Table Data
item(s)
1. Average of selected elements adjacent to nodes.
2. Force is summed over elements and distributed among nodes for coupling purposes.
3. Magnetic energy is summed over elements.
4. To obtain power loss, multiply by element volume.
5. Instantaneous value (real/imaginary, at t = 0 and t = -90) in case of a harmonic analysis.
6. RMS value: measurable values are stored in the real set. (Velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1) require
summation of real and imaginary parts to obtain RMS value.)

Note
See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information.
The ETABLE command or its GUI path also allow you to view less frequently-used items.
You can view most of these items graphically. To do so, substitute plotting commands for the commands
whose names begin with "PL" (for example, use PLNSOL instead of PRNSOL, as illustrated below):

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85

2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


Command

Substitution

GUI Path

PRNSOL

PLNSOL

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot>


Nodal Solution

PRVECT

PLVECT

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot

PRESOL

PLESOL

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot>


Elem Solution

PRETAB

PLETAB

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot>


Elem Table Data

You also can plot element table items. See the Basic Analysis Guide for more information.
The ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) also contains commands that may be useful in postprocessing, and several magnetics macros also are available for results processing purposes. See the ANSYS
Parametric Design Language Guide for more information about APDL. Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255)
describes the macros.
Reading in Results Data (p. 86) discusses some typical POST1 operations for a harmonic magnetic analysis. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic Analysis Guide.

3.7.2. Reading in Results Data


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RMG or Jobname.RST) must be available.
Results from a harmonic magnetic analysis are complex and consist of real and imaginary components.
To read either type of component (you cannot read both types at the same time), use either of the
following:
Command(s): SET
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
An SRSS combination of the real and imaginary parts gives the true magnitude of the results. You can
do this via load case operations.

3.7.2.1. Contour Displays


You can contour almost any result item (including flux density and field intensity) using the following
commands or menu paths:
Command(s): PLNSOL, PLESOL
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem Solution
Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution

Caution
The PLNSOL command or its equivalent menu path average nodal contour plots for derived
data, such as flux density and field intensity, at the nodes.
In PowerGraphics mode (default), you can visualize nodal averaged contour displays which account for
material discontinuities. Should you need to activate PowerGraphics, use either /GRAPHICS,POWER
(Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Hidden-Line Options).

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3.7.2.2. Vector Displays


Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) offer an effective way to view vector quantities
such as A, B, H, and FMAG. For vector displays, use either of the following:
Command(s): PLVECT
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot
For vector listings, use either method shown below:
Command(s): PRVECT
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Vector Data

3.7.2.3. Tabular Listings


You can produce tabular listings of results data, either unsorted or sorted by node or by element. To
sort data before listing it, use any of the following:
Command(s): ESORT, NSORT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems
To produce tabular data listings, use any of the following:
Command(s): PRESOL, PRNSOL, PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu

3.7.2.4. Magnetic Forces


Lorentz, Maxwell and virtual work force computations are usually available when using PLANE13 or
PLANE53:
Time-average Lorentz forces (the JxB forces) are calculated automatically for all current carrying elements.
These forces are stored in the "real" data set (see SET command to retrieve "real" results). (Exercise caution
in interpreting Lorentz forces in permeable (r > 1 materials.) To list these forces, select all current-carrying
elements and use either the PRNSOL,FMAG command or its equivalent menu path. You can also sum
these forces. First, move them to the element table using either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,FMAG,X (or Y)
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Then, calculate the sum using either of the following:
Command(s): SSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time-average forces are obtained by summing the
data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.
Time-average Maxwell forces are calculated for all elements at which the surface flag MXWF is specified as
a surface "load." To list Maxwell forces, select all such elements, read in the "real" data set and then select
either of the following:
Command(s): PRNSOL,FMAG
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution

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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


You can summarize time-average Maxwell forces quickly for element components on which those
forces were specified as boundary conditions (via the FMAGBC macro). To summarize the forces,
choose one of the following:
Command(s): FMAGSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Force
To sum the forces, use the procedure described in the foregoing for Lorentz forces.

Note
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time-average forces are obtained by summing the data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.

Time-average virtual work forces are calculated for all air elements with an MVDI specification adjacent
to the body of interest. To extract these forces, select all current-carrying elements and use the ETABLE
command along with the sequence number (snum) for the data requested to store the forces from the
element NMISC record (see PLANE13 Item and Sequence Numbers and Item and Sequence Numbers for
ETABLE and ESOL in the Element Reference). Do so by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,snum
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Once you move the data to the element table, you can list them using either of the following:
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List Elem Table
You can summarize time-average virtual work forces quickly for element components on which those
forces were specified as boundary conditions (via the FMAGBC macro). To summarize the forces,
choose one of the following:
Command(s): FMAGSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Force
To sum the forces, use the procedure described in the foregoing for Lorentz forces.

Note
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time average-forces are obtained by summing the data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.

For information on calculating magnetic forces when using PLANE233, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

3.7.2.5. Magnetic Torque


Lorentz, Maxwell and virtual work torque computations are usually available when using PLANE13 or
PLANE53:
Time-average Lorentz torque (the JxB torque) is calculated automatically for all current carrying elements.
These torque values are stored in the "real" data set (see SET command to retrieve "real" results). Exercise
caution in interpreting Lorentz torque values in permeable (mr>1) materials.) To extract these torque values,
select all current-carrying elements and use the ETABLE command along with the sequence number

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(snum) for the data requested to store the torque values from the element NMISC record (see PLANE13
Item and Sequence Numbers and Item and Sequence Numbers for ETABLE and ESOL in the Element Reference). Do so by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,snum
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Once you move the data to the element table, you can list the torque values using the following
command:
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List Elem Table
The torque data can also be retrieved using the PLESOL and PRESOL commands with the NMISC
item label.
You can also sum the torque values to obtain the total torque on the body. To calculate the sum use
the following:
Command(s): SSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item

Note
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time-average torque values are obtained
by summing the data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.

Maxwell torque values are calculated for all elements at which the surface flag MXWF is specified as a
surface "load." To extract and sum Maxwell torque values, you can use the procedure described in the
foregoing for extracting and summing Lorentz torque values or, if the torque values were specified as
boundary conditions via the FMAGBC macro, you can quickly obtain the values using either of the following:
Command(s): TORQSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Torque

Note
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time-average torque values are obtained
by summing the data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.

Time-average virtual work torque values are calculated for all air elements with an MVDI specification
adjacent to the body of interest. To extract and sum virtual work torque values, you can use the procedure
described in the foregoing for extracting and summing Lorentz torque values or, if the torque values were
specified as boundary conditions via the FMAGBC macro, you can quickly obtain the values using either
of the following:
Command(s): TORQSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Torque

Note
For velocity effect regions (KEYOPT(2) = 1), the time-average torque values are obtained
by summing the data stored in the "real" and "imaginary" data sets.

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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


For information on calculating magnetic torques when using PLANE233, see Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19).

3.7.2.6. Coil Resistance and Inductance


For stranded coils with the voltage-fed or circuit-fed options, you can calculate the resistance and inductance of the coil. Each element stores values of resistance and inductance. Summing these values
gives the total resistance and inductance of the modeled region of the conductor. To store and sum
these values, select the conductor elements using the ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,n command or its
equivalent menu path. (For the n value, use 8 for resistance and 9 for inductance.) Use the SSUM
command or its menu path equivalent to sum the data.
Inductance values calculated for voltage-fed stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 2 for PLANE53) or circuitcoupled stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 3 for PLANE53) are only valid under the following conditions:
The problem is linear (constant permeability).
There are no permanent magnets in the model.
Only a single coil exists in the model.
For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to compute the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil. Refer to Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage (p. 143) and
LMATRIX (p. 259) for information on the LMATRIX macro.

3.7.2.7. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such power loss and eddy currents) from the data
available in the database in postprocessing. The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros
for these calculations:
The EMAGERR macro calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
The FLUXV macro calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The PLF2D macro generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.
The POWERH macro calculates the rms power loss in a conducting body. Time-average (rms) power
loss represents the Joule heating losses. The ANSYS program calculates it from real and imaginary
total current density when you use the following command macro or GUI path:
Command(s): POWERH
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Power Loss
For heat transfer coupling, the power loss term is expressed in terms of Joule heat generation rate. You
can use it in a thermal analysis; to do so, read the data from the magnetics results file using the LDREAD
command (Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Heat Generat> From Mag
Analy).
The SENERGY macro determines the rms stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).

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Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses


For information on the macros applicable to PLANE233, see the element's description in the Element
Reference.

3.8. Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses


The following examples are available:
3.8.1. Example: Harmonic Magnetic Analysis
3.8.2. Example: 2-D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis
3.8.3. Other Examples

3.8.1. Example: Harmonic Magnetic Analysis


Description
This example calculates the current that results from an AC voltage being applied to a thick stranded
coil in free space. Scalar parameters for this analysis are:
n = 500 (coil turns)
r = 3*s/2 meters (the mean radius of the coil)
S = .02 (meters; the coil winding width and depth).

The following command listings demonstrate how to solve this problem using the current-technology
element PLANE233 and the legacy element PLANE53. The electromagnetic elements represent the
voltage forced coil and air. INFIN110 elements represent the far-field.

Note
The example analysis presented here is only one of many possible harmonic magnetic analyses.
Not all such analyses follow exactly the same steps or perform those steps in the same sequence. The properties of the material or materials being analyzed and the conditions surrounding those materials determine which steps a specific analysis needs to include.

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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis

3.8.1.1. Command Input Stream Using PLANE233


Below is the command input stream using current-technology element PLANE233. All text preceded by
an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/prep7
/title, Voltage-fed thick stranded coil in free space
/com,
Calculate the current in the coil from an applied AC voltage
/com,
/nopr
et,1,233,,,1
! air
et,2,233,2,,1
! stranded coil
et,3,110,,,1
! far-field
mp,murx,1,1
mp,murx,2,1
! *** Coil parameters
s=.02
! coil winding depth and width
n=500
! number of turns
r=3*s/2
! mean radius
rho=3e-8
! resistivity
! *** Derived coil parameters
Sc=s**2
! coil cros-sectional area
Vc=2*acos(-1)*r*Sc
! coil volume
Rcoil=rho*(n/Sc)**2*Vc ! coil resistance
rectng,s,2*s,0,s/2
pcirc,0,6*s,0,90
pcirc,0,12*s,0,90
aovlap,all
asel,s,area,,1
aatt,2,1,2
asum
asel,s,area,,4
aatt,1,1,3
asel,all
csys,1
lsel,s,loc,x,9*s
lesize,all,,,1
esize,,8
mshape,0,2d
mshkey,1
amesh,1,4,3
smrtsize,2
esize,s/4
mshape,1,2d
mshkey,0
amesh,5

! mapped mesh with quads

r,1,,Sc,n,r,1,Rcoil
rmore,2

! coil constants
! symmetry factor

n1=node(s,0,0)
esel,s,mat,,2
nsle,s
cp,1,volt,all
cp,2,emf,all
allsel,all
csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,12*s
sf,all,inf
csys,0
nsel,s,loc,x,0
d,all,az,0
allsel,all
finish

! get a node on the coil


! get coil elements

! mesh far-field and coil

! specify triangle elements


! free mesh
! mesh air region

! couple VOLT dof in coil


! couple EMF dof in coil

! set infinite surface flag

! flux-parallel condition

/solu
antype,harm

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Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses


d,n1,volt,12
harfrq,60
solve
finish

! 60 Hz.

/post1
set,1
plf2d
*get,ireal,node,n1,rf,amps
set,1,1,,1
plf2d
*get,imag,node,n1,rf,amps
*status
finish

! Plot real flux lines

! Plot imaginary flux lines


! Imaginary and real components of current

3.8.1.2. Command Input Stream Using PLANE53


Below is the command input stream using legacy element PLANE233. All text preceded by an exclamation
point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/prep7
/title, Voltage-fed thick stranded coil in free space
/com,
Calculate the current in the coil from an applied AC voltage
/com,
/com,
Parameters
/com,
n = 500 coil turns
/com,
s = .02 (coil winding width and depth) meters
/com,
r = 3*s/2 meters (mean radius of coil)
/com,
/com,
/nopr
et,1,53,,,1
! air
et,2,53,2,,1
! voltage forced coil
et,3,110,,,1
! far-field
emunit,mks
mp,murx,1,1
mp,murx,2,1
mp,rsvx,2,3.00e-8

! resistivity of coil

s=.02
n=500
r=3*s/2
rectng,s,2*s,0,s/2
pcirc,0,6*s,0,90
pcirc,0,12*s,0,90
aovlap,all
asel,s,area,,1
aatt,2,1,2
asum
*get,a,area,,area
! area of 1/2 coil cross-section
asel,s,area,,4
aatt,1,1,3
asel,all
csys,1
lsel,s,loc,x,9*s
lesize,all,,,1
esize,,8
mshape,0,2d
! mapped mesh with quads
mshkey,1
amesh,1,4,3
! mesh far-field and coil
smrtsize,2
esize,s/4
mshape,1,2d
! specify triangle elements
mshkey,0
! free mesh
amesh,5
! mesh air region
r,1,2*a,500,,1,1
! coil constants

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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


n1=node(s,0,0)

! get a node on the coil

esel,s,mat,,2
nsle,s
cp,1,curr,all
allsel,all
csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,12*s
sf,all,inf
csys,0
nsel,s,loc,x,0
d,all,az,0
allsel,all
finish
/solu
antype,harm
esel,s,mat,,2
bfe,all,vltg,,12
esel,all
harfrq,60
solve
finish

! get coil elements


! couple curr dof in coil

! set infinite surface flag

! flux-parallel condition

! 12 volts load (real)


! 60 Hz.

/post1
set,1
plf2d
*get,ireal,node,n1,curr
set,1,1,,1
plf2d
*get,imag,node,n1,curr
*status
finish

! Plot real flux lines

! Plot imaginary flux lines


! Imaginary and real components of current

3.8.2. Example: 2-D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis


3.8.2.1. Description
This example calculates the Joule (eddy current) heat loss in a semi-infinite steel plate of thickness 5
mm subjected to a coil producing a magnetic field, Hm = 2644.1 A/m2 at 50 Hz as shown in Figure 3.6: 2D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis (p. 95). The target result from the universal loss chart (see reference in
command listing) is 1360.68 watt/m.

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Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses


Figure 3.6: 2-D Nonlinear Harmonic Analysis

y
Modeled Region
dy

Coil
Steel Plate
dd = 2.5 mm
x

dx

G  rc
rp r s
dd = .0025 m
dx = dd/6
dy = dd/6


 r
rp r s
Coil
 = 1.0
Steel Plate
B-H Cuve
= 1/5.0e6 m

L

H = 2644.1 A/m
J = H/dy
Feq. = 50 Hz

The model is a one-half symmetry model through the plate thickness with an arbitrary width of dx. At
y = 0, the AZ setting is zero. Nodes are coupled at the top of the coil to represent a flux line. The calculated current density in the coil to produce the desired tangential field (Hm) is J = Hm/dy. The two step
nonlinear solution uses the HMAGSOLV macro. Convergence criteria relaxation on the vector potential,
AZ, is .01 (appropriate for loss calculation in this case).

3.8.2.2. Command Input Stream


Below is the command input stream used to perform the analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation
point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title,Eddy current loss in thick steel plate (NL harmonic)
/com,
****************************************************************
/com,
/com, Description: A semi-infinite steel plate of thickness 5 mm is
/com,
subject to tangential field Hm=2644.1. 50 Hz. sigma=5e6 S/m
/com,
The plate has a B-H curve represented by Frohlich model
/com,
B=H/(alpha + beta |H| with alpha=156, beta=.59.
/com,
/com, Ref: K.K. Lim and P. Hammond, "Universal loss chart for the
/com,
calculation of eddy-current losses in thick steel plates,"
/com,
Iee Proc., vol.117, no.4, p.861, April 1970.
/com,
/com, Test purpose: Perform a nonlinear harmonic analysis with PLANE53.
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2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis


/com,
/com,
/com,

Compare eddy current loss with the target P=1360.68 watt/m^2


as obtained from the universal loss chart.

*****************************************************************
/com,
/com,
/nopr
!
/prep7
dd=2.5e-3! 1/2 height of plate
Hm=2644.1! imposed H field
sigma=5.0e6! material conductivity
ff=50! frequency (Hz)
dx=dd/6! modeled plate width
dy=dd/6! coil height
!
et,1,plane53
mp,murx,1,1.! coil relative permeability
tb,bh,2,,25! plate B-H curve
tbpt,,100,.46512
tbpt,,200,.72993
tbpt,,300,.90090
tbpt,,400,1.0204
tbpt,,500,1.1086
tbpt,,600,1.1765
tbpt,,700,1.2302
tbpt,,800,1.2739
tbpt,,900,1.3100
tbpt,,1000,1.3405
tbpt,,1400,1.4257
tbpt,,1800,1.4778
tbpt,,2200,1.5131
tbpt,,2600,1.5385
tbpt,,3000,1.5576
tbpt,,3400,1.5726
tbpt,,3800,1.5847
tbpt,,4200,1.5945
tbpt,,4600,1.6028
tbpt,,5000,1.6098
tbpt,,7000,1.6332
tbpt,,9000,1.6465
tbpt,,11000,1.6551
tbpt,,13000,1.6611
tbpt,,15000,1.6656
mp,rsvx,2,1/sigma
!
rect,0,dx,0,dd! plate
rect,0,dx,dd,dd+dy! coil
aglue,all
!
asel,s,loc,y,dd,dd+dy
aatt,1,0,1
asel,s,loc,y,0,dd
aatt,2,0,1
asel,all
amesh,all
!
nsel,s,loc,y,
d,all,az,0.! flux-parallel
nsel,s,loc,y,dd+dy
cp,1,az,all! couple for flux-parallel
nsel,all
fini
!
/solu
antype,harmic
esel,s,mat,,1
bfe,all,JS,,0.,0.,Hm/dy,0.! apply coil current density
esel,all
hmagsolv,ff,,1e-2! solve nonlinear problem
fini
!

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Example 2-D Harmonic Magnetic Analyses


/post1
!
! compute losses
!
set,last,1,,0
esel,s,mat,,2
powerh! extract losses in plate (W/m)
pavg=pavg*2/dx! convert to (W/m**2)
*vwrite,pavg
(/`Computed eddy current loss:',f9.4,`watts/m**2')
finish

3.8.3. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc. publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains other examples of
2-D harmonic magnetic analysis:
VM166 - Long Cylinder in a Sinusoidal Magnetic Field
VM185 - AC Analysis of a Slot Embedded Conductor

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Chapter 4: 2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


Transient magnetic analysis is a technique for calculating magnetic fields that vary over time, such as
those caused by surges in voltage or current or pulsed external fields. In a transient magnetic analysis,
typically the quantities you want to analyze are:
Eddy currents
Power loss due to eddy currents
Magnetic forces induced by eddy currents
Two contacting bodies with dissimilar meshes (such as the air gap in a rotor/stator configuration).
A transient magnetic analysis can be either linear or nonlinear.
The following 2-D transient magnetic analysis topics are available:
4.1. Elements Used in Transient Magnetic Analysis
4.2. Creating a 2-D Transient Magnetic Physics Environment
4.3. Building a Model, Assigning Region Attributes and Meshing the Model
4.4. Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation)
4.5. Obtaining a Solution
4.6. Reviewing Results
4.7. Example Transient Magnetic Analyses

4.1. Elements Used in Transient Magnetic Analysis


Only the vector potential formulation (see 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17)) is valid in eddy current
regions for transient magnetic analysis. Therefore, you can use only the following element types to
model eddy current domains.
Table 4.1: 2-D Solid Elements
Element

DiShape or Charactermens. istic

DOFs

PLANE13

2-D

4-node quadrilateral
or 3-node triangular

Up to four at each node;


these can be magnetic vector potential (AZ), displacements, temperature, or
time-integrated electric potential

Legacy element

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

Up to four at each node;


these can be magnetic vector potential (AZ), time-integrated electric potential, current, or electromotive force

Legacy element

PLANE53

2-D

Notes

Supported for
cyclic symmetry
(periodic) analysis,
static only.

Supported for
cyclic symmetry
(periodic) analysis,
static only.

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Element

DiShape or Charactermens. istic

PLANE233 2-D

8-node quadrilateral
or 6-node triangular

DOFs

Notes

Up to three at each node;


these can be magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric
potential/voltage drop or
time-integrated electric potential/voltage drop (VOLT),
electromotive force or timeintegrated electromotive
force (EMF)

Current-technology element
[1]
Supported for
cyclic symmetry
(periodic) analysis.

1. Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic
element) rather than PLANE13 or PLANE53 (legacy magnetic elements). See Legacy vs. Current-Technology
2-D Magnetic Elements (p. 19) for a list of the capabilities that are only available with PLANE233.
Some procedural steps discussed here do not apply applicable to PLANE233. For information on the
differences between PLANE233 and PLANE53 (and PLANE13), see Legacy vs. Current-Technology 2-D
Magnetic Elements (p. 19).
Table 4.2: Far-Field Elements
Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

INFIN9

2-D

Line, two nodes

Magnetic vector potential (AZ)

INFIN110

2-D

Quadrilateral, four or eight


nodes

Magnetic vector potential (AZ), electric


potential, temperature

Table 4.3: General Circuit Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic DOFs

CIRCU124

None

General circuit element


applicable to circuit
simulation, up to six
nodes

Up to three at each node; these can be


electric potential, current, or electromotive
force

Table 4.4: Contact Elements


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

DOFs

Notes

TARGE169 2-D

Target segment

n/a

Used to model the target region for a contact analysis

CONTA171

2-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (2node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA172

2-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (3node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA175

2-D

Node-to-surface contact element (1-node)

AZ

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

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Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation)

4.2. Creating a 2-D Transient Magnetic Physics Environment


As in any other type of ANSYS analysis, for transient magnetic analyses you create a physics environment,
build a model, assign attributes to model regions, mesh the model, apply boundary conditions and
loads, obtain a solution, and then review the results. Most of the procedures for conducting a 2-D
transient magnetic analysis are identical or similar to the procedures for doing 2-D static analyses; this
chapter discusses the tasks that are specific to transient analysis.
A 2-D transient magnetic analysis uses the same procedures as a 2-D static analysis to set GUI preferences,
element KEYOPTS, and real constants and to choose a system of units. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17)
describes these procedures. When specifying material properties, in general use the same methods
discussed in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17); that is, where possible, use existing material property
definitions from the ANSYS material library or that other ANSYS users at your site have developed.

4.3. Building a Model, Assigning Region Attributes and Meshing the


Model
The Modeling and Meshing Guide explains techniques for building and meshing models. Once you have
built the model, you must assign attributes to each region within it. "Attributes" are the element types
and options, material properties, real constants and element coordinate systems you defined in Step
1; you assign attributes using the AATT and VATT commands or equivalent GUI paths. 2-D Static
Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) of this manual provides more details on assigning attributes to regions in
your model.
For information on modeling two contacted bodies, see Modeling Magnetic Contact.

4.4. Applying Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation)


You can apply loads to a transient magnetic analysis either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and
areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements).
To apply boundary conditions (BCs) and loads to a 2-D transient magnetic analysis, use the same GUI
paths used to apply boundary conditions or loads to a 2-D static magnetic analysis. (See 2-D Static
Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) for details.) Optionally, you can apply loads and boundary conditions using
ANSYS commands, and you can specify load step options to the 2-D transient magnetic analysis. Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) discusses both command-based loading and the
load step options.
By definition, a transient analysis involves boundary conditions and loads that are functions of time. To
specify such loads and BCs, you need to divide the load-versus-time curve into suitable load steps. Each
"corner" on the load-time curve can be one load step, as shown in Figure 4.1: Examples of Load-VersusTime Curves (p. 102):

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Figure 4.1: Examples of Load-Versus-Time Curves
Load

Load
Stepped (KBC,1)
3

Steady-state
analysis

1
4

2
Stepped (KBC,1)

2
5

3
5

Time
(a)

Time
(b)

For each load step, you need to specify both load or BC values and time values, among with other load
step options such as stepped or ramped loads, automatic time stepping, and so on. You then write the
load data to a file and repeat this process until all load steps are specified.
See Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) for details about the load step options
available for 2-D transient magnetic analysis.

4.4.1. Applying Boundary Conditions


For static analyses, use the ANSYS cyclic symmetry capability to define periodic boundary conditions.
However, for transient or harmonic analyses, use the PERBC2D macro.
Using the PERBC2D macro, you can define periodic boundary conditions automatically for a 2-D analysis. PERBC2D writes constraint equations or assigns node coupling necessary for two periodic symmetry
planes. To invoke the macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): PERBC2D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector Poten>
Periodic BCs
Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255) discusses and illustrates options for using PERBC2D.

4.4.2. Applying Excitation (Voltage Load)


Voltage load (VLTG) specifies a voltage drop across a stranded coil. Units for voltage load are always in
MKS units. Voltage-drop loading is available only in the PLANE53 element using the AZ and CURR degrees
of freedom. To apply voltage drop, use either of the following:
Command(s): BFE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Voltage
drop> On Elements
Alternatively, you can apply voltage-drop loadings to areas of the solid model by using the BFA command. You can then transfer the specified voltage-drop loadings from the solid model to the finite
element model by using either the BFTRAN command or the SBCTRAN command.

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Obtaining a Solution
To obtain a correct solution, you must couple all nodes of the coil together in the CURR degrees of
freedom. (Failure to do so will lead to errors in the solution.) This is required, because CURR is a unique
number representing the current per turn of the winding.

Note
Whenever possible, ANSYS, Inc. recommends using PLANE233 (the current-technology electromagnetic element) rather than PLANE53 (legacy magnetic element). For information on
using PLANE233, see 2-D Stranded Coil Analysis (p. 47).

4.4.3. Applying Current


Current (AMPS) is a nodal current load that applies only to massive (solid) conductor regions with an
impressed current. It represents the total measurable current flow through the conductor (units of
current), and is valid only for 2-D planar and axisymmetric models and 3-D models. For the 2-D elements
PLANE13 , PLANE53, and PLANE233, this load requires the AZ, VOLT degree of freedom set in the conductor region.
To apply a uniform current load through a cross-section of the skin-effect region, you must couple the
VOLT degrees of freedom across that cross-section. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): CP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs
In 2-D planar and axisymmetric models, simply select all nodes in the skin effect region and couple
their VOLT DOFs. Use one of the methods below to apply the current to a single node in the crosssection:
Command(s): F,,AMPS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Impressed
Current
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Impressed Current

4.4.4. Other Loads


You can apply vector potential loads, time-integrated scalar potential loads, current segment loads,
Maxwell surface loads, source current density loads, and virtual displacement loads to a transient
magnetic analysis. For descriptions of these loads, see 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17).

4.5. Obtaining a Solution


The next few topics describe the tasks you perform to solve a 2-D transient magnetic analysis.

4.5.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

4.5.2. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
Select menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis > Transient.
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If this is a new analysis, issue the ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,NEW command.
To restart a previous analysis (for example, to restart an unconverged solution or to specify additional
excitation), issue ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,REST. In a nonlinear transient magnetic analysis, the default
behavior is multiframe restart; for more information, see the RESCONTROL command.

4.5.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solution method and which solver you want to use.
To select a solution method, use either of the following:
Command(s): TRNOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis, Transient
Transient magnetic analyses require the full solution method.
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
You can choose any of the following solvers:
Sparse solver (default)
Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver
Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver
Voltage-fed models or models including velocity effects produce unsymmetric matrices, and can use
only the sparse solver, the JCG solver, or the ICCG solver. Circuit-fed models can only use the sparse
solver.

4.5.4. Load Step Options


Load step options include the following:
Time option
This option specified time at the end of the load step.
Command(s): TIME
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time
Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step
Number of substeps or time step size
The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration scheme. You can
specify it directly via the DELTIM command or its equivalent menu path, or indirectly via NSUBST
or its menu path equivalent.
Time step size determines the accuracy of your solution. The smaller the time step size, the
higher the accuracy. The size of the first integration time step following any large step change

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Obtaining a Solution
in loading conditions is especially critical. You can reduce inaccuracies such as thermal overshoot
by reducing the integration time step size.

Caution
Avoid using extremely small time steps, especially when establishing initial conditions.
Very small numbers can cause calculation errors in ANSYS. For instance, on a problem
time scale of unity, time steps smaller that 1E-10 can cause numerical errors.
If you step-apply loads, ANSYS applies the entire load value at the first substep and holds it
constant for the remainder of the load step. If you ramp loads (the default), ANSYS increments
the load values at each substep.
Command(s): NSUBST, DELTIM
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step
Automatic Time Stepping
Also called time step optimization in a transient analysis, automatic time stepping allows ANSYS
to determine the size of load increments between substeps. It also increases or decreases the
time step size during solution, depending on how the model responds.
For most problems, you should turn on automatic time stepping and set upper and lower limits
for the integration time step. The limits help to control how much the time step varies. However,
time step optimization is not available for the CURR degree of freedom (voltage-fed conductors)
or the EMF degree of freedom (circuit-fed models).
Command(s): AUTOTS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step

4.5.5. Nonlinear Options


Specify nonlinear load options only if nonlinearities are present. Nonlinear options include the following:
Newton-Raphson Options
These options specify how often the tangent matrix is updated during a nonlinear solution.
Available options are:
Program-chosen (default)
Full
Modified
Initial-stiffness.

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For a nonlinear analysis, the full Newton-Raphson option is recommended. The adaptive descent
option may help convergence in transient problems. To specify Newton-Raphson options, use
either of the following:
Command(s): NROPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
Number of equilibrium iterations
This option obtains a converged solution at each substep. The default is up to 25 equilibrium
iterations, but you may need to increase the number depending on the degree of nonlinearity.
For linear transient analysis, specify one iteration.
Command(s): NEQIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equation Iter
Convergence tolerances
ANSYS considers a nonlinear solution to be converged whenever specified convergence criteria
are met. Convergence checking may be based on magnetic potential (A), magnetic current segment (CSG), or both. You specify a typical value for the desired item (VALUE field) and a tolerance
about the typical value (TOLER field). ANSYS then calculates the convergence criterion via VALUE
* TOLER. For example, it you specify 5000 as the typical value for magnetic current segment
and 0.001 as the tolerance, the convergence criterion for magnetic flux would be 5.0.
ANSYS, Inc. recommends that VALUE be left to the default (program-calculated) and that TOLER
be set to 1.0E-3.
For potentials, ANSYS compares the change in nodal potentials between successive equilibrium
iterations A = Ai - Ai-1 to the convergence criterion.
For magnetic current segment, ANSYS compares the out-of-balance load vector to the convergence
criterion. If the solution does not converge within the specified number of equilibrium iterations,
the program either stops or moves on to the next load step, depending on whether you activated
the option to terminate an unconverged solution (see below).
Command(s): CNVTOL
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
Terminate an unconverged solution
If ANSYS cannot converge the solution within the specified number of equilibrium iterations,
ANSYS either stops the solution or moves on to the next load step, depending on what you
specify as the stopping criteria.

4.5.6. Output Controls


This class of load step options enables you to control output. Output controls options are as follows:
Control printed output
This option enables you to include any results data in the printed output file (Jobname.OUT).
Command(s): OUTPR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

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Reviewing Results
Control database and results file output
This option controls what data goes to the results file (Jobname.RMG).
By default, the ANSYS program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file.
If you want all substeps (that is, the solution at all frequencies) on the results file, specify a frequency or ALL or 1.
Command(s): OUTRES
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit
Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit

4.5.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

4.5.8. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all loads steps using one of the following:
Command(s): LSSOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files

4.5.9. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

4.6. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a transient analysis to the magnetic results
file, Jobname.RMG. Results include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal DOFs (AZ, CURR, EMF, MAG, VOLT)
Derived data:

Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BSUM)


Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, SUM)
Nodal reaction current segments (CSGZ)
Total electric current density (JT)
Joule heat per unit volume (JHEAT)

Additional data, specific to each element type, also is available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, or in POST26, the time-history
postprocessor:
POST26 enables you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire transient.

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POST1 enables you to review results over the entire model at specific time points.
To choose a postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1 or /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro
2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63) and 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based) (p. 187)
of this manual discuss ANSYS commands that you may find useful in examining analysis results.

4.6.1. Reading Results in POST26


To review results in POST26, the time-history postprocessor, the ANSYS database must contain the same
model for which the solution was calculated, and the Jobname.RMG file (the results file) must be
available. If the model is not in the database, restore it using the command or menu path listed below
and then use the SET command or its equivalent menu path to read in the desired set of results.
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
POST26 works with tables of result item versus time, known as variables. Each variable is assigned a
reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for time. Therefore the first things you need to do
is define the variables.
To define primary data variables, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSOL
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
To define derived data variables, use either of the following:
Command(s): ESOL
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
To define reaction data variable, use either of the following:
Command(s): RFORCE
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
Once you have defined these variables, you can graph them (versus time or any variable). To do so, use
this command or menu path:
Command(s): PLVAR
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables
To list the variables, use this command or menu path:
Command(s): PRVAR
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables
To list only the extreme variable values, use this command or menu path:
Command(s): EXTREM
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes
By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the
critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.
To calculate and summarize electromagnetic forces, power loss, energy, and current on element components (created in the PREP7 preprocessor via the CM command (Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Comp/Assembly)), you can use either of the following:

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Reviewing Results
Command(s): PMGTRAN
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Elec&Mag> Magnetics
POST26 offers many other functions, such as performing math operations among variables, moving
variables into array parameters, etc. For more information, see the Basic Analysis Guide.

4.6.2. Reading Results in POST1


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RMG, or Jobname.RST if either the magnetic scalar
potential or electric potential DOFs are active) must be available.
To read results at the desired time point into the database, use either of the following:
Command(s): SET,,,,,TIME
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
If you specify a time value for which no results are available, ANSYS performs linear interpolation to
calculate the results at that time. The program uses the last time point if the time specified is beyond
the time span of the transient analysis. You can also identify the results to be read by their load step
and substep numbers.
You can display contours of potentials (AZ, VOLT) flux density (BX, BY) and field intensity (HX, HY) using
either of the following methods:
Command(s): PLESOL, PLNSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu
You can display vector (arrow) displays of vector quantities such as A, B, and H using either of the following methods:
Command(s): PLVECT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> User Defined

4.6.2.1. Coil Resistance and Inductance


For stranded coils with the voltage-fed or circuit-fed options, you can calculate the resistance and inductance of the coil. Each element stores values of resistance and inductance. Summing these values
gives the total resistance and inductance of the modeled region of the conductor. To store and sum
these values, select the conductor elements using the ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,n command or its
equivalent menu path. (For the n value, use 8 for resistance and 9 for inductance.) Use the SSUM
command or its menu path equivalent to sum the data.
Inductance values calculated for voltage-fed stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 2 for PLANE53) or circuitcoupled stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 3 for PLANE53) are only valid under the following conditions:
The problem is linear (constant permeability).
There are no permanent magnets in the model.
Only a single coil exists in the model.
For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to compute the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil. Refer to Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage (p. 143) and
LMATRIX (p. 259) for information on the LMATRIX macro.
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4.6.2.2. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as flux lines, eddy currents, torque, and force) from
the data available in the database in postprocessing. The ANSYS command set supplies the following
macros for these calculations:
The CURR2D macro calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
The EMAGERR macro calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
The FLUXV macrocalculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
The FMAGSUM macro summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components.
The FOR2D macro calculates magnetic forces on a body.
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The PLF2D macro generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.
The SENERGY macro determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
The TORQ2D macro calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field.
The TORQC2D macro calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field based on a circular path.
The TORQSUM macro summarizes electromagnetic Maxwell and Virtual work torque calculations on
element components for 2-D planar problems.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).
For information on the macros applicable to PLANE233, see the element's description in the Element
Reference.

4.7. Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


The following examples are available:
4.7.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Analysis
4.7.2. Other Examples

4.7.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Analysis


The following example shows how to perform a 2-D transient magnetic analysis of a solenoid actuator.

4.7.1.1. The Example Described


The analysis, based on a solenoid actuator, analyzes the actuator as a 2-D axisymmetric model. The example calculates the force on the armature (the moving component of the actuator), inductance of the
coil, and the coil current in response to a voltage excitation. Figure 4.2: Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator (p. 111) below shows you the solenoid actuator:

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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


Figure 4.2: Diagram of a Solenoid Actuator

Armature
(iron)

td
space

gap
ta

tc

 -
 : stationary iron
component of the actuator that
completes the magnetic circuit
around the coil.

wc

Backiron
(iron)

hc

Coil (copper)
650 turns
: stranded, wound coil
1 amp/turn supplying a predefined current.
G: thin rectangular region
of air between the armature
and the pole faces of the
backiron.

Axis of
symmetry
Y
Z X

: moving component


of the actuator.

tb
wc

4.7.1.2. Analysis Parameters


The analysis uses the parameters listed below to model the actuator geometry:
Parameter

Description

n = 650

Number of turns in the coil; used in postprocessing

ta = .75

Thickness of inner leg of magnetic circuit

tb = .75

Thickness of lower leg of magnetic circuit

tc = .50

Thickness of outer leg of magnetic circuit

td = .75

Armature thickness

wc = 1

Width of coil

hc = 2

Height of coil

gap = .25

Gap

space = .25

Space around coil

ws = wc+2*space
hs = hc+.75
w = ta+ws+tc

Total width of model

hb = tb+hs
h = hb+gap+td

Total height of model

acoil = wc*hc

Coil area

4.7.1.3. Approach and Assumptions


The solenoid actuator model for this transient example is identical to the solenoid example described
in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17). Instead of a DC current excitation, the coil is supplied a voltage
excitation which varies over time.
The coil is supplied a voltage which ramps from 0 volts to 12 volts over a .01 second time frame. After
that, the voltage is held constant and the analysis runs until a time of .06 seconds. The coil requires
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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


additional characterization, including cross-section area and fill factor. Resistivity for copper is also
provided. The armature is assumed to be solid steel, so it requires the input of electrical resistivity as
well.
The purpose of the example analysis is to track the coil current, armature force, and coil inductance
over time in response to the applied voltage excitation. (The coil inductance will change slightly due
to the eddy currents developed in the armature.)
The solution uses constant time stepping over three load steps ending at .01, .03, and .06 seconds respectively. In the time-history postprocessor (POST26), the desired results are computed for the defined
element components using the PMGTRAN command or equivalent GUI menu options. You can review
the results graphically using the DISPLAY program from the filemg_trns.plt created by the PMGTRAN
command.
Step 1: Begin the Analysis
In this step, you specify a title for the example analysis and set analysis preferences.
1.

Enter the ANSYS program. To do so, use the procedures described in the Operations Guide.

2.

Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

3.

Enter the title 2-D Solenoid Actuator Transient Analysis.

4.

Click on OK.

5.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

6.

Click the "Magnetic-Nodal" option on.

7.

Click on OK.

Step 2: Define the Element Types


This example uses the preferred higher-order element PLANE53.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the scrollable fields, click on (highlight) Magnetic Vector and Vect Quad 8nod53 (PLANE53). Then,
check that the element type reference number is set to 1 (default).

4.

Click on Apply. The Element Types dialog box now lists element type 1. In the Library of Element Types
dialog box, the PLANE53 element remains selected but the element type reference number will change
to 2. (If the element type reference number does not change automatically, set it to 2.)

5.

Click on OK. The Element Types dialog box now lists element type 2 (also PLANE53).

6.

With element type 1 selected, click on Options. The PLANE53 Element Type Options dialog box appears.

7.

Change the "Element Behavior" field to axisymmetric.

8.

Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


9.

With element type 2 selected, click on Options. The PLANE53 Element Type Options dialog box appears.

10. Change the "Element Behavior" field to axisymmetric.


11. Change the "Element degree(s) of freedom" field to "AZ CURR."
12. Click on OK.
13. In the Elements Types dialog box, click Close.
Step 3: Define Material Properties
The material properties for the example analysis are assumed to be linear; they are magnetic permeability of air, iron, coil and armature. (Typically, you specify iron as a nonlinear B-H curve.) The air elements
are material 1, material 2 is the iron elements, material 3 represents the coil elements, and material 4
is the armature elements.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Define Material Model
Behavior dialog box appears.

2.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Electromagnetics, Relative Permeability, Constant. A dialog box appears.

3.

Enter 1 for MURX (Relative permeability) and click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the
Material Models Defined window on the left.

4.

Choose menu path Material> New Model, then enter 2 for the Material ID. Click on OK. Material Model
Number 2 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

5.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on Constant again. Another dialog box appears.

6.

Enter 1000 for MURX (Relative permeability), and click on OK.

7.

Choose menu path Edit> Copy. Choose 1 for from Material number, and enter 3 for to Material number.
Click on OK. Material Model Number 3 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

8.

In the Material Models Defined window, click on Material Model Number 3 to highlight it.

9.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Resistivity, Constant.
A dialog box appears.

10. Enter 3e-8 for RSVX (Electrical resistivity), and click on OK.
11. Choose menu path Edit> Copy. Choose 3 for from Material number, and enter 4 for to Material number.
Click on OK. Material Model Number 4 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.
12. In the Material Models Defined window, double-click on Material Model Number 4, and Permeability
(constant). A dialog box appears and includes the data specified for this material.
13. Replace the MURX (Relative permeability) field with 2000, and click on OK.
14. In the Material Models Defined window, under Material Model Number 4, double-click on Resistivity
(constant). A dialog box appears and includes the data specified for this material.
15. Replace the RSVX field (Electrical resistivity) with 70e-8, and click on OK.

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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


16. Choose menu path Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.
Step 4: Define Parameters for Geometry and Load Input
Use of parameters enables you to rerun the analysis from the log file with new parameter values. For
convenience, the example enters the solenoid dimensions in centimeters. However, before solving the
model, you must scale the geometry to meters because the MKS system of units is required.
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.

2.

Type in the parameter values listed below. After typing each value, press the ENTER key. If you make a
mistake while entering a parameter, just retype it before you press ENTER. To erase an incorrect parameter after you have entered it, click on it and then click on Delete.
Parameter

Description

n = 650

Number of coil turns

ta = .75

Thickness of inner leg of magnetic circuit

tb = .75

Thickness of lower leg of magnetic circuit

tc = .50

Thickness of outer leg of magnetic circuit

td = .75

Armature thickness

wc = 1

Width of coil

hc = 2

Height of coil

gap = .25

Gap

space = .25

Space around coil

ws = wc+2*space
hs = hc+.75
w = ta+ws+tc

Total width of model

hb = tb+hs
h = hb+gap+td

Total height of model

acoil = wc*hc

Coil area

3.

Review the parameter values you entered, then click on Close. (If you did not end each parameter
definition by pressing ENTER, you can click on Accept instead.)

4.

Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 5: Define Real Constants


In this step, you define four real constants for the coil.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete. The Real Constants dialog
box appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.

3.

Choose element type 2 and click on OK. The Real Constant Set Number 1, for PLANE53 dialog box appears.

4.

Enter the following field values:

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"Coil cross-sectional area" (CARE) field: enter acoil*(0.01**2)
"Total number of coil turns" (TURN) field: enter n (recall that n = 650)
"Current in z-direction" (DIRZ) field: enter 1
"Coil fill factor" (FILL) field: enter .95
5.

Click on OK. The Real Constants dialog box now lists constant set 1.

6.

Click on Close in the Real Constants dialog box.

Step 6: Create Rectangular Areas


You create the example model by overlapping six rectangles. You can create a rectangle either by entering its dimensions in a dialog box or by picking points on the working plane. (This example uses the
"create by dimensions" method.)
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The
Create Rectangle By Dimensions dialog box appears.

2.

Enter the following values in the appropriate fields. You can use the Tab key to move from field to field.
X1 field: enter 0
X2 field: enter w
Y1 field: enter 0
Y2 field: enter tb

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.

5.

Click "Area Numbers" to on.

6.

Click on OK.

7.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Areas.

8.

To create the second rectangle, repeat steps 1 and 2. In place of the input values for step 2, enter these:
X1 field: enter 0
X2 field: enter w
Y1 field: enter tb
Y2 field: enter hb

9.

Click on Apply.

10. To create the third rectangle, enter these values:


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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


X1 field: enter ta
X2 field: enter ta+ws
Y1 field: enter 0
Y2 field: enter h
11. Click on Apply.
12. Create the fourth rectangle by entering these values:
X1 field: enter ta+space
X2 field: enter ta+space+wc
Y1 field: enter tb+space
Y2 field: enter tb+space+hc
13. Click on OK.
14. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Replot.
15. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.
Step 7: Overlap the Areas
In this step, a Boolean overlap operation creates new areas at all intersections of the four rectangles
and remaining areas.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap> Areas. The Overlap
Areas picking menu appears.

2.

Click on Pick All. The display of areas refreshes automatically.

3.

Click on SAVE_DB in the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 8: Create the Last Two Areas


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The
Create Rectangle By Dimensions dialog box appears.

2.

Create the fifth area by entering the following values:


X1 field: enter 0
X2 field: enter w
Y1 field: enter 0
Y2 field: enter hb+gap

3.

116

Click on Apply.
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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


4.

Create the sixth area by entering the values shown below:


X1 field: enter 0
X2 field: enter w
Y1 field: enter 0
Y2 field: enter h

5.

Click on OK.

Step 9: Overlap the Last Two Areas


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap> Areas. The Overlap
Areas picking menu appears.

2.

Click on Pick All. The display of areas refreshes automatically.

Step 10: Compress Unused Area Numbers


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers
dialog box appears.

2.

Switch Nodes to All in the Label field. Click on OK.

3.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Replot. The new display shows the compressed area number set.

4.

Click on SAVE_DB in the Toolbar.

Step 11: Assign Attributes to the Areas


In this step, you assign attributes first to the coil area, then to the armature, and finally to the iron areas.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Areas. The Area Attributes
picking menu appears.

2.

Click on the coil area (Area 2), then click on OK in the picking menu. The Area Attributes dialog box
appears.

3.

In the "Material number" drop down menu, set the number to 3.

4.

Set the "Element type number" drop down menu to 2.

5.

Click on Apply. You return to the picking menu.

6.

Click the Box button on.

7.

Press and drag the left mouse button to draw a box around Areas 1,12, and 13.

8.

Click on OK in the picking menu. The Area Attributes dialog box reappears.

9.

Change the material number to 4.

10. Change the element type number to 1.

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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


11. Click on Apply.
12. Click on areas 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8, then click on OK in the picking menu. The Area Attributes dialog box
reappears.
13. Change the material number to 2 and click on OK.
14. Choose Main Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.
15. Click the "Elem/Attrib numbering" button to "Material numbers," then click on OK.
16. Click on the SAVE_DB button in the Toolbar.
Step 12: Mesh the Model
In this step, you use the smart meshing feature of ANSYS to specify a uniform (moderately fine) mesh
for your model.
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. The MeshTool appears.

2.

Turn SmartSizing on and move the SmartSize slider to 4.

3.

Choose Areas, Quad, and Free. Then click on MESH. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears.

4.

Click on Pick All. The display changes to show the meshed areas.

5.

Click Close on the MeshTool.

Step 13: Define the Armature as a Component


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Change the "entities to pick" button from Nodes to Elements, and check that the selection method is
set to By Num/Pick.

3.

Click on OK. The Select Elements picking menu appears.

4.

Click the Box picking button on.

5.

In the Graphics Window, press and drag the left mouse button to draw a box around the armature,
making sure to select only elements in the armature!

6.

In the picking menu, click on OK.

7.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. The Create Component dialog
box appears.

8.

In the "Component name" field, enter arm.

9.

Change the "Component is made of" field to Elements.

10. Click on OK.


11. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.
Step 14: Apply Force Boundary Conditions to the Armature

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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp.
Force/Torq. The Apply Magnetic Force Boundary Conditions dialog box appears.

2.

The name arm will appear in the "Component name" field. Click on the name, and then click on OK. A
window appears, notifying you that force boundary conditions have been applied. Read the window
contents and then click on Close.

Step 15: Defining the Coil as a Component


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "entities to be picked" button to Elements and the picking method button to By Num/Pick.

3.

Click on OK. The Select Elements picking menu appears.

4.

Click the Box picking button on.

5.

Press and drag the left mouse button to draw a box around the coil elements.

6.

Click on OK.

7.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

8.

Change the "entities to be picked" button to Nodes and the picking method button to By Num/Pick.
Click OK. The Select Nodes picking menu appears.

9.

Click the Box picking button on.

10. Press and drag the left mouse button to draw a box around the coil nodes.
11. Click on OK.
12. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs. The Define Coupled DOFs picking
menu appears.
13. Click the Box picking button on. Press and drag the left mouse button to draw a box around the coil
nodes.
14. Click on OK. The Define Coupled DOFs dialog box appears.
15. Type 1 in the "Set reference number" field.
16. Set the "Degree-of-freedom label" field to CURR.
17. Click on OK.
18. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. The Create Component dialog
box appears.
19. In the "Component name" field, type coil.
20. Change the "Component is made of" field to Elements. Click OK.
21. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.
Step 16: Scale the Model to MKS Units (Meters)
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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Scale> Areas. The Scale Areas picking
menu appears.

2.

Click on Pick All. The Scale Areas dialog box appears.

3.

In the fields for RX, RY, and RZ scale factors, enter .01, .01, and 1 respectively.

4.

Leave the "Items to be scaled" field set on Areas and Mesh, but change "Existing areas will be" to Moved.

5.

Click on OK.

Step 17: Apply Loads and Solve the Model


1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis. The New Analysis dialog box appears.

2.

Click the Transient button on and click on OK.

3.

When the Transient Analysis dialog box appears, click OK to accept the default of Full.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

5.

Set the "entities to be picked" button to Nodes and the picking method button to Exterior.

6.

Click on OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Flux Par'l> On Nodes.
The Apply Flux-Parallel Condition on Nodes picking menu appears.

8.

Click on Pick All.

9.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Select Comp/Assembly. The Select Component or
Assembly dialog box appears.

10. In the "Select entities belonging to Component or Assembly" field, click on COIL.
11. Click on OK.
12. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Voltage Drop> On
Elements. The Apply VLTG on Elems picking menu appears.
13. Click on Pick All. The Apply VLTG on Elems dialog box appears.
14. In the "Voltage drop mag." (VLTG) field, enter 12.
15. Click on OK.
16. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.
17. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. The Time and
Substep Options dialog box appears.
18. In the "Time at end of load step" field, enter .01. Click on OK.
19. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step. The Time and
Time Step Options dialog box appears.
20. In the "Time step size" field, enter .002. Click on OK.
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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


21. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File. The Controls for
Database and Results File Writing dialog box appears.
22. If the "Item to be controlled" field is not set to All Items, set it to that value.
23. In the "File write frequency" field, click "Every substep" on.
24. Click on OK.
25. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Review the information in the /STATUS window;
then click on Close to close it. Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution.
Click Close when you receive the Solution is done message.
26. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. The Time and
Substep Options dialog box appears.
27. In the "Time at end of load step" field, enter .03. Click on OK.
28. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Review the information in the /STATUS window;
then click on Close to close it. Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution.
Click Close when you receive the Solution is done message.
29. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step. The Time and
Time Step Options dialog box appears.
30. In the "Time step size" field, enter .005. Click on OK.
31. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps. The Time and
Substep Options dialog box appears.
32. In the "Time at end of load step" field, enter .06. Click on OK.
33. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. Review the information in the /STATUS window;
then click on Close to close it. Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to start the solution.
Click Close when you receive the Solution is done message.
Step 18: Reviewing Analysis Results
In this part of the example, the ANSYS program calculates and summarizes armature force, coil current,
and coil inductance.
1.

Choose Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Elec&Mag> Magnetics.

2.

Specify arm as the element component for force calculation.

3.

Specify coil as the element component for current and inductance.

4.

Click on OK. The ANSYS program calculates and summarizes the results data you selected, then brings
up a window displaying the information. It may take a few minutes for the window to appear.

5.

Review the results summaries, then click on Close.

Step 19: Exit from ANSYS


To leave the ANSYS program, do the following:

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2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis


1.

Click on Quit in the Toolbar. The Exit from ANSYS dialog box appears.

2.

Choose "Quit - No Save!"

3.

Click on OK.

4.7.1.4. Command Method


You can perform the example analysis of transient eddy currents using the commands shown below.
All text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/PREP7
/TITLE, 2-D Solenoid Actuator Transient Analysis
ET,1,PLANE53,,,1
ET,2,PLANE53,2,,1
MP,MURX,1,1
MP,MURX,2,1000
MP,MURX,3,1
MP,MURX,4,2000
MP,RSVX,3,3e-8
MP,RSVX,4,70e-8

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

Define element type, set for axisymmetric run


Axisymmetric, voltage-fed coil option
Define material permeability (air)
Permeability (backiron)
Permeability (coil)
Permeability (armature)
Define coil resistivity
Define armature resistivity

/com
n=650
ta=.75
tb=.75
tc=.50
td=.75
wc=1
hc=2
gap=.25
space=.25
ws=wc+2*space
hs=hc+.75
w=ta+ws+tc
hb=tb+hs
h=hb+gap+td
acoil=wc*hc

! Set parameter values

! Cross-section of coil (cm**2)

R,1,acoil*.01**2,n,,1,.95 ! Coil constants (area, turns, dir., fill factor)


/PNUM,AREA,1
RECTNG,0,w,0,tb
! Create rectangular areas
RECTNG,0,w,tb,hb
RECTNG,ta,ta+ws,0,h
RECTNG,ta+space,ta+space+wc,tb+space,tb+space+hc
AOVLAP,ALL
RECTNG,0,w,0,hb+gap
RECTNG,0,w,0,h
AOVLAP,ALL
NUMCMP,AREA
! Compress out unused area numbers
APLOT
ASEL,S,AREA,,2
AATT,3,1,2,0
ASEL,S,AREA,,1
ASEL,A,AREA,,12,13
AATT,4,1,1
ASEL,S,AREA,,3,5
ASEL,A,AREA,,7,8
AATT,2,1,1,0
/PNUM,MAT,1
ALLSEL,ALL
APLOT

! Assign attributes to coil

SMRTSIZE,4
AMESH,ALL
ESEL,S,MAT,,4

! Set SmartSize meshing level


! Mesh all areas
! Select armature elements

122

! Assign attributes to armature

! Assign attributes to backiron

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Example Transient Magnetic Analyses


CM,ARM,ELEM
!
FMAGBC,'ARM'
!
ESEL,S,MAT,,3
NSLE,S
CP,1,CURR,ALL
CM,COIL,ELEM
!
ALLSEL,ALL
ARSCAL,ALL,,,.01,.01,1,,0,1
FINISH
/SOLU
ANTYP,TRANS
NSEL,EXT
D,ALL,AZ,0
CMSEL,S,COIL
BFE,ALL,VLTG,,12
ALLSEL,ALL
TIME,.01
DELTIM,.002
OUTRES,ALL,ALL
SOLVE
TIME,.03
NSUBST,1
SOLVE
TIME,.03
DELTIM,.005
TIME,.06
NSUBST,1
SOLVE
FINISH

Define armature as a component


Apply force boundary conditions to armature

Define coil as a component


! Scale model to MKS (meters)

! Select exterior nodes


! Set potentials to zero (flux-parallel)

/POST26
PMGTRAN,,,'ARM',,,,,'COIL','COIL'
FINISH

4.7.2. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc., publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains an additional example
of transient magnetic analysis:
VM186 - Transient Analysis of a Slot-Embedded Conductor

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123

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Chapter 5: 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method)


Like the 2-D static magnetic analysis described in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17), a 3-D static
magnetic analysis calculates the magnetic fields produced by one of the following:
Permanent magnets
The steady flow of direct electric current (DC)
An applied voltage
An applied external field.
Static magnetic analyses do not consider time-dependent effects such as eddy currents. You can model
both saturable and non-saturable magnetic materials, as well as permanent magnets in a static magnetic
analysis.
However, with a 3-D static magnetic analysis, you can choose among a scalar formulation (described
in this chapter), a vector potential formulation (described in 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic,
and Transient) (p. 233)), or an edge element formulation (explained in 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157)).
The following 3-D static magnetic analysis topics are available:
5.1. Elements Used in 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis
5.2. Scalar Potential Formulation
5.3. Analysis Considerations
5.4. Steps in a 3-D Static Scalar Analysis
5.5. Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)

5.1. Elements Used in 3-D Static Scalar Magnetic Analysis


The ANSYS program provides nine element types for a 3-D static magnetic analysis, plus three additional
contact elements. For detailed information about the elements, see the Element Reference. That manual
organizes element descriptions in numeric order.
Table 5.1: 3-D Solid Elements
Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

DOFs

Notes

SOLID5

3-D

Brick, eight nodes

Up to six at each node;


Supported for cyclic
these can be displacements, symmetry (periodic)
electric potential, magnetic analysis.*
scalar potential, or temperature

SOLID96

3-D

Brick, eight nodes

Magnetic scalar potential

Supported for cyclic


symmetry (periodic)
analysis.*

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3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method)


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

SOLID98

3-D

Tetrahedral, ten
nodes

DOFs
Magnetic scalar potential,
displacements, electric potential, temperature

Notes
Supported for cyclic
symmetry (periodic)
analysis.*

* Coils must be modeled in full symmetry by SOURC36 elements.


Table 5.2: 3-D Source Elements
Element
SOURC36

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

3-D Bar,
Arc, Coil
Primitives

Three nodes

DOFs
None

Table 5.3: 3-D Infinite Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

INFIN47

3-D

Quadrilateral, four nodes Magnetic scalar potential, temperature


or triangle, three nodes

INFIN111

3-D

Brick, 8 or 20 nodes

Magnetic vector potential, electric potential,


magnetic scalar potential, temperature

Elements SOLID96 and SOLID97 are designed specifically for magnetic applications. SOLID5 and SOLID98
are better suited for coupled-field applications.
Table 5.4: Contact Elements
Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

DOFs

Notes

TARGE170 3-D

Target segment

n/a

Used to model the target region for a contact analysis

CONTA173

3-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (2node)

MAG

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA174

3-D

Surface-to-surface
contact element (3node)

MAG

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

CONTA175

3-D

Node-to-surface contact element (1-node)

MAG

Used to model the


contact region for a
contact analysis

5.2. Scalar Potential Formulation


For the scalar potential formulation, you can use three different analysis methods: Reduced Scalar Potential (RSP), Difference Scalar Potential (DSP), and Generalized Scalar Potential (GSP). The type of analysis problem determines which method is best to use:

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If the model contains no iron regions, or if it has iron regions but does not have current sources, use
the RSP method. Do not use the RSP method when the model has both iron regions and current sources,
because numerical cancellation errors may produce an inaccurate solution.
If you cannot use the RSP method, choose between DSP and GSP. The DSP method is available for
models with "singly connected" iron regions, and the GSP method is for models with a "multiply
connected" iron region.

5.2.1. Singly Versus Multiply Connected Domains


A singly connected domain is an iron region that does not provide a closed iron loop to magnetic flux
that a current source produces. A multiply connected domain provides a closed loop. (see Figure 5.1: Connected Domains (p. 127)) Figure (a) illustrates a singly connected iron domain (DSP method) and Figure
(b) depicts a multiply connected iron domain (GSP method).
Figure 5.1: Connected Domains

Inductor

Coil

Air Gap

Inductor

Coil

(a)

(b)

Mathematically, you can use Ampere's law in the iron region to check whether the domain is singly or
multiply connected. According to Ampere's law, the closed contour integral equals the enclosed current,
or magnetomotive force (MMF).
MMF =

H(dl)

In a singly connected domain, the MMF drop in the iron should approach zero as the permeability of
the iron tends to infinity. Most of the MMF drop occurs in the air gap for a permeable core. In a multiple
connected domain, a closed contour integral in the iron linking the coil produces a nonzero MMF for
any value of permeability. All of the MMF drop in this case occurs in the iron core.

5.3. Analysis Considerations


Before setting up your analysis, consider the following:
You can use the SOLID96 element to represent all interior regions of your model: saturable regions,
permanent magnet regions, and air (free space). For current-conducting regions, you need to use
current source primitives represented by the SOURC36 element. See Modeling Current Conduction
Regions (p. 133) for more details.
At the exterior of air elements, use of INFIN47, the four-node boundary element, or INFIN111, the 8or 20-node boundary element, is recommended. INFIN47 and INFIN111 can model the far-field decay
in the magnetic field, and usually give better results than a flux-parallel or flux-normal condition. Of
the two elements, the INFIN111 element more accurately models the exterior domain.

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When using SOLID5, SOLID96, or SOLID98 elements with SOURC36 elements, the source elements
should be placed so that the resulting Hs field fulfills boundary conditions for the total field, i.e., the
source field created by SOURC36 elements should closely match the boundary conditions on the
meshed domain. For example, at unconstrained surfaces of the model where the total field will be
parallel, the source field should be approximately parallel.
The phenomenon is similar to the treatment of symmetry conditions. Even if the studied domain is
only a fraction of the full size problem, you should extend the SOURC36 geometry to the full model
to obtain a good solution.
The default system of units is MKS (meter-kilogram-second). You can change this to any other system
you prefer using one of the methods shown below. Once you choose a system of units, all input data
must be in that system. For convenience, you may create your geometry in other units (for example,
millimeters or inches) and then scale it to the appropriate analysis units.
Command(s): EMUNIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Electromag Units
Based on the input units you specify, the free space permeability o is determined automatically as
follows:
o = 4 * 10-7 H/m in MKS units, or
o = value specified with the EMUNIT command.

5.4. Steps in a 3-D Static Scalar Analysis


This type of analysis has essentially the same steps as a 2-D static analysis:
5.4.1. Create the Physics Environment
5.4.2. Build the Model
5.4.3. Apply Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation)
5.4.4. Solve the Analysis (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method)
5.4.5. Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage
5.4.6. Review Analysis Results (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method Analysis)

5.4.1. Create the Physics Environment


To begin, set the analysis preference to Magnetic-Nodal and give the analysis a title. Then, use the
ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to define the items that comprise the physics environment for the analysis,
including element types and KEYOPT settings, material properties, and so on. For a 3-D static analysis,
most of these procedures are the same as those described in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17). The
rest of this chapter contains information that is specific to 3-D static analysis.

5.4.1.1. Setting GUI Preferences


If you are running ANSYS via the GUI, before you start building your model you should choose menu
path Main Menu> Preferences. Then, on the dialog box that appears, select Magnetic-Nodal from
the list of magnetic analysis types. Because the GUI filters the elements available to you based on the
preference you choose, you must specify Magnetic-Nodal to ensure that you can use the elements
needed for 3-D static analysis.

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5.4.1.2. Specifying Material Properties


Your model may have any or all of the following material regions: air, (free-space) permeable materials,
current-conducting regions, and permanent magnets. Each type of material region has certain required
material properties.
The ANSYS material library contains definitions of several materials with magnetic properties. Instead
of defining material properties from scratch, you can read these material properties into the ANSYS
database and, if necessary, modify them to match the materials in your analysis problem more closely.
Materials with magnetic properties defined in the ANSYS material library are as follows:
Material

Material Property File Containing Its Definition

Copper

emagCopper.SI_MPL

M3 steel

emagM3.SI_MPL

M54 steel

emagM54.SI_MPL

SA1010 steel

emagSa1010.SI_MPL

Carpenter (silicon) steel

emagSilicon.SI_MPL

Iron cobalt vanadium steel

emagVanad.SI_MPL

The copper property presents temperature-dependent resistivity and relative permeability. All other
properties are B-H curves.
The property definitions in the material library specify properties "typical" for the materials listed. ANSYS,
Inc. has extrapolated these properties to cover high saturation conditions. Your actual material values
may differ from those supplied; therefore, you may need to modify the ANSYS material library files you use.

5.4.1.2.1. Accessing Material Library Files


The next few paragraphs explain basic procedures for reading and writing material library files. You can
find a more detailed discussion of these procedures and the ANSYS material library in Getting Started
in the Basic Analysis Guide.
To read a material library file into the ANSYS database, do the following:
1. If you have not already specified the system of units you are using, issue the /UNITS command or
its GUI equivalent.

Note
The default system of units for ANSYS is MKS. The GUI lists only material library files
with the currently active units.

2. Define the material library read path for the material of interest. (You will need to know which directory path your system administrator has used to store the material library files.) To do so, use
either of the following:
Command(s): /MPLIB,READ,pathdata
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Library Path
3. Read the material library file into the database using one of the following:
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Command(s): MPREAD,filename...LIB
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props> Material
Library> Import Library
To write changes to a material library file, perform these steps:
1. Edit the material property definition using either the MP command or the GUI (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics). Make sure that your revised definition
includes a material number and at least one material property value (for example, magnetic permeability
or MURX).
2. From the PREP7 preprocessor, issue the command shown below:
Command(s): MPWRITE,filename,,,LIB,MAT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Export Library

5.4.1.3. Additional Guidelines for Defining Regional Material Properties and Real
Constants
The next few paragraphs provide some guidelines for setting up physics regions for your model. In
addition, you may want to consult 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63); it pictures and describes
the regions that can exist within a 2-D model.

5.4.1.3.1. For Air Regions:


Specify a relative permeability of 1.0. To do so, use one of the following:
Command(s): MP,MURX
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> Relative
Permeability> Constant

5.4.1.3.2. For Free-Space Permeable Material Regions:


Specify the B-H curve by reading from a material library or by creating your own B-H curve:
Command(s): MPREAD,filename, ...
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Library> Import Library
Command(s): TB, TBPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH Curve
If the material is linear, all you need is the relative permeability r(which may be isotropic or orthotropic).
If you specify a B-H curve, it should meet the following requirements for the material to be represented
accurately:
The B values must be unique for each H value, and must monotonically increase with H, as shown
in Figure 2.1: B-H and Reluctivity vs. B Squared Curves (p. 30)(a). By default, the B-H curve will pass
through the origin (that is, the 0.0 point is not to be explicitly defined). You can verify this by plotting
B versus H using one of the methods shown below. (For more information, see the Element Reference.)
Command(s): TBPLOT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH Curve
The -H curve that ANSYS calculated internally (where is the permeability) should be smooth and
continuous. You can verify this by plotting versus H using TBPLOT. (See Figure 5.1: Connected
Domains (p. 127)(b)). The B-H curve should cover the complete operating range of the material. If a
point beyond the end of the curve is required, the B-H curve is extrapolated at constant slope. The

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constant slope should be equal to or greater than r. You can view values in the extrapolated region
by adjusting the x-axis range of your B versus H plot. To adjust the x-axis range, use one of the following:
Command(s): /XRANGE
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Graphs
Figure 5.2: B-H and mu-H Curves With Extrapolation

(a) B-H curve with extrapolation; (b) -H curve with extrapolation


For permanent magnets and nonlinear orthotropic materials, material input is the same as for 2-D
static analysis.

5.4.2. Build the Model


You can find most of the information you need to build a model for a 3-D static scalar magnetic problem
in the Modeling and Meshing Guide. For 3-D scalar analyses, however, there are some special considerations
for modeling current sources.
For information on modeling two contacted bodies, see Modeling Magnetic Contact. You can use contact
to:
Model contact between bodies with dissimilar meshes (such as the air gap in a rotor/stator configuration)
Model the gap permeance between bodies without having to create a finite mesh of the void region
between the bodies.

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SOLID96 / 98

TARGE170
Exploded view
of interface

SOLID96 / 98
CONTAC173 / 174

Dissimilar mesh interface

DOF: MAG
Contact elements: TARGE170, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175
CONTA17x Keyoptions: KEYOPT(1)=7 (MAG), KEYOPT(2)=2 (MPC
approach), KEYOPT(12)=5

Contact permeance

DOF: MAG
Contact elements: TARGE170, CONTA173, CONTA174, CONTA175
Real constant: MCC (contact permeance) (real constant number
26)
CONTA17x KEYOPTS: KEYOPT(1)=7 (MAG)

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Iron

t
Air gap
m=m

Iron

b
a

Gap Permeance P = m [ab/t]


Contact Permeance Coefficient MCC = m / t

5.4.2.1. Modeling Current Conduction Regions


You can model current conduction regions with primitive sources, so they do not need material properties.
In a 3-D scalar potential analysis, current sources are not modeled as an integral part of the geometry
(as they are in a 2-D analysis). Instead, you use a "dummy" finite element, SOURC36, to represent the
shape and location of current sources. You can define coils, bars, or arcs at any location in the model.
The amount of current and other current-source data are specified as element real constants. Figure 5.3: A
Coil Source Represented by SOURC36 Elements (p. 134) shows an example of a coil current-source represented with SOURC36 primitives.

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Figure 5.3: A Coil Source Represented by SOURC36 Elements

Note
You must model the entire current source even if the rest of the model uses half-symmetry
or quarter-symmetry. Coil and arc elements cannot have a zero inside radius.
Because SOURC36 elements are not true finite elements, you can use only direct generation (not solid
modeling) to define them. Direct generation uses the following menu paths or equivalent commands:
Command(s): N
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> On Working Plane
Command(s): E
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes
Command(s): EGEN
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Copy> Elements> Auto Numbered
To display current source elements, use the commands or menu paths listed below (in the order shown):
Command(s): /ESHAPE, EPLOT
GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape
Utility Menu> Plot> Elements
The following is a command-based example of defining current sources.
/PREP7
ET,2, 36
EMUNIT,MKS
! Define convenient
I=0.025
N=300
S=0.04
R=0.01
THK=0.002
!
R=2,1,N*1,THK,S
CSYS,1
N,1001,R
N,1002,R,90
N,1003
TYPE,2
REAL,2

134

! Current source element


! MKS units
parameters:
! Current (amps)
! Turns
! Solenoid length
! Solenoid radius
! Solenoid thickness
!
!
!
!

Real constant set 2: coil type, current


thickness, length,
Global cylindrical system
Nodes for the source element

! Attributes

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E,1001,1002,1003
/ESHAPE,1
/VIEW,1,2,1,.5
/VUP,1,Z
/TRIAD, LBOT
/TYPE,1,HIDP
EPLOT

! Element definition

The following example demonstrates the use of SOURC36 current source elements using three arcs of
120.
/title,,,full circle coils against 3x120 and 6x60 degree arcs
/com
/com This example demonstrates the usage of SOURC36 current source elements.
/com It compares results of a full circle coils with
/com 6 arcs of 60 degrees and 3 arcs of 120 degrees
/com
/nopr
!
coil=1
arc=3
cur=10
dr=0.1 ! radius of source
dz=dr
eps=0.0005
ri=5 ! radius of the coil R >> dr,dz
step=1 ! step along Z
pi=3.1415926
n=21 ! Z = -10 to +10 by 1
*dim,hhx,array,n,3
*dim,hhy,array,n,3
*dim,hhz,array,n,4 ! to store targeted results in the center
*dim,hhs,array,n,3
/com ***** full coil (360 degrees) *****
/prep7
et,1,36
r,1,coil,cur,dr,dz,eps ! define the source
n,10001,ri, 0, 0
n,10002, 0,ri, 0
n,10003, 0, 0, 0
e,10001,10002,10003
et,2,96
mp,murx,1,1
n,1,0,0,-10*step ! define the calculated nodes
ngen,n,1,1,,,,,step
/solv
biot,new
/post1
*do,i,1,n
*get,hx,node,i,hs,x
*get,hy,node,i,hs,y
*get,hz,node,i,hs,z
hh=hx**2+hy**2+hz**2
hh=sqrt(hh)
hhx(i,1)=hx
hhy(i,1)=hy
hhz(i,1)=hz
hhs(i,1)=hh
*enddo
/com
! to check if hx=hy=0
/com********************** 360-degree coil **********************
/com
Hx
Hy
Hz
Hsum
*vwrite,hhx(1,1),hhy(1,1),hhz(1,1),hhs(1,1)
('H=',4f15.6)
/com*************************************************************
fini

/com *** arcs ***


/prep7
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et,1,36
r,1,arc,cur,dr,dz,eps ! define the source
edele,all
ndele,all
n,10001,ri , 0, 0
n,10002, ri/2, ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10003,-ri/2, ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10004,-ri, 0, 0
n,10005, ri/2,-ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10006,-ri/2,-ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10007, 0, 0, 0
e,10001,10002,10007
e,10002,10003,10007
e,10003,10004,10007
e,10004,10005,10007
e,10005,10006,10007
e,10006,10001,10007
et,2,96
mp,murx,1,1
n,1,0,0,-10*step ! define the calculated nodes
ngen,n,1,1,,,,,step
/solv
biot,new
/post1
*do,i,1,n
*get,hx,node,i,hs,x
*get,hy,node,i,hs,y
*get,hz,node,i,hs,z
hh=hx**2+hy**2+hz**2
hh=sqrt(hh)
hhx(i,2)=hx
hhy(i,2)=hy
hhz(i,2)=hz
hhs(i,2)=hh
*enddo
/com
/com ****************** 6 times 60-degree arc *******************
/com
Hx
Hy
Hz
Hsum
*vwrite,hhx(1,2),hhy(1,2),hhz(1,2),hhs(1,2)
('H=',4f15.6)
/com*************************************************************
fini

/com *** 3 times 120-degree arcs ***


/prep7
et,1,36
r,1,arc,cur,dr,dz,eps ! define the source
edele,all
ndele,all
n,10001,ri , 0, 0
n,10002,-ri/2, ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10003,-ri/2,-ri*sqrt(3)/2, 0
n,10005, 0, 0, 0
e,10001,10002,10005
e,10002,10003,10005
e,10003,10001,10005
et,2,96
mp,murx,1,1
n,1,0,0,-10*step ! define the calculated nodes
ngen,n,1,1,,,,,step
/solv
biot,new
/post1
*do,i,1,n
*get,hx,node,i,hs,x
*get,hy,node,i,hs,y
*get,hz,node,i,hs,z
hh=hx**2+hy**2+hz**2
hh=sqrt(hh)
hhx(i,3)=hx
hhy(i,3)=hy

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hhz(i,3)=hz
hhs(i,3)=hh
*enddo
/com
/com ***************** 3 times 120-degree arc *******************
/com
Hx
Hy
Hz
Hsum
*vwrite,hhx(1,3),hhy(1,3),hhz(1,3),hhs(1,3)
('H=',4f15.6)
/com*************************************************************
fini
! target result with Biot-Savart law
*do,i,1,n,1
hhz(i,4) = cur/2*ri**2/(ri**2+(i-11)**2)**(3/2)
*enddo
/com
/com ********************** Biot Savart *************************
/com
/com H(Z) = I/2*R^2/(R^2+Z^2)^(3/2)
/com
/com ************************************************************
/com ******************** 3 cases results ***********************
/com data
*vwrite,cur,dr,ri
(' current = ',f4.2,' Amp, radius section = ',f5.2,', coil radius = ',f5.2)
/com z= -10 to +10 by 1
/com
/com
360-degree
6*60-degree
3*120-degree
target(B-S)
*vwrite,hhz(1,1),hhz(1,2),hhz(1,3),hhz(1,4)
('H=',4f15.6)
/com ************************************************************
/com
/com good approximation for radius section << coil radius
/com
/com ************************************************************
finish

For further information, see the descriptions of the following commands in the Command Reference:
ET, EMUNIT, R, CSYS, N, TYPE, REAL, E, /ESHAPE, /VIEW, /VUP, /TRIAD, and /TYPE.

5.4.2.2. Building a 3-D Racetrack Coil


To help you build a 3-D "racetrack" current source, ANSYS provides the RACE command macro. To invoke
this macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): RACE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Racetrack Coil
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Racetrack Coil
The RACE macro enables you to define a racetrack current source in the working plane coordinate
system. The ANSYS program generates the current source from bar and arc source primitives using the
SOURC36 element (which is assigned the next available element type number). Current flows in a
counterclockwise direction with respect to the working plane. See Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255)
for additional details about this macro and a racetrack coil diagram.
To delete a racetrack coil, you delete individual SOURC36 elements using the EDELE command (Main
Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Delete> Elements). Before doing so, you should first review the
elements to choose the appropriate elements to delete. Review elements using one of the methods
shown below:
Command(s): ELIST
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Elements> Attributes + RealConst
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Attributes Only
Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attributes
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Utility Menu> List> Elements> Nodes + Attr + RealConst

5.4.3. Apply Boundary Conditions and Loads (Excitation)


5.4.3.1. Applying Loads to a 3-D Scalar Static Analysis
In addition to applying boundary conditions and loads, you also will need to specify load step options
if you opt to step through the analysis manually, See Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) for details. The next few topics explain how to perform the tasks involved in a routine analysis.
The scalar potential formulation uses different boundary conditions (BCs) and loads than those for the
vector potential formulation. Following are the appropriate BCs and loads and the menu paths to define
them. (See Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) for information on applying loads
or BCs via ANSYS commands.)
You access all loading operations through a series of cascading menus. When you choose Main Menu>
Solution> Define Loads> Magnetic, the ANSYS program lists one BC category and three load categories.
You then choose the appropriate category and the appropriate load or BC. The categories and BCs or
loads you can choose for a 3-D static analysis are as follows:
-Boundary-

-Excitation-

-Flag-

-Other-

-Scalar Poten-

(none)[1]

Comp. Force

-Magnetic Flux-

On Keypoints

-Infinite Surf-

On Keypoints

On Nodes

On Lines

On Nodes

On Areas

On Areas

-Maxwell Surf-

Flux Parallel

On Nodes

On Lines

-Flux Normal-

On Areas

On Areas

On Nodes

On Nodes

-Virtual DispOn Keypoints


On Nodes

1. See Excitation (p. 139) below.


For example, to apply the flux-normal condition on an area, choose this GUI path:
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Flux Normal> On Areas
You may see other load types or BCs or loads listed on the menus. If they are grayed out, either they
do not apply to 3-D static analysis or the appropriate KEYOPT option on the element type has not been
set. (However, the grayed-out items will be valid for other types of magnetic analysis; the ANSYS GUI
filters menu choices.)

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5.4.3.2. Boundary Conditions


5.4.3.2.1. Magnetic Scalar Potentials
Use magnetic scalar potentials (MAG) to specify flux-normal, flux-parallel, and far-field zero, and cyclic
symmetry (periodic) boundary conditions, as well as an imposed external magnetic field. The following
table shows the MAG values required for each type of boundary condition:
Boundary Condition

Value of MAG

Flux-normal

MAG = 0 (Use the DSYM,SYMM command (Main Menu> Solution>


Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Scalar Poten>
Flux Normal> On Nodes.)

Flux-parallel

None required (occurs naturally)

Far-field

Use element INFIN47 or INFIN111

Far-field zero

MAG = 0

Periodic

Use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability.

Imposed external
field

Apply nonzero values of MAG.

5.4.3.3. Excitation
You supply current excitation via the SOURC36 element as noted previously. Invoking the RACE macro
simplifies application of this type of coil arrangement.

5.4.3.4. Flags
5.4.3.4.1. Component Force
An ANSYS command macro, FMAGBC, automates applying virtual displacements and the Maxwell surface
flag for calculating forces and torques on bodies. Simply group the elements in the body on which
forces or displacements are to be calculated into a component. (See the CM command description.)
Then, use either of the following:
Command(s): FMAGBC,Cname
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq

Note
Lorentz forces are applicable to current carrying conductors and they are calculated automatically. Do not apply Maxwell or virtual displacement flags to any current carrying conductor
surfaces.

5.4.3.4.2. Infinite Surface Flags (INF)


These are not loads, but they are required to flag the surface of an infinite element which is pointing
towards the open (infinite) domain.

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5.4.3.5. Other Loads


5.4.3.5.1. Maxwell Surface (MXWF)
These are the same as described for 2-D static magnetic analyses; that is, they are surfaces on which
the magnetic force distribution is to be calculated. You can use these loads in a structural analysis.

5.4.3.5.2. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI)


These are the same as described for 2-D static magnetic analyses; that is, you use them to calculate the
total force on a body in the model (using the virtual work approach).

5.4.4. Solve the Analysis (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method)


This section describes the steps involved in solving a 3-D static scalar magnetic analysis using the three
solution methods available. Solution steps for the RSP method are presented first, followed by solution
procedures for the DSP method and then the GSP method.

5.4.4.1. Solve Using the RSP Method


5.4.4.1.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor
To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

5.4.4.1.2. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Static analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,STATIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed a 3-D static magnetic analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous
run are available.

5.4.4.1.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solver you want to use. You can specify any of these values:
Sparse solver (default)
Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver
Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver (PCG)
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV

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GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
The JCG solver or the PCG solver is recommended for 3-D models.

5.4.4.1.4. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

Caution
If you use the BIOT option and issue the SAVE command (Utility Menu> File> Save As)
after solution or postprocessing, the Biot-Savart calculations are saved to the database, but
will be overwritten upon normal exit from the program. To save this data after issuing SAVE,
use the /EXIT,NOSAVE command. You can also issue the /EXIT,SOLU command to exit ANSYS
and save all solution data, including the Biot-Savart calculations, in the database. Otherwise,
when you resume your analysis, the Biot-Savart calculation will be lost (resulting in a zero
solution).

5.4.4.1.5. Starting the Solution


You can initiate the solution using either of the following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV (with OPT field set to 2)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt&Solv
To learn how to step manually through the solution sequence, see Alternative Analysis Options and
Solution Methods (p. 367).

5.4.4.1.6. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

5.4.4.2. Solve Using DSP Method


The DSP method is recommended only if the model has singly connected iron regions. The DSP method
uses the same procedures for building the model and reviewing results as the RSP method uses. (To
see descriptions of these procedures, refer to the discussion of the RSP method.) However, for the DSP
method you use different procedures to apply loads and obtain a solution.
The DSP method requires a two-step solution sequence:
You use the first load step to calculate an approximate air-only solution with iron regions internally
set to a near-infinite permeability.
Using the second load step, you calculate the final solution with all regions reset to specified material properties.
Follow the steps shown below to perform the solution sequence:
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1. Enter the SOLUTION processor, define the analysis type, define the analysis options, and apply loads
according to the procedures described in the discussion of the RSP method.
2. Save a backup of the ANSYS database to a named file, using either of the following:
Command(s): SAVE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Jobname.db

Caution
If you use the BIOT option and issue SAVE after solution or postprocessing, the BiotSavart calculations are saved to the database, but will be overwritten upon normal
exit from the program. To save this data after issuing SAVE, use the /EXIT,NOSAVE
command. You can also issue the /EXIT,SOLU command to exit ANSYS and save all
solution data, including the Biot-Savart calculations, in the database. Otherwise,
when you issue RESUME, the Biot-Savart calculation will be lost (resulting in a zero
solution).

3. Specify magnetic solution options and initiate the two-step solution. To do so, use either of the
following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV (with OPT field set to 3)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt and Solv
4. Specify Main Menu> Finish or issue the FINISH command to end the solution.

5.4.4.3. Solve Using the GSP Method


The GSP method is the best method to use if the model has current sources and a multiply connected
iron region. The analysis procedures are the same, except for the procedure for solving the model. The
GSP method requires a three-step solution sequence where:
The first load step calculates an approximate iron-only solution.
The second load step calculates an approximate air-only solution.
The third load step calculates the final solution.
To obtain a solution for a GSP analysis, perform these steps:
1. Enter the SOLUTION processor, define the analysis type and options, and apply loads using the
procedures described in Review Analysis Results (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method Analysis) (p. 143). Make
sure that at least one node in the iron region has a specified scalar potential value of zero.
2. Save a backup of the ANSYS database to a named file, using either of the following:
Command(s): SAVE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Save as Jobname.db

Caution
If you use the BIOT option and issue SAVE after solution or postprocessing, the BiotSavart calculations are saved to the database, but will be overwritten upon normal
exit from the program. To save this data after issuing SAVE, use the /EXIT,NOSAVE
command. You can also issue the /EXIT,SOLU command to exit ANSYS and save all

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solution data, including the Biot-Savart calculations, in the database. Otherwise,
when you issue RESUME, the Biot-Savart calculation will be lost (resulting in a zero
solution).

3. Specify magnetic solution options and initiate the three-step solution. To do so, use either of the
following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV (with OPT field set to 4)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt and Solv
4. Specify Main Menu> Finish or issue the FINISH command to end the solution process.

5.4.5. Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage


For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to calculate the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.
To initiate the solution use the following:
Command(s): LMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Induct Matrix
Computing the differential inductance matrix and the total flux linkage in each coil requires several
procedural steps. You must first assign components to coil elements, define nominal currents, then
perform a nominal solution about an operating point. See LMATRIX (p. 259) for more information and
an example analysis.

5.4.6. Review Analysis Results (RSP, DSP, or GSP Method Analysis)


Results from a 3-D static magnetic analysis (scalar potential formulation) consist of the following data:
Primary data: Nodal magnetic DOFs (MAG)
Derived data:
Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, Z, SUM)
Nodal reaction magnetic flux (FLUX)
... etc.
Additional data also are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
The following section, "Reading in Results Data," discusses some typical postprocessing operations for
a 3-D static magnetic analysis. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic
Analysis Guide.

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5.4.6.1. Reading in Results Data


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RMG) must be available.
To read the data from the results file into the database, use either of the following:
Command(s): SET
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results
If the model is not in the database, restore it using the command or menu path listed below and then
use the SET command to read in the desired set of results.
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

5.4.6.2. Flux Lines


Flux lines are not readily available with the scalar potential formulation. Use vector displays of flux
density to visualize flux paths.

5.4.6.3. Vector Displays


Vector displays (not to be confused with vector mode) are an effective way to view vector quantities
such as B, H, and FMAG. To produce vector displays, use either method shown below:
Command(s): PLVECT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> User-Defined
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined
Utility Menu> Plot>Results> Vector Plot
To produce vector listings, use one of the following:
Command(s): PRVECT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Vector Data
Utility Menu> List> Results> Vector Data

5.4.6.4. Contour Displays


You can contour almost any result item, including flux density and field intensity, using the following
commands or menu paths:
Command(s): PLNSOL, PLESOL
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem Solution
Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem Solution

Caution
Nodal contour plots for derived data, such as flux density and field intensity, are averaged at the
nodes. In PowerGraphics mode (default), you can visualize nodal averaged contour displays
which account for material discontinuities.

5.4.6.5. Charged Particle Trace Displays


You can find details on how to graphically display a charged particle traveling in a magnetic field in
Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces and Controlling Particle Flow or Charged Particle Trace Displays

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in the Basic Analysis Guide. See Electromagnetic Particle Tracing in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference
for more details.

5.4.6.6. Tabular Listings


You can produce tabular listings of results data, either unsorted or sorted by node or by element. To
sort data before listing it, use any of the following:
Command(s): ESORT, NSORT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems
To produce tabular listings, use any of the following:
Command(s): PRESOL, PRNSOL, PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu

5.4.6.7. Magnetic Forces


You can summarize Maxwell and virtual work forces quickly for element components on which those
forces were specified as boundary conditions using the FMAGSUM macro. To summarize the forces,
invoke the FMAGSUM macro using one of the following:
Command(s): FMAGSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Force
To review Maxwell or virtual work forces in more detail use the following approach:
Maxwell forces are calculated for all elements at which the surface flag MXWF is specified as a surface
"load." To list Maxwell forces, select all such elements, then select either of the following:
Command(s): PRNSOL,FMAG
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
The sum of these forces gives the total force on the surface. To sum the forces, select all elements
with the Maxwell surface and use the ETABLE command (Main Menu> General Postproc>
Element Table> Define Table) to move the forces to the element table. Then issue the SSUM
command (Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item).
Virtual work forces are calculated for all air elements with an MVDI specification adjacent to the body
of interest. One way to access virtual work forces is via the element's NMISC record. Do so by
choosing either of the following:
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List Elem Table

5.4.6.8. Calculating Other Items of Interest


In postprocessing, you can calculate many other items of interest from the data available in the database.
The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros to perform calculations for you automatically:
The EMAGERR macro calculates the relative error in an electromagnetic or electrostatic field analysis.
The SENERGY macro determines the stored magnetic energy.
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.

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See Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255) for details on these macros or the Command Reference.

5.5. Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


The following examples are available:
5.5.1. Example of a 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis
5.5.2. Other Examples

5.5.1. Example of a 3-D Static Magnetic Analysis


This section shows you how to perform a sample 3-D static magnetic analysis using ANSYS GUI paths.
Command Method (p. 154) solves the same example using ANSYS commands.

5.5.1.1. Description
This example calculates the armature forces and the coil inductance about an operating point for the
solenoid actuator shown in Figure 5.4: Solenoid Actuator (p. 146). A static (DC) current excites the coil
and provides the force to move the armature. The current is 6 amps and there are 500 turns in the coil.
The analysis employs a 1/4 symmetry model of the positive x and y quadrant.
Figure 5.4: Solenoid Actuator

5.5.1.1.1. Material Properties


The analysis uses a relative permeability of 1.0 for the air regions.

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Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


The B-H data for the pole and armature steel follows. You will enter the B and H values in this analysis.
H(A/m)

B(T)

H(A/m)

B(T)

355

0.70

7650

1.75

405

0.80

10100

1.80

470

0.90

13000

1.85

555

1.00

15900

1.90

673

1.10

21100

1.95

836

1.20

26300

2.00

1065

1.30

32900

2.05

1220

1.35

42700

2.10

1420

1.40

61700

2.15

1720

1.45

84300

2.20

2130

1.50

110000

2.25

2670

1.55

135000

2.30

3480

1.60

200000

2.41

4500

1.65

400000

2.69

5950

1.70

800000

3.22

5.5.1.1.2. Approach and Assumptions


The analysis uses a smart sizing level (LVL) of 8. For production work a finer mesh should be used (LVL
6).
The analysis assumes that all surfaces are flux-parallel. This is a natural boundary condition that is satisfied
automatically without any prescription of an explicit boundary condition.
The analysis constrains a single node to avoid an ill-conditioned problem.

5.5.1.1.3. Expected Results


This example uses a smart element sizing (SmartSizing) level of 8.
Computed results:
Virtual Work Force (z direction) = -11.928 N
Maxwell Force (z direction) = -11.214 N
Inductance = 0.012113 h
The computed results are multiplied by a factor of 4 for symmetry. Forces in the x and y directions
cancel.
For additional information on the solution to this problem, see M. Gyimesi and D. Ostergaard, NonConforming Hexahedral Edge Elements for Magnetic Analysis, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 34,
No. 5 (1998).

5.5.1.2. Analysis
Step 1: Start the Analysis
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1.

Activate the ANSYS launcher.

2.

Select the ANSYS simulation environment, choose your license, and click Run.

3.

When the Graphical User Interface is fully active, choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. A dialog
box appears.

4.

Enter the title text, 3-D Static Force Problem - Tetrahedral.

5.

Click on OK.

6.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears. Choose Electromagnetic: Magnetic-Nodal. Then click OK.

Step 2: Define Analysis Parameters


1.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box
appears.

2.

Type in the parameter values shown below. (Press ENTER after entering each value.)
n = 500 (number of coil turns)
i = 6 (current per turn)

3.

Click on Close to close the dialog box.

Step 3: Define Element Types


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

In the scrollable fields, click on (highlight) Magnetic Scalar and Scalar Brick 96 (SOLID96).

4.

Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box.

5.

Click on Close to close the Element Types dialog box.

Step 4: Define Material Properties for Air and Steel


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Define Material Model
Behavior dialog box appears.

2.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Electromagnetics, Relative Permeability, Constant. A dialog box appears.

3.

Enter 1 for MURX (Relative permeability), and click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the
Material Models Defined window on the left.

4.

Choose Material> New Model. Click on OK to define Material ID 2. Material Model Number 2 appears
in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

5.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on B-H curve. A dialog box appears.

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Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


6.

Enter the H and B values for steel, as provided in Material Properties (p. 146). To add an additional row
to the table, position the text cursor in the bottom row and click on the Add Point button. Click on OK.

7.

Choose Edit> Copy. Choose 2 for from Material number, and enter 3 for to Material number. Click on
OK. Material Model Number 3 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

8.

Choose Material> Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.

9.

Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 5: Create Pole Volumes


1.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.

2.

Click the Volume numbers button to On.

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block by Dimensions dialog box appears.

5.

In the "X coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 63.5; in the "Y coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 25/2; and in the
"Z coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 25.

6.

Click on OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays a rectangular area.

7.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate. A Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears.

8.

Click on the Iso button, then click on Close. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays the block.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block by Dimensions dialog box appears.

10. In the "X coordinates" fields, enter 38.5 and 63.5; in the "Y coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 25/2; and in
the "Z coordinates" fields, enter 25 and 125.
11. Click on OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window now also displays this block.
12. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block by Dimensions dialog box appears.
13. In the "X coordinates" fields, enter 13.5 and 63.5; in the "Y coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 25/2; and in
the "Z coordinates" fields, enter 125 and 150.
14. Click on OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window now also displays this block.
15. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Glue> Volumes. The Glue
Volumes picking menu appears.
16. Click on Pick All.
Step 6: Create Armature and Air Volumes and Compress Numbers
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block by Dimensions dialog box appears.

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2.

In the "X coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 12.5; in the "Y coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 5; and in the "Z
coordinates" fields, enter 26.5 and 125.

3.

Click on OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window now displays the pole volumes and the armature volume
(volume 1).

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Volumes.

5.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Block> By Dimensions. The
Create Block by Dimensions dialog box appears.

6.

In the "X coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 13; in the "Y coordinates" fields, enter 0 and 5.5; and in the "Z
coordinates" fields, enter 26 and 125.5.

7.

Click on OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window now displays the pole volumes and the volume that is composed of the armature plus the surrounding air region (volume 2).

8.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap> Volumes. The
Overlap Volumes picking menu appears.

9.

Pick (or enter in the picker) volumes 1 and 2.

10. Click on OK.


11. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Volumes.
12. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers
dialog box appears.
13. Change the "Item to be compressed (Label)" field to Volumes.
14. Click on OK.
15. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder> Partial Cylinder. The
Partial Cylinder picking menu appears.
16. Set the following values. Click on OK when you are finished, and the ANSYS Graphics Window will display
the partial cylinder.
"Rad-1" field to 0
"Theta-1" field to 0
"Rad-2" field to 100
"Theta-2" field to 90
"Depth" field to 175
17. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Overlap> Volumes. The
Overlap Volumes picking menu appears.
18. Click on Pick All.
19. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers
dialog box appears.
20. Check that the "Item to be compressed (Label)" field is set to Volumes.
21. Click on OK.
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Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


22. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.
Step 7: Set Volume Attributes
1.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate. A Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box appears.

2.

Rotate the model so that the pole and armature plus surrounding air region volumes show for picking.

3.

Close the Pan-Zoom-Rotate dialog box.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Volumes. The Volume Attributes picking menu appears.

5.

Pick (or enter in the picker) the armature volume (volume 1).

6.

Click on OK. The Volume Attributes dialog box appears.

7.

Change the "Material Number (MAT)" field to 3.

8.

Click on OK.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Volumes. The Volume Attributes picking menu appears.

10. Pick (or enter in the picker) the pole volumes (volumes 3, 4, and 5).
11. Click on OK. The Volume Attributes dialog box appears.
12. Change the "Material Number (MAT)" field to 2.
13. Click on OK.
Step 8: Mesh the Model
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

2.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. The MeshTool appears.

3.

Click SmartSizing on. Set the SmartSizing slider to 8. (For production work, you should use a finer
SmartSizing level, such as 6.)

4.

Make sure that Volumes, Tet, and Free are selected in the MeshTool.

5.

Click MESH. The Mesh Volumes picking menu appears.

6.

Click on Pick All. The display changes to show the meshed volumes. If you receive a message asking
whether you want to continue, click Yes. Close any warning messages that appear. Click Close to close
the MeshTool.

7.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. For Elem/Attrib numbering, select Material numbers.
For Numbering shown with, select Colors only. Click OK.

8.

Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements.

Step 9: Define Armature as a Component and Apply Force Flags


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
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2.

Change the top box to Elements and the second box to By Attributes, check that Material number is
selected, and set the "Min,Max,Inc" field to 3.

3.

Click on OK.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component. The Create Component dialog
box appears.

5.

Enter arm in the "Component name" field and change the "Component is made of" field to Elements.

6.

Click on OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp.
Force/Torque. The Apply Magnetic Force Boundary Conditions dialog box appears.

8.

Highlight arm in the "Component name" field.

9.

Click on OK. A window appears, notifying you that force boundary conditions have been applied.

10. Read the window contents and then click on Close.


11. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.
Step 10: Scale the Model to Meters
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

2.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Scale> Volumes. The Scale Volumes picking
menu appears.

3.

Click on Pick All. The Scale Volumes dialog box appears.

4.

In the fields for RX, RY, and RZ scale factors, enter .001, .001, and .001, respectively.

5.

Leave the "Items to be scaled" field set on Volumes and Mesh, but change the "Existing volumes will
be" field to Moved.

6.

Click on OK.

Step 11: Create the Coil


1.

Choose Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Local Coordinate Systems> Create Local CS> At Specified Loc.
The Create CS at Location picking menu appears.

2.

Check that the Global Cartesian option is on and type 0,0,75/1000 in the picker. Press ENTER.

3.

Click on OK. The Create Local CS at Specified Location dialog box appears.

4.

Change the "Ref number of new coord sys (KCN) to 12 and click on OK.

5.

Choose Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Align WP with> Specified Coord Sys. The Align WP with Specified
CS dialog box appears.

6.

In the "Coordinate system number (KCN) field, enter 12, and click on OK.

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Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


7.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Racetrack Coil. The "Racetrack" Current
Source for 3-D Magnetic Analysis dialog box appears.

8.

Type in the following values:


In
In
In
In
In
In
In

9.

the
the
the
the
the
the
the

"X-loc of vertical leg (XC)" field, enter .0285.


"Y-loc of horizontal leg (YC)" field, enter .0285.
"Radius of curvature (RAD)" field, enter .014.
"Total current flow (TCUR)" field, enter n*i.
"In-plane thickness (DY)" field, enter .018.
"Out-of-plane thickness (DZ)" field, enter .0966.
"Component name (Cname)" field, enter coil1.

Click on OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Style> Size and Shape. The Size and Shape dialog box appears.
11. Verify that the Display of element shapes based on real constant descriptions is On.
12. Click on OK.
13. Choose Utility Menu> Plot> Elements to display the coil.
Step 12: Apply Boundary Conditions
1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Scalar Poten> On
Nodes. The Apply MAG on Nodes picking menu appears.

2.

Pick a node (for example, node 2 at Global Cartesian location {x, y, z} = {0, 0, 0}) to constrain.

3.

Click on OK. The Apply MAG on Nodes dialog box appears.

4.

Set the Scalar poten (MAG) value" field to 0.

5.

Click on OK.

Step 13: Solve


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything.

2.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt&Solv. The Magnetostatics
Options and Solution dialog box appears.

3.

Change the "Formulation option (Option)" field to DSP and change the "Force Biot-Savart Calc. (BIOT)"
field to YES.

4.

Click on OK.

5.

Click Close when the Solution Is Done message appears.

Step 14: Summarize Armature Force Results


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Force. The Summarize
Magnetic Forces dialog box appears.

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3-D Static Magnetic Analysis (Scalar Method)


2.

In the "Component names (s)" field click on (highlight) ARM and click on OK. A pop-up window displays
the armature force results.

3.

Review the results and then click on Close. Note that the X and Y components of force will cancel due
to the symmetry. The Z component should be multiplied by 4 on account of symmetry.

Step 15: Calculate the Coil Inductance


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit. The Array Parameters dialog box
appears.

2.

Click on Add. The Add New Array Parameter dialog box appears.

3.

In the "Parameter name (Par)" field, enter cur. Change the "No. of rows (I)" field to 1.

4.

Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Array Parameters dialog box.

5.

Click on Edit. The Array Parameter CUR editor dialog box appears.

6.

In the input box, enter i and click on File. The i automatically changes to 6.

7.

Click on Apply/Quit. ANSYS returns you to the Array Parameters dialog box.

8.

Click on Close to close the Array Parameters dialog box.

9.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solv> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Induct Matrix. The Induct
Matrix dialog box appears.

10. In the "Geometric symmetry factor (Symfac)" field, enter 1; in the "Compon. name identifier (Coilname)"
field, enter coil; and check that Existing array is selected for the coil currents.
11. Click on OK. The Existing array with coil currents dialog box appears.
12. Check that cur is selected for the "Existing array (Cname)" field.
13. Click on OK. A pop-up window displays the inductance matrix results.
14. Review the results and then click on Close.
15. Choose Main Menu> Finish.
16. Click on QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click on OK.

5.5.1.3. Command Method


You can perform the preceding example of a 3-D static magnetic analysis using the commands shown
below rather than the GUI. Text preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/batch list
/prep7
/title, 3-D Static Force Problem - Tetrahedral
/com,
!
! define analysis parameters
!
n=500
! coil turns
i=6
! current per turn
!
!define element type

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Example 3-D Static Magnetic Analyses (Scalar Method)


!
et,1,96
!
!define material properties for air and steel
!
mp,murx,1,1
tb,bh,2,,40
tbpt,,355,.7
,,405,.8
,,470,.9
,,555,1.0
,,673,1.1
,,836,1.2
,,1065,1.3
,,1220,1.35
,,1420,1.4
,,1720,1.45
,,2130,1.5
,,2670,1.55
,,3480,1.6
,,4500,1.65
,,5950,1.7
,,7650,1.75
,,10100,1.8
,,13000,1.85
,,15900,1.9
,,21100,1.95
,,26300,2.0
,,32900,2.05
,,42700,2.1
,,61700,2.15
,,84300,2.2
,,110000,2.25
,,135000,2.3
,,200000,2.41
,,400000,2.69
,,800000,3.22
tbcopy,bh,2,3
!
!create pole volumes
!
/pnum,volu
block,0,63.5,0,25/2,0,25
/view,1,1,1,1
/replot
block,38.5,63.5,0,25/2,25,125
block,13.5,63.5,0,25/2,125,150
vglue,all
!
!create armature and air volumes and compress numbers
!
block,0,12.5,0,5,26.5,125
! armature
block,0,13,0,5.5,26,125.5
! air region
vovlap,1,2
numcmp,volu
cyl4,,,0,0,100,90,175
vovlap,all
numcmp,volu
!
!set volume attributes
!
vsel,s,volu,,1
vatt,3,1,1
! armature
vsel,s,volu,,3,5
vatt,2,1,1
! pole
!
!mesh the model
!
allsel,all
smrt,8 ! for production work a finer mesh should be used, (LVL 6)
mshape,1,3d
mshkey,0

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vmesh,all
/pnum,mat,1
/number,1
eplot
!
!define armature as a component and apply force flags
!
esel,s,mat,,3
! armature
cm,arm,elem
fmagbc,'arm'
!
!scale the model to meters
!
allsel,all
vlscale,all,,,.001,.001,.001,,0,1
!
!create the coil
!
local,12,0,0,0,75/1000
wpcsys,-1
race,.0285,.0285,.014,n*i,.018,.0966,,,'coil1'
/eshape,1
eplot
save
finish
!
!apply boundary conditions
!
/solu
d,2,mag,0
!
!solve
!
allsel,all
magsolv,3,,,,,1
finish
!
!summarize armature force results
!
/post1
/com,
fmagsum,'arm'
finish
save
!
!calculate the coil inductance
!
/solu
*dim,cur,array,1
cur(1)=i
lmatrix,1,'coil','cur'
finish

5.5.2. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc. publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains other examples of
various types of analyses, including the following examples of 3-D static magnetic analysis:
VM168 - Magnetic Field in a Nonferrous Solenoid
VM169 - Permanent Magnetic Circuit with an Air Gap
VM190 - Ferromagnetic Inductor

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Chapter 6: 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based


Analysis
The edge method is a version of the magnetic vector potential method where the magnetic degrees
of freedom are located on element edge nodes, rather than corner nodes.
You can use the edge method to solve a static analysis when the scalar method is not convenient or
efficient. You also can use the edge method for harmonic and transient analyses when the scalar
method cannot be used. Compared to the nodal vector potential, the edge method is generally more
accurate and efficient. In some cases, you may want to use both and compare the results.
Typical uses for edge-based analysis are as follows:
Electric machines
Transformers
Induction heating
Solenoid actuators
High-field magnets
Nondestructive testing
Magnetic stirring
Electrolyzing cells
Particle accelerators
Medical and geophysical instruments.
See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information on the magnetic edge-based formulation.
In an edge element, the magnetic degree of freedom is edge-flux (AZ). In the MKS system, it has the
units of magnetic flux - weber (Volt-sec). The edge-flux DOF represents the integral of the tangential
component of the vector potential A, along the element edge. The sum the values of the edge-flux
DOF around a closed loop formed by the edges is the flux passing through the closed loop. A positive
flux value along an element edge indicates that the edge vector is oriented from the lower corner node
number to the high corner node number (shared by the element edge). The closed loop orientation
and the flux direction is related by the right hand rule.
Support is available for 3-D static, harmonic, and transient edge-based analyses. 3-D Harmonic Magnetic
Analysis (Edge-Based) (p. 187) discusses and presents examples of 3-D harmonic edge-based analysis,
as well as linear perturbation static and harmonic analyses. 3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (EdgeBased) (p. 215) describes and demonstrates 3-D transient edge-based analysis.
The following 3-D edge-based static analysis topics are available:
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3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis


6.1. Elements Used in Edge-Based Analysis
6.2. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model
6.3. Analysis Considerations
6.4. Performing a Static Edge-Based Analysis
6.5. Reviewing Results from a Static Edge-Based Analysis
6.6. 3-D Stranded Coil Analysis
6.7. Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses

6.1. Elements Used in Edge-Based Analysis


The ANSYS program provides two solid element types for low-frequency edge-based electromagnetic
analysis. For a detailed description of these elements, see the Element Reference
Table 6.1: 3D Solid Edge-Based Elements
Element

Dim.

Shape or
Characteristic

Degrees of Freedom

Notes

SOLID236

Brick, 20 nodes

Magnetic edge-flux
Current-technology
degrees of freedom element
(AZ) at each midside
node; electric potential/voltage drop or
time-integrated
electric potential/voltage drop
(VOLT) at each node.
Electromotive force
or time-integrated
electromotive force
(EMF) at each node

SOLID237

Tetrahedral, 10
nodes

Magnetic edge-flux
Current-technology
(AZ) at each midside element
node; electric potential/voltage drop or
time-integrated
electric potential/voltage drop
(VOLT) at each node.
Electromotive force
or time-integrated
electromotive force
(EMF) at each node

The following examples of an edge-based analysis using the current technology elements are available:
Example: Force Calculation Between Two Permanent Magnets (p. 173)
Example: Eddy Currents Induced in a Ferromagnetic Plate (p. 195)
Example: Magnetic Field in a Parallel Plate Capacitor (p. 200)
Example: Transformer Analysis (p. 206)

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Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model

6.2. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model


The ANSYS program offers several options you can use to handle terminal conditions on conductors in
3-D magnetic analyses. Figure 6.1: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors (p. 159) below pictures a physical region for a 3-D magnetic analysis and the conditions (options)
that can exist within it.
Figure 6.1: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors

Current-fed massive conductor


Laminated iron

Current-fed
solid source
conductor

Air
Current-fed 
stranded coil

Conductor open circuit


Moving
conductor

Conductor short circuit


Voltage-fed
solid source
conductor

Laminated iron

Degree of freedom: AZ

Air

Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1

Permanent
magnets

OT = 0
 OT


     
(3 D)
Current-fed
massive conductor

Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT


Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1
Special characteristics: Couple VOLT Degree of Freedom in
region, apply total current (F,,AMPS command) to single node
Assumes a short-circuit condition with a net current flow from
a current source generator. Net current is unaffected by surroundings.
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Jt

It

VOLT = 0

Couple VOLT

Current-fed massive conductor (3-D)

Voltage-fed massive
conductor

Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT

Open circuit conductor

Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT

Elements SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1

Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1


For symmetry structures, set VOLT = 0 at one plane and couple
nodes at the other. For general 3-D structures, set VOLT = 0
at one node.

Current-fed stranded conductor


A

Degree of freedom: AZ
Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 0
Special characteristics: no eddy currents; can apply source
current density BFE,, JS

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Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model

Short circuit conductor

Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT


Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1
Prescribe VOLT = 0 at symmetry planes of a conductor to indicate no net buildup of potential.

It

VOLT = 0
Current-fed solid
source conductor

F,,AMPS

Couple VOLT
Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT
Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1
Special characteristics: Couple VOLT Degree of Freedom in
region; apply total current (F,,AMPS command) to single node.
Assumptions: Solid conductor does not model eddy current
effects within the conductor and has no back EMF effects.

  
Voltage-fed solid
source conductor

D

 ad
Degrees of freedom: AZ, VOLT
Elements: SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 1 and
KEYOPT(5) = 1

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Special characteristics: Apply voltage (VOLT) via D command.
Assumptions: solid conductor does not model eddy current
effects within the conductor and has no back EMF effects.

6.3. Analysis Considerations


Before setting up your analysis, consider the following:
When modeling stranded conductors using SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1)=0, the applied current
density J specified on the BFE command (BFE,,JS) must satisfy the solenoidal condition i = .
Solenoidal refers to the closed nature of any real current loop. To be solenoidal, there can be no
closed surface inside the model for which the surface integral of current density is nonzero. In other
words, a conductor cannot end inside the model; however, conductors can begin or end at the surface
of the model. If this condition is not satisfied, the edge-based magnetic analysis can produce erroneous
solutions. To make sure that the applied current density is solenoidal, perform a preliminary static
electric current conduction analysis to obtain the current density distribution (e.g., using electric
elements, see Electric Field Analysis (p. 281)). Once the currents are determined, bring them into the
magnetic analysis using the LDREAD command.

6.4. Performing a Static Edge-Based Analysis


Follow these steps to perform a static edge-based magnetic analysis:
1. Specify the electromagnetics edge formulation by choosing Main Menu> Preferences> Electromagnetics: Magnetic-Edge from the GUI. Doing so lets you filter out other ANSYS commands not involved
in edge analysis.
2. Define a jobname and title for your analysis. To do so, use the commands shown below:
Command(s): /FILNAME and /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
Utility Menu> File> Change Title
3. Enter the ANSYS preprocessor to begin defining your model:
Command(s): /PREP7
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor
4. Choose element type SOLID236 or SOLID237:
Command(s): ET
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
5. Select the formulation option suitable for the specified element type and physics region. (For information on formulation options, see Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159))
Command(s): KEYOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
6. Define material properties. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) describes the material properties
you can use and tells you how to specify them. For a static analysis, you must specify the relative
permeability (defined by the MP command) or a B-H curve (defined by the TB command). Permanent
magnetic orientation is defined in the element coordinate system, ESYS.
Command(s): MP

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Performing a Static Edge-Based Analysis


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> Relative
Permeability> Constant
Command(s): TB
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Electromagnetics> BH
Curve
7. Build the model. (For instructions on building and meshing models, see the Modeling and Meshing
Guide.) If you are using the ANSYS GUI, choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling.
8. Assign attributes to the volumes (that is, associate the element types, the material properties with
the appropriate volumes).
GUI:
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes
9. Mesh the model, specifying brick or tetrahedral element shape.
Command(s): VMESH
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped
10. Apply flux-parallel and flux-normal solid model boundary conditions to the boundaries.
Command(s): DA
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary
For edge-based analyses, the label AZ (when set to zero) applies the flux-parallel boundary
condition. No prescription is required to set flux-normal, because it is the natural boundary
condition. In the rare case when the AZ = 0 condition is not general enough for flux-parallel
conditions, you can prescribe constraints using individual D commands.
11. Apply source loading. See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159) for
information on source loading.
You can use constraint equations to define cyclic symmetry.
12. Enter the SOLUTION processor, using either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
13. Choose the static analysis type.
Command(s): ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Static
To restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,STATIC,REST. In a static and transient nonlinear magnetic analysis, the default behavior
is multiframe restart; for more information, see the RESCONTROL command.
14. Choose the solver you wish to use. The sparse solver is recommended. Select an equation solver
using either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
15. Choose load step options. (Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) of this
manual describes these options.)
16. Solve the model.

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When you use the edge-element formulation, by default the ANSYS program gauges the
problem domain over all selected elements and nodes. Gauging removes unneeded degrees
of freedom by setting them to zero; this in turn enables ANSYS to solve your analysis problem
faster. You can control gauging using either of the following:
Command(s): GAUGE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Magnetics> Options Only> Gauging
Gauging is required for electromagnetic analyses with elements using an edge formulation.
Therefore, in most cases you should not turn automatic gauging off. If you do turn gauging off,
you must perform manual gauging.
To initiate the two-step solution sequence, use the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve
17. To leave the SOLUTION processor, use one of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish
18. Perform postprocessing and review the analysis results, as described in Reviewing Results from a
Static Edge-Based Analysis (p. 164).

6.5. Reviewing Results from a Static Edge-Based Analysis


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a 3-D static analysis to the magnetics results
file, Jobname.RMG (or Jobname.RST for a dynamic analysis). Results include the data listed below:
Primary data: Magnetic Degrees of freedom (AZ, VOLT, EMF)
Derived data:
Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)
Nodal electric field intensity (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM)
Nodal electric conduction current density JC (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, Z, SUM)
Element total current density (JTX, JTY, JTZ)
Joule heat rate per unit volume (JHEAT)
Element magnetic energy (SENE, MENE)
Element magnetic co-energy (COEN)
Element apparent magnetic energy (AENE)
Element incremental magnetic energy (IENE) [1]
1. Available in a linear perturbation analysis only.

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Reviewing Results from a Static Edge-Based Analysis


Additional data also are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc

6.5.1. Reading in Results Data


Postprocessing for 3-D edge-based static magnetic analyses is basically the same as postprocessing for
2-D static analysis. See 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) for more information. For a summary of the
most frequently used commands, see the section on reviewing results in 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based) (p. 187) of this manual.

6.5.1.1. Flux Lines


Use vector displays of flux density to visualize flux paths.

6.5.1.2. Contour Displays, Vector Displays, Tabular Listings, and Magnetic Forces
See 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) for details.

6.5.1.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays


You can find details on how to graphically display a charged particle traveling in a magnetic field in
Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces and Controlling Particle Flow or Charged Particle Trace Displays
in the Basic Analysis Guide. See Electromagnetic Particle Tracing in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference
for more details.

6.5.1.4. Calculating Magnetic Force and Torque


You can calculate electromagnetic force and torque from the data available in the database in postprocessing. Use the EMFT macro for these calculations.
Three types of magnetic forces are usually available:
Current segment force: Force from the finite element boundary domain. Forces and fields here are
typically normal to the air gap. To list these forces:
1.

Select the nodes on the body of interest.

2.

Select all elements.

3.

Issue EMFT.
Command(s): EMFT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Summarize Force/Torque

Reluctance force: Force due to a change in material properties. Here, the direction of the field may
be arbitrary with regard to the force. To list this force:
1.

Select the nodes at the interface between the body of interest and the adjacent air elements.

2.

Select all elements.

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3.

Issue EMFT.

This method may use a truncated portion of the body of interest if the body extends past the
FE boundary.
Figure 6.2: Reluctance Force

F
F
area of interest
Body forces (including Lorentz forces): This method uses the entire body of interest:
1.

Select the nodes of the body of interest and all elements.

2.

Issue EMFT.

Exercise caution in interpreting Lorentz forces in permeable (r > 1) materials. If you independently
calculate the J x B forces, they may be incomplete, as they do not include the reluctance term.
Whereas the J x B forces may be incorrect, the body forces calculated in ANSYS will be correct.
For SOLID236 and SOLID237 with KEYOPT(8)=1, the components of the total Lorentz forces are
stored as nodal magnetic force record FMAG.

Note
In models that use symmetry, you must select nodes and elements carefully. You need to
select the surface nodes on the surfaces interior to the body and then select the elements
adjacent to those nodes.
Force results will be reported in the coordinate system specified by RSYS. However, if using a coordinate
system other than global Cartesian (RSYS 0), torque results will take into account the coordinate
system shift and rotation only.
You can use the same procedure described above with the LDREAD command to transfer static magnetic forces from a magnetic element to a structural element type.
To transfer static magnetic forces acting on selected bodies in the model:
1.

Select nodes of interest as described for the EMFT procedure, above.

2.

Issue LDREAD,FORC.

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3-D Stranded Coil Analysis


This procedure is valid for any material properties, and combines Lorentz, reluctance, and CSG forces.

6.5.1.5. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as source input energy, inductance, flux linkages,
and terminal voltage) from the data available in the database in postprocessing. The ANSYS command
set supplies the following macros for these calculations:
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The PMGTRAN macro summarizes electromagnetic results from a transient analysis.
The POWERH macro calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).
You can use linear perturbation static analysis to calculate the differential inductance of a system of
coils. For more information, see Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis.

6.6. 3-D Stranded Coil Analysis


This section describes how to do a stranded coil analysis using the current technology 3-D edge-based
elements.

6.6.1. Elements Used in a 3-D Edge-Based Stranded Coil Analysis


To do a stranded coil analysis, you need to use one of these elements:
SOLID236 20-node hexahedral solid, KEYOPT(1) = 2
SOLID237 10-node tetrahedral solid, KEYOPT(1) = 2

6.6.2. Performing a Stranded Coil Analysis


To perform a stranded coil analysis you need to do the following:
1. Select SOLID236 or SOLID237 element type and set KEYOPT(1) = 2.
2. Specify magnetic properties using MP,MURX or TB,BH commands.
3. Optionally, you can specify isotropic electrical resistivity using MP,RSVX for Joule heat calculation.
4. Specify coil parameters using the element real constants on the R command:
SC (R1) Coil cross-sectional area. This constant represents the true physical cross-section of the coil
regardless of symmetry modeling considerations. It includes the cross-sectional area of the wire and
the non-conducting material filling the space between the winding.
NC (R2) Number of coil turns. This constant represents the total number of winding turns in a coil
regardless of any symmetry modeling considerations. Default is 1 turn.
VC (R3) Coil volume. This constant represents the true physical volume of the coil regardless of
symmetry modeling considerations. It includes the volume occupied by the wire and the non-conducting
material filling the space between the winding.

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TX (R4) Coil winding X-directional cosine. This constant represents the X-component of the coil direction vector T = {TX, TY, TZ}T, where T is a unit vector tangent to the coil winding that designates
the current flow direction. Default TX is 0.
TY (R5) Coil winding Y-directional cosine. This constant represents the Y-component of the unit coil
direction vector T. Default TY is 1.
TZ (R6) Coil winding Z-directional cosine. This constant represents the Z-component of the unit coil
direction vector T. Default TZ is 0.
R (R7) Coil resistance. This constant represents the total DC resistance of the coil regardless of any
symmetry modeling considerations. If the wire electrical resistivity , total length L, and diameter D
are available instead, the total coil DC resistance can be calculated as follows R = 4L/(D2).
SYM (R8) Coil symmetry factor. This constant represents the ratio of the full symmetry coil crosssectional area (SC) to the modeled coil area. The input should be greater or equal to 1.
As an example, the figure below illustrates the application of these coil constants for a 90 arc of a
stranded conductor. The figure depicts symmetry about a plane, for which only the top half needs
to be modeled. To specify the current flow, you need to follow these steps:
a. Specify a cylindrical element coordinate system using ESYS.
b. Modify the elements to inherit the new ESYS attribute, using EMODIF.
c. Set the current flow direction constants as {TX, TY, TZ}T = {0,1,0}T.
Figure 6.3: Coil Constants for 1/8 Symmetry Sector of Circular Stranded Coil

Elements in cylindrical
ESYS coordinate system
T(X,Y,Z) = (0,1,0)

VC
Modeled

SYM = 8
J

Not Modeled

SC

1/8 Coil Model


5. Specify the analysis type. The stranded coil analysis can be static, transient or harmonic.
If you perform a static analysis, you can use KEYOPT(2) to select a strong (matrix) or weak (load vector)
electromagnetic coupling. The strong coupling option (KEYOPT(2) = 0) produces an unsymmetric
matrix. In a linear analysis, a strong coupled response is achieved after one iteration. The weak coupling

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


option (KEYOPT(2) = 1) produces a symmetric matrix and requires at least two iterations to achieve a
coupled response.
If you perform a transient or harmonic analysis, you can use KEYOPT(2) to choose between strong
coupling with 'true' or time-integrated electric degrees of freedom (VOLT and EMF). The strong coupling
option with 'true' voltage drop and back-EMF (KEYOPT(2) = 0) produces a nonsymmetric matrix. The
strong coupling option with time-integrated voltage drop and time-integrated back-EMF (KEYOPT(2)
= 2) produces a symmetric matrix provided the symmetry factor (SYM) is 1.
6. Couple VOLT and EMF degrees of freedom for each coil: CP,,VOLT and CP,,EMF.
7. Apply magnetic and electric boundary conditions.
8. Apply electric loading:
Nodal constraints for VOLT and EMF degrees-of-freedom: D,,VOLT and D,,EMF. Applicable when KEYOPT(2) is set to 0 or 1.
Nodal total electric current: F,,AMPS.
Voltage or current loading using KEYOPT(1) = 3, 4,or 9 through 12 of CIRCU124. Applicable when
KEYOPT(2) is set to 0 or 1.

6.6.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Stranded Coil Analysis


In addition to the degrees of freedom results AZ, VOLT and EMF, the following derived data is available
with the stranded-coil analysis:
Nodal magnetic flux density B (X, Y, Z, SUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity H (X, Y, Z, SUM)
Nodal magnetic forces FMAG (X, Y, Z, SUM)
Element conduction current density JT or JS (X, Y, Z, SUM) at the element centroid [1]
Joule heat rate per unit volume (JHEAT) [2]
Element magnetic energy (SENE) (valid for linear materials only)
1. JT and JS are the effective current densities as they are calculated based on the coil cross-sectional area
(SC) that includes the wire and the non-conducting material filling the space between the winding.
2. JHEAT represents the effective Joule heat generation rate per unit volume as it is calculated based on
the modeled coil volume (VC) that includes the wire and the non-conducting material filling the space
between the winding.

6.7. Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


The following examples are available:
6.7.1. Example: Current-Carrying Conductor
6.7.2. Example: Force Calculation Between Two Permanent Magnets
6.7.3. Example: Two-Plate Hall Sensor
6.7.4. Other Examples

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6.7.1. Example: Current-Carrying Conductor


This section describes a sample static edge-based analysis employing SOLID236 3-D 20-Node Electromagnetic Solid elements

6.7.1.1. Analysis Description


This example examines the solution in the slot of an electric machine. For a specified current, the analysis calculates the magnetic field, energy, Joule heat losses, and Lorentz forces.
Figure 6.4: Current-Carrying Conductor in a Slot Within an Iron Region (p. 170) and Figure 6.5: Volume
Model of the Conductor (p. 170) below illustrate, respectively, the problem domain and a volume model
of the conductor within the slot in the domain.
Figure 6.4: Current-Carrying Conductor in a Slot Within an Iron Region

Figure 6.5: Volume Model of the Conductor

The geometry is a block modeling a slot of an electrical machine. The Z-axis coincides with the axis of
the machine; l = 0.3 m is the length. The slot, with a depth of d = 0.1 m, is oriented in the X-axis. The
width of the slot in the y direction is denoted by w = 0.01 m. A conductor with relative permeability,
r = 1, and resistivity, = 1.0e-8, carries a current, I=1000 A, in the Z direction.
The side and bottom of the slot are ideal iron. This is a flux-normal boundary condition (natural, or
Neumann, boundary condition); it is satisfied automatically without any prescription of an explicit
boundary condition.

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


At the opening of the slot at X = d and at axial faces Z = 0 and Z = 1, the flux lines are parallel. This is
an essential flux-parallel (Dirichlet) boundary condition; that is, its satisfaction is not automatic. You can
prescribe it by constraining the flux-edge DOFs AZ - to zero.
The example uses MKS units (the default).

6.7.1.2. Analysis Parameters


l = 0.3

Length

d = 0.1

Depth

w = 0.01

Width

I = 1000

Current

r = 1

Relative magnetic permeability

= 1.0e-8

Electric resistivity (required for Joule heat loss)

n=5

Number of divisions through the slot depth

6.7.1.3. Target Data


Target data for the example are as follows:
Vt = d w l

= 3e-4

m^3 - volume

Hy = i/w x/d

= 1e5 x/d

A/m - magnetic field

By = mur mu0 H

= 4e-2 x/d

T - flux density

Jz = i/ (d w)

= 1e6

A/m^2 - current density

JLOSS

= 3.00

Fx = -integral Jz By dV

= -18.85

N - total force

SENE

= .622

J - energy

6.7.1.4. The Analysis Input


/ Analysis of a Current-Carrying Conductor
/nopr
! *** Problem parameters
l=0.3
! length
d=0.1
! depth
w=0.01
! width
I=1000
! current
mur=1
! relative magnetic permeability
rho=1.0e-8
! electric resistivity (required for Joule heat loss)
n=5
! number of divisions through the slot depth
! *** Derived parameters
jx=0
! current density; x, y, z refer to component
jy=0
jz=I/d/w
! ***
/com,
/com,
/com,
/com,
/com,
/com,
/com,
/com,

Expected results
Hy = I/w*X/d = 1e5X/d A/m
By = mur*mu0*H = 4e-2*Pi*X/d T
Jz = I/(d*w) = 1e6 A/m^2
JHEATloss = 3.0 W
Fx = -integral (Jz*By*dV) = -18.85 N
Energy = 0.622 J

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! *** Create Model


/prep7
et,1,236
keyopt,1,8,1
mp,murx,1,mur
mp,rsvx,1,rho

!
!
!
!

block,0,d,0,w,0,l

! define rectangular block volume region

lsel,s,loc,X,d/2
lesize,all,,,n
lsel,all
esize,,1
vmesh,all
fini

!
!
!
!
!

define magnetic element type - SOLID236


use Lorentz force option
define relative permeability
define electric resistivity

select lines to specify the number of elements


divide the lines along the slot depth for meshing
select all lines
solid volume are subdivided into elements
mesh solid volumes

/solu
! *** Apply Flux-parallel boundary condition
asel,s,loc,X,d
! select areas at the opening of the slot, x=d
asel,a,loc,Z,0
! add areas at Z=0 to the selected set
asel,a,loc,Z,l
! add areas at Z=l to the selected set
da,all,az,0
! apply a zero constraint on selected areas to specify a
! flux-parallel condition
asel,all
! select all areas.
! *** Prescribe current density - body load
bfe,all,js,,jx,jy,jz ! apply current density on all selected elements
solve
fini
! *** Extract solution
/post1
presol,h
! print magnetic field at the corner nodes of elements
/com
presol,b
! print flux density at the corner nodes of elements
/com
presol,jt
! print current density at element centroids
/com
presol,jheat
! print Joule heat per volume in elements
/com
presol,fmag
! print magnetic force at the corner nodes of elements
EMFT

! sum up forces

/view,1,1,.4,.5
! change the viewing angle for displays
/com
plnsol,h,sum
! plot the H field; data from the elements are averaged
/com
plnsol,b,sum
! display the flux density, B (magnitude)
/com
plvect,h,,,,vect,node,on ! display as a vector the field intensity H
/com
! *** store element output items
etable,fe,fmag,X
! x-component of FMAG force
etable,hy,h,y
! y-component of the magnetic field
etable,by,b,y
! y-component of the flux density
etable,jz,jt,z
! z-component of the current density
etable,pd,jheat
! Joule heat rate per unit volume
etable,ve,volu
! element volume
etable,we,sene
! element magnetic energy (SENE)
smult,pe,pd,ve
! element Joule heat
! *** Print the element table items
pretab,ve,by,hy,we
pretab,ve,jz,jh,pe
pretab,ve,jz,by,fe
ssum

172

! sum the entries in the element table

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


! *** Obtain (*get) the results of the summation (ssum)
*get,ft,ssum,,item,fe
*get,wt,ssum,,item,we
*get,pt,ssum,,item,pe
*get,vt,ssum,,item,ve
*VWRITE,vt,ft,wt,pt
(/'volume=',e10.3,' force=',e10.3,' energy=',e10.3,' loss=',e10.3/)
fini
! *** couple with thermal analysis
/prep7
! enter preprocessor
et,1,90
! change element type to thermal
ldread,hgen,,,,,,rmg ! read heat generation load from the result file
bfelist,all,hgen
! list heat generation element body loads
fini
! *** couple with structural analysis
/prep7
et,1,186
! change element type to structural
ldread,forc,,,,,,rmg ! read nodal force load from the result file
flist
! list nodal forces
fini

6.7.2. Example: Force Calculation Between Two Permanent Magnets


This example problem considers the magnetic force interaction between two permanent magnets. The
magnet configuration and the analytical solution are described in 3-D Analytical Calculation of the Forces
Exerted between Two Cuboidal Magnets by G. Akoun and J.-P. Yonnet, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,
vol. MAG-20, No. 5, pp. 1962-1964 (1984)

6.7.2.1. Problem Description and Results


Two permanent magnets of sizes 20 x 12 x 6 mm and 12 x 20 x 6 mm are positioned in space such that
their respective sides are parallel and their centers are offset by -4 mm in the X- and Y-directions and
by 8mm in the Z-direction with respect to the lower magnet (Figure 6.6: Finite Element Model of the
Magnets (p. 174)). In both magnets, the residual induction vector of magnitude 0.38 tesla is oriented
along the Z-axis.

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Figure 6.6: Finite Element Model of the Magnets

A series of magnetostatic analyses is performed to determine the magnetic forces Fx and Fy acting on
the magnets as the upper magnet moves in the X-direction (Figure 6.7: Magnetic Forces vs. Upper
Magnet Displacement (p. 175)). The magnets are enclosed in an air box of size 60 x 60 x 54 mm. Flux
parallel boundary conditions are imposed on the exterior surface of the air enclosure. Both the magnets
and the air region are modeled using the magnetic analysis option (KEYOPT(1)=0) of SOLID236. For a
more accurate force summation over the regions with corners, the midside nodes contribution to
magnetic forces is included in the corner node FMAG force output (KEYOPT(7)=1).
The EMFT command macro is used to sum up the element FMAG forces acting on the lower magnet
(volume 2). Note that to correctly sum up the Maxwell forces using the EMFT macro, you must select
all the nodes of the lower magnet as well as the elements attached to those nodes.

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


Figure 6.7: Magnetic Forces vs. Upper Magnet Displacement

The side view of the magnetic field and magnetic force distribution for the initial position of the upper
magnet (d = 0 mm) are shown in Figure 6.8: Magnetic Field Distribution in the Magnets (p. 176) and
Figure 6.9: Magnetic Force Distribution in the Magnets (p. 177) respectively.

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Figure 6.8: Magnetic Field Distribution in the Magnets

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


Figure 6.9: Magnetic Force Distribution in the Magnets

6.7.2.2. Command Listing


/title, Forces between two permanent magnets
/nopr
!npts=16
!*dim,dist,table,npts
!*dim,F,table,npts,2
d=0
d_air=0
!*do,i,1,npts
!parsave,all
!/clear,nostart
!parres
! Problem parameters
Pi=acos(-1)
mu0=4*Pi*1e-7
mu0r=1
Br=0.38
a=10 $ b=6 $ c=3
aa=6 $ bb=10 $ cc=3
xo=-4 $ yo=-4 $ zo=8

!
!
!
!
!
!

permeability of free space, H/m


relative permeability of free space
residual induction, tesla
lower magnet dimensions
upper magnet dimensions
upper magnet center offset

/com, *** Upper Magnet Displacement d = %d% (mm)


/PREP7

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! Solid model
block,-a,a,-b,b,-c,c
wpoff,xo,yo,zo
block,-aa+d,aa+d,-bb,bb,-cc,cc
vplot
wpoff,-xo,-yo,-zo
block,-30,30+d_air,-34,26,-23,31
vovlap,all
! Finite element model
esize,1
et,1,SOLID236
keyop,1,7,1
vmesh,1,2
esize,4
numcmp,volu
esha,1
vmesh,3

! lower magnet volume


! upper (moving) magnet volume

! air box

! magnetic solid
! condense forces to the corner nodes

! Material properties
mp,mgzz,2,Br/mu0
mp,murx,2,mu0r
mp,murx,1,mu0r
vsel,s,,,1,2,,1
emod,all,mat,2
alls
nsel,s,ext
d,all,az,0
alls

! flux parallel boundary conditions

vlscale,all,,,1e-3,1e-3,1e-3,,,1

! scale the volumes to mm

WPSTYLE,,,,,,,,0
/ANG,1
/VIEW,1,1,1,1
/VUP,1,Z
esel,s,mat,,2
eplot
alls
fini
/SOLU
solve
fini
/POST1
vsel,s,,,2,,,1

! select lower magnet along with the


! associated elements and nodes

esln
EMFT
alls

! sum up magnetic forces

esel,s,mat,,2
/VSCALE,,0.3
plvect,b,,,,vect,elem,on,on
plvect,fmag,,,,vect,node,on,on
alls
fini

! plot magnetic field


! plot magnetic forces

!/com, i = %i%
!dist(i)=d
!F(i,1)=_fxsum
!F(i,2)=_fysum
!d=d+2
!*if,d,gt,8,then
!d_air=d-8
!*endif
!*enddo

! FX sum calculated by EMFT


! FY sum calculated by EMFT
! upper magnet displacement update

!/axlab,x,Distance d (mm)
!/axlab,y,Forces acting the magnet (N)

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


!/gcol,1,Fx
!/gcol,2,Fy
!*vplot,dist(1),F(1,1),2

6.7.3. Example: Two-Plate Hall Sensor


A two-plate Hall sensor measurement of an applied magnetic field is demonstrated. A detailed model
description can be found in Smart Silicon Sensors Examples of Hall-effect Sensors by P. C. De Jong,
F. R. Reidijk, and J. Van der Meer, IEEE Sensors, vol. 2, 2002: pp. 1440-1444.
The analytical solution is described in "Integrated Hall Magnetic Sensors" by Popovic, R. S., and P. Kejik,
Smart Sensor Systems. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2008: p. 252.

6.7.3.1. Problem Description and Results


Two 6.0e-3 m x 6.0e-3 m x 0.4e-3 m plates are modeled with Hall coefficient Rh = -0.0001 m3/C, electrical
resistivity = 1.6e-3*m, and relative magnetic permeability = 1 using SOLID236 elements with the
electromagnetic analysis option (KEYOPT(1)=1).
Electrical contacts are made on the plates by coupling the voltage of nodes (CP, VOLT) located within
a small volume at each corner of the plates.
The plates are connected in parallel to a voltage source. The voltage load V0 = 3 V is applied by coupling
the voltage (CP, VOLT) of the independent voltage source (CIRCU124 with KEYOPT (1) = 4) with the
corresponding electrical contacts on the plates. A ground is created by setting the voltage of one
electrical contact on each plate to zero (D,,VOLT).
The plates are connected to two terminals for measuring the output voltage. Corresponding electrical
contacts on each plate are connected to the same terminal, as shown in Figure 6.10: Finite Element
Model of the Two-Plate Hall Sensor (p. 180). The connections for these terminals are created by coupling
the voltage (CP,VOLT) of the appropriate electrical contacts on the plates.
Meshing facet elements (MESH200) are used to depict the presence of wires.

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Figure 6.10: Finite Element Model of the Two-Plate Hall Sensor

A series of static electromagnetic analyses is performed on the sensor to determine the Hall voltage.
The first analysis is performed without any applied magnetic field to determine the offset voltage. The
output voltage should be zero in the absence of a magnetic field. Due to non-uniform meshing, the
current distribution is not symmetrical, resulting in a small potential difference (offset voltage) across
the output pair of contacts. In a real application, the offset voltage can be caused by various factors,
such as mechanical stresses, material inhomogeneities, or temperature variations.
The initial electric potential distribution in the Hall plates is created by the applied voltage across the
sensor, as shown in Figure 6.11: Electric Potential Distribution in the Plates (p. 181).

180

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


Figure 6.11: Electric Potential Distribution in the Plates

For the second static analysis, the output voltage is calculated when there is an applied magnetic field
(0.8 T) perpendicular to the Hall plate, as shown in Figure 6.12: Vector Plot of Applied Magnetic Field
on the Plates (p. 182). The offset voltage is subtracted from this output voltage to determine the Hall
voltage.

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Figure 6.12: Vector Plot of Applied Magnetic Field on the Plates

The magnetic field as measured by the sensor can be calculated by Eq. 9.14 in the reference:
=

Where:
I = the average current through the Hall plates. This value is retrieved using *GET.
c = the thickness of the plates.
VH = the Hall voltage from the sensor.
From the two-plate sensor measurement for Hall voltage, the applied magnetic field is calculated to be
0.788 T. The actual applied magnetic field is 0.8 T.

6.7.3.2. Command Listing


/title, Example of a Two Hall Plate Sensor
/NOPR
! *** Plate dimensions
a=3e-3
! Half plate length, m
b=3e-3
! Half plate height, m
c=0.4e-3
! Plate width, m

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


! *** Material properties for n-type InAs
Rh=-0.0001
! Hall coefficient, m^3/C
rho=1.6e-3
! Resistivity, Ohm*m
mu=1
! Relative magnetic permeability
! *** Load parameters
V=3
! Applied voltage, V
Bz=0.8
! Applied magnetic field, T
/PREP7
et,1,SOLID236,1 ! Electromagnetic analysis, AZ+VOLT
mp,rh,1,Rh
mp,rsvx,1,rho
mp,murx,1,mu
block,-a,a,-b,b,0,c
! Hall plate 1
block,-a,-a+a/8,b,b-b/8,c/2,c ! Electrical contacts plate 1
block,-a,-a+a/8,-b,-b+b/8,c/2,c
block,a,a-a/8,b,b-b/8,c/2,c
block,a,a-a/8,-b,-b+b/8,c/2,c
block,2*a,4*a,2*b,4*b,0,c ! Hall plate 2
block,2*a,2*a+a/8,4*b,4*b-b/8,c/2,c ! Electrical contacts plate 2
block,2*a,2*a+a/8,2*b,2*b+b/8,c/2,c
block,4*a,4*a-a/8,2*b,2*b+b/8,c/2,c
block,4*a,4*a-a/8,4*b,4*b-b/8,c/2,c
esize,c
msha,1,3d
! Tetrahedral
vovlap,all
vmesh,all
! *** Voltage supply and wires
w1=node(-a,b,c)
! Nodes for wire modeling
w2=node(a,-b,c)
w3=node(a,b,c)
w4=node(-a,-b,c)
w5=node(2*a,2*b,c)
w6=node(4*a,4*b,c)
w7=node(4*a,2*b,c)
w8=node(2*a,4*b,c)
*get,n_max,node,,num,max ! Get max node number
n,n_max+1,-2*a,2*b,c ! Define nodes for voltage and wire elements
n,n_max+2,-2*a,,c
n,n_max+3,-2*a,-2*b,c
n,n_max+4,-a,2*b,c
n,n_max+5,a,-2*b,c
n,n_max+6,5*a,-2*b,c
n,n_max+7,5*a,4*b,c
n,n_max+8,a,4*b,c
n,n_max+9,-a,-3*b,c
n,n_max+10,4*a,-3*b,c
n,n_max+11,a,5*b,c
n,n_max+12,7*a,5*b,c
n,n_max+13,7*a,-3*b,c
et,2,CIRCU124,4
! Independent voltage source from CIRCU124
r,2,V
type,2
real,2
e,n_max+1,n_max+3,n_max+2
/icscale,,0.1
et,3,MESH200,0,0,0,0
type,3
e,n_max+1,n_max+4
e,n_max+4,w1
e,n_max+3,n_max+5
e,n_max+5,w2
e,n_max+5,n_max+6
e,n_max+6,n_max+7
e,n_max+7,w6
e,n_max+4,w5
e,w3,n_max+8

! Wire from MESH200

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3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis


e,n_max+8,w8
e,w4,n_max+9
e,n_max+9,n_max+10
e,n_max+10,w7
e,n_max+8,n_max+11
e,n_max+11,n_max+12
e,n_max+10,n_max+13
/color,elem,12,3620,3628
/color,elem,5,3629,3636
! *** Boundary conditions and loads
vsel,s,volu,,11
vsel,a,volu,,16
nslv
nsel,a,node,,n_max+1
cp,1,volt,all
! Couple for voltage supply
vsel,s,volu,,14
vsel,a,volu,,18
nslv
nsel,a,node,,n_max+3
d,all,volt,0
! Ground
vsel,s,volu,,12
vsel,a,volu,,17
nslv
cp,2,volt,all
! Couple for output voltage
n1=ndnext(0)
vsel,s,volu,,13
vsel,a,volu,,15
nslv
cp,3,volt,all
! Couple for output voltage
n2=ndnext(0)
alls
dflx,all,,,0
fini

! Set B-field in the +Z-direction to B=0 T

/SOLU
outres,all,all
solve
Voff=volt(n2)-volt(n1) ! Offset voltage
esel,s,type,,1
nsle
dflx,all,,,Bz
! Create uniform B-field in the +Z-direction
alls
solve
fini
/POST1
vsel,s,volu,,11
nslv
fsum
*get,I_1,fsum,,ITEM,amps ! Current through plate 1
vsel,s,volu,,16
nslv
fsum
*get,I_2,fsum,,ITEM,amps ! Current through plate 2
alls
I_avg=(I_1+I_2)/2 ! Average current through plates
/com
/com -------------------- RESULTS -------------------/com
/com ***** Offset Voltage *****
/com
/com Offset voltage:
%Voff% V
/com
/com
/com ***** Total Output Voltage *****
/com
/com Total output voltage (with magnetic field):
%volt(n2)-volt(n1)% V
/com
/com
/com ***** Hall Voltage *****

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Example 3-D Magnetostatic and Edge-Based Analyses


/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
/com
fini

Calculated Hall Voltage:

%volt(n2)-volt(n1)-Voff% V

***** Magnetic Field *****


Calculated Magnetic Field:
Applied Magnetic Field:

%((volt(n2)-volt(n1)-Voff)*c)/(Rh*I_avg)% T
%Bz% T

6.7.4. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc. publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains other examples of
various types of analyses, including the following examples of 3-D static edge-based magnetic analysis:
VM213 -- Differential Inductance of a Transformer
VM214 -- Rod Rotating in a Uniform Magnetic Field
VM241 -- TEAM20: 3-D Static Force problem
VM277 -- Hall Plate in a Uniform Magnetic Field

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185

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Chapter 7: 3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


Harmonic edge-based analyses use SOLID236 and SOLID237 elements. See Elements Used in Edge-Based
Analysis (p. 158) and Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159) for more information about the edge-based analysis.
The following edge-based harmonic analysis topics are available:
7.1. Analysis Considerations
7.2. Performing a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis
7.3. Reviewing the Results from a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis
7.4. Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses

7.1. Analysis Considerations


Before setting up your analysis, consider the following:
When modeling stranded conductors using SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1)=0, the applied current
density J specified on the BFE command (BFE,,JS) must satisfy the solenoidal condition i = . For more
details about the solenoidal condition, see Analysis Considerations (p. 162).
The harmonic analysis supports only linear material properties: magnetic permeability MP,MURX (also
MURY, MURZ) and electrical resistivity MP,RSVX (also RSVY, RSVZ). An electromagnetic harmonic analysis
using SOLID236 and SOLID237 also supports electrical permittivity MP,PERX (also PERY, PERZ).
Permanent magnets are not permitted in a harmonic analysis unless this is a linear perturbation harmonic
analysis.

7.2. Performing a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis


To perform a harmonic edge-based magnetic analysis, do the following tasks:
1. Specify the electromagnetics edge formulation by choosing Main Menu> Preferences> Electromagnetics: Magnetic-Edge from the GUI. Doing so lets you filter out other ANSYS commands not involved
in an edge-based magnetic analysis.
2. Define a jobname and title for your analysis. To do so, use the commands or GUI paths shown below:
Command(s): /FILNAME and /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
Utility Menu> File> Change Title
3. Enter the ANSYS preprocessor to begin defining your model:
Command(s): /PREP7
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor
4. Choose element type SOLID236 or SOLID237 via either of the following:
Command(s): ET
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


5. Select the formulation option suitable for the specified element type and physics region. (For information on formulation options, see the earlier discussion.)
Command(s): KEYOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
6. Define material properties. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) describes the material properties
you can use and tells you how to specify them. For an eddy current region, you must specify the
electric resistivity, RSVX.
7. Build the model. For instructions on building and meshing models, see the Modeling and Meshing
Guide.
8. Assign attributes to the volumes (that is, associate the element types, the conducting and nonconducting regions, the material properties, etc. with the appropriate volumes).
Command(s): VATT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes
9. Mesh the model, specifying brick or tetrahedral element shape.
Command(s): VMESH
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped
10. Enter the SOLUTION processor, using either of the following:
Command(s): SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
11. Apply flux-parallel and flux-normal solid model boundary conditions to the boundaries.
Command(s): DA
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary
For edge-based analyses, the label AZ (when set to zero) applies the flux-parallel boundary
condition. No prescription is required to set flux-normal, because it is the natural boundary
condition. In the rare case where the AZ = 0 condition is not general enough for flux-parallel
conditions, you can prescribe constraints using individual D commands (or the equivalent GUI
path).
12. Apply source loading. See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159) for
information on source loading.
13. Choose the harmonic analysis type and select the frequency of the time change. To specify the
analysis type, use either of the following:
Command(s): ANTYPE,HARMIC,NEW
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic
To specify the frequency, use the command or GUI path shown below:
Command(s): HARFRQ
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq and Substps
14. Choose the solver you wish to use. Edge formulation analyses can use the sparse direct (SPARSE)
solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate
Gradient (ICCG) solver. Select an equation solver using either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
The sparse and ICCG solvers are recommended for harmonic edge analysis.

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Reviewing the Results from a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis


15. Choose load step options. (Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367) of this
manual describes these options.)
16. Solve the model by using either of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE (with OPT field set to zero)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
When you use the edge-element formulation, by default the ANSYS program gauges the
problem domain over all selected elements and nodes. Gauging removes unneeded degrees
of freedom by setting them to zero; this in turn enables ANSYS to solve your analysis problem
faster. You can control gauging using either of the following:
Command(s): GAUGE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Magnetics> Options Only> Gauging
Gauging is required for electromagnetic analyses with elements using an edge formulation.
Therefore, in most cases you should not turn automatic gauging off unless you are an expert ANSYS
user and want to do your own gauging. The ANSYS program removes the extra constraints set
by gauging after solution; therefore, gauging is transparent to users.
17. To leave the SOLUTION processor, use one of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish
18. Do postprocessing and review the analysis results, as described below.

7.3. Reviewing the Results from a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from an edge-based harmonic magnetic analysis
to the magnetics results file, Jobname.RMG (or to Jobname.RST if the electric potential (VOLT) is
active). Results include the data listed below, many of which vary harmonically at the operating frequency
(or frequencies) for which the measurable quantities can be computed as the real solution times cosine
(t) minus the imaginary solution times sine (t). is the angular frequency. For more details, see the
Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
Primary data: Nodal DOFs ( AZ, VOLT, EMF)
Derived data:
Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)
Nodal electric field intensity (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM)
Nodal electric conduction current density JC, (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG; components X, Y, Z, SUM)
Total current density (JTX, JTY, JTZ, JTSUM)
Joule heat rate per unit volume (JHEAT)
Element magnetic energy (SENE)
Additional data are available. See the Element Reference for details.
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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor. The results are out-of-phase with
the input loads (that is, they lag the input loads), and therefore are complex. They are calculated and
stored in terms of real and imaginary components as detailed above.
Use POST1 to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies. For viewing results over a
range of frequencies, use the time-history postprocessor, POST26.
For a harmonic magnetic analysis, the frequency range usually consists of only the AC frequency.
Therefore, typically you use POST1 to review the results.
To choose a postprocessor, use one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1, /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro

7.3.1. Commands to Help You in Postprocessing


ANSYS provides a number of commands (listed below) for Postprocessing:
Table 7.1: Postprocessing Commands
Task

Command(s)

Select the real solution

SET,1,1,,0

Select the imaginary solution

SET,1,1,,1

Print edge-flux degree of freedom (AZ) [5]

PRNSOL,AZ

Print electric potential [6] or time integrated electric potential degree of


freedom (VOLT) [5]

PRNSOL,VOLT

Print magnetic flux density at corner nodes [1, 5]

PRVECT,B

Print magnetic field at corner nodes [1,5]

PRVECT,H

Print electric field intensity at corner nodes [1, 5]

PRVECT,EF

Print conduction current density at corner nodes [1, 5]

PRVECT,JC

Print total current density at element centroids [5]

PRVECT,JT

Print force at element nodes [2, 6]

PRVECT,FMAG

Print magnetic flux density at element nodes [5]

PRESOL,B

Print electric field intensity at element nodes [5]

PRESOL,EF

Print conduction current density at element nodes [5]

PRESOL,JC

Print magnetic field at element nodes [5]

PRESOL,H

Print total current density at element centroid [5]

PRESOL,JT

Print force at element nodes [2,6]

PRESOL,FMAG

Print magnetic energy [3, 5]

PRESOL,SENE

Print Joule heat density [4, 6]

PRESOL,JHEAT

Create element table item for centroid flux density [5], X component. (Issue ETABLE,Lab,B,X
similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)
Create element table item for centroid magnetic [5] field, X component.
(Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

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ETABLE,Lab,H,X

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Reviewing the Results from a Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis


Task
Create element table item for centroid electric field intensity [5], X component. (Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

Command(s)
ETABLE,Lab,EF,X

Create element table item for electric current density [5] field, X component.ETABLE,Lab,JC,,X
(Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)
Create element table item for Joule heat density [4, 6]

ETABLE,Lab,JHEAT

Create element table item for centroid current [5] density, X component.
(Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,JT,X

Create element table item for magnetic force [2, 6] over element, X component. (Issue similar commands for Y, Z, and SUM components.)

ETABLE,Lab,FMAG,X

Create element table item for element stored energy [3]

ETABLE,Lab,SENE

Print the indicated element table item(s)

PRETAB,Lab,1,...

1. Average of selected elements adjacent to nodes.


2. Force is summed over elements and distributed among nodes for coupling purposes.
3. Magnetic energy is summed over elements.
4. To obtain power loss, multiply by element volume.
5. Instantaneous value (real/imaginary, at t = 0 and t = -90) in case of a harmonic analysis.
6. Time-averaged value stored in both the real and imaginary data sets.
For more information about these notations, see the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
The ETABLE command also allows you to view less frequently-used items.
You can view most of these items graphically. To do so, substitute plotting commands for the commands
whose names begin with "PL" (for example, use PLNSOL instead of PRNSOL, as illustrated below):
For this
Command...

Substitute this
Command...

Or this GUI Path...

PRNSOL

PLNSOL

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Nodal


Solution

PRVECT

PLVECT

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Vector Plot

PRESOL

PLESOL

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem


Solution

PRETAB

PLETAB

Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem


Table Data

You also can plot element table items. See the Basic Analysis Guide for more information.
The ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) also contains commands that may be useful in postprocessing, and several magnetics macros also are available for results processing purposes. For more information about the APDL, see the ANSYS Parametric Design Language Guide.

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The following topic, "Reading In Results Data," discusses some typical POST1 operations for a harmonic
magnetic analysis. For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic Analysis
Guide.

7.3.2. Reading in Results Data


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RMG or Jobname.RST) must be available.
Results from a harmonic magnetic analysis are complex and consist of real and imaginary components.
To read either type of component (you cannot read both types at the same time), use either of the
following:
Command(s): SET
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results
An SRSS combination of the real and imaginary parts gives the true magnitude of the results. You can
do this via load case operations.

7.3.2.1. Contour Displays


You can contour almost any result item (including flux density and field intensity) using the following
commands or menu paths:
Command(s): PLNSOL, PLESOL
GUI: Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Elem Solution
Utility Menu> Plot> Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solution

Caution
The PLNSOL command or its equivalent menu path average nodal contour plots for derived
data, such as flux density and field intensity, at the nodes. Therefore, be sure to disallow
averaging of data across material boundaries, using one of these methods:
Command(s): AVRES,2
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Options for Outp

7.3.2.2. Tabular Listings


You can produce tabular listings of results data, either unsorted or sorted by node or by element. To
sort data before listing it, use any of the following:
Command(s): ESORT, NSORT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Nodes
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Sorted Listing> Sort Elems
To produce tabular data listings, use any of the following:
Command(s): PRESOL, PRNSOL, PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses

7.3.2.3. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as global forces, torque, source input energy, inductance, flux linkages, and terminal voltage) from the data available in the database in postprocessing.
The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros for these calculations:
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The POWERH macro calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body.
The EMFT macro sums up the electromagnetic nodal forces. (See Calculating Magnetic Force and
Torque (p. 165))
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).

7.4. Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


The following examples are available:
7.4.1. Example: 3-D Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis
7.4.2. Example: Eddy Currents Induced in a Ferromagnetic Plate
7.4.3. Example: Magnetic Field in a Parallel Plate Capacitor
7.4.4. Example: Transformer Analysis

7.4.1. Example: 3-D Harmonic Edge-Based Analysis


This section describes a sample harmonic edge-based analysis, performed using ANSYS.

7.4.1.1. The Analysis Described


This example examines the solution in the slot of an electric machine. For a specified AC (harmonic)
current, the analysis calculates the magnetic field, energy, Joule heat losses and forces.
Figure 6.4: Current-Carrying Conductor in a Slot Within an Iron Region (p. 170) (in 3-D Magnetostatics
and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157)) and Figure 7.1: Volume Model of the Conductor (p. 193)
illustrate, respectively, the problem domain and a volume model of the conductor within the slot in
the domain.
Figure 7.1: Volume Model of the Conductor

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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


The geometry is a block modeling a slot of an electrical machine. The z-axis coincides with the axis of
the machine; l = .3 m is the length. The slot, with a depth of d = 0.1 m, is oriented in the x-axis. The
width of the slot in the y direction is denoted by w = 0.01 m. A conductor with relative permeability,
r = 1, and resistivity, = 1.0e-8, carries a current of 2236 A at a phase angle of 26.57 (corresponds in
complex terms to 2000 + j1000 A). The analysis frequency is 3 Hz, which corresponds to a 5% slip frequency for a machine operating at 60 Hz.
The side and bottom of the slot are ideal iron. This is a flux-normal boundary condition (natural (Neumann) boundary condition); it is satisfied automatically without any prescription of an explicit boundary
condition.
At the opening of the slot at x = d and at axial faces z = 0 and z = 1, the flux lines are parallel. This is
an essential flux-parallel (Dirichlet) boundary condition; that is, its satisfaction is not automatic. You can
prescribe it by setting (constraining) the flux-edge DOFs to a constant value, usually zero.
The example uses MKS dimensions (the default).

7.4.1.2. Analysis Parameters


Parameters for the example are as follows:
l = 0.3

Length

d = 0.1

Depth

w = 0.01

Width

i = 2000 + j1000

Current

mur = 1

Relative magnetic permeability

= 1.0e-8

Electric resistivity (required for Joule loss)

n = 20

Number of divisions through the slot depth

fr = 3

Frequency

7.4.1.3. Target Data


Target data for the example are as follows:
Time-average Force in slot
FXrms = -46.89
Time-average Joule heat loss
PAVG = 25.9 watts
/TITLE, Harmonic analysis of a conducting plate
/COM
/NOPR
! *** Define model parameters
l=0.3
d=0.1
w=0.01
mur=1
rho=1.0e-8
fr=3
curr=2000.0

194

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

length
depth
width
relative magnetic permeability
electric resistivity (required for Joule loss)
rotor frequency at 5% slip
current real

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


curi=1000.0
n=20
pi=3.1415926
mu0=pi*4.0e-7

! current imaginary
! meshing parameter
! free space permeability

! *** create model


/PREP7
ET,1,236,1
KEYO,1,2,2
KEYO,1,8,1
MP,MURX,1,mur
MP,RSVX,1,rho
BLOCK,0,d,0,w,0,l
LSEL,S,LOC,X,d/2
LESIZE,ALL,,,n
LSEL,ALL
ESIZE,,1
VMESH,ALL
FINI

! timie-integrated VOLT, symmetric system


! calculate Lorentz force

/SOLU
ANTYP,HARM
HARFR,fr
! *** Apply Dirichlet boundary condition
NSEL,S,LOC,X,d
NSEL,A,LOC,Z,0
NSEL,A,LOC,Z,l
D,ALL,AZ,0
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0
D,ALL,VOLT,0
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,l
CP,1,VOLT,ALL
*get,n1,node,,num,min
F,n1,AMPS,curr,curi
NSEL,ALL
SOLVE
FINI
! *** Extract solution
/POST1
SET,1,1
ETABLE,fxr,FMAG,X
PRETAB,fxr
POWERH
SSUM
FINI
! *** Extract solution
/POST1
SET,1,1
ETABLE,fxr,FMAG,X
PRETAB,fxr
POWERH
SSUM
FINI

7.4.2. Example: Eddy Currents Induced in a Ferromagnetic Plate


This example problem considers eddy currents in a ferromagnetic plate excited by a coil. A detailed
model description can be found in Challenges of Magnetic Quasi-Stationary Field Computations in Industrial Power Devices by B. Cranganu-Cretu, J. Smajic and H. Nordborg, Proc. 12th International
Symposium on Numerical Field Calculation in Electrical Engineering, pp. 313-317 (2006).

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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)

7.4.2.1. Problem Description and Results


A 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.015 m ferromagnetic plate with electrical conductivity = 6.66e6 S/m and relative
magnetic permeability of = 200 is excited by a cylindrical coil placed at a distance d = 0.05 m from
the plate. The coil of height hc = 0.1 m with inner and outer radii of ri = 0.05 m and ro = 0.06 m respectively is energized by an rms current I = 1e5 A at 50 Hz.
A harmonic electromagnetic analysis is performed to determine the eddy current loss in a ferromagnetic
plate. Only a quarter symmetry sector is considered for the analysis (Figure 7.2: Finite Element Model
of the Ferromagnetic Plate and Coil (p. 196)). The coil and the plate are enclosed in an air box of size
0.5 x 0.5 x 0.4 m. Flux parallel boundary conditions are imposed on the exterior surface of the air enclosure.
Figure 7.2: Finite Element Model of the Ferromagnetic Plate and Coil

Both the coil and the ferromagnetic plate are modeled using the electromagnetic analysis option
(KEYOPT(1) = 1) of SOLID236. In addition, KEYOPT(5) is set to 1 for the coil to suppress the eddy currents.
The air box is modeled using the magnetic analysis option KEYOPT(1) = 0.
The POWERH command macro is used to calculate the time-averaged (rms) power loss in the plate.
Taking into account the symmetry factor, the power loss is found to be Pav=131.9 watts. The real and
imaginary components of eddy current density in the plate are shown in Figure 7.3: Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate (Real Solution) (p. 197) and in Figure 7.4: Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate
(Imaginary Solution) (p. 197), below.

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


Figure 7.3: Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate (Real Solution)

Figure 7.4: Eddy Currents Distribution in the Plate (Imaginary Solution)

The electromagnetic analysis is followed by a steady-state thermal analysis to determine the temperature
distribution in the plate due to Joule heating produced by the eddy currents. The ambient temperature
is assumed to be 70 C. The thermal conductivity and convection coefficient of the plate are taken to
be k=50 watts/(mC) and h=100 W/(m2C) respectively.
The time-averaged Joule heat generation rate is transferred to the thermal SOLID90 model using the
LDREAD,HGEN command. The resulting steady-state temperature distribution is shown in Figure 7.5: Tem-

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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


perature Distribution in the Plate (p. 198). The average calculated temperature in the plate is Tav=110.1
C
Figure 7.5: Temperature Distribution in the Plate

7.4.2.2. Command Listing


/title, Ferromagnetic plate excited with a cylindrical coil, 1/4 symmetry
/nopr
/VIEW,1,1,1,1
/VUP,1,Z
/SHOW,win32c
! use /SHOW,x11c for X Window System
/CONT,1,18
! *** Problem parameters
! Ferromagnetic plate:
lp=0.1
! length, m
hp=0.015
! height, m
eszp=0.002
! element size, m
sigp=6.66e6
! conductivity, S/m
mu_fer=200
! relative permeability
k=50
! thermal conductivity, W/m_C
h=100
! convection coefficient, W/(m^2_C)
! Coil:
ri=0.05
ro=0.06
hc=0.1
d=0.05
eszc=0.005
frq=50
I=1e5
mu_coil=1

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

inner radius, m
outer radius, m
height, m
distance between the coil and the plate,m
element size, m
frequency, Hz
rms coil current, A
relative permeability

! Air box:
la=0.5
ha1=0.05
ha2=0.35
esza=0.03
mu_air=1
sigc=2e-8
Tamb=70

!
!
!
!
!
!
!

length, m
lower height, m
upper height, m
element size, m
relative permeability
conductivity, S/m
ambient temperature,C

198

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses

/com,
/com, *** Eddy current analysis
/com,
/PREP7
et,1,236,1
! AZ-VOLT - ferromagnetic plate
et,2,236,1,,,,1 ! AZ-VOLT (no eddy currents) - coil
et,3,236
! AZ - air
block,0,lp/2,0,lp/2,0,hp
cylinder,ri,ro,hp+d,hp+d+hc,0,90
block,0,la/2,0,la/2,-ha1,ha2
vovlap,all
numcmp,all

! plate
! coil
! air

mp,murx,1,mu_fer
mp,rsvx,1,1/sigp
mp,murx,2,mu_coil
mp,rsvx,2,sigc
mp,murx,3,mu_air
type,1
mat,1
esize,eszp
vmesh,1
type,2
mat,2
esize,eszc
vmesh,2
esha,1
type,3
mat,3
esize,esza
vmesh,3
asel,s,,,11
nsla,s,1
cp,1,volt,all
f,ndnext(0),amps,I*sqrt(2)

rms

asel,s,,,12
nsla,s,1
d,all,volt,0
nsel,all
asel,s,,,3
asel,a,,,5
nsla,s,1
d,all,volt,0
nsel,all
nsel,s,ext
d,all,az,0
nsel,all
allsel
fini

! Flux-parallel magnetic BC

/SOLU
antyp,harm
harf,,frq
solve
fini
/POST1
set,1,1
esel,s,mat,,1
POWERH
plve,jt,,,,vect,elem,on

! select the plate


! calculate rms power loss
! plot eddy currents (real part)

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199

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set,1,1,,1
plve,jt,,,,vect,elem,on
alls
fini

! plot eddy currents (imag part)

/com,
/com, Ansys computed power loss = %Pavg*4% watts
/com,
/com, *** Thermal analysis
/com,
/PREP7
ddele,all,az
vsel,s,volu,,1
eslv
et,1,90
LDREAD,hgen
vsel,inve
vclear,all
alls
etdele,2,3
mp,kxx,1,k
nsel,s,ext
sf,all,conv,h,Tamb
nsel,all
fini
/SOLU
anty,static
solve
fini
/POST1
set,1,1
plnsol,temp
nsort,temp
*get,minTemp,sort,,min
*get,maxTemp,sort,,max
avTemp=(minTemp+maxTemp)/2
/com,
/com, Average temperature of the plate = %avTemp% (C)
/com,
fini

7.4.3. Example: Magnetic Field in a Parallel Plate Capacitor


This example problem demonstrates the calculation of the magnetic field induced by both the conduction
and displacement currents in a parallel plate capacitor filled with a lossy dielectric. Simulation results
are compared to the analytical solution.

7.4.3.1. Problem Description and Results


A parallel plate capacitor of radius a = 2 cm and thickness d = 0.5 cm is filled with a lossy dielectric
with relative permittivity = 3.8 and electrical resistivity = 1000 m. The capacitor is driven by a timeharmonic electric field of magnitude Eo = 2400 V/m at frequency f = 1 MHz. A harmonic electromagnetic
analysis is performed to determine the magnetic field induced in the capacitor as a function of distance
r from the axis. Only a quarter symmetry sector is considered for the finite element model (Figure 7.6: Finite Element Model of the Lossy Capacitor (p. 201)).

200

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


Figure 7.6: Finite Element Model of the Lossy Capacitor

The capacitor is modeled using the electromagnetic analysis option (KEYOPT(1) = 1) of SOLID236. Flux
parallel magnetic boundary conditions (AZ = 0) are imposed on the exterior surfaces of the capacitor
and on the symmetry planes. The electrodes are defined by coupling the electric potential degree of
freedom (VOLT) on the circular surfaces of the capacitor. The electric potential difference Eo*d is applied
across the electrodes to create a uniform electric field (Figure 7.7: Electric Field in the Capacitor (p. 201)).
Figure 7.7: Electric Field in the Capacitor

= c+ d
The total current density s
induced in the lossy dielectric is composed of the conduction
current density (real part)
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201

3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


c =

and the displacement current density (imaginary part)

= r
d = r

Note that the operating frequency f is low enough to allow neglecting the eddy currents contribution
to the conduction current Jc. The conduction and displacement currents induce the real (Figure 7.8: Magnetic Field Induced by the Conduction Current (p. 202)) and imaginary (Figure 7.9: Magnetic Field Induced
by the Displacement Current (p. 203).) magnetic fields, respectively.
Figure 7.8: Magnetic Field Induced by the Conduction Current

202

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


Figure 7.9: Magnetic Field Induced by the Displacement Current

Using the Ampere's circuital law:

= s 2

the real and imaginary parts of the magnetic field magnitude can be expressed respectively as follows:
c
r =

and
d
i=

These analytical expressions were used to demonstrate the agreement between the ANSYS calculated
and the target magnetic field as a function of distance r from the axis. (Figure 7.10: Computed and
Analytical Real Magnetic Fields Hr (p. 204) and Figure 7.11: Computed and Analytical Imaginary Magnetic
Field Hi (p. 204))

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203

3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


Figure 7.10: Computed and Analytical Real Magnetic Fields Hr

Figure 7.11: Computed and Analytical Imaginary Magnetic Field Hi

7.4.3.2. Command Listing


/title, Magnetic field in a parallel plate capacitor, 1/4 symmetry
/VIEW,1,1,1,1
/VUP,1,Z
/com,
/com, Problem parameters:
Pi=acos(-1)
a=2.e-2
! radius, m
d=0.5e-2
! thickness, m
epsr=3.8
! relative permittivity

204

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


rho=1000
E=2400
f=1.e6
eps0=8.854e-12

!
!
!
!

Jc=E/rho
Jd=2*Pi*f*epsr*eps0*E

! conduction current density (Re)


! displacement current density (Im)

/nopr
/PREP7
et,1,SOLID236,1
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,rsvx,1,rho
mp,murx,1,1

electrical resistivity, Ohm*m


electric field V/m
frequency, Hz
free space permittivity, F/m

! AZ+VOLT

cyl4,,,,,a,90,d
esize,d/2
vmesh,all
! Electric boundary conditions
nsel,s,loc,z,0
cp,1,volt,all
*get,n_grd,node,0,num,min
nsel,s,loc,z,d
cp,2,volt,all
*get,n_load,node,0,num,min
nsel,all
d,n_grd,volt,0
d,n_load,volt,E*d

and loads
! define bottom electrode
! get master node on bottom electrode
! top electrode
! get master node on top electrode
! ground bottom electrode
! apply voltage load to top electrode

! Magnetic boundary conditions for 1/4 symmetry model


nsel,s,loc,z,0
nsel,a,loc,z,d
csys,1
nsel,a,loc,x,a
csys,0
d,all,az,0
! flux-parallel BCs
nsel,all
fini
/solu
antype,harm
harfrq,,f
outres,all,all
kbc,1
solve
fini

! stepped load

/com,
/com, Compare ANSYS and Expected H-field
/com,
/post1
path,path1,2,10,20
ppath,1,,0,0,0
ppath,2,,0,a,0
/com,
/com, - Real solution
/com,
set,1,1
plvect,ef,,,,vect,elem,on
plvect,jt,,,,vect,elem,on
plvect,h,,,,vect,elem,on

! electric field
! conduction current
! magnetic field

pdef,Hsum,h,sum,avg
pcalc,add,Hsum_tar,s,,Jc/2
/tlabel,-0.2,0.8,H-field (A/m) - Real part
plpath,Hsum,Hsum_tar
prpath,Hsum,Hsum_tar
/com,

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205

3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


/com, - Imaginary solution
/com,
set,1,1,,1
plvect,js,,,,vect,elem,on
plvect,h,,,,vect,elem,on

! displacement current
! magnetic field

pdef,Hsum,h,sum,avg
pcalc,add,Hsum_tar,s,,Jd/2
/ann,dele
/tlabel,-0.2,0.8,H-field (A/m) - Imaginary part
plpath,Hsum,Hsum_tar
prpath,Hsum,Hsum_tar
/ann,dele
fini

7.4.4. Example: Transformer Analysis


This example problem demonstrates an harmonic analysis of a transformer.

7.4.4.1. Problem Description and Results


A transformer consists of primary and secondary coils wound around a ferromagnetic core of high
permeability . The coils have the same inner and outer radii R1 = 1.5 cm and R2 = 2 cm, respectively,
and same height H = 4 cm. The primary coil is characterized by resistance RP = 24 and the number
of turns NP. The secondary coil resistance is RS = RP(NS/NP), where NS is the number of turns in the
secondary coil. An additional high resistance R = 10000 is attached to the secondary coil to minimize
the output current.
The primary coil is energized with an alternating voltage of magnitude V = 1 Volt and frequency f = 50
Hz. The electric current in the primary coil creates a time-harmonic magnetic flux in the core, which
induces a voltage in the secondary coil. A harmonic stranded coil analysis is performed to determine
the voltage and electromotive force (EMF) induced in the secondary coil. A parametric analysis is also
performed to determine how the core permeability and the ratio of the number of turns in the coils
NS/NP affect the ratio of voltages in the secondary and primary coils.
The coils are modeled using the stranded coil option (KEYOPT(1) = 2) of SOLID236. The core and the
surrounding air are modeled using the magnetic option (KEYOPT(1) = 0) of SOLID236. The resistance
attached to the secondary coil is modeled using the resistor option (KEYOPT(1) = 0) of CIRCU124. Only
a quarter symmetry sector is considered for the finite element model (Figure 7.12: Finite Element Model
of the Transformer (1/4 Symmetry) (p. 207)). Flux parallel magnetic boundary conditions (AZ = 0) are
imposed on the exterior surfaces of the air domain and on the symmetry planes. The VOLT and EMF
degrees of freedom are coupled in the coils.

206

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


Figure 7.12: Finite Element Model of the Transformer (1/4 Symmetry)

The first harmonic analysis (see the Command Listing) was performed with a core relative permeability
= 100000 and a coil turn ratio NS/NP = 200. The resulting voltage and EMF in the coils are shown in
the following table.
Table 7.2: Coil Voltage and EMF ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200)
Coil

Voltage

EMF

Primary

1+j*0

0.970+j*0.142

Secondary

-1.919-j*0.281

-1.937-j*0.284

The magnetic flux in the core (real and imaginary) are shown in the following figures.

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207

3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


Figure 7.13: Magnetic Field (Real) in the Core ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200)

Figure 7.14: Magnetic Field (Imaginary) in the Core ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200)

The current density in the primary and secondary coils (real and imaginary) are shown in the following
figures.

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


Figure 7.15: Current Density (Real) in the Coils ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200)

Figure 7.16: Current Density (Imaginary) in the Coils ( = 100000 and NS/NP = 200)

As shown in the following tables, several subsequent harmonic analyses were performed to study the
dependence of the voltage ratio in the coils as a function of core permeability and the ratio of the
number of turns.
Table 7.3: Secondary and Primary Coil Voltage Ratio as a Function of Core Permeability (NS/NP
= 200)
Core permeability
1000

Voltage Ratio VS/VP


0.129

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209

3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


Core permeability

Voltage Ratio VS/VP

10000

1.098

100000

1.94

Table 7.4: Secondary and Primary Coil Voltage Ratio as a Function of Ratio of Turns NS/NP ( =
100000)
Ration of Turns NS/NP

Voltage Ratio VS/VP

200

1.94

300

2.84

400

3.67

7.4.4.2. Command Listing


/title, 3-D Transformer Harmonic Response, 1/4 symmetry
/vie,1,2,-1,3
/pnu,mat,1
/num,1
pi=acos(-1)
! *** Model parameters
a_core=0.010
! core cross-section width
w_core=0.075
! overall core width
h_core=0.075
! overall core height
r1_coil=0.015
r2_coil=0.020
h_coil=0.040

! inner radius, both coils


! outer radius, both coils
! height, both coils

d_dmn=0.025

! depth of surrounding domain

esz1=a_core/3
esz2=3*esz1

! element size, components


! element size, surrounding domain

mu_core=100000

! core permeability

! *** Primary coil


Np=100
! # of turns
Rp=24
! DC resistance (ohms)
care_left=(r2_coil-r1_coil)*h_coil
! cross-sectional area
volu_left=pi*(r2_coil**2-r1_coil**2)*h_coil
! volume
Vp=1
! voltage (V)
! *** Secondary coil
Ns=200
! # of turns
Rs=Rp*(Ns/Np)**2
! DC resistance (ohms)
care_right=(r2_coil-r1_coil)*h_coil
! cross-sectional area
volu_right=pi*(r2_coil**2-r1_coil**2)*h_coil
! volume
R=1e4

! resistance attached to the secondary coil

frqncy=50
symm=4

! operating frequency (Hz)


! symmetry factor

/nopr
! *** Geometry
/PREP7
vsel,none
! core
bloc,-w_core/2,w_core/2,,h_core/2,-a_core/2,0
cm,scrap1_v,volu
vsel,none
bloc,-(w_core/2-a_core),w_core/2-a_core,,h_core/2-a_core,-a_core/2,0
cm,scrap2_v,volu

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


cmse,s,scrap1_v
cmse,a,scrap2_v
vsbv,scrap1_v,scrap2_v
cm,core_v,volu
vatt,2,2,2
wpcs,-1,0
wpof,-w_core/2+a_core/2
wpro,,-90
cswp,11,1

! left coil ESYS

wpcs,-1,0
wpof,w_core/2-a_core/2
wpro,,-90
cswp,12,1

! right coil ESYS

csys
vsel,none
! left coil
wpcs,-1,11
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,0,90
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,90,180
vatt,3,3,3,11
vsel,none
! right coil
wpcs,-1,12
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,0,90
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,90,180
vatt,4,4,4,12
alls
cm,keep_v,volu
*get,xmin,kp,,mnloc,x
*get,xmax,kp,,mxloc,x
*get,ymax,kp,,mxloc,y
*get,zmin,kp,,mnloc,z
wpcs,-1,0
! surrounding domain
vsel,none
bloc,xmin-d_dmn,xmax+d_dmn,,ymax+d_dmn,zmin-d_dmn,0
cm,scrap_v,volu
cmse,all
vsbv,scrap_v,keep_v,,dele,keep
cmse,u,keep_v
cm,air_v,volu
vatt,1,1,1
alls
vplo
! *** FE model
et,1,236
mp,murx,1,1
et,2,236
mp,murx,2,mu_core

! air

! core (laminated, non-conducting)

et,3,236,2
! left primary coil
mp,murx,3,1
r,3,care_left,Np,volu_left,0,1,0
! left coil data
rmore,Rp,symm
et,4,236,2
! right secondary coil
mp,murx,4,1
r,4,care_right,Ns,volu_right,0,1,0
! right coil data
rmore,Rs,symm
! *** Mesh
numm,kp,1e-8,1e-8
esiz,esz1
vsel,s,mat,,3,4

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3-D Harmonic Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


vmes,all
vsel,s,mat,,2
vswe,all
vsel,s,mat,,1
msha,1
esiz,esz2
vmes,all
alls
! *** Boundary conditions and loads
asel,s,ext
! flux parallel exterior
csys
asel,u,loc,y
da,all,az
vsel,s,mat,,3
alls,belo,volu
cp,1,emf,all
cp,2,volt,all
nd_p=ndnext(0)
alls

! left primary coil

vsel,s,mat,,4
alls,belo,volu
cp,3,emf,all
cp,4,volt,all
nd_s=ndnext(0)
alls

! right secondary coil

d,nd_p,volt,Vp
! *** Circuit
et,5,124,0
r,5,R

! resistor connected to the secondary coil

*get,nmax,node,,num,max
n,nmax+1,0,h_coil/2
type,5
real,5
e,nd_s,nmax+1
d,nmax+1,volt,0
csys

! ground

eplo
fini
! *** Solution
/solu
antype,harmonic
harf,frqncy
solve
fini
! *** Post-processing
/post1
set,,,,0
Vp_real=volt(nd_p)
Vs_real=volt(nd_s)

! Real solution set

/com,
/com, *** Real solution
/com, Vp = %Vp_real%
/com, Vs = %Vs_real%
/com,
vsel,s,mat,,2,4
alls,belo,volu
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on
plve,b,,,,vect,,on
plnsol,emf

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Example 3-D Harmonic Magnetic (Edge-Based) Analyses


alls
set,,,,1
Vp_imag=volt(nd_p)
Vs_imag=volt(nd_s)

! Imaginary solution set

/com,
/com, *** Imag solution
/com, Vp = %Vp_imag%
/com, Vs = %Vs_imag%
/com,
vsel,s,mat,,2,4
alls,belo,volu
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on
plve,b,,,,vect,,on
plnsol,emf
alls
Vp = sqrt(Vp_real**2 + Vp_imag**2)
Vs = sqrt(Vs_real**2 + Vs_imag**2)
/com,
/com, *** Secondary to Primary Coil Voltage Ratio =
fini

%Vs/Vp%

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213

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Chapter 8: 3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


Transient edge-based analyses use the SOLID236 and SOLID237 elements. See Elements Used in EdgeBased Analysis (p. 158) and Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159) for more
information about the edge-based analysis.
The following edge-based transient analysis topics are available:
8.1. Analysis Considerations
8.2. Performing a Transient Edge-Based Analysis
8.3. Reviewing Results
8.4. Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses

8.1. Analysis Considerations


Before setting up your analysis, consider the following:
When modeling stranded conductors using SOLID236 or SOLID237 with KEYOPT(1) = 0, the applied current
density J specified on the BFE command (BFE,,JS) must satisfy the solenoidal condition i = . For more
details about the solenoidal condition, see Analysis Considerations (p. 162).
In transient electromagnetic with electric potential (VOLT) degree of freedom using SOLID236 and SOLID237,
the THETA integration parameter is set to 1.0 by default. To overwrite this default, issue the TINTP command.

8.2. Performing a Transient Edge-Based Analysis


Follow these steps to perform a transient edge-based magnetic analysis:
1. Specify the electromagnetics edge formulation by choosing Main Menu> Preferences> Electromagnetics: Magnetic-Edge from the GUI. Doing so lets you filter out other ANSYS commands not involved
in an edge-based magnetic analysis.
2. Define a jobname and title for your analysis. To do so, use the commands or GUI paths shown below:
Command(s): /FILNAME and /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
Utility Menu> File> Change Title
3. Enter the ANSYS preprocessor to begin defining your model:
Command(s): /PREP7
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor
4. Choose element type SOLID236 or SOLID237 via either of the following:
Command(s): ET
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
5. Select the formulation option suitable for the specified element type and physics region.
Command(s): KEYOPT
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215

3-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (Edge-Based)


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete
6. Define material properties. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) describes the material properties
you can use and tells you how to specify them. For an eddy current region, you must specify the
electric resistivity, RSVX.
7. Build the model. For instructions on building and meshing models, see the Modeling and Meshing
Guide.
8. Assign attributes to the volumes (that is, associate the element types, the conducting and nonconducting regions, the material properties, etc. with the appropriate volumes).
Command(s): VATT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Define
9. Mesh the model, specifying brick or tetrahedral element shape.
Command(s): VMESH
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Volumes> Mapped
10. Enter the SOLUTION processor, using either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
11. Apply flux-parallel and flux-normal solid model boundary conditions to the boundaries.
Command(s): DA
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary
For edge-based analyses, the label AZ (when set to zero) applies the flux-parallel boundary
condition. No prescription is required to set flux-normal, because it is the natural boundary
condition. In the rare case where the AZ = 0 condition is not general enough for flux-parallel
conditions, you can prescribe constraints using individual D commands (or the equivalent GUI
path).
12. Apply source loading. See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 159) for
more information on source loading.

Note
You can use constraint equations to define cyclic symmetry.

13. Choose the transient analysis type.


Command(s): ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,NEW
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Transient
To restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed a 3-D
edge-based magnetic analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous run are available.
14. Define analysis options.
Next, you define which solution method and which solver you want to use.
To select a solution method, use either of the following:

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Performing a Transient Edge-Based Analysis


Command(s): TRNOPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis>Transient
Transient magnetic analyses require the full solution method.
Edge formulation analyses can use the sparse solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient
(JCG) solver, or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. Select an equation
solver using either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
15. Choose load step options. Load step options are described in the following sections.

8.2.1. Time Option


This option specifies time at the end of the load step.
Command(s): TIME
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step

8.2.2. Number of Substeps or Time Step Size


The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration scheme. You can specify
it directly via the DELTIM command or its equivalent menu path, or indirectly via NSUBST or its menu
path equivalent.
Time step size determines the accuracy of your solution. The smaller the time step size, the higher the
accuracy. The size of the first integration time step following any large step change in loading conditions
is especially critical. You can reduce inaccuracies such as thermal overshoot by reducing the integration
time step size.

Caution
Avoid using extremely small time steps, especially when establishing initial conditions. Very small
numbers can cause calculation errors in ANSYS. For instance, on a problem time scale of unity,
time steps smaller that 1E-10 can cause numerical errors.
If you step-apply loads, ANSYS applies the entire load value at the first substep and holds it constant
for the remainder of the load step. If you ramp loads (the default), ANSYS increments the load values
at each substep.
Command(s): NSUBST, DELTIM
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time - Time Step

8.2.3. Automatic Time Stepping


Also called time step optimization in a transient analysis, automatic time stepping allows ANSYS to determine the size of load increments between substeps. It also increases or decreases the time step size
during solution, depending on how the model responds.
For most problems, you should turn on automatic time stepping and set upper and lower limits for the
integration time step. The limits help to control how much the time step varies.
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Command(s): AUTOTS
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc>Time - Time Step

8.2.4. Newton-Raphson Options


These options specify how often the tangent matrix is updated during a nonlinear solution. Available
options are:
Program-chosen (default)
Full
Modified
Initial-stiffness.
For a nonlinear analysis, the full Newton-Raphson option is recommended. The adaptive descent option
may help convergence in transient problems. To specify Newton-Raphson options, use either of the
following:
Command(s): NROPT
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

8.2.5. Number of Equilibrium Iterations


This option obtains a converged solution at each substep. The default is up to 25 equilibrium iterations,
but you may need to increase the number depending on the degree of nonlinearity. For linear transient
analysis, specify one iteration.
Command(s): NEQIT
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equilibrium Iter
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Equation Iter

8.2.6. Convergence Tolerances


ANSYS considers a nonlinear solution to be converged whenever specified convergence criteria are
met. Convergence checking may be based on magnetic potential (A), magnetic current segment (CSG),
or both. You specify a typical value for the desired item (VALUE field) and a tolerance about the typical
value (TOLER field). ANSYS then calculates the convergence criterion via VALUE X TOLER. For example,
it you specify 5000 as the typical value for magnetic current segment and 0.001 as the tolerance, the
convergence criterion for magnetic flux would be 5.0.
ANSYS, Inc. recommends that VALUE be left to the default (program-calculated) and that TOLER be
set to 1.0E-3.
For potentials, ANSYS compares the change in nodal potentials between successive equilibrium iterations
(A = Ai - Ai-1) to the convergence criterion.
For magnetic current segment, ANSYS compares the out-of-balance load vector to the convergence
criterion. If the solution dies not converge within the specified number of equilibrium iterations, the
program either stops or moves on to the next load step, depending on whether you activated the option
to terminate an unconverged solution (see below).
Command(s): CNVTOL

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Performing a Transient Edge-Based Analysis


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit.

8.2.7. Terminate an Unconverged Solution


If ANSYS cannot converge the solution within the specified number of equilibrium iterations, ANSYS
either stops the solution or moves on to the next load step, depending on what you specify as the
stopping criteria.

8.2.8. Control Printed Output


This option enables you to include any results data in the printed output file (Jobname.OUT).
Command(s): OUTPR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout

8.2.9. Control Database and Results File Output


This option controls what data goes to the results file (Jobname.RMG).

Note
By default, the ANSYS program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results
file. If you want all substeps (that is, the solution at all frequencies) on the results file, specify
a frequency or ALL or 1.
Command(s): OUTRES
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Nonlinear> Convergence Crit

8.2.10. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

8.2.11. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all loads steps using one of the following:
Command(s): LSSOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> From LS Files
If only a single load step is used, you may use one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS
When you use the edge-element formulation, by default the ANSYS program gauges the problem domain
over all selected elements and nodes. Gauging removes unneeded degrees of freedom by setting them
to zero; this in turn enables ANSYS to solve your analysis problem faster. You can control gauging using
either of the following:
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Command(s): GAUGE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Magnetics> Options Only> Gauging
Gauging is required for static electromagnetic analyses with elements using an edge formulation.
Therefore, in most cases you should not turn automatic gauging off. The GAUGE,OFF command is designed for expert ANSYS users who wish to apply their own gauging. The ANSYS program removes the
extra constraints set by gauging after solution; therefore, gauging is transparent to users.
1. To leave the SOLUTION processor, use one of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish
2. Do postprocessing and review the analysis results, as described below.

8.3. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a transient analysis to the magnetic results
file, Jobname.RST. Results include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal DOFs (AZ, VOLT, EMF)
Derived data:
Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)
Nodal electric field intensity (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM) [1]
Nodal electric conduction current density JC (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM) [1]
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, Z, SUM)
Total current density (JTZ, JTY, JTZ, JTSUM)
Joule heat per unit volume (JHEAT)
Element magnetic energy (SENE)
[1] Available only in an electromagnetic analysis using SOLID236 and SOLID237.
Additional data are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, or in POST26, the time-history
postprocessor:
POST26 enables you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire transient.
POST1 enables you to review results over the entire model at specific time points.
To choose a postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1 or /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro
For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic Analysis Guide.
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Reviewing Results

8.3.1. Reading Results in POST26


3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157) of this manual summarizes the
results available for postprocessing.
To review results in POST26, the time-history postprocessor, the ANSYS database must contain the same
model for which the solution was calculated, and the Jobname.RST file (the results file) must be
available. If the model is not in the database, restore it using the command or menu path listed below
and then use the SET command or its equivalent menu path to read in the desired set of results.
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
POST26 works with tables of result item versus time, known as variables. Each variable is assigned a
reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for time. Therefore, the first thing you need to do
is define the variables.
To define primary data variables, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSOL
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
To define derived data variables, use either of the following:
Command(s): ESOL
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
To define reaction data variable, use either of the following:
Command(s): RFORCE
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Define Variables
Once you have defined these variables, you can graph them (versus time or any variable). To do so, use
this command or menu path:
Command(s): PLVAR
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Graph Variables
To list the variables, use this command or menu path:
Command(s): PRVAR
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Variables
To list only the extreme variable values, use this command or menu path:
Command(s): EXTREM
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> List Extremes
By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the
critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.
To calculate and summarize electromagnetic forces, power loss, energy, and current on element components (created in the PREP7 preprocessor via the CM command or Utility Menu> Select>
Comp/Assembly> Create Comp/Assembly), you can use either of the following:
Command(s): PMGTRAN
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Elec&Mag> Magnetics
POST26 offers many other functions, such as performing math operations among variables, moving
variables into array parameters, etc. For more information, see the Basic Analysis Guide.

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8.3.2. Reading Results in POST1


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RST) must be available.
To read results at the desired time point into the database, use either of the following:
Command(s): SET,,,,,TIME
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
If you specify a time value for which no results are available, ANSYS performs linear interpolation to
calculate the results at that time. The program uses the last time point if the time specified is beyond
the time span of the transient analysis. You can also identify the results to be read by their load step
and substep numbers.
You can display contours of electric scalar potential (VOLT) magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, SUM),
magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, SUM), electric field intensity (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM) and electric
conduction current density (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM) using either of the following methods:
Command(s): PLESOL, PLNSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu

8.3.2.1. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as global forces, torque, source input energy, inductance, flux linkages, and terminal voltage) from the data available in the database in postprocessing.
The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros for these calculations:
The SENERGY macro determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
The EMFT macro sums up electromagnetic nodal forces. (see Calculating Magnetic Force and
Torque (p. 165))
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The PMGTRAN macro summarizes electromagnetic results from a transient analysis.
The POWERH macro calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).

8.4. Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses


The following examples are available:
8.4.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Field in a Conducting Block
8.4.2. Other Examples

8.4.1. Example: Transient Magnetic Field in a Conducting Block


This example problem demonstrates the calculation of the transient magnetic field in a copper block
placed between the pole-pieces of a C-magnet subject to a sinusoidal current excitation. A similar
magnetic circuit is described in P.P. Silvester and R.L. Ferrari Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers
(Third edition), Cambridge University Press (1996), pp. 365-367. In the present example, magnetic circuit
parameters have been chosen arbitrarily and the simulation results differ from those in the reference.

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Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses

8.4.1.1. Problem Description and Results


A 2.5 x 5 x 2 cm copper block with electric resistivity = 1.7e-7 m is placed between the pole-pieces
of a C-magnet. The magnet consists of a 2.5 cm thick C-shaped iron core with relative permeability
= 1000 and a 4 cm long cylindrical coil with an average radius of 5 cm carrying a 50 Hz sinusoidal current.
The problem considers a half symmetry model of the electromagnet and the block (Figure 8.1: Finite
Element Model of the C-Magnet and the Conducting Block (p. 223)) which also includes a 10 cm thick
layer of surrounding air.
Figure 8.1: Finite Element Model of the C-Magnet and the Conducting Block

Element SOLID236 is used for all parts of the model. The conducting block is modeled using the electromagnetic analysis option (KEYOPT(1)=1) with time-integrated electric potential (KEYOPT(2)=2). The
coil is modeled as a stranded conductor (KEYOPT(1)=0) with a sinusoidal current density (Figure 8.2: Current Density in the Coil (p. 224)) applied as a tabular JS-body load (BFV,,JS,,%jcoil%) with time as a
primary variable. The same magnetic analysis option (KEYOPT(1)=0) is used to discretize the iron core
(bricks) and the air (tetrahedra).

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Figure 8.2: Current Density in the Coil

Flux parallel magnetic boundary conditions (AZ = 0) are imposed on the exterior surfaces of the domain
and on the symmetry plane. Zero potential (VOLT = 0) electric boundary conditions are applied on the
symmetry plane of the conducting block.
A transient electromagnetic analysis is performed during one full cycle T (T = 0.02 s) to determine the
magnetic field in the conducting block. Note that to minimize the size of the output files, only the element results for the element component CCB that includes the coil, core and the block
(OUTRES,ESOL,,CCB) are stored.
The progression of the magnetic field through the copper block is shown in Figure 8.3: Magnetic Field
in the Copper Block at Successive Time Intervals (p. 225) at five successive time intervals T/40, T/4, T/2,
3T/4, and T.
Figure 8.4: Eddy Currents in the Conducting Block (p. 227) shows the eddy currents distribution in the
block at the end of the cycle.
Figure 8.5: Magnetic Field between the Pole-Pieces with and without the Copper Block (p. 228) shows
the magnetic field H at the center-point between the pole-pieces in the C-magnet with the copper
block in place and without it. The figure demonstrates that the field inside the copper block is attenuated
and lagging in phase compared to the external magnetic field.

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Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses


Figure 8.3: Magnetic Field in the Copper Block at Successive Time Intervals

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Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses

Figure 8.4: Eddy Currents in the Conducting Block

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Figure 8.5: Magnetic Field between the Pole-Pieces with and without the Copper Block

8.4.1.2. Command Listing


/title, Transient Analysis of Magnetic Field in a Copper Block
/VUP,1,z
/VIEW,1,3,2,1
/PNU,mat,1
/NUM,1
! *** Problem Parameters
pi=acos(-1)
muo=pi*4e-7
! --- Geometry
a=0.05
b=0.1
c=0.02
gap=0.005

!
!
!
!

r=0.05
l=0.04
ac=0.025

! coil average radius, m


! coil length, m
! coil cross section edge length, m

dext=0.1

! extent of domain beyond modeled components, m

esz1=0.005
esz2=0.01
esz3=0.05

! element size of conductive block


! element size of core and coil
! mesh size of surrounding domain

core and copper block cross section edge length, m


distance between inner surfaces of magnetic circuit, m
copper block thickness, m
pole face/copper block gap,m

! --- Material properties


muc=1000
! core relative permeability
mub=1
! conducting block relative permeability
rho=1.7e-8
! electric resistivity of copper (Ohm-m)
! --- Excitation parameters
J=1e6
! coil current density amplitude (A/m^2)
ncyc=1.0
! number of cycles
nsubT=40
! number of time steps per cycle
f=50
! frequency, Hz
! --- Derived parameters
skin=sqrt(rho/(pi*mub*muo*f)) ! skin depth

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Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses


T=1/f
tend=ncyc*T
nsubs=nsubT*ncyc

! time period
! solution time
! total number of time steps

! table array - sin current vs. time


*dim,jcoil,table,nsubs
*do,i,1,nsubs
jcoil(i,1)=J*sin(2*pi*f*(i/nsubs)*T)
jcoil(i,0)=(i/nsubT)*T
*enddo
/axl,x,Time (s)
/axl,y,Coil Current Density (A/m^2)
*vplo,jcoil(1,0),jcoil(1,1)
/com,
/com, *** BLOCK EDGE LENGTH = %a% m, SKIN DEPTH = %skin% m
/com,
/nopr
! *** FE Model
/PREP7
! --- Core
vsel,none
block,0,-a/4, -a/2,a/2, -b/2-5*a/4,b/2+5*a/4
block,0,-a/4, -a/2,2*a+b, -b/2-5*a/4,-b/2-a/4
block,0,-a/4, -a/2,2*a+b, b/2+a/4,b/2+5*a/4
block,0,-a/4, a+b,2*a+b, -b/2-5*a/4,-(gap+c/2)
block,0,-a/4, a+b,2*a+b, gap+c/2,b/2+5*a/4
vovl,all
vatt,2,2,2
! --- Conducting block
vsel,none
block,0,-a/4, a+b,2*a+b, -c/2,c/2
vatt,3,3,3
! --- Coil
vsel,none
cyli,r-ac/2,r+ac/2, -l/2,l/2, 90,180
cyli,r-ac/2,r+ac/2, -l/2,l/2, 180,270
allsel,belo,volu
numm,kp
vatt,4,4,4,14
allsel
cm,keep_v,volu
! --- Air box
*get,xmin,kp,,mnloc,x
*get,ymin,kp,,mnloc,y
*get,ymax,kp,,mxloc,y
*get,zmin,kp,,mnloc,z
*get,zmax,kp,,mxloc,z
vsel,none
block,xmin-dext,0, ymin-dext,ymax+dext, zmin-dext,zmax+dext
cm,scrap_v,volu
allsel
vsbv,scrap_v,keep_v,,dele,keep
cmse,u,keep_v
cm,air_v,volu
vatt,1,1,1
allsel
! --- Air
et,1,236
mp,murx,1,1

! AZ

! --- Core
et,2,236
mp,murx,2,muc

! AZ

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! --- Conducting block
et,3,236,1,2
! AZ + time-integrated VOLT
mp,murx,3,mub
mp,rsvx,3,rho
! --- Coil
et,4,236
mp,murx,4,1
cswp,14,1
csys

! AZ

! cylindrical ESYS for coil current direction

vsel,s,mat,,3
esize,esz1
vmesh,all

! brick mesh for the block

vsel,s,mat,,2,4,2
esize,esz2
vmesh,all

! brick mesh for the coil and core

vsel,s,mat,,1
esize,esz3
mshape,1
vmes,all
allsel
eplo

! mesh air box (hex-to-tet)

! Define Coil-Core-Block element component


esel,s,type,,2,4
cm,CCB,elem
eplo
allsel
! *** Boundary Conditions and Loads
asel,s,ext
da,all,az
! flux parallel magnetic BCs
vsel,s,mat,,3
allsel,belo,volu
asel,r,loc,x
da,all,volt

! current normal to symmetry plane

vsel,s,mat,,4
bfv,all,js,0,%jcoil%,0
allsel
fini

! tabular current density load

! *** SOLVE
/SOLU
antype,trans
time,tend
nsub,nsubs
outres,esol,all,CCB
kbc,1
! step applied load
solve
fini
! *** POST PROCESS
/POST1
!set,,,,,0
!set,,,,,T/4
!set,,,,,T/2
!set,,,,,3*T/4
set,last,last
cmsel,s,CCB
plve,h,,,,vect,,on
esel,s,mat,,3
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on
allsel
fini

!
!
!
!

results
results
results
results

at
at
at
at

time=0 s
time=T/4 s
time=T/2 s
time=3*T/4 s

!
!
!
!

select coil, core and conducting block


plot magnetic field
select conducting block
plot current density

*dim,Hz,array,nsubs

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Example 3-D Transient Magnetic Edge-Based Analyses


/post26
ansol,2,node(0,3*a/2+b,0),h,z,Hz_copper
/axl,x,Time (s)
/axl,y,Hz @ Center of Block (A/m)
plva,2
vget,Hz,2
fini
/PREP7
et,3,236
fini

! replace copper block by an 'air' block

! *** Repeat solution


/SOLU
antype,trans
time,tend
nsub,nsubs
outres,esol,all,CCB
kbc,1
! step applied load
solve
fini
/POST26
ansol,2,node(0,3*a/2+b,0),h,z,Hz_air
/axl,x,Time (s)
/axl,y,Hz @ Center of Block (A/m)
vput,Hz,3,,,Hz_copper
plvar,2,3
fini

8.4.2. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc. publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains other examples of
various types of analyses, including the following 3-D transient edge-based magnetic analysis example:
VM121 -- Voltage Forced Coil (1/8 Symmetry)

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Chapter 9: 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and


Transient)
To perform this type of magnetic analysis, you use the same procedures as in a 2-D static analysis; see
Steps in a Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 21). Select Main Menu> Preferences> Magnetic> Nodal to
ensure that the appropriate elements and load options will be available to you. Define the physics environment for the analysis as you would for a 2-D static analysis, with the exceptions discussed herein.
The following 3-D nodal-based analysis topics are available:
9.1. Elements Used in a Static Nodal-Based Analysis
9.2. Defining Analysis Settings
9.3. Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses

9.1. Elements Used in a Static Nodal-Based Analysis


For a 3-D static nodal-based analysis, select SOLID97, the 3-D magnetic vector potential element, instead
of 2-D elements. For a detailed description of SOLID97, see the Element Reference. Use the far-field (infinite boundary) element INFIN111 to represent infinite boundaries for 3-D vector formulations.
KEYOPT(1) allows you to select element formulations for the physics regions in your model. (See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 242) for more information on the various
physical regions that you can model.)
Classical Formulation (Current Density Loading)
KEYOPT(1) = 0: AX, AY, AZ degrees of freedom: static domain, source domain - - supported
for cyclic symmetry (periodic) analyses
KEYOPT(1) = 1: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT degrees of freedom: eddy current domain, velocity effect
domain
Classical Formulation (Voltage or Circuit Loading)
KEYOPT(1) = 2: AX, AY, AZ, CURR degrees of freedom: voltage-fed stranded coil
KEYOPT(1) = 3: AX, AY, AZ, CURR, EMF degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled stranded coil
KEYOPT(1) = 4: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT, CURR degrees of freedom: circuit-coupled massive conductor
Solenoidal Formulation (Current, Voltage, or Circuit Loading) - - supported for cyclic symmetry
(periodic) analyses
KEYOPT(1) = 5: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT degrees of freedom: nonlinear symmetric solenoidal formulation

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KEYOPT(1) = 6: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT degrees of freedom: linear unsymmetric solenoidal formulation

Note
For KEYOPT(1) = 1 and 4, the VOLT degree of freedom is time integrated. For KEYOPT(1) =
5 and 6, the VOLT degree of freedom is not time integrated.
For a proper electromagnetic analysis, the continuity equation must be satisfied and the current density
must be solenoidal (i.e. div J = 0). This means that the current density must satisfy the law of conservation
of matter. That is, the current density cannot have sources or sinks.
2-D planar and axisymmetric problems automatically satisfy the solenoidal condition. However, 3-D
problems do not automatically satisfy this condition. For the classical SOLID97 formulations discussed
in this chapter, you can directly apply a current density load using the BFE,,JS command. However, you
need to verify that the solenoidal condition is satisfied when prescribing the source current density. If
this condition is not satisfied, the classical SOLID97 formulations can produce erroneous solutions. To
make sure that the applied current density is solenoidal, perform a preliminary static electric current
conduction analysis to obtain the current density distribution (e.g. using SOLID5, SOLID231, or SOLID232,
see Electric Field Analysis (p. 281)). Once the currents are determined, bring them into the magnetic
analysis using the LDREAD command.
The solenoidal formulations automatically satisfy the solenoidal condition by directly solving for current
(density) using a coupled current conduction and electromagnetic field solution. The nonlinear symmetric
solenoidal formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 5) is applicable to static and transient analyses. The linear unsymmetric solenoidal formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 6) is applicable to harmonic analysis.
For current-fed coils using the solenoidal formulation, you input current using F,,AMPS. To do so, perform
the following steps:
1. Set the VOLT DOFs to zero at the ground nodes of the coil (D,,VOLT).
2. Couple the VOLT DOFs at the source nodes of the coil (CP,,VOLT)
3. Set the current at any hot node (F,,AMPS).
The solenoidal formulations are applicable to voltage-fed and circuit-fed conductors as well. For voltagefed conductors, perform the following steps:
1. Set the VOLT DOFs to zero at the ground nodes of the coil (D,,VOLT).
2. Set the VOLT DOFs at the source nodes of the coil (D,,VOLT)
For circuit-fed conductors, perform the following steps:
1. Set the VOLT DOFs to zero at the ground nodes of the coil (D,,VOLT).
2. Couple the VOLT DOFs at the source nodes of the coil (CP,,VOLT)
3. Connect the circuit elements (CIRCU124, CIRCU125, and TRANS126) to the model.
The solenoidal formulations are applicable in source conductor regions only. These source conductors
are assumed to be free of eddy currents.

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Elements Used in a Static Nodal-Based Analysis


The solenoidal formulations are recommended for most problems.

9.1.1. Specifying Real Constants


For voltage-fed or circuit-fed stranded coils (available only for the SOLID97 element), you must specify
the following real constants to completely describe the stranded coil:
CARE

This constant represents the true physical cross-section of the


stranded coil regardless of any symmetry modeling considerations. It also is assumed that this cross-sectional area does not
change along the length of the coil.

TURN

This is the total number of winding turns in a stranded coil


regardless of any symmetry modeling considerations.

VOLU

This represents the actual volume of the finite element coil


region, not the total volume of the full coil.

DIRX, DIRY, DIRZ

Components of a vector describing the orientation of the


current density. For these elements, the direction constants
would be (DIRX, DIRY, DIRZ) = (1,0,0). Figure 9.1: Stranded Bar
and Circular Coil (p. 235) (b) below illustrates a 90 arc of a
stranded conductor model. To specify a THETA-direction current flow, do these steps:
1. Specify a cylindrical element coordinate system using ESYS
(Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes).
2. Modify the elements to inherit the new ESYS attribute, using EMODIF (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
Move/Modify> Elements> Modify Attrib).
3. Set the direction constants as (DIRX, DIRY, DIRZ) = (0,1,0).

CSYM

This constant is the coil symmetry factor; the multiplier of the


VOLU constant required to represent the total volume of the
full coil. CSYM times VOLU equals the total volume of the
conductor.

FILL

The coil fill factor represents the fraction of the coil cross-section that the conductor occupies. You can use this factor to
adjust coil resistance.

Figure 9.1: Stranded Bar and Circular Coil

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9.1.2. Incorporating Velocity Effects


Electromagnetic fields may be solved for special cases of moving bodies. 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) discusses application and limitations for motion analysis. In 3-D, only the SOLID97 element is
available for considering velocity effects using an element KEYOPT option.

9.2. Defining Analysis Settings


9.2.1. Defining the Analysis Type
You define the analysis type for a 3-D static analysis using the same methods you would use for a 2-D
static analysis. That is, you choose either menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New
Analysis, the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW, or ANTYPE,STATIC,REST to restart a previous 3-D analysis.
If you are using velocity effects, however, you cannot solve a static (DC) field excitation with a moving
conductor in 3-D using the static analysis option (ANTYPE,STATIC). Instead, you must use a harmonic
analysis (ANTYPE,HARMIC), driven at a very low frequency.

9.2.2. Defining Which Solver to Use


To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
The JCG or ICCG solvers are recommended for 3-D models. Models that are voltage-fed or that include
velocity effects produce unsymmetric matrices and can use only the sparse solver, the JCG solver, or
the ICCG solver. Circuit-fed models can use only the sparse solver.

9.3. Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses


The following examples are available:
9.3.1. Example: 3-D Static Magnetic MVP Analysis
9.3.2. Example: 3-D Nodal-Based Harmonic Analysis
9.3.3. Example: 3-D Transient (Nodal-Based) Analysis

9.3.1. Example: 3-D Static Magnetic MVP Analysis


9.3.1.1. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution
To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
The loads you can specify for a 3-D static MVP analysis are somewhat different from the loads that apply
to a 2-D static analysis; however, the GUI paths you use to define them will be the same as those shown
in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17). The next few topics discuss the loads that apply to 3-D static
magnetic analysis.

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses

9.3.1.1.1. Magnetic Vector Potentials (AX, AY, AZ)


These loads specify flux-normal, flux-parallel, far-field, and periodic boundary conditions, as well as an
imposed external magnetic field. The following table shows the values required for each type of
boundary condition:
Boundary Condition

Value of AX, AY, AZ

Flux-normal

Set the normal component of A to zero, using DSYM,SYMM


(Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector Poten> Flux Normal> On Nodes).

Flux-parallel

Set in-plane components of A to zero.

Far-field

Use element INFIN111.

Far-field zero

Use AX = AY = AZ = 0.

Periodic

Use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability.

Imposed external field

A(X,Y,Z) does not equal zero.

Flux-parallel boundary conditions force the flux to flow parallel to a surface, while flux-normal boundary
conditions force the flux to flow normal to a surface. You do not need to specify far-field zero boundary
conditions if you use boundary element INFIN111 to represent the "infinite" boundary of the model.
Use periodic boundary conditions in models that take advantage of periodic or cyclic symmetry; specify
them using the CE or CP command or their equivalent menu paths.
For an imposed magnetic field, specify the appropriate nonzero value of AX, AY, or AZ.

9.3.1.1.2. Force Flags


See Force Flags (p. 39) in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17) for a discussion on applying Maxwell
Surfaces and Virtual Displacements to element components.

9.3.1.1.3. Voltage Drop (VLTG)


Use these loads to specify a voltage drop across a stranded coil. The units of VLTG are Volts in the MKS
system. Voltage-drop loading is available only in the SOLID97 element using the AX, AY, AZ, CURR degree
of freedom option.
To obtain a correct solution, you must couple all nodes of the conductor together in the CURR degree
of freedom. ANSYS requires this, because CURR represents a unique number denoting the current per
turn of the winding. If you do not couple the nodes, your solution will be incorrect.

9.3.1.1.4. Current Segments (CSG(X,Y,Z))


These apply nodal current loads. Units for current segments are ampere-meters in the MKS system.
Take care in distributing a current segment load along nodes. See the Modeling and Meshing Guide for
a discussion of load distribution on nodes.

9.3.1.1.5. Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF)


See Maxwell Surfaces (MXWF) (p. 40).

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9.3.1.1.6. Source Current Density (JS)


This specifies applied current to a source conductor. The units of JS are amperes/meter2 in the MKS
system.
The continuity equation must be satisfied for a proper electromagnetic analysis as explained in the
Mechanical APDL Theory Reference. For this reason the source current density, JS, must be solenoidal
(i.e., (JS) = 0). You should verify that this condition is satisfied when prescribing the source current
density load. If this condition is not satisfied, SOLID97 can produce erroneous solutions without warning.
(See Elements Used in a Static Nodal-Based Analysis (p. 233) for more information on the classical SOLID97
formulations.)
In some cases, the source current density has constant magnitude and direction (e.g. bar, arc) and the
solenoidal condition is automatically satisfied. The source current density can then be defined by the
BFE command. In more complicated cases, the source current density distribution is not known (e.g.
current bending in an elbow connected by two straight bar segments). In such cases, a preliminary
static electric current conduction analysis should be performed to obtain the current density distribution
(e.g. using SOLID5, SOLID231, or SOLID232, see Electric Field Analysis (p. 281)). Once the currents are
determined, they may be brought into the magnetic analysis using the LDREAD command.
See Source Current Density (JS) (p. 38) for information on the use of the BFE command.

9.3.1.1.7. Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI)


See Magnetic Virtual Displacements (MVDI) (p. 40).

9.3.1.2. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

9.3.1.3. Starting the Solution


For a nonlinear analysis, use a two-step solution sequence:
1. Ramp the loads over three to five substeps, each with one equilibrium iteration.
2. Calculate the final solution over one substep, with five to 10 equilibrium iterations.
You can specify the two-step solution sequence and initiate the solution using either of the following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV (with OPT field set to zero)
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt&Solv
To learn how to step manually through the two-step solution sequence, see Alternative Analysis Options
and Solution Methods (p. 367).

9.3.1.4. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses


GUI: Main Menu> Finish

9.3.1.5. Calculating the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage


For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to calculate the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.
To initiate the solution use the following:
Command(s): LMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Induct Matrix
Computing the differential inductance matrix and the total flux linkage in each coil requires several
procedural steps. You must first assign components to coil elements, define nominal currents, and then
perform a nominal solution about an operating point. See Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255) for
procedural details and an example analysis.

9.3.1.6. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Static Magnetic MVP Analysis


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from a 3-D static analysis to the magnetics results
file, Jobname.RMG. Results include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal magnetic potentials (AX, AY, AZ, CURR)
Derived data:
Nodal magnetic flux density (BX, BY, BZ, BSUM)
Nodal magnetic field intensity (HX, HY, HZ, HSUM)
Nodal magnetic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, SUM)
Nodal reaction current segments (CSGX, CSGY, CSGZ)
Element source current density (JSX, JSY, JSZ)
Joule heat per unit volume (JHEAT)
... etc.
Additional data also are available. See the Element Reference for details.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, by choosing either of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc

9.3.1.6.1. Reading in Results Data


Postprocessing for 3-D static magnetic analyses is basically the same as postprocessing for 2-D static
analysis. See Reading in Results Data (p. 43) for more information.

9.3.1.6.1.1. Flux Lines


Flux lines are not readily available with the 3-D vector potential formulation. Use vector displays of flux
density to visualize flux paths.

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9.3.1.6.1.2. Contour Displays, Vector Displays, Tabular Listings, and Magnetic Forces
See Contour Displays (p. 44), Vector Displays (p. 44), Tabular Listings (p. 44), and Magnetic Forces (p. 44)
for more information.

9.3.1.6.1.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays


You can find details on how to graphically display a charged particle traveling in a magnetic field in
Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces and Controlling Particle Flow or Charged Particle Trace Displays
in the Basic Analysis Guide. See Electromagnetic Particle Tracing in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference
for more details.

9.3.1.6.1.4. Coil Resistance and Inductance


For stranded coils with the voltage-fed or circuit-fed options, you can calculate the resistance and inductance of the coil. Each element stores values of resistance and inductance. Summing these values
gives the total resistance and inductance of the modeled region of the conductor. To store and sum
these values, select the conductor elements using the ETABLE,tablename,NMISC,n command. (For the
n value, use 16 for resistance and 17 for inductance.) Use the SSUM command or its menu path equivalent to sum the data.
Inductance values calculated for voltage-fed stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 2 for SOLID97) or circuit-coupled
stranded coils (KEYOPT(1) = 3 for SOLID97) are only valid under the following conditions:
The problem is linear (constant permeability).
There are no permanent magnets in the model.
Only a single coil exists in the model.
For a system of coils, use the LMATRIX macro to compute the differential inductance matrix and the
total flux linkage in each coil. Refer to Calculate the Inductance Matrix and Flux Linkage (p. 143) and
LMATRIX (p. 259) for information on the LMATRIX macro.

9.3.1.6.1.5. Calculating Other Items of Interest


You can calculate many other items of interest (such as global forces, torque, source input energy, inductance, flux linkages, and terminal voltage) from the data available in the database in postprocessing.
The ANSYS command set supplies the following macros for these calculations:
The EMAGERR macro calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
The FLUXV macro calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
The FMAGSUM macro summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components.
The MMF macro calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
The SENERGY macro determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
For more discussion of these macros, see Electric and Magnetic Macros (p. 255).

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses

9.3.2. Example: 3-D Nodal-Based Harmonic Analysis


As in any other type of ANSYS analysis, for harmonic magnetic analyses you define the physics environment, build a model, apply loads and obtain a solution, and then review the results. Most of the procedures for conducting a 3-D harmonic magnetic analysis are identical or similar to the procedures for
doing 2-D harmonic analyses; this chapter discusses the tasks that are specific to 3-D nodal-based harmonic analysis.

9.3.2.1. Creating a Harmonic 3-D Physics Environment


A 3-D harmonic magnetic analysis using the nodal-based method uses the procedures described in 2D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17), with a few exceptions described here, to perform the tasks involved
in defining a physics environment. (These tasks include setting GUI preferences, setting element types
and element KEYOPTS, defining real constants, and so on.) For a nodal-based 3-D harmonic analysis,
use the SOLID97 and CIRCU124 elements described in the Element Reference.
You can find additional details in the Basic Analysis Guide and the Modeling and Meshing Guide. When
specifying material properties, in general use the same methods discussed in 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17); that is, where possible, use existing material property definitions from the ANSYS material
library or that other ANSYS users at your site have developed.

9.3.2.1.1. Using DOFs to Manage Terminal Conditions on Conductors in 3-D Analyses


When you perform a 3-D nodal-based harmonic analysis, the ANSYS program gives you several options
to handle terminal conditions on conductors. These options involve adding different degrees of freedom
(DOFs) in the conducting region. Two DOF options for conductors and terminals (discussed below) exist
in 3-D nodal-based analyses

9.3.2.1.1.1. The AX, AY, AZ, VOLT Option


Conductors modeled with the AZ, AY, AZ, VOLT DOF set simulate both short-circuit and open circuit
conditions. The VOLT DOF represents a time-integrated electric potential.
Use this DOF set to establish proper induced (eddy) current direction. Current will flow parallel to unspecified conductor boundaries, and perpendicular to constant VOLT boundaries.
To establish a short-circuit condition, do the following:
Prescribe VOLT = 0 at symmetry planes of a conductor. This indicates no net buildup of potential.
For general 3-D structures not connected to a circuit, set VOLT = 0 at one node.
Assign appropriate magnetic flux-parallel or flux-normal conditions.
To establish an open circuit condition, do the following:
For symmetry structures, set VOLT = 0 at one plane and couple the nodes at the other plane.
For general 3-D structures, set VOLT = 0 at one node.
Assign appropriate magnetic flux-parallel or flux-normal conditions.
To model a massive conductor fed by a current generator, "cut" the conductor and set VOLT = 0 at one
cut-plane. Then couple the VOLT DOF at the other plane and drive the current at one node on the
plane. To drive the current at one node, use either of the following:
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Command(s): F,,AMPS
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Impressed Curr

9.3.2.1.1.2. The AX, AY, AZ, CURR Option


The AX, AY, AZ, CURR option is similar to the 2-D option AZ + CURR. You use it in 3-D analyses to
model a voltage-fed stranded conductor. The CURR DOF represents the current flowing in each turn of
the coil winding.
Voltage-fed stranded coils are available for the SOLID97 element. For that element, you must specify
real constants which characterize the stranded conductor. For more information, see Specifying Real
Constants (p. 235).
Figure 9.2: Coil Constants Applied to a Voltage-Fed Stranded Coil (p. 242) below illustrates application
of these coil constants. The figure depicts symmetry about a plane, for which only the top half needs
to be modeled.
Figure 9.2: Coil Constants Applied to a Voltage-Fed Stranded Coil
Elements in cylindrical
ESYS coordinate system
T(X,Y,Z) = (0,1,0)

VC
Modeled

SYM = 8
J

Not Modeled

SC

1/8 Coil Model

Note
The coil cross-section must not change. You can use the coordinate system specified via the
ESYS command (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Elem Attributes) to simplify current direction cosines.

9.3.2.1.2. Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model


The ANSYS program offers several options you can use to handle terminal conditions on conductors in
3-D magnetic analyses. Figure 9.3: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors (p. 243) below pictures a physical region for a 3-D magnetic analysis and the conditions (options)
that can exist within it.

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses


Figure 9.3: Physical Region With Optional Terminal Conditions for Conductors

Current-fed massive conductor


Laminated iron

Current-fed
solid source
conductor

Air
Current-fed 
stranded coil

Conductor open circuit


Moving
conductor
Voltage-fed 
stranded coil

Conductor short circuit


Voltage-fed
solid source
conductor

Circuit-fed 
stranded coil

Laminated iron

Classical Formulation
DOF: AX, AY, AZ
Material properties: MUr (MURX)
Special characteristics; No eddy currents

Air

Classical Formulation
DOF: AX, AY, AZ
Material properties: MUr (MURX)
Special characteristics; No eddy currents

Moving conductor (velocity


effects)

You can model velocity effects from conductors moving


at constant velocity with the SOLID97 element. For details on moving conductors, see the sections on velocity
effects in this chapter and 2-D Static Magnetic Analysis (p. 17).

OT = 0
 OT


     
(3 D)
Current-fed massive conductor

Classical Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT
Material Properties: MUr(MURX), rho (RSVX)

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Special characteristics: Couple VOLT DOF in region; apply total current (F,,AMPS) to single node

Note
Assumes a short-circuit condition with a net current flow from a current source generator.
Net current is unaffected by surroundings.

Open circuit conductor

Classical Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT
Material properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)

Note
For symmetry structures, set VOLT = 0 at one plane and couple nodes at the other. For
general 3-D structures, set VOLT = 0 at one node.

J = ni
A

Current-fed stranded coil

244

Classical Formulation
DOF: AX, AY, AZ
Material Properties: MUr (MURX)
Special characteristics: No eddy currents; can
apply source current density, JS

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses

Short circuit conductor

Classical Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT
Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)

Note
Prescribe VOLT = 0 at symmetry planes of a conductor to indicate no net buildup of potential.

Voltage-fed stranded coil

Classical Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, CURR
Material Properties: MUr (MURX), rho (RSVX)

Note
CURR DOF represents the current per turn in the coil. The CURR DOF must be coupled for
all nodes of the coil region.

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It

VOLT = 0
Current-fed solid
source conductor

Couple VOLT
Solenoidal Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT
Material Properties: MUr(MURX), rho (RSVX)
Special characteristics: Couple VOLT DOF in region; apply
total current (F,,AMPS command) to single node.
Assumptions: Solid conductor does not model eddy current
effects within the conductor and has no back emf effects.

  
Voltage-fed solid
source conductor

F,,AMPS

D

 ad
Solenoidal Formulation
DOFs: AX, AY, AZ, VOLT
Material Properties: MUr(MURX), rho (RSVX)
Special characteristics: Apply voltage drop (VLTG) via D
command.
Assumptions: Solid conductor does not model eddy current
effects within the conductor and has no back emf effects.

9.3.2.1.3. Velocity Effects


You may solve electromagnetic fields for special cases of moving bodies under the influence of an AC
excitation. Velocity effects are valid for static, harmonic, and transient analyses. 2-D Static Magnetic
Analysis (p. 17) discusses applications and limitations for motion analysis.
You can use the following real constants for moving body analysis:

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Example 3-D Nodal-Based Analyses


VELOX, VELOY, VELOZ

Velocity components in the Global Cartesian coordinate


system X, Y, and Z directions respectively.

OMEGAX, OMEGAY, OMEGAZ

Angular (rotational) velocity (in Hz) about the Global


Cartesian system X, Y, and Z axes respectively, located at
the pivot point location (specified by XLOC, YLOC, and
ZLOC).

XLOC, YLOC, ZLOC

Global Cartesian coordinate point locations of the rotating


body in the X, Y, and Z directions respectively.

A 3-D harmonic analysis with a moving conductor requires that the moving conductor region include
the time-integrated electric DOF (VOLT). You accomplish this by setting KEYOPT(1) = 1 (AX, AY, AZ,
VOLT degrees of freedom).
See 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63) for a list of real constants used in moving body analysis.
You can use a harmonic analysis to simulate a moving conductor under a static (DC) field excitation.
To closely approximate the static field, use a very low frequency in the harmonic analysis. Typically, a
frequency less than .0001 Hz will yield a "near" static solution. The "static" solution will be stored in the
"real" solution set (the KIMG = 0 argument on the SET command). If you use the sparse solver, the
frequency can be set much lower (for example 10-8 Hz). However, if you use an iterative solver (JCG or
ICCG solver), convergence problems may occur for extremely low frequencies.

9.3.2.1.4. Power Loss


See 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63) for details. Be careful in interpreting power loss. You
should multiply power loss values by a factor of 2 to represent the DC power loss from a "static" excitation. You can use power loss in the moving conductor to calculate the drag force on the conductor
in the direction of motion:
Power loss = Force x Velocity

9.3.2.2. Applying Loads to and Solving 3-D Nodal-Based Harmonic Analyses


The loads for a 3-D harmonic (nodal-based) magnetic analysis and the procedures and GUI paths you
use to apply those loads are identical to the loads and procedures for a 2-D harmonic magnetic analysis,
with the two exceptions noted below. 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63) describes most of
the loads and procedures. For 3-D harmonic loading, the differences are as follows:
For the 3-D SOLID97 elements the load current (AMPS) requires the AX, AY, AZ, VOLT degrees of
freedom. Current represents the total measurable current flow through a conductor (units of current).
When applying current on a 3-D model, select all nodes that lie in a cross-sectional plane of the skineffect region where the load is to be applied and couple their VOLT DOFs. Then, apply the current
at one node in the cross-section.
See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 242) for more information on physical regions and terminal conditions for conductors.
To solve a 3-D nodal harmonic analysis, follow the solution procedures described in 2-D Harmonic
Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63).

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247

3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient)

9.3.2.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Harmonic (Nodal-Based) Analysis


Follow the postprocessing procedures described in 2-D Harmonic Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63).

9.3.3. Example: 3-D Transient (Nodal-Based) Analysis


To perform a 3-D transient (nodal-based) analysis, follow the steps discussed in the next few topics.

9.3.3.1. Create the 3-D Transient Physics Environment


Create the physics environment according to the procedures described in 2-D Transient Magnetic
Analysis (p. 99), with the exceptions listed below:
Use element types SOLID97 and CIRCU124. For descriptions of these elements, see 3-D Static Magnetic
Analysis (Scalar Method) (p. 125). In-depth descriptions of all elements can be found in the Element
Reference.
Use the terminal conditions described in this chapter instead of those discussed in 2-D Harmonic
Magnetic (AC) Analysis (p. 63).
To model a circuit-fed coil in 3-D, specify the AX, AY, AZ, EMF, and CURR DOFs. To model massive
conductors, use the AX, AY, AZ, VOLT, and CURR DOFs.
Voltage-fed stranded coils and velocity effects (available only for SOLID97) require certain real constants
to completely describe the stranded coil. See the element's description in the Element Reference for
details.
See Characteristics and Settings for Physical Regions of a Model (p. 242) for more information on the
various physical regions that you can model.

9.3.3.2. Apply Loads and Solve the Transient Analysis


Loading procedures for a 3-D nodal-based transient analysis basically are the same as the procedures
for applying loads to a 2-D transient analysis (see 2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (p. 99)). For the 3-D
analysis, however, note the following:
If you apply current as a load on SOLID97 elements, you must specify the AX, AY, AZ, and VOLT DOFs.
In addition, select all nodes that lie in a cross-sectional plane of the skin effect regions where the
load is to be applied and couple their VOLT DOFs.
You can apply voltage load (VLTG) as a load only on the SOLID97 element.
You can specify load step options for both 3-D and 2-D transient analyses. Alternative Analysis Options
and Solution Methods (p. 367) describes these options.
To solve a 3-D nodal-based transient analysis, follow the procedures described in 2-D Transient Magnetic
Analysis (p. 99).

9.3.3.3. Reviewing Results from a 3-D Transient (Nodal-Based) Analysis


Follow the postprocessing procedures described in 2-D Transient Magnetic Analysis (p. 99). The Basic
Analysis Guide presents additional information about postprocessing.

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Chapter 10: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


A linear perturbation electromagnetic analysis can be used to solve a linear problem following a nonlinear electromagnetic analysis. The total tangent matrix form the nonlinear solution (base analysis) is
used in the linear perturbation analysis to capture the linear and nonlinear magnetic effects at the operating point of the nonlinear analysis.
The linear perturbation electromagnetic analysis can be static or harmonic.
These electromagnetic solid elements support linear perturbation analysis: PLANE233, SOLID236 and
SOLID237.
The following related topics are available:
10.1. Performing an Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis
10.2. Example: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis
For more information about linear perturbation, see Linear Perturbation Analysis in the Structural Analysis Guide.

10.1. Performing an Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


The primary analysis steps in the linear perturbation procedure are as follows:
1. Issue the RESCONTROL command in the nonlinear (base) electromagnetic analysis to specify at which
operating point data should be saved for the multiframe restart in the first phase of the linear perturbation
analysis.
If no RESCONTROL command is issued, the linear perturbation starts at the last converged substep
of the nonlinear analysis.
2. In the first phase of the linear perturbation analysis, specify the operating point (load step, substep) and
the linear perturbation analysis type, then regenerate the tangent matrices using the following commands,
respectively:
a. ANTYPE,Antype,RESTART,,,PERTURB
b. PERTURB
c. SOLVE,ELFORM
3. In the second phase of the linear perturbation analysis, apply the linear perturbation loads and obtain
the perturbed solution (SOLVE).
4. The results of the linear perturbation analysis are written to the Jobname.RSTP file. Issue the FILE,,RSTP
and SET commands to review the linear perturbation analysis results.
Permanent magnets (MP,MGXX, also MGYY, MGZZ) are supported in a linear perturbation harmonic
analysis. Although they contribute only to the base (operating point solution), they should not be removed from the model in the linear perturbation analysis.
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249

Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


For more information, see General Procedure for Linear Perturbation Analysis in the Structural Analysis
Guide.

10.2. Example: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


This example problem demonstrates the use of the linear perturbation method to calculate the differential inductance matrix of a transformer (linear perturbation static analysis) and a DC-biased harmonic
analysis (linear perturbation harmonic analysis). The transformer model is described in Example: Transformer Analysis .
/title, Linear Perturbation Analysis of a Transformer, 1/4 Symmetry
/vie,1,2,-1,3
/pnu,mat,1
/num,1
pi=acos(-1)
! *** Model parameters
a_core=0.010
! core cross-section width
w_core=0.075
! overall core width
h_core=0.075
! overall core height
r1_coil=0.015
r2_coil=0.020
h_coil=0.040

! inner radius, both coils


! outer radius, both coils
! height, both coils

d_dmn=0.025

! depth of surrounding domain

esz1=a_core/3
esz2=3*esz1

! element size, components


! element size, surrounding domain

! *** Primary coil


Np=100
! # of turns
Rp=24
! DC resistance (ohms)
care_left=(r2_coil-r1_coil)*h_coil
! cross-sectional area
volu_left=pi*(r2_coil**2-r1_coil**2)*h_coil
! volume
Vp=0.5
! voltage (V)
! *** Secondary coil
Ns=200
! # of turns
Rs=Rp*(Ns/Np)**2
! DC resistance (ohms)
care_right=(r2_coil-r1_coil)*h_coil
! cross-sectional area
volu_right=pi*(r2_coil**2-r1_coil**2)*h_coil
! volume
R=1e4

! resistance attached to the secondary coil

frqncy=50
symm=4

! operating frequency (Hz)


! symmetry factor

/nopr
! *** Geometry
/PREP7
vsel,none
! core
bloc,-w_core/2,w_core/2,,h_core/2,-a_core/2,0
cm,scrap1_v,volu
vsel,none
bloc,-(w_core/2-a_core),w_core/2-a_core,,h_core/2-a_core,-a_core/2,0
cm,scrap2_v,volu
cmse,s,scrap1_v
cmse,a,scrap2_v
vsbv,scrap1_v,scrap2_v
cm,core_v,volu
vatt,2,2,2
wpcs,-1,0
wpof,-w_core/2+a_core/2
wpro,,-90
cswp,11,1

250

! left coil ESYS

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Example: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis

wpcs,-1,0
wpof,w_core/2-a_core/2
wpro,,-90
cswp,12,1

! right coil ESYS

csys
vsel,none
! left coil
wpcs,-1,11
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,0,90
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,90,180
vatt,3,3,3,11
vsel,none
! right coil
wpcs,-1,12
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,0,90
cyli,r1_coil,r2_coil,0,h_coil/2,90,180
vatt,4,4,4,12
alls
cm,keep_v,volu
*get,xmin,kp,,mnloc,x
*get,xmax,kp,,mxloc,x
*get,ymax,kp,,mxloc,y
*get,zmin,kp,,mnloc,z
wpcs,-1,0
! surrounding domain
vsel,none
bloc,xmin-d_dmn,xmax+d_dmn,,ymax+d_dmn,zmin-d_dmn,0
cm,scrap_v,volu
cmse,all
vsbv,scrap_v,keep_v,,dele,keep
cmse,u,keep_v
cm,air_v,volu
vatt,1,1,1
alls
vplo
! *** FE model
et,1,236
mp,murx,1,1

! air

et,2,236
TB,BH,2 ,
1, 20
TBPT,, 0.8
, 0.01
TBPT,, 1.12 , 0.02
TBPT,, 2.39 ,0.07
TBPT,, 4
, 0.24
TBPT,, 5.57 , 0.31
TBPT,, 8
, 0.7
TBPT,, 16
, 1.14
TBPT,, 40
, 1.5
TBPT,, 79.6 , 1.62
TBPT,, 159
, 1.70
TBPT,, 398
, 1.76
TBPT,, 796
, 1.82
TBPT,, 1592 , 1.88
TBPT,, 3365 , 1.94
TBPT,, 3979 , 1.95
TBPT,, 7958 , 1.985
TBPT,, 15915 , 2.010
TBPT,, 39789 , 2.041
TBPT,, 79577 , 2.093
TBPT,, 160000 , 2.2

! core (laminated, non-conducting)


! M6

et,3,236,2
! left primary coil
mp,murx,3,1
r,3,care_left,Np,volu_left,0,1,0
! left coil data

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251

Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


rmore,Rp,symm
et,4,236,2
! right secondary coil
mp,murx,4,1
r,4,care_right,Ns,volu_right,0,1,0
! right coil data
rmore,Rs,symm
! *** Mesh
numm,kp,1e-8,1e-8
esiz,esz1
vsel,s,mat,,3,4
vmes,all
vsel,s,mat,,2
vswe,all
vsel,s,mat,,1
msha,1
esiz,esz2
vmes,all
alls
! *** Boundary conditions and loads
asel,s,ext
! flux parallel exterior
csys
asel,u,loc,y
da,all,az
vsel,s,mat,,3
alls,belo,volu
cp,1,emf,all
cp,2,volt,all
nd_p=ndnext(0)
alls

! left primary coil

vsel,s,mat,,4
alls,belo,volu
cp,3,emf,all
cp,4,volt,all
nd_s=ndnext(0)
alls

! right secondary coil

! *** Circuit
et,5,124,0
r,5,R

! resistor connected to the secondary coil

*get,nmax,node,,num,max
n,nmax+1,0,h_coil/2
type,5
real,5
e,nd_s,nmax+1
d,nmax+1,volt,0
csys

! ground

eplo
fini
! *** Operating point solution
/solu
antyp,static
d,nd_p,volt,Vp
solve
fini
! *** Post-processing
/post1
set,1,1
vsel,s,mat,,2,4
alls,belo,volu
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on

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Example: Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


plve,b,,,,vect,,on
fini
! *** Linear perturbation static analysis
!
to determine the self- and mutual inductances of the coils
/solu
antyp,static,restart,,,perturb
perturb,stat,,current,allkeep
solve,elform
! *** Apply test current to the primary coil to determine its self-inductance
ddele,nd_p,volt
curr=1.e-3
f,nd_p,amps,curr
solve
! *** Apply test current to the secondary coil to determine its self-inductance
fdele,nd_p,amps
f,nd_s,amps,curr
solve
! *** Apply test current to both coils to determine their mutual inductance
f,nd_p,amps,curr
solve
fini
/post1
file,,rstp
set,1,last
etable,_iene,iene
ssum
*get,iene_p,ssum,,item,_iene
Lp=2*iene_p/curr**2*symm
set,2,last
etable,_iene,iene
ssum
*get,iene_s,ssum,,item,_iene
Ls=2*iene_s/curr**2*symm
set,3,last
etable,_iene,iene
ssum
*get,iene_m,ssum,,item,_iene
Lm=(iene_m-iene_p-iene_s)/curr**2*symm
/com, *******************************************************************
/com,
Self-inductance of the primary coil Lp = %Lp% H
/com,
Self-inductance of the secondary coil Ls = %Ls% H
/com,
Mutual inductance of two coils Lm = %Lm% H
/com, *******************************************************************
! *** Linear perturbation harmonic analysis around the operating point
/solu
antyp,static,restart,,,perturb
perturb,harmonic,,current,allkeep
solve,elform
harfrq,frqncy
d,nd_p,volt,Vp/10
solve
fini
/post1
file,,rstp
set,1,last,,0
Vp_real=volt(nd_p)
Vs_real=volt(nd_s)

! Real solution set

/com,

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253

Electromagnetic Linear Perturbation Analysis


/com, *** Real solution
/com, Vp = %Vp_real%
/com, Vs = %Vs_real%
/com,
vsel,s,mat,,2,4
alls,belo,volu
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on
plve,b,,,,vect,,on
plnsol,emf
alls
set,1,last,,1
Vp_imag=volt(nd_p)
Vs_imag=volt(nd_s)

! Imaginary solution set

/com,
/com, *** Imag solution
/com, Vp = %Vp_imag%
/com, Vs = %Vs_imag%
/com,
vsel,s,mat,,2,4
alls,belo,volu
plve,jt,,,,vect,,on
plve,b,,,,vect,,on
plnsol,emf
alls
Vp = sqrt(Vp_real**2 + Vp_imag**2)
Vs = sqrt(Vs_real**2 + Vs_imag**2)
/com,
/com, *** Secondary to Primary Coil Voltage Ratio =
fini

254

%Vs/Vp%

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Chapter 11: Electric and Magnetic Macros


Electric and magnetic macros help you to prepare models and examine the results of a magnetic field
analysis. The following macros are available:
CMATRIX calculates self and mutual capacitance coefficients between conductors.
CURR2D calculates current flow in a 2-D conductor.
EMAGERR calculates the relative error in an electrostatic or electromagnetic field analysis.
EMF calculates the electromotive force (emf ) or voltage drop along a predefined path.
EMFT summarizes electromagnetic forces and torques on selected nodes (PLANE121, SOLID122,
SOLID123 only).
EMTGEN generates a set of TRANS126 elements.
FLUXV calculates the flux passing through a closed contour.
FMAGBC applies force boundary conditions to an element component.
FMAGSUM summarizes electromagnetic force calculations on element components.
FOR2D calculates magnetic forces on a body.
HMAGSOLV specifies 2-D harmonic electromagnetic solution options and initiates the solution for
a harmonic analysis.
LMATRIX calculates the differential inductance matrix and total flux linkage in each coil for an arbitrary
set of coils.
MAGSOLV specifies magnetic solution options and initiates the solution for a static analysis.
MMF calculates magnetomotive force along a path.
PERBC2D generates periodic constraints for 2-D planar analysis.
PLF2D generates a contour line plot of equipotentials.
PMGTRAN summarizes electromagnetic results from a transient analysis.
POWERH calculates the RMS power loss in a conducting body.
RACE defines a "racetrack" current source.
SENERGY determines the stored magnetic energy or co-energy.
TORQ2D calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field.

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255

Electric and Magnetic Macros


TORQC2D calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field based on a circular path.
TORQSUM summarizes electromagnetic Maxwell and Virtual work torque calculations on element
components for 2-D planar problems.
You can find more information about the macros in the Command Reference and in the Mechanical APDL
Theory Reference.
The following table shows where you can apply electric and magnetic macros:
Table 11.1: Application of Electric and Magnetic Macros

Magnetic
Macros

PREP
7
Sol

2D
POST POST MVP MSP Pla1
26
Dom Dom nar

2D
Axisym 3-D

ElecEdge StattroForm ic
Harm Trans stat

CMATRIX

CURR2D

EMAGERR

EMF[1]

EMFT[1]

EMTGEN

FLUXV

FMAGBC

FMAGSUM[1]

FOR2D

HMAGSOLV

LMATRIX

MAGSOLV

MMF

PERBC2D

PLF2D

PMGTRAN

POWERH

RACE

SENERGY

TORQC2D

TORQ2D

TORQSUM

1. Macros also apply to electrostatic field problems.

256

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Using Electric and Magnetic Macros

11.1. Using Electric and Magnetic Macros


The electric and magnetic macros can be grouped into four categories:
11.1.1. Modeling Aids
11.1.2. Solution Aids
11.1.3. Postprocessing Calculations

11.1.1. Modeling Aids


The RACE, PERBC2D, FMAGBC, and EMTGEN macros are available as modeling aids.
RACE generates a racetrack shaped current source from bar and arc primitives (SOURC36 elements). To
invoke this macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): RACE
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Racetrack Coil
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Excitation> Racetrack Coil
The RACE macro requires parameters as noted in Figure 11.1: Racetrack Current Source (p. 257). The
racetrack is located by two parameters XC and YC; these are the distances to the midpoints of the coil
thickness along the X and Y axes of the working plane, respectively. As input to the RACE macro, you
can assign a component name, Cname, to the group of SOURC36 elements. Cname must be enclosed
in single quotes in the RACE command line.
Figure 11.1: Racetrack Current Source

YC

RAD
Z

XC
TCUR

DY

Thickness = DZ
PERBC2D generates periodic boundary conditions by writing constraint equations or assigning node
coupling necessary for two periodic symmetry planes. Use this method only for harmonic or transient
magnetic analyses. For static analyses, use ANSYS' cyclic symmetry capability. Invoke the macro as follows:
Command(s): PERBC2D
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Boundary> Vector
Poten> Periodic BCs

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257

Electric and Magnetic Macros


The diagrams below illustrate the form for three options:
Figure 11.2: Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes at Constant Angles

Figure 11.3: Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes Parallel to the Y Axis

Figure 11.4: Periodic Symmetry at Two Planes Parallel to the X Axis

The odd symmetry option represents a half-period symmetry condition for a device. The even symmetry
condition represents a full period condition (repeating structure).
FMAGBC applies Maxwell surface flags and virtual work boundary conditions to an element component.
The macro groups elements comprising the object of interest a component. You specify the component
name as input on the FMAGBC command or the equivalent GUI path shown below.
Command(s): FMAGBC
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq
Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Magnetic> Flag> Comp. Force/Torq
EMTGEN generates a distributed set of TRANS126 elements between the surface of a moving structure
and a plane (i.e. ground plane). This arrangement allows for fully coupled electrostatic-structural simulations for cases where the gap is small compared to the overall area of the structure. Invoke the macro
as follows:
Command(s): EMTGEN
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Transducers> Node to Plane

258

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Using Electric and Magnetic Macros

11.1.2. Solution Aids


The MAGSOLV, HMAGSOLV, CMATRIX, and LMATRIX macros are available as solution aids.

11.1.2.1. MAGSOLV
MAGSOLV allows you to specify solution options quickly and initiate the solution for most magnetostatic analyses. It applies to 2-D and 3-D models, scalar, vector, and edge formulations, and linear and
nonlinear analyses. The macro eliminates the need to use the MAGOPT command and step through a
two-step or three-step solution sequence required for certain situations. It also allows you to specify
convergence criteria for nonlinear analyses, and gives you an option to force recalculation of the BiotSavart integration from current sources.
To invoke the MAGSOLV macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): MAGSOLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Opt&Solv

11.1.2.2. HMAGSOLV
HMAGSOLV allows you to specify solution options quickly and initiate the solution for harmonic electromagnetic analyses. It applies to 2-D models using the magnetic vector potential (MVP) formulation.
It applies to linear and nonlinear analyses. The macro eliminates the need to step through a two-step
solution sequence that would otherwise be required for nonlinear analyses. It also allows you to specify
convergence criteria.
To invoke the HMAGSOLV macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): HMAGSOLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Harmonic Analys> Opt&Solv

11.1.2.3. CMATRIX
CMATRIX allows you to calculate ground and lumped capacitance matrices. The ground capacitance
values relate the charge of one conductor with the conductor's voltage drop (to ground). The lumped
capacitance values relate the capacitance's between conductors. For more details and an example
problem, see Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems (p. 329) and Example: Capacitance
Calculation (p. 342) of this manual, respectively. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.
To invoke the CMATRIX macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): CMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Capac Matrix

11.1.2.4. LMATRIX
LMATRIX allows you to calculate the differential inductance matrix and the total flux linkage in each
coil for an arbitrary set of coils. See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.

11.1.2.4.1. Overview
LMATRIX calculates the differential inductance matrix and total flux linkage about an "operating point"
of a static magnetic field solution. The "operating point" is defined as a solution obtained with the
working (nominal) currents applied to the system. The macro is valid for linear or nonlinear magnetostatic analyses.

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259

Electric and Magnetic Macros


The LMATRIX macro relies on files created from the operating point solution. The macro renames the
files with a prefix OPER before execution and restores the files after the execution is complete. You may
wish to save another copy of the files as a backup.
The macro returns an N x N+1 array parameter. The N x N block contains the differential inductance
matrix values for a prescribed N-winding system, where N is the number of coils in the system. The
N+1th column contains the total flux linkage, with the ith row corresponding to the ith coil. In addition,
the matrix values are written to a text file for external use. The first table in the file shows the total flux
linkage for each coil. The matrix row index (I) corresponds to the coil number. The second table shows
the upper diagonal terms of the differential inductance matrix. I and J are the row and column indices
of the matrix, and Induct is the inductance term for entry (I, J) of the matrix.
To invoke the LMATRIX macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): LMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Induct Matrix

11.1.2.4.2. Procedure
You need to assign nominal current values to the coil elements before calling the LMATRIX macro. For
a magnetostatic analysis using the Reduced Scalar Potential (RSP), Difference Scalar Potential (DSP), or
Generalized Scalar Potential (GSP) method, assign nominal currents to the coil elements by using
SOURC36 real constants. For a magnetostatic analysis using the Magnetic Vector Potential (MVP) or
edge formulations, you can assign nominal current (in terms of current density) to the coil elements by
using the BFV, BFA, or BFE commands. For 3-D problems using the MVP or edge formulations, you
need to verify that a solenoidal condition is satisfied when prescribing the source current density. For
more information on the solenoidal condition and how to verify it, see 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157) and 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233).
A more convenient way to guarantee a solenoidal condition is to use a SOLID97 solenoidal formulation
(see SOLID97 Solenoidal Formulations (p. 261)).
To use the LMATRIX command macro, you must define a vector array parameter with dimension N
(which you enter in the LMATRIX Curname argument) by using the *DIM command, where N is the
number of coils. The ith row corresponds to the ith coil. You must set each vector array entry equal
to the nominal current per turn in the corresponding coil at the operating point. None of the current
values can be zero, but a zero current can be approximated by a negligibly small applied current.
In addition, for the classical formulations, you must group the elements for each coil into a component
using the CM command. Each set of independent coil elements must be assigned a component name
with a prefix (which you enter in the LMATRIX Coilname argument) followed by the coil number. A
coil component may be mixed of scalar (RSP/DSP/GSP) or vector (MVP) elements. The only important
factor is that the elements are excited by the same physical coil current described in the current vector.
For solenoidal elements, you must make the exciting node with a F,AMPS load a node component using
the CM command.
The classical and solenoidal formulations cannot be mixed. For more information on the solenoidal
formulations see SOLID97 Solenoidal Formulations (p. 261).
You must use the Indname argument to specify an array name for the matrix created by LMATRIX.
The Symfac argument of the LMATRIX command allows you to specify symmetry. The fraction of the
total device modeled is a multiplying factor applied to the inductance terms.

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When the operating point solution is near the elbow of the B-H curve, the tangent permeability will
change rapidly. This causes the computed inductance to vary with the convergence tolerance. To obtain
an accurate solution, the convergence tolerance needs to be tighter than the default value of 1.0 x 10-3.
You should specify a convergence tolerance of 1.0 x 10-4 or 1.0 x 10-5 when you issue MAGSOLV.
Do not apply (or remove) inhomogeneous loads before using the LMATRIX command. Inhomogeneous
loads are those created by:
Degree of freedom commands (D, DA, etc.) specifying nonzero degrees of freedom values on nodes
or solid model entities
Any CE command with a nonzero constant term
Do not put any loads (for example, current) on elements not contained in the element component.
Below is an example of commands created for a three coil system with nominal currents of 1.2, 1.5 and
1.7 amps/turn. In this example, the vector array name is assigned the name "cur" and the coil component
name prefix is "wind." The computed values of the differential inductance matrix are stored in the
parameter array called "ind." Note that these names must be enclosed in single quotes in the LMATRIX
command line.
*dim,cur,,3! vector array for 3 coil system
cur(1)=1.2! coil 1 nominal current: 1.2 amps/turn
cur(2)=1.5! coil 2 nominal current: 1.5 amps/turn
cur(3)=1.7! coil 3 nominal current: 1.7 amps/turn
!
esel,s....! select coil 1 elements
cm,wind1,elem! assign elements to component Wind1
esel,s....! select coil 2 elements
cm,wind2,elem! assign elements to component Wind2
esel,s....! select coil 3 elements
cm,wind3,elem! assign elements to component Wind3
!
symfac=2! symmetry factor
!compute differential inductance matrix and total flux linkage
lmatrix,symfac,'wind','cur','ind'
*stat,ind! list entries of inductance and flux matrix, ind

11.1.2.4.3. SOLID97 Solenoidal Formulations


For a proper electromagnetic analysis, the continuity equation must be satisfied and the current density
must be solenoidal (i.e. div J = 0). This means that the current density must satisfy the law of conservation
of matter. That is, the current density cannot have sources or sinks.
The SOLID97 solenoidal formulations (KEYOPT(1) = 5 or 6) automatically satisfy the solenoidal condition.
For more information on the solenoidal formulations, see 3-D Magnetostatics and Fundamentals of
Edge-Based Analysis (p. 157) and 3-D Nodal-Based Analysis (Static, Harmonic, and Transient) (p. 233).
You can perform LMATRIX calculations for conductor coils modeled by the SOLID97 solenoidal formulations. To do so, follow these steps:
1. Set the VOLT DOFs to zero at the ground nodes of the coil (D,,VOLT).
2. Couple the VOLT DOFs at the hot nodes of the coil (CP,,VOLT)
3. Set the current at any hot node N1 (F,,AMPS).
4. Include the coil current in the array of currents.

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5. Create a NODE component of the hot node N1.
6. Include any elements that are not solenoidal elements in the ELEM component.

11.1.2.5. Example LMATRIX Calculation for an Inductor Device (Command Method)


The following is an example of how to perform an inductance matrix calculation by issuing ANSYS
commands. You can also perform the analysis through the ANSYS GUI menus.

11.1.2.5.1. Problem Description


This example calculates the differential inductance matrix and total flux linkage of a two coil system
about a nonlinear operating point on a permanent magnet inductor device. Figure 11.5: Inductor
Device (p. 262) shows you the inductor device and the input data.
Figure 11.5: Inductor Device

11.1.2.5.2. Command Listing


Below is the command input stream used to perform the analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation
point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, Two-coil inductor with a permanent magnet
/nopr
!
geometry data
!
n=1
! meshing parameter
x=0.1
! width (x size) of core
y=0.1
! height of core, y size of window
z=1
! thickness of iron in z direction
x1=0.1
! width (x size) of coil 1
x2=0.1
! width (x size) of coil 2

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Hcy=25
! coercive magnetic field in y direction
n1=10
! number of turns in coil1
n2=20
! number of turns in coil2
!
!
excitation data used by LMATRIX.MAC
!
symfac=1
! symmetric factor for inductance computation
nc=2
! number of coils
*dim,cur,array,nc
! nominal currents of coils
*dim,coils,char,nc
! names of coil components
!
cur(1)=0.25
! nominal current of 1st coil
coils(1)='wind1'
! name of coil 1 component
!
cur(2)=-0.125
! nominal current of 2nd coil
coils(2)='wind2'
! name of coil 2 component
!
!
auxiliary parameters
!
mu0=3.1415926*4.0e-7
x3=x1+x2
! x coordinate right to coil2 left
x4=x3+2*x
! x coordinate right to core
x5=x4+x2
! x coordinate right to coil2 right
x6=x5+x1
! x coordinate right to coil1 right
js1=cur(1)*n1/(x1*y)
! nominal current density of coil1
js2=cur(2)*n2/(x2*y)
! nominal current density of coil2
!
/prep7
et,1,53
!
mp,murx,1,1
! air/coil
mp,mgyy,2,Hcy
! coercive term
Bs=2
! saturation flux density
Hs=100
! saturation magnetic field
TB,BH,2
! core: H = Hs (B/Bs)^2; BS=2T;HS=100A/m
*do,qqq,1,20
B=qqq/10*Bs
tbpt,,Hs*(B/Bs)**2,B
*enddo
!
rect, 0,x1,0,y
! coil1 left
rect,x1,x3,0,y
! coil2 left
rect,x3,x4,0,y
! core
rect,x4,x5,0,y
! coil2 right
rect,x5,x6,0,y
! coil1 right
!
aglue,all
!
asel,s,loc,x,x1/2
! coil 1 volume attribute
aatt,1,1,1
asel,s,loc,x,x5+x1/2
aatt,1,2,1
asel,s,loc,x,x1+x2/2
! coil 2 volume attribute
aatt,1,3,1
asel,s,loc,x,x4+x2/2
aatt,1,4,1
asel,s,loc,x,x3+x
! iron volume attribute
aatt,2,5,1
asel,all
!
esize,,n
amesh,all
!
nsel,s,loc,x,x6
! flux parallel Dirichlet at symmetry plain, x=x6
!
! homogeneous Neumann flux normal at yoke, x=0
d,all,az,0
nsel,all
!
esel,s,real,,1
! coil 1 left component
bfe,all,JS,,,,js1
! unite current density in coil 1
!
esel,s,real,,2
! coil 1 right component

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bfe,all,JS,,,,-js1
! return unite current density in coil 1
!
esel,s,real,,1,2
cm,coils(1),elem
!
esel,s,real,,3
! coil 2 left component
bfe,all,JS,,,,js2
! unite current density in coil 2
!
esel,s,real,,4
! coil 2 right component
bfe,all,JS,,,,-js2
! return unite current density in coil 2
!
esel,s,real,,3,4
cm,coils(2),elem
!
!
allsel
!
fini
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
/com
/com obtain operating solution
/com
!
/solu
cnvtol,csg,,1.0e-4
eqslv,front
/out,scratch
solve
fini
!
/post1
!
/out
!
/com,
/com,
senergy, ! Stored electromagnetic energy
savelen=S_ENG
senergy,1 ! Co-energy
savelce=C_ENG
!
fini
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
! compute inductance
lmatrix,symfac,'wind','cur','ind', ! compute inductance matrix and flux
!
/com
finish

11.1.2.5.3. Expected Results


You should obtain the following results for this problem:
SUMMARY OF STORED ENERGY CALCULATION
Load Step Number:
1.
Substep Number:
1.
Time:
0.1000E+01
Material Number of Stored Energy
Material Description
Number Elements
(J/m)
1.
4.
0.52360E-05
Linear
Isotrp.
.
.
2.
1.
-0.33314E+00
Nonlin.
Magnet
Isotrp.
_____________________________________________________________________
T O T A L
5.
-0.33313E+00
Note:
The energy density for the active elements used in the energy
calculation is stored in the element item "MG_ENG" for display
and printing. The total stored energy is saved as parameter (S_ENG)
_____________________________________________________________________

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Using Electric and Magnetic Macros


SUMMARY OF CO-ENERGY CALCULATION
Load Step Number:
1.
Substep Number:
1.
Time:
0.1000E+01
Material Number of
Co-energy
Material Description
Number Elements
(J/m)
1.
4.
0.52360E-05
Linear
Isotrp.
.
.
2.
1.
0.33314E+00
Nonlin.
Magnet
Isotrp.
_____________________________________________________________________
T O T A L
5.
0.33314E+00
Note:
The co-energy density for the active elements used in the co-energy
calculation is stored in the element item "MG_COENG" for display
and printing. The total co-energy is saved as parameter (C_ENG)
_____________________________________________________________________
________________ LMATRIX SOLUTION SUMMARY ___________________
Flux linkage of coil
1. =
Flux linkage of coil
2. =
Self inductance of coil 1. =
Self inductance of coil 2. =
Mutual inductance between coils

0.19989E+01
0.39978E+01
0.39976E+01
0.15989E+02
1. and 2. =

Inductance matrix is stored in array parameter ind


Inductance matrix is stored in file ind

0.79948E+01
( 2., 3.)

.txt

11.1.3. Postprocessing Calculations


TORQ2D calculates torque on a body in a magnetic field via a surface integral along a predefined
contour (path). This macro requires you to define a path through the air elements surrounding the object
of interest, as shown in Figure 11.6: General Path for Torque Calculation (p. 265). A counterclockwise ordering of nodes on the PPATH command ( Main Menu> General Postproc> Path Operations> Define
Path) will give the correct sign on the torque result. The path should be completely contained within
an air domain surrounding the body. You can use the macro for 2-D analysis only.
To invoke the TORQ2D macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): TORQ2D
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Torque
Figure 11.6: General Path for Torque Calculation

TORQC2D calculates the torque on a body in a magnetic field via a surface integral along a circular
contour (path) centered about the global origin. It is ideal for analysis of rotating machines. Invoke the
macro using either of the following:
Command(s): TORQC2D
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Circular Torq

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The path required for the calculation is created by TORQC2D based on a radius (RAD) that you specify.
To ensure a correct solution, select only the air elements surrounding the circular object of interest
before using the macro. Figure 11.7:PATH for Circular Calculation (p. 266) illustrates path selection for
a 360 circular path.
Figure 11.7: PATH for Circular Calculation

FOR2D calculates the forces on a body in a magnetic field via a surface integral along a predefined
path. This macro requires a path in the air surrounding the object of interest. To invoke FOR2D, use
either the following command or GUI path: L
Command(s): FOR2D
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Mag Forces
Figure 11.8: Sample Paths for Magnetic Force Calculation (p. 266) illustrates the path selection for two
planar analysis cases. A counterclockwise ordering of nodes on the PPATH command will give the
correct sign on the force result.
Figure 11.8: Sample Paths for Magnetic Force Calculation

Figure 11.9: MMF Paths

MMF calculates the magnetomotive force, the line integral of magnetic field, H, along a predefined
path (defined with the PATH and PPATH command). A counterclockwise ordering of nodes will give
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the correct sign on the MMF. The MMF macro sets the "ACCURATE" mapping method and "MAT" discontinuity option of the PMAP command. The ANSYS program retains these settings for PMAP after
issuing the macro. If the path spans multiple materials, include at least 1 path point in each material
(See Figure 11.9: MMF Paths (p. 266) (b)).
To invoke the MMF macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): MMF
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> MMF
EMF calculates the electromotive force (emf ), the line integral of electric field, E, or voltage drop along
a path (defined using the PATH command or its GUI counterpart). It can operate in both 2-D and 3-D
electric and electrostatic field analysis. The parameter EMF stores the calculated emf value.
Before invoking EMF, you must first define a path. The macro uses calculated values of the electric field
(EF), and uses path operations to perform the calculations. All path items are cleared when the macro
completes.
The EMF macro sets the "ACCURATE" mapping method and "MAT" discontinuity option of the PMAP
command. The ANSYS program retains these settings for PMAP after issuing the macro.
To invoke the EMF macro, use either of the following:
Command(s): EMF
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> EMF
POWERH calculates the time-averaged power loss in a conducting body from a harmonic analysis. You
must select the elements of the conducting region before invoking the macro. POWERH is most accurate
when fine meshes are available in the conducting regions. To invoke the macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): POWERH
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Power Loss
FLUXV calculates the flux passing through a predefined line contour. In a 2-D analysis, at least two
nodes must define the path. In a 3-D MVP analysis, the path must be a closed contour; that is, the first
and last nodes must be the same. A counterclockwise ordering of nodes on the path will yield the
correct sign on flux. Figure 11.10: Flux Calculations (p. 267) illustrates the path selection, when invoking
FLUXV for both 2-D and 3-D analysis. The macro is valid only with the magnetic vector potential formulation.
To invoke the FLUXV macro, use one of the following:
Command(s): FLUXV
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Path Flux
Figure 11.10: Flux Calculations

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(a) 2-D path definition:

(b) 3-D contour definitions:

PLF2D generates a display of equipotential lines with the degree of freedom AZ. In an axisymmetric
analysis, the display consists of constant values of radius * AZ. Use this macro for 2-D analysis only.
These equipotential lines are parallel to flux lines and provide a good representation of magnetic flux
patterns.
To invoke PLF2D, use one of the following:
Command(s): PLF2D
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> 2D Flux Lines
Utility Menu> Plot Ctrls> Results> Flux Lines
SENERGY calculates the stored magnetic energy or co-energy in the model. The energy calculation is
summarized in a table by material number, and the energy density is stored in the element table for
displaying and listing.
Figure 11.11: Energy and Co-energy for Nonpermanent Magnets
B

energy (w)

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x

coenergy (w')

Figure 11.11: Energy and Co-energy for Nonpermanent Magnets (p. 268) illustrates how the magnetic
energy and co-energy are determined for nonpermanent magnets. The energy at a point on the curve
is the area above the curve bounded by the value of B at that point, and the co-energy is the area under
the curve at that point.

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Figure 11.12: Energy and Co-energy for Permanent Magnets
B

coenergy (w')

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x

energy (w)

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(b)

(a)
w,w'
B

Hc

-Hc

linear
(c)

For a permanent magnet, energy and co-energy for a point on the curve are calculated as follows:
The energy is the area to the right of the curve in the positive B region (see graph (a) in Figure 11.12: Energy
and Co-energy for Permanent Magnets (p. 269)). Note that the energy is negative for the shown case.
The co-energy is the area under the curve (see graph (b) in Figure 11.12: Energy and Co-energy for Permanent Magnets (p. 269)).
The energy and co-energy of a linear permanent magnet are show in graph (c) in Figure 11.12: Energy
and Co-energy for Permanent Magnets (p. 269).
SENERGY determines the energy and co-energy using the following B-H relationships:
where B1-H1 is a soft magnetic characteristic of the material and Hc is the coercive force.
For a linear soft magnetic material, the B1-H1 relationship is given by:
where o is the free-space permeability and r is the relative permeability specified by the MP command
and the MURX, MURY, and MURZ labels.
For a nonlinear soft magnetic material, you input a B1-H1 curve using the TB command with the BH
label. You then enter the data points using the TBPT or TBDATA command. The curve must start at
the origin and increase monotonically. For the energy calculations, the curve is approximated with a

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spline fit up to the last data point. Beyond the last data point, it is extrapolated as a straight line with
a slope equal to the free-space permeability.

Note
Energy values are undefined for circuit-coupled elements (PLANE53 or SOLID97 with KEYOPT(1)
= 3 or 4).
To invoke SENERGY, use one of the following:
Command(s): SENERGY
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Co-Energy
Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Energy
EMAGERR calculates the relative error in the computed field quantities (B, H) for each element in a
model. The error represents the average difference in the element computed field value and a continuous
field value. The continuous field is represented by the average nodal field values. Optionally, you can
normalize the error value with respect to the highest computed nodal-averaged field value per material.
The error measure considers material discontinuities when calculating the average nodal continuous
field values.
To invoke EMAGERR, use either of the following:
Command(s): EMAGERR
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Error Eval
CURR2D calculates the total current flowing in a conducting body for 2-D models. The current may be
from an applied source current, or induced eddy current. This macro is useful for checking total current
flow.
To invoke CURR2D, use either of the following:
Command(s): CURR2D
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Element Based> Current
EMFT summarizes in tabular form the resulting electromagnetic forces and torques on a set of selected
nodes. This command is applicable only to PLANE121, SOLID122, and SOLID123 elements.
To invoke EMFT, use either of the following:
Command(s): EMFT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc>
FMAGSUM summarizes in tabular form the resulting Maxwell and virtual work forces on a body. The
body must be defined as a named element component. (Typically you use the macro FMAGBC to apply
appropriate boundary conditions in the preprocessor to invoke the force calculation during the solution
phase.)
To invoke FMAGSUM, use either of the following:
Command(s): FMAGSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Path Based> Mag Forces
TORQSUM summarizes in tabular form the resulting Maxwell and virtual work forces on a body. The
body must be defined as a named element component. (Typically you use the macro FMAGBC to apply
appropriate boundary conditions in the preprocessor to invoke the force calculation during the solution
phase.)

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To invoke TORQSUM, use either of the following:
Command(s): TORQSUM
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec & Mag Calc> Component Based> Torque
PMGTRAN calculates and summarizes electromagnetic field data on element components for a transient
analysis. Calculations may include magnetic forces, power loss, stored energy, or total current. The
FMAGBC macro calculates magnetic forces on element components specified in the preprocessor. The
SENERGY macro calculates stored energy, and the CURR2D macro calculates total current.
To invoke PMGTRAN, use either of the following:
Command(s): PMGTRAN
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postpro> Elec & Mag> Magnetics
The data is summarized in a report as well as written to a file. The ANSYS program automatically prepares
display plots of the results as a function of time and saves them in a plot file for use by the DISPLAY
program.

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Chapter 12: Far-Field Elements


A far-field element allows you to model the effects of far-field decay in magnetic, electrostatic, thermal,
or electric current conduction analyses without having to specify assumed boundary conditions at the
exterior of the model. Consider, for example, a dipole and its 2-D, quarter-symmetry finite element
model (see Figure 12.1: Flux Lines Without Far-Field Elements (p. 273)). Without far-field elements, you
would model the air surrounding the iron core out to an assumed "infinite" location and then specify
either flux-parallel or flux-normal boundary conditions at the edge of the "air" elements, effectively
truncating the magnetic effects at that edge.
Figure 12.1: Flux Lines Without Far-Field Elements

By using far-field elements (here element INFIN9) instead, you need to model only a portion of the air.
The figure shows flux lines in the finite element region modeled with far-field elements at the radial
boundary.
Figure 12.2: Flux Lines With Far-Field Elements

How much of the surrounding air should you model? The answer depends on the problem you are
solving. For relatively closed flux paths (little leakage to surroundings), not much of the air needs to be
modeled, that is, you can place the far-field elements relatively close to the model region of interest.
For open-boundary problems, you should extend the air elements well beyond the region of interest
before placing the far-field elements.
Far-Field Elements Described

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273

Far-Field Elements
ANSYS offers the following far-field elements.
Table 12.1: 2-D Far-Field Elements
Element
INFIN9

Description
2 Node Line Element

Analysis Category

Enclosed Elements

Analysis Type

Magnetic

PLANE13

Static

PLANE53

Harmonic

Planar Models

Transient
Thermal

PLANE35
PLANE55

Steadystate
Transient

PLANE77
INFIN110

4 or 8 Node Quadrilateral

Magnetic

Planar or Axisymmetric Models

PLANE13

Static

PLANE53

Harmonic
Transient

Electrostatic

PLANE121

Static
Harmonic

Thermal

PLANE35

Steadystate

PLANE55
PLANE77
Electric Current Conduction

PLANE230

Transient
Steadystate
Harmonic
Transient
Table 12.2: 3-D Far-Field Elements
Element
INFIN47

Description
4 Node Quadrilateral or 3 Node
Triangle

Analysis Category

Enclosed Elements

Analysis Type

Magnetic

SOLID5

Static

SOLID96

Harmonic

SOLID98

Transient

SOLID70

Steadystate

Thermal

Transient
INFIN111

8 or 20 node hexahedral

Magnetic

SOLID5
SOLID96

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Static

Tips for Using Far-Field Elements


Element

Description

Analysis Category

Enclosed Elements

Analysis Type

SOLID98
SOLID97

Static
Harmonic
Transient

Electrostatic

SOLID122

Static
Harmonic

SOLID123
Thermal

SOLID70
SOLID87

Steadystate
Transient

SOLID90
Electric Current Conduction

SOLID231

Steadystate

SOLID232

Harmonic
Transient

Note
You can also use far-field elements in a thermal analysis. Refer to the Thermal Analysis Guide
for details on thermal analysis.

12.1. Tips for Using Far-Field Elements


You must place the INFIN9 and INFIN47 elements such that the global origin is located centrally with
respect to them. A circular arc of far-field elements at the boundary of the finite element domain usually
gives best results.
The infinite elements INFIN110 and INFIN111 give you greater flexibility in modeling far-field effects.
For best results, define INFIN110 and INFIN111 elements with their "poles" (see the Element Reference)
coinciding with centers of disturbances, such as loads. There may be multiple poles, which may or may
not fall at the coordinate system origin. Element poles should coincide with nearby disturbances, or
with the approximate centroid of disturbances. In contrast to INFIN9 and INFIN47, INFIN110 and INFIN111
need not be placed such that the global origin is located centrally with respect to them.
When using the INFIN110 or INFIN111 elements, you must flag the exterior surface with the INF surface
load. To do so, use the SF family of commands or their equivalent menu paths. (See 2-D Transient
Magnetic Analysis (p. 99).)
You can easily define a layer of INFIN111 elements by creating a volume to be meshed, using one of
the following:
Command(s): VEXT
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275

Far-Field Elements
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> By XYZ offset
The INFIN110 and INFIN111 elements are usually much longer in the infinite direction, resulting in
skewed meshes. Therefore, contour plots exclude these elements. Element plots, however, include them.
For optimal performance of either INFIN110 or INFIN111, you must meet one or both of the following
conditions.
Boundaries Must Describe a Smooth Curvature
INFIN110 and INFIN111 perform best when the boundary between the finite element (FE) domain and
the infinite element (IFE) domain describes a smooth curvature. Figure 12.3: Interface between FE and
Infinite Element Domains (p. 276) illustrates this point.
Figure 12.3: Interface between FE and Infinite Element Domains

If your model construction does not allow a smooth FE to IFE domain interface, you may do so provided
the infinite elements "radiate" from any sharp corners in the FE domain. Only one element edge may
be "exposed" to the open exterior. Figure 12.4: IFE Constructions for Non-Smooth FE to IFE Domain Interface (p. 276) illustrates this point for both a correct and incorrect IFE construction for a quarter symmetry
model.
Figure 12.4: IFE Constructions for Non-Smooth FE to IFE Domain Interface

Figure 12.4: IFE Constructions for Non-Smooth FE to IFE Domain Interface (p. 276) also illustrates that
only one face of an infinite element may be exposed to infinity. Be careful to assure that one face of
the infinite element is exposed to infinity. You should avoid constructions that lead to infinite element
with sides converging from the FE interface to the interface with infinity. Figure 12.5: 2-D Infinite Element
Structures (p. 276) illustrates this point.
Figure 12.5: 2-D Infinite Element Structures
Examples of correct and incorrect

276

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Example Far-Field Analysis

The accuracy of field calculations at sharp edges of the FE/IFE domain interface will be of lower quality
than those achieved at a smooth interface.
Length of Elements Should Equal Depth of Domain
The second condition that improves the performance of INFIN110 and INFIN111 is the relative dimensions
of the FE and IFE domains. The relative length of the infinite elements should be approximately equal
to the depth of your model's FE domain. Figure 12.6: Relative Dimensions of FE and IFE Domains (p. 277)
illustrates this relationship for a 2-D quarter symmetry example.
Figure 12.6: Relative Dimensions of FE and IFE Domains

When INFIN9 or INFIN47 elements enclose higher-order elements in a model, remove the midside nodes
of the higher-order elements at the interface with the far-field elements (EMID command). When INFIN110
or INFIN111 elements enclose higher-order elements in a model, use the higher-order setting for the
far-field elements (KEYOPT(2) = 1).

12.2. Example Far-Field Analysis


This example considers the electric conduction problem with infinite boundaries described as problem
# 476 in "Worked problems in Applied Mathematics," by N.N. Lebedev, I.P. Skalskaya, Y.S. Ufland, Dover
Publications, Inc., NY, p. 226 (1979).

12.2.1. Problem Description


A DC current (I) enters ground of conductivity through a plate in the form of a disk of radius a. Find
the distribution of electric current under the plate and calculate the resistance of the plate.

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Far-Field Elements
Figure 12.7: Grounding Plate with Current Loading

I
X

2a

The geometric and electrical parameters are:


Radius a = 1 cm
Applied current I = 5 mA
Soil electrical conductivity = 0.5 e-2 S/m
Axisymmetric PLANE230 triangular elements model a rectangular area of width 2a and depth a below
the circular electrode. A single layer of axisymmetric INFIN110 quadrilateral elements represents the
exterior semi-infinite domain (IFE). The ratio of the IFE domain dimensions to the FE domain dimensions
is equal to 1.8 (that is, the length of the infinite elements is approximately equal to the depth of the
FE domain). The electrode is defined by coupling the VOLT degrees of freedom of the ground surface.
The current load is applied as a concentrated nodal load.

12.2.2. Results
The electric current results are shown in the following figure.
Figure 12.8: Electric Current Distribution

The calculated resistance is 4943 Ohms. The expected result from the above reference is:
R = 1/(4a) = 5000 Ohms

278

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Example Far-Field Analysis

12.2.3. Command Listing


You can perform this electric conduction analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below. Text prefaced
by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/title, Current distribution of circular electrode
! Problem parameters
I=5e-3
! current, A
sig=0.5e-2
! conductivity of soil, S/m
a=1e-2
! disk radius, m
w=2*a
! finite region width
d=a
! finite region depth
r=1.8
! ratio infinite to finite
/prep7
et,1,PLANE230,,,1
et,2,INFIN110,3,1,1
mp,rsvx,1,1/sig
rect,,w,,-d
k,5,,r*(-d)
k,6,r*w,r*(-d)
k,7,r*w
a,1,5,6,2
a,2,6,7,3
lesize,3,,,16
lesize,1,,,16
lesize,6,,,16

! axisymmetric 8-node electric quad


! axisymmetric 8-node infinite electric quad
! resistivity input
! enveloped area

! specify line divisions

lesize,4,,,8
lesize,2,,,8
lesize,8,,,8
lesize,9,,,1
lesize,5,,,1
msha,1,2d
type,1
amesh,1

! mesh finite region with triangles

mshk,1
msha,0,2d

! mesh infinite region with quads

type,2
amesh,2,3
nummrg,node
lsel,s,line,,6
lsel,a,line,,8
sfl,all,INF
lsel,all

! flag exterior surface of INFIN elements

nsel,s,loc,y,0
nsel,r,loc,x,0,a
cp,1,volt,all
n_load=ndnext(0)
nsel,all
fini

! define electrode

/solu
antype,static
f,n_load,amps,I
solve
fini

! couple VOLT dof


! master node

! apply total current

/post1
plesol,jc,sum
! plot electric current vector sum
/com
/com Calculated resistance R = %volt(n_load)/I% Ohm
/com
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Far-Field Elements
/com **************************************************************************
/com
Expected results: R = %1/(4*sig*a)% Ohm
/com **************************************************************************
finish

280

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Chapter 13: Electric Field Analysis


Electric field analyses calculate the electric field in conductive or capacitive systems. Typical quantities
of interest in an electric field analysis include:
Electric field
Current density
Electric flux density
Charge density
Joule heat
This chapter describes elements used in all types of electric field analysis. You can use them to model
electric effects in lossy dielectrics, high-voltage insulators, microwave passive components, semiconductor
devices, micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices, and biological tissues. This chapter also specifically
covers the procedures for performing steady-state current conduction analysis and quasistatic timeharmonic and time-transient electric field analyses.
See Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method) (p. 321) and Electric Circuit Analysis (p. 347) for a description
of the other types of electric field analysis.
ANSYS uses Maxwell's equations as the basis for electric field analysis. Refer to Electromagnetics in the
Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for details. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) that
the finite element solution calculates are electric scalar potentials (voltages). Other electric field quantities are then derived from the nodal potentials.
This document describes electric-only field analysis, specifically steady-state current conduction analysis,
quasistatic time-harmonic and time-transient electric field analyses, electrostatic field analysis, and
electric circuit analysis. Some of the elements described can also be used as coupled-field elements.
The Coupled-Field Analysis Guide discusses coupled-field analyses.
Electric contact is also available. See Modeling Electric Contact in the Contact Technology Guide for details.
The following electric field topics are available:
13.1. Elements Used in Electric Field Analysis
13.2. Element Compatibility
13.3. Current Densities
13.4. Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis
13.5. Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis
13.6.Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis
13.7. Example Electric Field Analyses

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281

Electric Field Analysis

13.1. Elements Used in Electric Field Analysis


The ANSYS program has a large number of elements available for specific types of electric field analysis.
The following tables summarize them to make element type selection easier. These elements enable
you to perform the following types of analysis:
Steady-state current conduction analysis
Quasistatic time-harmonic and time-transient electric field analyses
Electrostatic field analysis
Electric circuit analysis
Table 13.1: Conducting Bar Elements
Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

LINK68

3-D

Uniaxial, two nodes

DOFs

Usage Notes

Temperature and voltage at


each node

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
thermal-electric
coupled-field analysis

DOFs

Usage Notes

Table 13.2: 2-D Planar Elements


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

PLANE121 2-D

Quadrilateral, eight
nodes

Voltage at each node

Electrostatic analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic analysis

PLANE230 2-D

Quadrilateral, eight
nodes

Voltage at each node

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic and time-transient analyses

Table 13.3: 3-D Solid Elements


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

SOLID5

3-D

SOLID98

3-D

282

DOFs

Usage Notes

Hexahedral, eight
nodes

Up to six at each node; the


DOFs are structural displacements, temperature, electric
potential, and magnetic
scalar potential

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
thermal-electric
coupled-field analysis
or coupled-field electromagnetic analysis

Tetrahedral, ten
nodes

Up to six at each node; the


DOFs are structural displacements, temperature, electric
potential, and magnetic
scalar potential

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
thermal-electric
coupled-field analysis
or coupled-field electromagnetic analysis

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Elements Used in Electric Field Analysis


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

DOFs

Usage Notes

SOLID122

3-D

Hexahedral, twenty
nodes

Voltage at each node

Electrostatic analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic analysis

SOLID123

3-D

Tetrahedral, ten
nodes

Voltage at each node

Electrostatic analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic analysis

SOLID231

3-D

Hexahedral, twenty
nodes

Voltage at each node

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic and time-transient analyses

SOLID232

3-D

Tetrahedral, ten
nodes

Voltage at each node

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
quasistatic time-harmonic and time-transient analyses

Table 13.4: Shell Elements


Element

DiShape or Charactermens.
istic

SHELL157 3-D

Quadrilateral shell,
four nodes

DOFs

Usage Notes

Temperature and voltage at


each node

Steady-state current
conduction analysis;
thermal-electric
coupled-field analysis

Table 13.5: Specialty Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

MATRIX50

None Depends on the elements that it in- Depends on the included element types
(sucludes in its structure
perelement)

INFIN110

2-D

Four or eight nodes

DOFs

One per node; this can be a magnetic


vector potential, temperature, or electric
potential

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283

Electric Field Analysis


Element

Dimens.

INFIN111

3-D

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

Hexahedral, eight or twenty nodes

AX, AY, AZ magnetic vector potential,


temperature, electric scalar potential, or
magnetic scalar potential

Table 13.6: General Circuit Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

CIRCU94

None Circuit element for use in piezoelec- Voltage at two nodes (plus charge at a
tric-circuit analyses, two or three
third node for an independent voltage
nodes
source)

CIRCU124

None General circuit element applicable


Up to three at each node; these can be
to circuit simulation, up to six nodes electric potential, current, or electromotive force drop

CIRCU125

None Diode element used in electric circuit analysis, two nodes

Electric potential

13.2. Element Compatibility


Your finite element model may intermix certain elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. To be
compatible, the elements must have the same meaning of the VOLT degree of freedom (electric potential
or time-integrated electric potential) and the same reaction solution (see table below). Electric charge
reactions must all be positive or negative.
Table 13.7: Reaction Solutions for Elements with VOLT DOF
Element

KEYOPT
(1)

LINK68

N/A

TEMP, VOLT

RSVX

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

SHELL157

N/A

TEMP, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

PLANE53

VOLT, AZ

RSVX, RSVY

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

AX, AY, AX, VOLT

AX, AY, AZ, VOLT,


CURR

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

AZ, VOLT [4]

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

AZ, VOLT [4]

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

SOLID97

SOLID236
SOLID237

DOFs

Material Property Input for


VOLT DOF

Reaction Solution

PLANE121

N/A

VOLT

PERX, PERY, RSVX, RSVY,LSST

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [1]

SOLID122

N/A

VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, RSVX,
RSVY, RSVZ, LSST

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [1]

284

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Element Compatibility

Element

KEYOPT
(1)

SOLID123

N/A

VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, RSVX,
RSVY, RSVZ, LSST

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [1]

PLANE230

N/A

VOLT

RSVX, RSVY,
PERX, PERY, LSST

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

SOLID231

N/A

VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ, LSST

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

SOLID232

N/A

VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ, LSST

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

CIRCU94

05

VOLT, CURR

N/A

Negative or Positive Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG or
AMPS) [2]

CIRCU124

012

VOLT, CURR, EMF

N/A

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

CIRCU125

0 or 1

VOLT

N/A

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

TRANS126

PLANE13

N/A

UX-VOLT, UYVOLT, UZ-VOLT

Material Property Input for


VOLT DOF

Reaction Solution

Electric Current (F label =


AMPS)
N/A
Mechanical Force (F label =
FX)

VOLT, AZ

RSVX, RSVY

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

PERX, PERY

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= AMPS)

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

PERX, PERY, PERZ

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= AMPS)

SOLID5

DOFs

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT, MAG

TEMP, VOLT, MAG

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

PERX, PERY, PERZ

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= AMPS)

VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

PERX, PERY, PERZ

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= AMPS)

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

0
SOLID98
1

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT, MAG

TEMP, VOLT, MAG

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Electric Field Analysis

Element

PLANE223

SOLID226

SOLID227

KEYOPT
(1)

DOFs

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

VOLT

Material Property Input for


VOLT DOF

Reaction Solution

PERX, PERY, PERZ

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= AMPS)

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)


Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

101

UX, UY, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY

1001

UX, UY, VOLT

PERX, PERY, LSST

110

TEMP, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY,
PERX, PERY

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

111

UX, UY, TEMP,


VOLT

RSVX, RSVY,
PERX, PERY

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

1011

UX, UY, TEMP,


VOLT

PERX, PERY,
LSST, DPER

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= CHRG)

101

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

1001

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, LSST

110

TEMP, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

111

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

1011

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, LSST, DPER

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= CHRG)

101

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

1001

UX, UY, UZ, VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, LSST

110

TEMP, VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

111

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT

RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ, PERX, PERY,


PERZ

Electric Current (F label = AMPS)

1011

UX, UY, UZ, TEMP,


VOLT

PERX, PERY,
PERZ, LSST, DPER

Negative Electric Charge (F label


= CHRG)

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [3]

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [3]

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [3]

INFIN110

VOLT

PERX, PERY

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [1]

INFIN111

VOLT

PERX, PERY, PERZ

Positive or Negative Electric


Charge (F label = CHRG) [1]

286

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Current Densities
1. The following apply to electrostatic elements PLANE121, SOLID122, and SOLID123 and far-field elements
INFIN110 and INFIN111:
If KEYOPT(6) is set to 0, the reaction solution is positive electric charge.
If KEYOPT(6) is set to 1, the reaction solution is negative electric charge.
2. The following apply to circuit element CIRCU94, KEYOPT(1) = 0-4:
If KEYOPT(6) is set to 0, the analysis type is piezoelectric-circuit and the reaction solution is negative
electric charge.
If KEYOPT(6) is set to 1, the analysis type is electrostatic-circuit and the reaction solution is positive
electric charge.
3. The following apply to coupled-field elements PLANE223, SOLID226, and SOLID227, KEYOPT(1) = 1001:
If a piezoelectric matrix is specified (TB,PIEZ), the analysis type is piezoelectric and the reaction solution
is negative electric charge.
If a piezoelectric matrix is not specified, the analysis type is electroelastic and the reaction solution is
positive electric charge.
4. The following apply to electromagnetic elements SOLID236 and SOLID237, KEYOPT(1) = 1 or 2.
If KEYOPT(2) is set to 2 in a harmonic or transient analysis, VOLT is a time-integrated electric potential
(KEYOPT(1) = 1) or a time-integrated voltage drop (KEYOPT(1) = 2).
In all the other cases, the VOLT degree of freedom represents an electric potential (KEYOPT(1) = 1) or
a voltage drop (KEYOPT(1) = 2).

13.3. Current Densities


The ANSYS output includes various element current densities (JS, JT, and JC item labels). As shown in
the following table, their meaning depends upon the type of low-frequency electromagnetic analysis.
Table 13.8: Current Densities in Low-Frequency Analyses
Current
Density
Label

JS

JT
JC

Low-Frequency Electric Analysis

Low-Frequency Magnetic Analysis

Total element current density. It is the sum Source current density.


of the element conduction and the displacement current densities. It may be used as a
source for a subsequent magnetostatic
analysis.
Element conduction current density.
Nodal conduction current density.

Total measurable element current


density.

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13.4. Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis


Steady-state current conduction analysis determines the current density and electric potential (voltage)
distribution caused by direct current (DC) or potential drop. You can apply two types of loads in this
analysis: voltage and electric current. Refer to Electromagnetics in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference
for more information.
A steady-state current conduction analysis is assumed to be linear. That is, the electric current is proportional to the applied voltage.
The procedure for doing a steady-state current conduction analysis consists of three main steps:
1. Build the model.
2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.
3. Review the results.
The next few topics discuss what you must do to perform these steps.

13.4.1. Building the Model


To build the model, you start by specifying the jobname and a title for your analysis, using the following
commands or GUI paths:
Command(s): /FILNAME, /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
Utility Menu> File> Change Title
If you are using the ANSYS GUI , the next step is to set preferences for an electric analysis: Main Menu>
Preferences> Electromagnetics> Electric
You must set the preference to Electric to ensure that the elements needed for your analysis will be
available. (The ANSYS GUI filters element types based on the preference you choose.)
Once you have set the Electric preference, use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to define the element
types, the material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks are common to most analyses. The
Modeling and Meshing Guide explains them in detail.
You can use the following types of elements in a steady-state current conduction analysis:
Table 13.9: Elements Used in a Steady-State Analysis
Element

Dimens.

Type

LINK68

3-D

Two node thermal /electric line

PLANE230

2-D

Eight node electric quadrilateral

SOLID5

3-D

Eight node structural/thermal/magnetic/electric hexahedral

SOLID98

3-D

Ten node structural/thermal/magnetic/electric tetrahedral

SOLID231

3-D

Twenty node electric hexahedral

SOLID232

3-D

Ten node electric tetrahedral

SHELL157

3-D

Four node thermal/electric shell

288

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Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis


Element
MATRIX50

Dimens.
3-D

Type
Superelement

You must specify electric resistivity values RSVX, RSVY, and RSVZ using the MP command. These properties may be constant or temperature dependent.

13.4.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution


In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads to the model, specify load step options,
and initiate the finite element solution. The next few topics explain how to perform the following tasks:
1. Enter the SOLUTION Processor.
2. Define the analysis type.
3. Define the analysis options.
4. Apply loads.
5. Start the solution.
6. Finish the solution.

13.4.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

13.4.2.2. Defining Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Steady-state analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,STATIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed a steady-state
analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous run
are available.

13.4.2.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solver you want to use. You can use the sparse solver (default), the Jacobi
Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver, or the
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver (PCG).
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options

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13.4.2.4. Applying Loads


You can apply loads to a steady-state analysis either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or
on the finite element model (nodes and elements). You can specify several types of loads:

13.4.2.4.1. Current
Electric currents (AMPS) are concentrated nodal loads that you usually specify at model boundaries (the
label AMPS is just a load label; it does not indicate the units of measurement). A positive value of current
indicates current flowing into the node. For a uniform current density distribution, couple the appropriate
nodes in the VOLT degree of freedom, and apply the full current at one of the nodes.
To apply current, use one of the following:
Command(s): F
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Current

13.4.2.4.2. Voltage (VOLT)


Voltages are DOF constraints that you usually specify at model boundaries to apply a known voltage.
A typical approach specifies a zero voltage at one end of the conductor (the "ground" end) and a desired
voltage at the other end.
To apply voltage, use the following command or GUI path:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage
You can also apply current and voltage loads using the independent current and voltage source options
of CIRCU124. For more information, refer to Electric Circuit Analysis (p. 347).
Optionally, you can use other commands to apply loads to a steady-state analysis, and you also can
specify output controls as load step options. For information about using these commands to apply
loads and about the load step options available for steady-state analysis, see Alternative Analysis Options
and Solution Methods (p. 367).

13.4.2.5. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all load steps using one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

13.4.2.6. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

13.4.3. Reviewing Results


The program writes results from a steady-state current conduction analysis to the results file, Jobname.RTH (or to Jobname.RST if other degrees of freedom are available besides VOLT). Results include
the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal voltages (VOLT).

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Derived data:
Nodal electric field (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM).
Nodal conduction current densities (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM). Supported only by PLANE230, SOLID231,
and SOLID232.
Element conduction current densities (JSX, JSY, JSZ, JSSUM, JTX, JTY, JTZ, JTSUM).
Element Joule heat (JHEAT).
Nodal reaction currents.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor. To access the postprocessor, choose
one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic Analysis Guide.

13.4.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RTH or Jobname.RST) must be available.
To read results at the desired time point into the database, use either of the following:
Command(s): SET,,,,,TIME
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
If you specify a time value for which no results are available, the program performs linear interpolation
to calculate the results at that time.
To identify the results data you want, use a combination of a label and a sequence number or component
name.
You can now review the results by obtaining graphics displays and tabular listings. To obtain these, use
the following:
Table 13.10: Reviewing Results
Step
Produce
contour displays.

Commands
PLESOL,
PLNSOL

GUI Path
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu

Produce vector (arrow)


displays.

PLVECT

Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector


Plot> Predefined
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector
Plot> User Defined

Produce tabular data


listings.

PRESOL,
PRNSOL,
PRRSOL

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution

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Step

Commands

GUI Path
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal
Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu

To gain access to certain element results data that are not otherwise directly accessible, you must use
the following commands or menu paths after you have read the results into the database:
Table 13.11: ETABLE Results
Step

Commands

GUI Path

Produce
contour displays.

ETABLE

Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table>


Define Table

Produce vector (arrow)


displays.

PLETAB

Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Elem Table
Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table>
Plot Elem Table

Produce tabular data


listings.

PRETAB

Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Elem


Table Data
Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> List
Elem Table

POST1 performs many other postprocessing functions, including mapping results onto a path and load
case combinations. For more information, see the Basic Analysis Guide manual.

13.4.4. Extracting Conductance from Multi-Conductor Systems


A key parameter from an electric solution is conductance. For multiple conductor systems, this involves
extracting self and mutual conductance terms so that equivalent circuit lumped conductors can be
defined for use in circuit simulators. The GMATRIX command macro has been developed to extract self
and mutual conductance terms for multiple conductor systems.
See the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details.
GMATRIX works with the following elements:
SOLID5 (KEYOPT(1) = 9)
SOLID98 (KEYOPT(1) = 9)
LINK68
PLANE230
SOLID231
SOLID232

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13.4.4.1. Ground Conductances and Lumped Conductances


Finite element simulation can readily compute and extract a "Ground" conductance matrix of conductance
values that relate the current on one conductor with the conductor's voltage drop (to ground). Figure 13.1: Three Conductor System (p. 293) illustrates a three-conductor system (one conductor is ground).
The following two equations relate currents on electrodes 1 and 2, I1 and I2, with the voltage drops for
the electrodes, V1 and V2:
1=

g
11 1 +

=



g
12

 +



Figure 13.1: Three Conductor System


Conductor 

Conductor 

Conductive medium (RSVX)

Conductor 3 (round)

where Gg represents a matrix of conductances referred to as ground conductances. These ground


conductances do not represent lumped conductances typically used in a circuit simulator because they
do not relate the conductances between conductors. However, the GMATRIX command macro can
convert the ground conductance matrix to a lumped conductance matrix which is suitable for use in
circuit simulators. Figure 13.2: Lumped Conductor Equivalence of Three Conductor System (p. 294) illustrates the lumped conductances between the conductors. The following two equations then relate the
currents with the voltage drops:
=

  +

=



 +

 



In the equations above, conductance is in Siemens (1/).

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Figure 13.2: Lumped Conductor Equivalence of Three Conductor System

Conductor 1



Conductor 2

G

Conductor 3 (ground)
where Gl represents a matrix of conductances referred to as "lumped conductances".

13.4.4.2. Procedure
The GMATRIX command macro will perform multiple simulations and extract both the ground conductance matrix values and the lumped conductance matrix values. To prepare for GMATRIX, you must
group the conductor nodes into node components. Do not apply any loads to the model (voltages,
current, etc.). The component name applied to the conductor nodes must contain a common prefix,
followed by a numerical suffix progressing from 1 to the highest numbered conductor in the system.
The last numbered conductor in the system must be the ground conductor (the conductor whose potential is assumed to be zero). The procedure for using GMATRIX is as follows:
1. Build and mesh the solid model with electric elements. Conductors are assumed to be perfect conductors
and hence do not require a finite element mesh within the conductor domain. Only the surrounding
conductive regions require a mesh. The resulting nodes on the boundary of the conductors represent
the nodes that will be grouped into node components.
2. Select the nodes on the surface of the each conductor and group them into node components:
Command(s): CM
GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component
Share a command prefix for the component names, and use a numerical value sequencing from 1
to the highest numbered conductor. For example, in Figure 13.2: Lumped Conductor Equivalence
of Three Conductor System (p. 294), three node components would be defined for each set of conductor nodes. Using a prefix "cond", the node component names would be "cond1", "cond2", and
"cond3". The last component, "cond3", would be the nodes representing the ground.
3. Enter the SOLUTION processor:
Command(s): SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
4. Select an equation solver (sparse or ICCG solver recommended):
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
5. Invoke the GMATRIX macro:
Command(s): GMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Component Based> Self/Mutual conductance
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Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis


The GMATRIX command macro requires the following input:
A symmetry factor (SYMFAC). If there is no symmetry in the model, the symmetry factor is 1 (default).
If you wish to model only a portion of the model by taking advantage of symmetry, use the symmetry
factor as a multiplier to obtain the correct conductance.
The node component prefix name (Condname). This is the prefix of the node component names used
to define the conductor node components. In the above example, the prefix name is "cond". The
command macro requires that you put single quotes around the prefix name when entering the
character string. Thus, the input for this example would be 'cond'. In the GUI, the single quotes are
automatically handled by the program.
The number of conductor node components (NUMCOND). Insert the total number of conductor node
components. In the above example, you would use "3".
Enter a name for the stored matrix of conductance values (Matrixname). The command macro stores
the computed ground and lumped matrix values in a 3-D array vector where the "i" and "j" columns
represent the conductor indices, the "k" column indicates ground (k = 1) or lumped (k = 2) terms. The
default name is GMATRIX. For example, the command macro stores the ground terms in GMATRIX(i,j,1)
and the lumped terms in GMATRIX(i,j,2). The command macro also creates a text file containing the
matrix values and stores it in a file with the stored matrix name and a .TXT extension.
Do not apply inhomogeneous loads before using the GMATRIX command. Inhomogeneous loads are
those created by:
Degree of freedom commands (D, DA, etc.) specifying nonzero degree of freedom values on nodes
or solid model entities
Force commands (F, BF, BFE, BFA, etc.) specifying nonzero force values on nodes, elements, or solid
model entities
Any CE command with a nonzero constant term
GMATRIX executes a series of solutions to compute self and mutual conductance between conductors.
The solutions, which are stored in the results file, are available for postprocessing, if desired. At the end
of the execution, the command macro presents a summary table.

13.5. Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis


A harmonic electric analysis determines the effects of alternating current (AC), charge or voltage excitation in electric devices. In this analysis, the time-harmonic electric and magnetic fields are uncoupled,
and the electromagnetic field can be treated as quasistatic. Eddy currents are considered to be negligible,
and the electric field is derived from the electric scalar potential. Capacitive effects and displacement
current are taken into account. Refer to Electromagnetics in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for
more information.
You can use this analysis to determine the voltage, electric field, electric flux density, and electric current
density distributions in an electric device as a function of frequency in response to time-harmonic
loading.
The procedure for doing a harmonic quasistatic analysis consists of three main steps:
1. Build the model.

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2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.
3. Review the results.
The next few topics discuss what you must do to perform these steps.

13.5.1. Building the Model


To build the model, you first specify a jobname and a title for your analysis as described in Steady-State
Current Conduction Analysis (p. 288). If you are using the ANSYS GUI, you set preferences for an electric
analysis. You then use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to define the element types, the material
properties, and the model geometry.
To perform a current-based harmonic quasistatic analysis, you can use the following types of elements:
Table 13.12: Elements Used in a Current-Based Harmonic Analysis [1]
Element

Dimens.

Type

PLANE230

2-D

Eight node electric quadrilateral

SOLID231

3-D

Twenty node electric hexahedral

SOLID232

3-D

Ten node electric tetrahedral

1. The reaction solution is current.


To perform a charge-based harmonic quasistatic analysis, you can use the following types of elements:
Table 13.13: Elements Used in a Charge-Based Harmonic Analysis [1]
Element

Dimens.

Type

PLANE121

3-D

Eight node electrostatic quadrilateral

SOLID122

3-D

Twenty node electrostatic hexahedral

SOLID123

3-D

Ten node electrostatic tetrahedral

1. The reaction solution is charge.


The default system of units is MKS. In the MKS system of units, free-space permittivity is set to 8.85e12 Farads/meter. To specify your own system of units and free-space permittivity use one of the following:
Command(s): EMUNIT
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material props>Electromag Units
To model resistive and capacitive effects, a harmonic electric analysis requires the specification of
electrical resistivity and electric permittivity, respectively. Define electrical resistivity values as RSVX,
RSVY, and RSVZ on the MP command. Define relative electric permittivity values as PERX, PERY, and
PERZ on the MP command.
You can specify losses by defining electrical resistivity (RSVX, RSVY, RSVZ) or a loss tangent (LSST) on
the MP command. Resistivity and loss tangent effects are additive.
These properties may be constant or temperature dependent.

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13.5.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution


In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads to the model, specify load step options,
and initiate the finite element solution. The next few topics explain how to perform the following tasks:
1. Enter the SOLUTION processor.
2. Define the analysis type.
3. Define the analysis options.
4. Apply loads.
5. Start the solution.
6. Finish the solution.

13.5.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

13.5.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Harmonic analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,HARMONIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,HARMONIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed a harmonic
analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous run
are available.

13.5.2.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solution method and which solver you want to use. Harmonic electric analyses
require the full solution method. To select a solution method, use one of the following:
Command(s): HROPT,FULL
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Harmonic
You can use the sparse solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, the Incomplete
Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver, or the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver (PCG). To
select an equation solver, use one of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
To specify the frequency range, use any of the following:
Command(s): HARFRQ
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step opts> Time/Frequency
Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Load Step opts> Time/Frequency
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To specify the number of harmonic solutions within the load step, use either of the following:
Command(s): NSUBST
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substps
When specifying multiple substeps within a load step, you need to indicate whether the loads are to
be ramped or stepped. The KBC command is used for this purpose: KBC,0 indicates ramped loads (default), and KBC,1 indicates stepped loads.
Command(s): KBC
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps (or Time & Time
Step)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps (or Time & Time Step)
To specify results data for the printed output file (Jobname.OUT), use one of the following:
Command(s): OUTPR
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
You can also control the solution items sent to the results file (Jobname.RTH). By default, the ANSYS
program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file. If you want all substeps (that
is, the solution at all time substeps) on the results file, use one of the following to specify a frequency
or ALL or 1.
Command(s): OUTRES
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File
Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

13.5.2.4. Applying Loads


You can apply loads in a harmonic analysis either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on
the finite element model (nodes and elements). The type of loads you can specify depends on the element
type chosen for a harmonic analysis.
Table 13.14: Load Types
Analysis

Element Types

Current-Based Analysis

Charge-Based Analysis

Loads

PLANE230, SOLID231, SOLID232

Current

PLANE121, SOLID122, SOLID123

Charge

Voltage

Surface charge density


Volume charge density
Voltage

13.5.2.4.1. Current
Electric currents (AMPS) are concentrated nodal loads that you usually specify at model boundaries (the
label AMPS is just a load label; it does not indicate the units of measurement). A positive value of current
indicates current flowing into the node. For a uniform current density distribution, couple the appropriate
nodes in the VOLT degree of freedom, and apply the full current at one of the nodes.
To apply current, use one of the following:
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Command(s): F
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Current
You can also apply current loads using the independent current source option of CIRCU124. For more
information, refer to Electric Circuit Analysis (p. 347).

13.5.2.4.2. Charge
Electric charges (CHRG) are concentrated nodal force loads. To apply them, use the following command
or GUI path:
Command(s): F
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Charge> On Nodes

13.5.2.4.3. Voltage (VOLT)


Voltages are DOF constraints that you usually specify at model boundaries to apply a known voltage.
A typical approach specifies a zero voltage at one end of the conductor (the "ground" end) and a desired
voltage at the other end.
To apply voltage, use the following command or GUI path:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage
You can also apply voltage loads using the independent voltage source option of CIRCU124. For more
information, refer to Electric Circuit Analysis (p. 347).

13.5.2.5. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all load steps using one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

13.5.2.6. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

13.5.3. Reviewing Results


The program writes results from a harmonic electric analysis to the results file, Jobname.RTH. Results
include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal DOF (VOLT).
Derived data:

Note
Some output quantities depend on the element type used in the analysis.
Nodal electric field (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM).

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For a current-based analysis using electric elements, nodal conduction current densities (JCX, JCY,
JCZ, JCSUM).
For a charge-based analysis using electrostatic elements, nodal electric flux densities (DX, DY, DZ,
DSUM).
Element current densities (JSX, JSY, JSZ, JSSUM). This output item represents the total (that is, sum
of conduction and displacement current densities). It can be used as a source for a subsequent
magnetic analysis.
Element conduction current densities (or total measurable current density) (JTX, JTY, JTZ, JTSUM).
Element Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT). This is a time-averaged value.
Element stored electric energy (SENE). This is a time-averaged value.
For a current-based analysis using electric elements, nodal reaction currents.
For a charge-based analysis using electrostatic elements, nodal reaction charges.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, or in POST26, the time-history
postprocessor. To access the general postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
To access the time-history postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postproc
The following table summarizes the applicable labels for the /POST1 and /POST26 commands.
Table 13.15: Command Labels
Analysis
Output Quantity

Label

Command(s)

CurChargerentbased
based
[2]
[1]

Nodal DOF

VOLT

PRNSOL,
PLNSOL,
ETABLE,
NSOL

Nodal electric field

EF

Nodal conduction current density

JC

Nodal electric flux density

PRNSOL,
PLNSOL,
PRESOL,
PLESOL,
PRVECT,
PLVECT,
ETABLE,
ESOL

Element total current density

JS [3 ]

Element conduction current density

JT [3 ]

300

PRESOL,
PLESOL,
PRVECT,
PLVECT,

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Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis


Analysis
Output Quantity

Label

Command(s)

CurChargerentbased
based
[2]
[1]

ETABLE,
ESOL
Element Joule heat generation rate per unit
volume (time-averaged)

JHEAT

Element stored electric energy (time-averaged)

SENE

Nodal reaction current

AMPS

Nodal reaction charge

CHRG

PRESOL,
PLESOL,
ETABLE,
ESOL

RFORCE,
PRRFOR,
PRRSOL,
PRESOL,
PLESOL

1. PLANE230, SOLID231, and SOLID232 are current-based.


2. PLANE121, SOLID122, and SOLID123 are charge-based.
3. Refer to Table 13.8: Current Densities in Low-Frequency Analyses (p. 287) for the meaning of this label.
For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see The General Postprocessor (POST1) and
The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26) in the Basic Analysis Guide.

13.5.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RTH) must be available.
The procedures for reviewing POST1 harmonic electric analysis results are identical to the procedures
described in Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis (p. 288) with the following exception. Results
from a harmonic electric analysis are complex and consist of real and imaginary components. Set KIMG=0
or KIMG=1 on the SET command to read the real or imaginary results respectively.

13.5.3.2. Reviewing Results in POST26


To review results in POST26, the time-history postprocessor, the ANSYS database must contain the same
model for which the solution was calculated, and the results file (Jobname.RTH) must be available. If
the model is not in the database, restore it using one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
Then use one of the following to read in the desired set of results.
Command(s): SET
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary

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POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency, known as variables. Each variable is assigned
a reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for frequency. Therefore the first things you need
to do is define the variables using the following commands or GUI paths.
Table 13.16: Defining Variables
Step

Command

GUI Path

Define primary data variables

NSOL

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> Define Variables

Define derived data variables

ESOL

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> Define Variables

Define reaction data variables.

RFORCE

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> Define Variables

Once you have defined these variables, you can graph or list them (versus time or any variable) using
the following commands or GUI paths.
Table 13.17: Graphing and Listing Variables
Step

Command

GUI Path

To graph variables.

PLVAR

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> Graph Variables

To list variables.

PRVAR

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> List Variables

To list only the extreme


variables.

EXTREM

Main Menu> TimeHist


Postpro> List Extremes

POST26 offers many other functions, such as performing math operations among variables, moving
variables into array parameters, etc. For more information, see The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)
in the Basic Analysis Guide.
By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the
critical time points for further POST1 postprocessing.

13.6. Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis


A transient electric analysis determines the effects of time-dependent current or voltage excitation in
electric devices. In this analysis, the time-varying electric and magnetic fields are uncoupled, and the
electromagnetic field can be treated as quasistatic. Eddy currents are considered to be negligible, and
the electric field is derived from the electric scalar potential. A transient electric analysis is assumed to
be linear. Refer to Electromagnetics in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more information.
You can use this analysis to determine the voltage, electric field, and electric current density distributions
in an electric device as a function of time in response to time-dependent loading. The time scale of the
loading is such that the capacitive effects and displacement current are considered to be important. It
they are not important, you might be able to use a steady-state current conduction analysis instead.
The procedure for doing a transient quasistatic analysis consists of three main steps:
1. Build the model.
2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.

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3. Review the results.
The next few topics discuss what you must do to perform these steps.

13.6.1. Building the Model


To build the model, you first specify a jobname and a title for your analysis as described in Steady-State
Current Conduction Analysis (p. 288). If you are using the ANSYS GUI, you set preferences for an electric
analysis. You then use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to define the element types, the material
properties, and the model geometry.
You can use the following types of elements in a transient electric analysis:
Table 13.18: Elements Used in a Transient Analysis
Element

Dimens.

Type

PLANE230

2-D

Eight node electric quadrilateral

SOLID231

3-D

Twenty node electric hexahedral

SOLID232

3-D

Ten node electric tetrahedral

The default system of units is MKS. In the MKS system of units, free-space permittivity is set to 8.85e12 Farads/meter. To specify your own system of units and free-space permittivity use one of the following:
Command(s): EMUNIT
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material props>Electromag Units
To model resistive and capacitive effects, a transient electric analysis requires the specification of electrical resistivity and electric permittivity, respectively. Define electrical resistivity values as RSVX, RSVY,
and RSVZ on the MP command. Define relative electric permittivity values as PERX, PERY, and PERZ on
the MP command. These properties may be constant or temperature dependent.

13.6.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution


In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads to the model, specify load step options,
and initiate the finite element solution. The next few topics explain how to perform the following tasks:
1. Enter the SOLUTION processor.
2. Define the analysis type.
3. Define the analysis options.
4. Apply loads.
5. Start the solution.
6. Finish the solution.

13.6.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

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Electric Field Analysis

13.6.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Transient analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,TRANSIENT,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed a transient
analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous run
are available.

13.6.2.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solution method and which solver you want to use. Transient electric analyses
require the full solution method. To select a solution method, use one of the following:
Command(s): TRNOPT,FULL
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis>Transient
You can use the sparse solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, the Incomplete
Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver, or the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver (PCG). To
select an equation solver, use one of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
To specify the time at the end of a load step, use any of the following:
Command(s): TIME
GUI: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Loads>Load Step opts>Time/Frequency
Main Menu>Solution>Loads>Load Step opts>Time/Frequency
The integration time step is the time increment used in the time integration scheme. It determines the
accuracy of your solution. The smaller the time step size, the higher the accuracy. The size of the first
integration time step following any large step change in loading conditions is especially critical. You
can reduce inaccuracies by reducing the integration time step size. You can specify it directly via the
DELTIM command or indirectly via the NSUBST command.
Command(s): DELTIM
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time & Time Step
Command(s): NSUBST
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps
When specifying multiple substeps within a load step, you need to indicate whether the loads are to
be ramped or stepped. The KBC command is used for this purpose: KBC,0 indicates ramped loads (default), and KBC,1 indicates stepped loads.
Command(s): KBC
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps (or Time & Time
Step)
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Time and Substps (or Time & Time Step)
To specify results data for the printed output file (Jobname.OUT), use one of the following:
Command(s): OUTPR
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Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis


GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout
You can also control the solution items sent to the results file (Jobname.RTH). By default, the ANSYS
program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file. If you want all substeps (that
is, the solution at all time substeps) on the results file, use one of the following to specify a frequency
or ALL or 1.
Command(s): OUTRES
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File
Main Menu> Solution> Loads> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File

13.6.2.4. Applying Loads


You can apply loads in a transient analysis either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on
the finite element model (nodes and elements). You can specify current and voltage loads. The procedures
and GUI paths you use to apply these loads are identical to those described in Steady-State Current
Conduction Analysis (p. 288).
You can also apply current and voltage loads using the independent current and voltage source options
of CIRCU124. For more information, refer to Electric Circuit Analysis (p. 347).

13.6.2.5. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all load steps using one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

13.6.2.6. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

13.6.3. Reviewing Results


The program writes results from a transient electric analysis to the results file, Jobname.RTH. Results
include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal DOF (VOLT).
Derived data:
Nodal electric field (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM).
Nodal conduction current densities (JCX, JCY, JCZ, JCSUM).
Element current densities (JSX, JSY, JSZ, JSSUM). This output item represents the total (that is, the
sum of conduction and displacement current densities). It can be used as a source for a subsequent
magnetic analysis.
Element conduction current densities (or total measurable current density) (JTX, JTY, JTZ, JTSUM).
Element Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT).

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Electric Field Analysis


Element stored electric energy (SENE).
Nodal reaction currents.
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor, or in POST26, the time-history
postprocessor. To access the general postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
To access the time-history postprocessor, choose one of the following:
Command(s): /POST26
GUI: Main Menu> TimeHist Postproc
For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see The General Postprocessor (POST1) and
The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26) in the Basic Analysis Guide.

13.6.3.1. Reviewing Results in POST1


To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RTH) must be available.
The procedures for reviewing POST1 transient electric analysis results are identical to the procedures
described in Steady-State Current Conduction Analysis (p. 288).

13.6.3.2. Reviewing Results in POST26


To review results in POST26, the time-history postprocessor, the ANSYS database must contain the same
model for which the solution was calculated, and the Jobname.RTH file (the results file) must be
available. If the model is not in the database, restore it using one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db
The procedures for reviewing POST26 transient electric analysis results are identical to the procedures
described in Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis (p. 295). Variable number 1 is reserved for time instead
of frequency.

13.7. Example Electric Field Analyses


The following examples are available:
13.7.1. Example: Steady-State Conduction Current Analysis
13.7.2. Example: Conductance Calculation
13.7.3. Example: Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis
13.7.4. Example: Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis
13.7.5. Other Examples

13.7.1. Example: Steady-State Conduction Current Analysis


This example problem shows how to perform a steady-state conduction current analysis.
A current I is applied to a thin disk of radius r = a. As shown in the following figure, the current enters
and leaves via point electrodes located at r = b, = 0 and r = b, = . Find the potential and dc-current
distributions in the disk.

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Example Electric Field Analyses


Figure 13.3: Conducting Disk with Current Loading
y

a
I

I
-b

The geometric and electrical parameters are:


Radius a = 20 cm
Distance from the center to the point electrodes b = 10 cm
Applied Current I = 1 mA
Disk Resistivity = 100 m
To obtain an accurate field distribution, the disc area is densely meshed with triangle-shaped PLANE230
electric elements. A VOLT degree of freedom constraint is applied to the center of the disk. Current
loads are applied as concentrated nodal loads. A cylindrical coordinate system is used.

13.7.1.1. Results
Table 13.19: Electric Potential at Points with Coordinates r = a and
(degrees)

Electric Potential (V)


Computed

Target [1 ]

.03501

.03497

10

.03399

.03392

20

.03124

.03110

30

.02708

.02716

40

.02269

.02271

50

.01814

.01810

60

.01360

.01349

70

.00880

.00894

80

.00438

.00445

90

0.0

0.0

1. Problem # 286, p.137 in N.N. Lebedev, I.P. Skalskaya, Y.S. Ufland, "Worked problems in Applied Mathematics," Dover Publications, Inc., NY (1979).
The following figures display the potential and dc-current distributions in the disk.
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Electric Field Analysis


Figure 13.4: Potential Distribution

Figure 13.5: Current Distribution

13.7.1.2. Command Listing


You can perform this example steady-state analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below. Text
prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/title, DC-current distribution in a thin conducting disk
a=20.e-2
! disk radius, m
b=10.e-2
! electrode distance from the center, m
I=1.e-3
! current, A
rho=100
! resistivity, Ohm*m
/nopr
/PREP7
! Model and meshing
et,1,PLANE230
mp,rsvx,1,rho
cyl4,0,0,0,0,a,360
esize,,64

308

! electric element type


! resistivity
! circular area

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Example Electric Field Analyses


msha,1,2-D
amesh,1

! mesh with triangles

! Boundary conditions
csys,1
d,node(0,0,0),volt,0

! cylindrical coordinate system


! ground center node

! Nodal current loads


f,node(b,0,0),amps,-I
f,node(b,180,0),amps,I
fini
/solu
antype,static
solve
fini
/post1
plnsol,volt
plnsol,jc,sum

! steady-state current conduction

! plot electric potential


! plot current density vector magnitude

*dim,value,,10,2
*dim,coord,,10,2
*do,i,1,10
! coordinates of solution point
r=a $
phi=(i-1)*10
coord(i,1)=r
coord(i,2)=phi
! ANSYS solution
value(i,1)=volt(node(a,(i-1)*10,0))
*enddo
! Analytical solution
*vfill,value(1,2),data,-0.034969,-0.033923,-0.031098,-0.027163,-0.022709
*vfill,value(6,2),data,-0.018095,-0.013485,-0.008937,-0.004451,0.
/com,---------------- VOLT SOLUTION ---------------/com,
/com,
R
|
PHI
|
ANSYS
|
TARGET
/com,
*vwrite,coord(1,1),coord(1,2),value(1,1),value(1,2),
(1X,' ',F6.1,'
',F6.1,'
',F11.6,'
',F11.6)
/com,------------------------------------------------fini

13.7.2. Example: Conductance Calculation


This problem evaluates conductance between parallel plate electrodes. The objective is to calculate the
self and mutual conductance coefficients between two parallel plate electrodes.
The model consists of two parallel plate electrodes, 3 m in length, with a gap of 2 m and a conductivity
of 10. One electrode represents the ground, and 100 volts is applied to the other electrode. The target
conductance is 15.

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Electric Field Analysis


Figure 13.6: Problem Geometry
Volt
(D,,VOLT,100)

J,E

Conductor

Electrodes

(MP,RSVX)

Ground
(D,,VOLT,0)

13.7.2.1. Command Listing


/title,Conductance between parallel plate electrodes using GMATRIX
/com Input data
/com sigma : conductivity
/com g
: gap between electrodes
/com w
: electrode width
/com l
: length
/com
/com Target
/com
/com G = sigma w l / g : conductance between parallel plate electrodes
!
g=2
! gap between electrodes
w=3
! electrode width
l=1
! length
sigma=10
! conductivity
!
gt=sigma*w*l/g
! target conductance
!
/prep7
et,1,230
mp,rsvx,1,1/sigma
!
n,1,0,0
n,2,w,0
n,3,w,g
n,4,0,g
e,1,2,3,4
!
nsel,s,loc,y,g
! electrode
cm,comp1,node
d,all,volt,100
!
nsel,s,loc,y,0
! ground
cm,comp2,node
d,all,volt,0
!
nsel,all
!
gmatrix,1,'comp',2,0
! compute conductance matrix
gc=gmatrix(1,1,1)
! computed conductance
finish

13.7.3. Example: Harmonic Quasistatic Electric Analysis


A time-harmonic voltage of amplitude Vo is applied to a barium titanate parallel plate capacitor with
circular plates of radius a and dielectric thickness d. The dielectric has relative permittivity r and loss

310

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Example Electric Field Analyses


tangent tan. Perform a harmonic analysis to determine the capacitor admittance (Y) in the frequency
(f ) range of 0 to 1 MHz, and find the dissipated power at 1 MHz.
Figure 13.7: Parallel Plate Capacitor with Time-Harmonic Voltage Load

Lossy Dielectric

a
d

Vo
The geometric and electrical parameters are:
Radius a = 9 cm
Thickness d = 0.1 cm
Relative Permittivity r = 1143
Loss tangent tan = 0.0105
Voltage amplitude Vo = 50 volts
Frequency f = 0 to 1 MHz
The capacitor is modeled using the axisymmetric option of PLANE230 electric elements. Electrodes are
defined by coupling VOLT degrees of freedom on the major surfaces of the capacitor. The bottom
electrode is grounded, and a voltage load Vo is applied to the top electrode.
Figure 13.8: Axisymmetric Model

 = 


x

Electric admittance (Y) is calculated at ten frequencies between 0 and 1 MHz using the reaction current
on the loaded electrode. Results are compared with target values obtained from the following analytical
expression:
Y = 2fC(tan+j)

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Electric Field Analysis


where:

2
= r o
and j = imaginary unit.
Power dissipation at f = 1 MHz is calculated in /POST1 by summing up the Joule heat rates over the
elements. The result is compared with the following analytical expression for the time-average power
dissipated in the capacitor:

d=

13.7.3.1. Results
As shown in the following table, the ANSYS electric admittance (Y) results agree with those from the
analytical expression given above.
Table 13.20: Electric Admittance (Y)
Frequency (MHz)

Admittance Amplitude (S) [1]

0.0

0.1618

0.2

0.3236

0.3

0.4855

0.4

0.6473

0.5

0.8091

0.6

0.9709

0.7

1.1327

0.8

1.2945

0.9

1.4564

1.0

1.6182

1. The phase angle is 89.4 degrees at all ten frequencies.


The power dissipated at a frequency of 1 MHz is 21.2 watts.

13.7.3.2. Command Listing


You can perform this example harmonic analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below. Text prefaced
by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
Besides commands to perform this analysis using the PLANE230 electric elements, this command listing
includes the commands to do the same analysis using PLANE121 electrostatic elements.
/batch,list
/title, Harmonic response of a lossy capacitor
/com,
/com, Problem parameters:
a=9.e-2
! radius, m
d=0.1e-2
! thickness, m
epsr=1143
! relative permittivity

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Example Electric Field Analyses


tand=0.0105
Vo=50
f1=0
f2=1.e6
eps0=8.854e-12
Pi=acos(-1)
C=epsr*eps0*Pi*a**2/d
P2d=Pi*f2*Vo**2*C*tand
/nopr
/PREP7
et,1,PLANE230,,,1
emunit,epzro,eps0
mp,perx,1,epsr
mp,lsst,1,tand

!
!
!
!
!

loss tangent
voltage amplitude, V
begin frequency, Hz
end frequency, Hz
free space permittivity, F/m

! capacitance, F
! power dissipation at freq. f2, watt

! axisymmetric electric element


! specify free-space permittivity
! electric material properties

rect,,a,,d
esize,d/2
amesh,1

! model and mesh

! Boundary conditions and loads


nsel,s,loc,y,0
cp,1,volt,all
!
*get,n_grd,node,0,num,min
!
nsel,s,loc,y,d
cp,2,volt,all
!
*get,n_load,node,0,num,min
!
nsel,all
d,n_grd,volt,0
!
d,n_load,volt,Vo
!
fini
/solu
antype,harm
harfrq,f1,f2
nsubs,10
outres,all,all
kbc,1
solve
fini

!
!
!
!
!

define bottom electrode


get master node on bottom electrode
top electrode
get master node on top electrode
ground bottom electrode
apply voltage load to top electrode

harmonic analysis
frequency range
number of substeps
write all solution items to the result file
stepped load

/post1
/com,Calculate power dissipation at frequency = %f2%, Hz
set,last
! read last data set
etab,jh,jheat
! fill etable with Joule heat rates per unit volume
etab,vol,volu
! fill etable with element volumes
smult,dpower,jh,vol
! fill etable with element Joule heat rates
ssum
! sum element Joule heat rates
/com,Expected power dissipation = %P2d%, watt
fini
/post26
rfor,2,n_load,amps
prod,3,2,,,Y_ANSYS,,,1/Vo
prod,4,1,,,,,,2*Pi*C
cfact,tand,,,1
add,5,4,4,,Y_TARGET
prcplx,1
prvar,Y_ANSYS,Y_TARGET
fini

! reaction current I
! Y_ansys = I/V
! 2*Pi*f*C
! Y_target = 2*Pi*f*C*(tand+j)

/com,
/com, *** Perform same frequency sweep using electrostatic elements
/com,
/PREP7
et,1,PLANE121,,,1
! axisymmetric electrostatic element
fini
/solu
antype,harm
harfrq,f1,f2
nsubs,10

! harmonic analysis
! frequency range
! number of substeps

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Electric Field Analysis


outres,all,all
kbc,1
solve
fini

! write all solution items to the result file


! stepped load

/post1
/com,Calculate power dissipation at frequency = %f2%, Hz
set,last
! read last dataset
etab,jh,jheat
! fill etable with Joule heat rates per unit volume
etab,vol,volu
! fill etable with element volumes
smult,dpower,jh,vol
! fill etable with element Joule heat rates
ssum
! summ up element Joule heat rates
/com,Expected power dissipation = %P2d%, watt
fini
/post26
rfor,2,n_load,chrg
cfact,0,2*Pi
prod,3,1,2,,Y_ANSYS,,,,1/Vo
prod,4,1,,,,,,2*Pi*C
cfact,tand,,,1
add,5,4,4,,Y_TARGET
prcplx,1
prvar,Y_ANSYS,Y_TARGET
fini

! reaction charge Q
! Y_ansys = j*2*Pi*Q/Vo
! 2*Pi*f*C
! Y_target = 2*Pi*f*C*(tand+j)

13.7.4. Example: Transient Quasistatic Electric Analysis


13.7.4.1. Problem Description
A parallel plate capacitor filled with a lossy dielectric, characterized by relative permittivity r and resistivity , is connected, in series with a resistor R, to a source of constant voltage U. The switch closes
at time t = 0. Find the electric field and current density distributions in the capacitor as functions of
time.
Figure 13.9: Parallel Plate Capacitor Connected to a Voltage Source

a
b

t=0
-+
U
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Example Electric Field Analyses


The capacitor and circuit parameters are:
Length a = 3 cm
Width b = 1 cm
Thickness d = 0.5 cm
Permittivity (relative) = 12
Resistivity = 150 m
Resistance R = 1 k
Voltage U = 12 volts
The lossy capacitor is modeled with SOLID231 electric elements. Electrodes are defined by coupling
VOLT degrees of freedom on the major surfaces of the capacitor. Lumped circuit components are
modeled using CIRCU124 elements and they are connected to the capacitor via the master nodes. A
transient analysis is performed to determine the electric field variation in the capacitor with time.
Computed results for a selected element are compared in /POST26 to the values derived from the following analytical expression for the electric field:
E(t) = Es{1 - exp (-t/)}
where:
Es = steady state electric field, Volts/m
S = capacitor plate area, m2
= time constant, seconds
and they are defined by:

s=

S = ab

= r o

13.7.4.2. Results
The following figures display the electric field and current density distributions as functions of time.

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315

Electric Field Analysis


Figure 13.10: Computed and Target Electric Fields

Figure 13.11: Current Density (Conduction, Displacement, and Total)

13.7.4.3. Command Listing


You can perform this example transient analysis using the ANSYS commands shown below. Text prefaced
by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
Besides /POST26 commands to display the electric field and current density, this command listing includes
the commands to print electric field, current density, electric flux density, and Joule heat rate. The current
density and Joule heat rate output quantities are included to illustrate the coupling to magnetic and
thermal analyses using companion magnetic and thermal elements, respectively.
/batch,list
/title, Transient effects in a lossy capacitor
/com,
/com, Problem parameters:
a=3.e-2
! length, m

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Example Electric Field Analyses


b=1.e-2
! width, m
S=a*b
! area, m**2
d=0.5e-2
! thickness, m
epsr=12
! relative permittivity of dielectric
eps0=8.854e-12
! free space permittivity, F/m
rho=150
! resistivity of dielectric, Ohm*m,
R=1000
! resistance, Ohm
U=12
! voltage, V
Es=U/(S*R/rho+d) ! steady-state electric field, V/m
tau=epsr*eps0*S*R/(S*R/rho+d) ! time constant, s
/nopr
/PREP7
emunit,epzro,eps0 ! Specify free-space permittivity
! Element attributes
et,1,CIRCU124
! Resistor
et,2,CIRCU124,4
! Voltage source
et,3,SOLID231
! 20-node brick electric solid
r,1,R
! Real constants for circuit elements
r,2,U
mp,rsvx,1,rho
! Electric properties
mp,perx,1,epsr
! Modeling and meshing
type,3
mat,1
block,,d,,a,,b
esize,d/2
vmesh,1
nsel,s,loc,x,0
cp,1,volt,all
*get,n1,node,0,num,min
nsel,s,loc,x,d
cp,2,volt,all
*get,n2,node,0,num,min
nsel,all

! Couple nodes to model right electrode


! Get master node on right electrode
! Couple nodes to model left electrode
! Get master node on left electrode

! Circuit mesh
*get,nmax,node,0,num,max
n3=nmax+1
n4=n3+1
n,n3,a/2,-a
n,n4,a/2,-a
type,1
! resistor
real,1
e,n1,n3
type,2
! voltage source
real,2
e,n3,n2,n4
d,n2,volt,0
! ground node
fini
/solu
antype,transient
t1=6*tau
time,t1
deltim,t1/100
outres,all,5
ic,all,volt,0
solve
fini

! transient analysis
!
!
!
!

set analysis time


set time step
write results at every 5th substep
initial conditions for VOLT

! Select nodes and elements for postprocessing


n_post=node(d/2,a/2,b/2)
nsel,s,node,,n_post
esln,s
*get,e_post,elem,0,num,min
allsel
/com, *** Results verification

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Electric Field Analysis


/post26
numvar,20
! Electric field
esol,2,e_post,,EF,x,EF_ANS
exp,3,1,,,,,,-1/tau,-1
filldata,4,,,,1
add,5,4,3,,EF_TAR,,,Es,Es

! -exp(-t/tau)
! 1
! E=Es*(1-exp(-t/tau))

! Conduction current
esol,6,e_post,,JC,x,JC_ANS
prod,7,5,,,JC_TAR,,,1/rho

! Jc=E/rho

! Electric flux density


esol,8,e_post,,NMISC,1,D_ANS
prod,9,5,,,D_TAR,,,epsr*eps0

! D=epsr*eps0*E

! Displacement and total (displacement+conduction) currents


esol,10,e_post,,JS,x,JS_ANS
add,11,10,6,,JD_ANS,,,,-1
! Jd=Js-Jc
deriv,12,9,1,,JD_TAR
! Jd=dD/dt
add,13,7,12,,JS_TAR
! Joule heat generation rate per unit volume
esol,14,e_post,,JHEAT,,HGEN_ANS
prod,15,5,7,,HGEN_TAR! Jheat=E*Jc
prvar,EF_ANS,EF_TAR,D_ANS,D_TAR
prvar,JC_ANS,JC_TAR,JD_ANS,JD_TAR,JS_ANS,JS_TAR
prvar,HGEN_ANS,HGEN_TAR
/axlab,x, Time, s
/axlab,y, Electric Field, Volt/m
plvar,EF_ANS,EF_TAR
! Plot computed and expected EF
/axlab,y, Current density, A/m**2
plvar,JC_ANS,JD_ANS,JS_ANS
! Plot computed currents
fini
/com, *** Coupling to
/PREP7
et,1,0
et,2,0
et,3,90
esel,s,elem,,e_post
ldread,hgen,,5,,,,rth
bfelist,all,hgen
ldread,hgen,,,,,,rth
bfelist,all,hgen
esel,all
fini

thermal analysis

! companion thermal element


! read heat generation from the 5th substep
! read heat generation from the last substep

/com, *** Coupling to magnetic analysis


/PREP7
et,3,236
! companion magnetic element
esel,s,elem,,e_post
ldread,js,,5,,,,rth
! read current from the 5th substep
bfelist,all,js
ldread,js,,,,,,rth
! read current from the last substep
bfelist,all,js
esel,all
fini

13.7.5. Other Examples


Another ANSYS, Inc., publication, the Mechanical APDL Verification Manual, contains several examples
of current conduction analysis:
VM117 - Electric Current Flowing in a Network
VM170 - Magnetic Field from a Square Current Loop

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Example Electric Field Analyses


VM173 - Centerline Temperature of an Electrical Wire

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Chapter 14: Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)


Electrostatic field analysis determines the electric field and electric scalar potential (voltage) distribution
caused by charge distributions or applied potential. You can apply two types of loads in this analysis:
voltage and charge densities.
An electrostatic analysis is assumed to be linear. The electric field is proportional to the applied voltage.
This document covers the h-Method electrostatic analysis method.
Electrostatic contact is also available in ANSYS. See Modeling Electric Contact in the Contact Technology
Guide for details.
The following h-Method electrostatic field analysis topics are available:
14.1. Elements Used in h-Method Electrostatic Analysis
14.2. Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis
14.3. Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems
14.4. Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)

14.1. Elements Used in h-Method Electrostatic Analysis


Electrostatic analyses use the following ANSYS elements:
Table 14.1: 2-D Solid Elements
Element

Dimens.

PLANE121 2-D

Shape or Characteristic
Quadrilateral, eight
nodes

DOFs
Voltage at each node

Notes
Supported for cyclic
symmetry (periodic)
analyses, except for
coupled thermoelectric with VOLT
and TEMP.

Table 14.2: 3-D Solid Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

Notes

SOLID122

3-D

Brick, 20 nodes

Voltage at each node

Supported for cyclic


symmetry (periodic)
analyses, except for
coupled thermo-electric
with VOLT and TEMP.

SOLID123

3-D

Tetrahedral, 10 node

Voltage at each node

Supported for cyclic


symmetry (periodic)
analyses, except for

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

Notes
coupled thermo-electric
with VOLT and TEMP.

Table 14.3: Specialty Elements


Element

Dimens.

Shape or Characteristic

DOFs

MATRIX50

None (this is
a super- element)

Depends on the elements


that make up this element

Depends on the included element


types

INFIN110

2-D

Four or eight nodes

One per node; this can be a magnetic vector potential, temperature, or


electric potential

INFIN111

3-D

Hexalateral, 8 or 20 nodes

AX, AY, AZ magnetic vector potential, temperature, electric potential,


or magnetic scalar potential

INFIN9

2-D

Planar, unbounded, two


nodes

AZ magnetic vector potential, temperature

INFIN47

3-D

Quadrilateral, four nodes or


triangle, three nodes

AZ magnetic vector potential, temperature

14.2. Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis


The procedure for doing an electrostatic analysis consists of three main steps:
1.

Build the model.

2.

Apply loads and obtain the solution.

3.

Review the results.

The next few topics discuss what you must do to perform these steps. First, the text presents a general
description of the tasks required to complete each step. An example follows, based on an analysis of
electrostatic forces between charge spheres. The example walks you through doing the analysis by
choosing items from ANSYS' GUI menus, then shows you how to perform the same analysis using ANSYS
commands.

14.2.1. Building the Model


To build the model, you start by specifying the jobname and a title for your analysis, using the following
commands or GUI paths:
Command(s): /FILNAME, /TITLE
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname
Utility Menu> File> Change Title
If you are using the ANSYS GUI, the next step is to set preferences for an electric analysis: Main Menu>
Preferences> Electromagnetics: Electric
You must set the preference to Electric to ensure that the elements needed for your analysis will be
available. (The ANSYS GUI filters element types based on the preference you choose.)

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Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis


Once you have set the Electric preference, use the ANSYS preprocessor (PREP7) to define the element
types, the material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks are common to most analyses. The
Modeling and Meshing Guide explains them in detail.
For an electrostatic analysis, you must define the permittivity (PERX) material property. It can be temperature dependent, as well as isotropic or orthotropic.
In ANSYS, you must make sure that you use a consistent system of units for all the data you enter. See
the EMUNIT command in the Command Reference for additional information regarding appropriate
settings of free-space permeability and permittivity.
For micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), it is best to set up problems in more convenient units
since components may only be a few microns in size. For convenience, see Table 14.4: Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to muMKSV (p. 323) and Table 14.5: Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to
muMSVfA (p. 323).
Table 14.4: Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to muMKSV
Electrical
Parameter

MKS
Unit

Dimension

Multiply
by This
Number

To Obtain
MKSV
Unit

Dimension

(kg)(m)2/(pA)(s)3

Voltage

(kg)(m)2/(A)(s)3

Current

1012

pA

pA

10

12

pC

(pA)(s)

10

pS/m

(pA)2(s)3/(kg)(m)3

Charge

(A)(s)
2

Conductivity

S/m

(A) (s) /(kg)(m)

Resistivity

(kg)(m)3/(A)2(s)3

10-6

T m

(kg)(m)3/(pA)2(s)3

Permittivity[1]

F/m

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)3

106

pF/m

(pA)2(s)2/(kg)(m)3

Energy

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

1012

pJ

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

Capacitance

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2

1012

pF

(pA)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2

Electric Field

V/m

(kg)(m)/(s)3(A)

10-6

V/m

(kg)(m)/(s)3(pA)

Electric Flux
Density

C/(m)2

(A)(s)/(m)2

pC/(m)2

(pA)(s)/(m)2

1. Free-space permittivity is equal to 8.854 x 10-6 pF/m.


Table 14.5: Electrical Conversion Factors for MKS to muMSVfA
Electrical
Parameter

MKS
Unit

Dimension

Multiply
by This
Number

To Obtain
MKSVfA
Unit

Dimension

(g)(m)2/(fA)(s)3

Voltage

(kg)(m)2/(A)(s)3

Current

1015

fA

fA

10

15

fC

(fA)(s)

10

fS/m

(fA)2(s)3/(g)(m)3

Charge

(A)(s)
2

Conductivity

S/m

(A) (s) /(kg)(m)

Resistivity

(Kg)(m3/(A)2(s)3

10-9

(g)(m)3/(fA)2(s)3

Permittivity[1]

F/m

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)3

109

fF/m

(fA)2(s)2/(g)(m)3

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Electrical
Parameter

MKS
Unit

Dimension

Multiply
by This
Number

To Obtain
MKSVfA
Unit

Dimension

Energy

(kg)(m)2/(s)2

1015

fJ

(g)(m)2/(s)2

Capacitance

(A)2(s)4/(kg)(m)2

1015

fF

(fA)2(s)4/(g)(m)2

Electric Field

V/m

(kg)(m)/(s)3(A)

10-6

V/m

(g)(m)/(s)3(fA)

Electric Flux
Density

C/(m)2

(A)(s)/(m)2

103

fC/(m)2

(fA)(s)/(m)2

1. Free-space permittivity is equal to 8.854 x 10-3 fF/m.

14.2.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining a Solution


In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads to the model, specify load step options,
and initiate the finite element solution. The next few topics explain how to perform these tasks.

14.2.2.1. Entering the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

14.2.2.2. Defining the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Static analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
If you want to restart a previous analysis (for example, to specify additional loads), issue the command
ANTYPE,STATIC,REST. You can restart an analysis only if you previously completed an electrostatic
analysis, and the files Jobname.EMAT, Jobname.ESAV, and Jobname.DB from the previous run
are available.

14.2.2.3. Defining Analysis Options


Next, you define which solver you want to use. You can select the sparse solver (default), Preconditioned
Conjugate Gradient (PCG) solver, Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver.
To select an equation solver, use either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
If you choose either the JCG solver or the PCG solver, you can also specify a solver tolerance value. This
value defaults to 1.0E-8.

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Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis

14.2.2.4. Apply Boundary Conditions


These loads specify flux-parallel, flux-normal, far-field, and periodic boundary conditions, as well as an
imposed external magnetic field. The following table shows the value of volt required for each type of
boundary condition:
Boundary Condition

Value of VOLT

Flux-parallel

None required (naturally occurring).

Flux-normal

Specify a constant value of VOLT using the D command (Main


Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary>
Voltage> J-Normal> On Nodes (On Lines or On Areas).

Far-field

For 2-D analysis, use INFIN9 (planar analyses only) or INFIN110


elements. For 3-D analysis, use INFIN47 or INFIN111 elements.

Imposed external field

Apply nonzero values of VOLT. Use Main Menu> Solution>


Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage> On
Keypoints (On Nodes, On Lines or On Areas).

Flux-parallel boundary conditions force the flux to flow parallel to a surface, while flux-normal boundary
conditions force the flux to flow normal to a surface. You do not need to specify far-field zero boundary
conditions if you use far-field elements to represent the "infinite" boundary of the model. For an imposed
external field, specify the appropriate nonzero value of VOLT.

14.2.2.5. Applying Loads


You can apply loads to an electrostatic analysis either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas)
or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). You can specify several types of loads:

14.2.2.5.1. Voltage (VOLT)


These loads are DOF constraints that you usually specify at model boundaries to apply a known voltage.
To apply voltage, use one of the following:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage

14.2.2.5.2. Charges (CHRG)


These are concentrated nodal force loads. To apply them, use the following command or GUI path:
Command(s): F
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Charge> On Nodes

14.2.2.5.3. Surface Charge Densities (CHRGS)


These are surface loads you can apply at nodes or elements. To apply them, use the following command
or GUI path:
Command(s): SF
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Surf Chrg Den

14.2.2.5.4. Infinite Surface Flags (INF)


These are not loads, but they indicate the presence of an infinite element. The presence of the label
INF sets the flag. To apply infinite surface flags, choose one of the following:
Command(s): SF
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GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Flag> Infinite Surf> option

14.2.2.5.5. Volume Charge Densities (CHRGD)


These are body loads you can apply at nodes or elements. To apply volume charge densities, use the
commands or GUI path shown below:
Command(s): BF, BFE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Excitation> Charge Density> option
Alternatively, you can apply volume charge densities to lines, areas, and volumes of the solid model by
using the BFL, BFA, and BFV commands, respectively. You can then transfer the specified volume
charge densities from the solid model to the finite element model by using either the BFTRAN command
or the SBCTRAN command.

14.2.2.6. (Optional): Specifying Load Step Options


For an electrostatic analysis, you can optionally use other commands to apply loads to a current conduction analysis, and you also can specify output controls as load step options. For further information,
see Alternative Analysis Options and Solution Methods (p. 367).

14.2.2.7. Saving a Backup Copy of the Database


Use the SAVE_DB button on the ANSYS Toolbar to save a backup copy of the ANSYS database. This
enables you to retrieve your model should your computer fail while the analysis is in progress. To retrieve
a model, re-enter ANSYS and use one of the following:
Command(s): RESUME
GUI: Utility Menu> File> Resume Jobname.db

14.2.2.8. Starting the Solution


In this step, you initiate the solution for all loads steps using one of the following:
Command(s): SOLVE
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS

14.2.2.9. Applying Additional Loads


If you wish to apply any additional loading conditions (load steps), repeat the appropriate steps described
in the foregoing.

14.2.2.10. Finishing the Solution


To leave the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): FINISH
GUI: Main Menu> Finish

14.2.3. Reviewing Results


The ANSYS and ANSYS Emag programs write results from an electrostatic analysis to the results file,
Jobname.RTH. Results include the data listed below:
Primary data: Nodal voltages (VOLT)
Derived data:

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Steps in an h-Method Electrostatic Analysis


Nodal and element electric field (EFX, EFY, EFZ, EFSUM)
Nodal electric flux density (DX, DY, DZ, DSUM)
Nodal electrostatic forces (FMAG: components X, Y, Z, SUM)
Nodal reaction current segments (CSGX, CSGY, CSGZ)
You can review analysis results in POST1, the general postprocessor. To access the postprocessor, choose
one of the following:
Command(s): /POST1
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc
For a complete description of all postprocessing functions, see the Basic Analysis Guide.
To review results in POST1, the ANSYS database must contain the same model for which the solution
was calculated. Also, the results file (Jobname.RTH) must be available.
To read results at the desired time point into the database, use either of the following:
Command(s): SET,,,,,TIME
GUI: Utility Menu> List> Results> Load Step Summary
If you specify a time value for which no results are available, ANSYS performs linear interpolation to
calculate the results at that time.
To gain access to derived results, you must use one of the following commands or menu paths after
you have read the results into the database:
Command(s): ETABLE
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table
Command(s): PLETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Elem Table
Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Elem Table
Command(s): PRETAB
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Elem Table Data
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Elem Table Data
To identify the results data you want, use a combination of a label and a sequence number or component
name.
You can now review the results by obtaining graphics displays and tabular listings.

14.2.3.1. Contour Displays


For contour displays, use either of the following methods:
Command(s): PLESOL, PLNSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu

14.2.3.2. Vector Displays


For vector (arrow) displays, use either of the following methods:
Command(s): PLVECT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> Predefined
Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> User Defined
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14.2.3.3. Charged Particle Trace Displays


You can find details on how to graphically display a charged particle traveling in a magnetic field in
Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces and Controlling Particle Flow or Charged Particle Trace Displays
in the Basic Analysis Guide. See Electromagnetic Particle Tracing in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference
for more details.

14.2.3.4. Tabular Listings


To produce tabular data listings, use any of the following:
Command(s): PRESOL, PRNSOL, PRRSOL
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Element Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Nodal Solution
Main Menu> General Postproc> List Results> Reaction Solu
POST1 performs many other postprocessing functions, including mapping results onto a path and load
case combinations. For more information, see the Basic Analysis Guide.

14.2.3.5. Electrostatic Forces


You can summarize total electrostatic force and torque on a given set of nodes from the data available
in the database in postprocessing. Use the EMFT macro for these calculations. The EMFT macro is
available only for PLANE121, SOLID122, and SOLID123 elements.
Three types of magnetic forces are usually available:
Current segment force: Force from the finite element boundary domain. Forces and fields here are
typically normal to the capacitor surface. To list these forces:
1.

Select the electrode nodes.

2.

Select all elements.

3.

Issue EMFT.
Command(s): EMFT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Elec&Mag Calc> Summarize Force/Torque

Reluctance force: Force due to a change in material properties. Here, the direction of the field may
be arbitrary with regard to the force. To list this force:
1.

Select the nodes at the interface between the body of interest and the adjacent air elements.

2.

Select all elements.

3.

Issue EMFT.

This method may use a truncated portion of the body of interest if the body extends past the
FE boundary.

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Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems


Figure 14.1: Reluctance Force


+
E





F










+
aea of inteest

Body forces (including Lorentz forces): This method uses the entire body of interest:
1.

Select the nodes of the body of interest and all elements.

2.

Issue EMFT.

You can also use the FMAGSUM macro to summarize electromagnetic force calculations on
element components. To use FMAGSUM for body forces in this situation, you do not need to
first flag the elements using FMAGBC. You can simply select the nodes and elements of interest
and issue FMAGSUM. The FMAGSUM method offers different printout reports.

Note
In models that use symmetry, you must select nodes and elements carefully. You need to
select the surface nodes on the surfaces interior to the body and then select the elements
adjacent to those nodes.
Force results will be reported in the coordinate system specified by RSYS. However, if using a coordinate
system other than global Cartesian (RSYS 0), torque results will take into account the coordinate
system shift and rotation only.
1.

Select the electrode nodes.

2.

Select the elements adjacent to those nodes.

3.

Issue EMFT:
Command(s): EMFT
GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc>

14.3. Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems


A key parameter from an electrostatic solution is capacitance. For multiple conductor systems, this involves extracting self and mutual capacitance terms so that equivalent circuit lumped capacitors can
be defined for use in circuit simulators. The CMATRIX command macro has been developed to extract

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self and mutual capacitance terms for multiple conductor systems. See the Mechanical APDL Theory
Reference for more details.

14.3.1. Ground Capacitances and Lumped Capacitances


Finite element simulation can readily compute and extract a "Ground" capacitance matrix of capacitance
values that relate the charge on one conductor with the conductor's voltage drop (to ground). Figure 14.2: Three Conductor System (p. 330) illustrates a three-conductor system (one conductor is ground).
The following two equations relate charges on electrodes 1 and 2, Q1 and Q2, with the voltage drops
for the electrodes, U1 and U2:
Q1 = (Cg)11 (U1) + (Cg)12 (U2)
Q2 = (Cg)12 (U1) + (Cg)22 (U2)
Figure 14.2: Three Conductor System
Conductor 3
(ground)
Conductor 1

Conductor 2

where Cg represents a matrix of capacitances referred to as ground capacitances. These ground capacitances do not represent lumped capacitances typically used in a circuit simulator because they do
not relate the capacitances between conductors. However, the CMATRIX command macro can convert
the ground capacitance matrix to a lumped capacitor matrix which is suitable for use in circuit simulators.
Figure 14.3: Lumped Capacitor Equivalence of Three Conductor System (p. 331) illustrates the lumped
capacitances between the conductors. The following two equations then relate the charges with the
voltage drops:
Q1 = (Cl)11 (U1) + (Cl)12 (U1 - U2)
Q2 = (Cl)12 (U1 - U2) + (Cl)22 (U2)

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Extracting Capacitance from Multi-conductor Systems


Figure 14.3: Lumped Capacitor Equivalence of Three Conductor System
Conductor 3
(ground)
Conductor 1

Conductor 2

G

G

where Cl represents a matrix of capacitances referred to as lumped capacitances.

14.3.2. Procedure
The CMATRIX command macro will perform multiple simulations and extract both the ground capacitance
matrix values and the lumped capacitance matrix values. To prepare for CMATRIX, you must group the
conductor nodes into node components. Do not apply any loads to the model (voltages, charge, charge
density, etc). The component name applied to the conductor nodes must contain a common prefix,
followed by a numerical suffix progressing from 1 to the highest numbered conductor in the system.
The last numbered conductor in the system must be the ground conductor (the conductor whose potential is assumed to be zero). The procedure for using CMATRIX is as follows:
1. Build and mesh the solid model with electrostatic elements. Conductors are assumed to be perfect
conductors and hence do not require a finite element mesh within the conductor domain. Only the
surrounding dielectric regions and air regions require a mesh. The resulting nodes on the boundary of
the conductors represent the nodes that will be grouped into node components.
2. Select the nodes on the surface of the each conductor and group them into node components.
Command(s): CM
GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component
Share a command prefix for the component names, and use a numerical value sequencing from 1
to the highest numbered conductor. For example, in Figure 14.3: Lumped Capacitor Equivalence of
Three Conductor System (p. 331), three node components would be defined for each set of conductor
nodes. Using a prefix "cond", the node component names would be "cond1", "cond2", and "cond3".
The last component, "cond3" would be the nodes representing the ground.
3. Enter the SOLUTION processor, using either of the following:
Command(s): SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution
4. Select an equation solver (JCG recommended), using either of the following:
Command(s): EQSLV
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> Analysis Options
5. Invoke the CMATRIX macro, using one of the following:
Command(s): CMATRIX
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Electromagnet> Static Analysis> Capac Matrix
The CMATRIX command macro requires the following input:

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)


A symmetry factor (SYMFAC). If there is no symmetry in the model, the symmetry factor is 1 (default).
If you wish to model only a portion of the model by taking advantage of symmetry, use the symmetry
factor as a multiplier to obtain the correct capacitance.
The node component prefix name (Condname). This is the prefix of the node component name's used
to define the conductor node components. In the above example, the prefix name is "cond". The
command macro requires that you put single quotes around the prefix name when entering the
character string. Thus, the input for this example would be 'cond'. In the GUI, the single quotes are
automatically handled by the program.
The number of conductor node components (NUMCOND). Insert the total number of conductor node
components. In the above example you would use "3".
Enter the Ground Key option (GRNDKEY). If your model does not contain an open boundary then the
highest numbered node component represents ground. In this case, no special treatment is needed
and you would set the ground key to zero (default). If your model contains an open boundary (modeled
with infinite elements) and the far-field is not considered as a conductor, then you would set the
ground key to zero (default). In some situations it is necessary to consider the far-field (infinity) as the
ground conductor (for example, a single charged sphere in air requires the infinity location as ground
in order to preserve a charge balance). When using the INFIN111 element to represent a far-field
ground, set the ground key to "1".
Enter a name for the stored matrix of capacitance values (Capname). The command macro stores the
computed ground and lumped matrix values in a 3-D array vector where the "i" and "j" columns represent the conductor indices, the "k" column indicates ground (k = 1) or lumped (k = 2) terms. The
default name is CMATRIX. For example, the command macro stores the ground terms in CMATRIX(i,j,1)
and the lumped terms in CMATRIX(i,j,2). The command macro also creates a text file containing the
matrix values and stores it in a file with the stored matrix name and a .TXT extension.
Do not apply inhomogeneous loads before using the CMATRIX command. Inhomogeneous loads are
those created by:
Degree of freedom commands (D, DA, etc.) specifying nonzero degree of freedom values on nodes
or solid model entities
Force commands (F, BF, BFE, BFA, etc.) specifying nonzero force values on nodes, elements, or solid
model entities
Any CE command with a nonzero constant term
CMATRIX executes a series of solutions to compute self and mutual capacitance between conductors.
The solutions, which are stored in the results file, are available for postprocessing, if desired. At the end
of the execution, the command macro presents a summary table.
If infinite elements (INFIN110 and INFIN111) share a common boundary with a conductor (such as a
ground plane), you can consider the ground plane and infinite boundary as a single conductor (group
only the ground plane nodes into a component).
Figure 14.4: Modeling Scenarios (p. 333) illustrates several modeling scenarios for open and closed domain
models along with the appropriate settings for NUMCOND and GRNDKEY.

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Figure 14.4: Modeling Scenarios
3 (ground)

NUMCOND = 3
GRNDKEY = 0
1

Three Conductors - Closed System

Natural boundary

NUMCOND = 2
GRNDKEY = 0

ground

Two conductor system, one is ground


Open boundary left as natural boundary condition

See Example: Capacitance Calculation (p. 342) of this manual for an example problem using CMATRIX.

14.4. Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


The following examples are available:
14.4.1. Example: h-Method Electrostatic Analysis
14.4.2. Example: Capacitance Calculation

14.4.1. Example: h-Method Electrostatic Analysis


This section describes how to perform an electrostatic analysis of a shielded microstrip transmission
line consisting of a substrate, microstrip, and a shield. The strip is at a potential V1, and the shield is at
a potential V0. The object of the problem is to determine the capacitance of the transmission line.

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)

14.4.1.1. Description
a
CL

Y
12

11

15

V0
Shield
3

Air
r

V0

V1

Strip

Substrate

V0

4
b

w
Problem Sketch

Material Properties
Air: r = 1
Substrate: r = 10

3
1

7
2

Keypoint and Area Model


Geometric Properties
a = 10 cm
b = 1 cm
w = 1 cm

Loading
V1 = 10 V
V0 = 1 V

14.4.1.2. Assumptions and Modeling


You can calculate the capacitance of the device from electrostatic energy and the applied potential
difference as We = 1/2 C (V1-Vo)2 where We is the electrostatic energy and C is the capacitance. To obtain
the electrostatic energy, you sum the energies for all the elements in the model in POST1.
Additional postprocessing includes displaying equipotential lines and the electric field as vectors.

14.4.1.3. Expected Results


The target results from this example analysis are capacitance 178.1 pF/m
Step 1: Begin the Analysis
1.

Enter the ANSYS program. To do so, use the procedures described in the Operations Guide.

2.

Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears.

3.

Enter the title Microstrip transmission line analysis.

4.

Click OK.

5.

Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears.

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


6.

Click Magnetic-Nodal and Electric on.

7.

Click OK.

Step 2: Define Parameters


1.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. A dialog box appears.

2.

Type in the parameter values shown below, following each entry by pressing ENTER. If you make a
mistake, just retype the parameter definition.
V1 = 1.5
V0 = 0.5

3.

Click Close to close the dialog box.

Step 3: Define the Element Type


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box
appears.

2.

Click Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3.

Highlight (click on) "Electrostatic" and "2D Quad 121."

4.

Click OK. The Element Types dialog box shows element type 1 (PLANE121) selected.

5.

Click Close.

Step 4: Define Material Properties


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models. The Define Material Model
Behavior dialog box appears.

2.

In the Material Models Available window, double-click on the following options: Electromagnetics, Relative Permittivity, Constant. A dialog box appears.

3.

Enter 1 for PERX (Relative permittivity), and click on OK. Material Model Number 1 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

4.

Choose menu path Edit>Copy. Click on OK to copy Material number 1 to Material number 2. Material
Model Number 2 appears in the Material Models Defined window on the left.

5.

In the Material Models Defined window, double-click on Material Model Number 2, and Permittivity
(constant). A completed dialog box appears.

6.

Replace the value in the PERX field with 10, and click on OK.

7.

Choose menu path Material>Exit to remove the Define Material Model Behavior dialog box.

8.

Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

Step 5: Create Model Geometry and Compress Numbers


1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The
Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears.
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2.

Enter the values shown below. (Use the TAB key to move between fields.)
X1 field: 0

Y1 field: 0

X2 field: .5

Y2 field: 0

3.

Click Apply. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays the first rectangle.

4.

To create a second rectangle, enter the following values:


X1 field: .5

Y1 field: 0

X2 field: 5

Y2 field: 1

5.

Click Apply. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays the second rectangle.

6.

To create a third rectangle, enter the following values:


X1 field: 0

Y1 field: 1

X2 field: .5

Y2 field: 10

7.

Click Apply. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays the third rectangle.

8.

To create a fourth rectangle, enter the following values:

9.

X1 field: .5

Y1 field: 1

X2 field: 5

Y2 field: 10

Click OK. The ANSYS Graphics Window displays all four rectangles.

10. To glue all areas together, choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Booleans> Glue>
Areas. A picking menu appears.
11. Click Pick All.
12. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. A dialog box appears.
13. Set the "Item to be compressed" field to "Areas."
14. Click OK.
Step 6: Apply Attributes to Model Regions and Prepare for Meshing
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Change the top button from "Nodes" to "Areas."

3.

Change the button just below it to "By Num/Pick."

4.

Click OK. A picking menu appears.

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


5.

Pick areas 1 and 2 by clicking on them. (Areas 1 and 2 are the two areas at the bottom of the Graphics
Window.) The picked areas should change color.

6.

Click OK.

7.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Picked Areas. Click Pick All. The
Area Attributes dialog box appears.

8.

Set the "Material number" field to 2.

9.

Click OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
11. Check that the top two buttons are set to "Areas" and "By Num/Pick."
12. Click Sele All, then click OK. A picking menu appears.
13. Click Pick All.
14. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
15. Change the top button from "Areas" to "Lines."
16. Change the button below it to "By Location."
17. Click the Y Coordinates button on.
18. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 1.
19. Click Apply. ANSYS should respond by displaying a message about "2 lines" in the output window.
20. Click the Reselect and X Coordinates buttons on.
21. In the "Min, Max" field, enter .25.
22. Click OK. ANSYS should respond by displaying a message about "1 line" in the output window.
Step 7: Mesh the Model
1.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> All Lines. The Element Sizes on
All Selected Lines dialog box appears.

2.

In the "No. of element divisions" field, enter 8.

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

5.

Check that the top button is set to "Lines."

6.

Change the second button to "By Num/Pick."

7.

Click the From Full button on.

8.

Click Sele All, then click OK. A picking menu appears.

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9.

Click Pick All.

10. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. The MeshTool appears.
11. Click the Smart Size button on.
12. Set the SmartSizing slider to 3.
13. Click the Tri shape button on.
14. Check that the Mesh button is set to "Areas."
15. Click the MESH button. A picking menu appears.
16. Click Pick All. The Graphics Window shows you the meshed model.
17. Click Close to close the MeshTool.
Step 8: Apply Boundary Conditions and Loads
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Change the top button to "Nodes."

3.

Set the button just below it to "By Location."

4.

Click the Y Coordinates and From Full buttons on.

5.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter 1.

6.

Click Apply.

7.

Click the X Coordinates and Reselect buttons on.

8.

In the "Min, Max" field, enter 0,.5.

9.

Click OK.

10. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage>
On Nodes. A picking menu appears.
11. Click Pick All. The Apply VOLT on Nodes dialog box appears.
12. In the "Value of voltage (VOLT)" field, enter V1.
13. Click OK.
14. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.
15. Check that the two top buttons are set to "Nodes" and "By Location."
16. Click the Y Coordinates and From Full buttons on.
17. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 0.
18. Click Apply.

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


19. Click the Also Sele button on.
20. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 10.
21. Click Apply.
22. Click the X Coordinates button on.
23. In the "Min, Max" field, enter 5.
24. Click OK.
25. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage>
On Nodes. A picking menu appears.
26. Click Pick All. The Apply VOLT on Nodes dialog box appears.
27. In the "Value of voltage (VOLT)" field, enter V0.
28. Click OK.
Step 9: Scale the Areas
1.

Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

2.

Check that the top button is set to "Nodes," the next button is set to "By Num/Pick," and the "From
Full" button is set on.

3.

Click the Sele All button, then click OK. A picking menu appears. Click Pick All.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Scale> Areas. A picking menu appears.

5.

Click Pick All. The Scale Areas dialog box appears.

6.

In the "RX, RY, RZ Scale Factors" fields, enter the following values:
RX field: .01
RY field: .01
RZ field: 0

7.

In the "Items to be scaled" field, set the button to "Areas and mesh."

8.

In the "Existing areas will be" field, set the button to "Moved."

9.

Click OK.

10. Choose Main Menu> Finish.


Step 10: Solve the Analysis
1.

Choose Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS. The Solve Current Load Step dialog box appears,
along with a pop-up window listing the load step options.

2.

Review the pop-up window contents, then click Close.

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)


3.

Click OK on the dialog box to start the solution. A pop-up message notifies you when solution is complete. Click Close.

4.

Choose Main Menu> Finish.

Step 11: Store Analysis Results


1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table. The Element Table Data dialog
box appears.

2.

Click Add. The Define Additional Element Table Items dialog box appears.

3.

In the "User label for item" field, enter SENE

4.

In the scrollable lists in the "Results data item" field, highlight "Energy." (When you highlight Energy
in the list on the left, Elec energy SENE" will be highlighted in the list on the right automatically.)

5.

Click OK.

6.

Click Add.

7.

In the "User label for item" field, enter EFX.

8.

In the "Results data item" field, highlight "Flux & gradient" and "Elec field EFX." (You may have to scroll
up to find the correct selections.)

9.

Click OK.

10. Click Add.


11. In the "User label for item" field, enter EFY.
12. In the "Results data item" field, highlight "Flux & gradient" and "Elec field EFY."
13. Click OK. The Element Table Data dialog box now shows the SENE, EFX, and EFY items defined.
14. Click Close to close the dialog box.
15. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.
Step 12: Plot Analysis Results
1.

Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears.

2.

Set the "Numbering shown with" field to "Colors only."

3.

Click OK.

4.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The Contour
Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears.

5.

In the "Item to be contoured" field, highlight "DOF solution" and "Elec poten VOLT."

6.

Click OK. The Graphics Window displays a contour plot of equipotential lines.

7.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Vector Plot> User-defined. The Vector Plot
of User-defined Vectors dialog box appears.

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


8.

In the "Item" field, enter EFX.

9.

In the "Lab2" field, enter EFY

10. Click OK. The Graphics Window displays a vector plot of the electric field.
Step 13: Perform Capacitance Calculations
1.

Choose Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Sum of Each Item. An informational dialog
box appears.

2.

Click OK. A pop-up window shows you all element table entries and their values.

3.

Click Close to close the pop-up window.

4.

Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Get Scalar Data. The Get Scalar Data dialog box appears.

5.

In the "Type of data to be retrieved" field, highlight "Results data" and "Elem table sums."

6.

Click OK. The Get Element Table Sum Results dialog box appears.

7.

In the "Name of parameter to be defined," field, enter W.

8.

Set the "Element table item" field to "SENE."

9.

Click OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears.
11. Type in the following values, pressing ENTER after typing each value:
C = (w*2)/((V1-V0)**2)
C = ((C*2)*1e12)
12. Click Close.
13. Choose Utility Menu> List> Status> Parameters> Named Parameter. The Named Parameter Status
dialog box appears.
14. In the "Name of parameter" field, highlight C.
15. Click OK. A pop-up window displays the value of the C parameter (capacitance).
16. Click Close to close the pop-up window.
Step 14: Finish the Analysis
1.

To finish the analysis, choose Main Menu> Finish.

2.

Click QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar.

3.

Choose an exit option and click OK.

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)

14.4.1.4. Command Method


You can perform the example analysis of the microstrip transmission line using the ANSYS commands
shown below instead of GUI menu choices. All text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/BATCH,LIST
/PREP7
/TITLE, MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINE ANALYSIS
ET,1,PLANE121
! USE 2-D 8-NODE ELECTROSTATIC ELEMENT
V1=1.5
! DEFINE STRIP POTENTIAL
V0=0.5
! DEFINE GROUND POTENTIAL
MP,PERX,1,1
! FREE SPACE RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY
MP,PERX,2,10
! SUBSTRATE RELATIVE PERMITTIVITY
RECTNG,0,.5,0,1
RECTNG,.5,5,0,1
RECTNG,0,.5,1,10
RECTNG,.5,5,1,10
AGLUE,ALL
NUMCMP,AREA
ASEL,S,AREA,,1,2
AATT,2
ASEL,ALL
LSEL,S,LOC,Y,1
LSEL,R,LOC,X,.25
LESIZE,ALL,,,8
LSEL,ALL
SMRTSIZE,3
MSHAPE,1
AMESH,ALL
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,1
NSEL,R,LOC,X,0,.5
D,ALL,VOLT,V1
NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0
NSEL,A,LOC,Y,10
NSEL,A,LOC,X,5
D,ALL,VOLT,V0
NSEL,ALL
ARSCALE,ALL,,,.01,.01,0,,0,1
FINISH
/SOLUTION
SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
ETABLE,SENE,SENE
ETABLE,EFX,EF,X
ETABLE,EFY,EF,Y
/NUMBER,1
PLNSOL,VOLT
PLVECT,EFX,EFY
SSUM
*GET,W,SSUM,,ITEM,SENE
C=(W*2)/((V1-V0)**2)
C=((C*2)*1E12)
*STATUS,C
FINISH

! SET AREA ATTRIBUTES FOR AIR

! Triangle mesh
! SELECT NODES ON MICROSTRIP
! APPLY STRIP POTENTIAL

! SELECT EXTERIOR NODES


! APPLY GROUND POTENTIAL
! SCALE MODEL TO METERS

! STORE ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY


! STORE POTENTIAL FIELD GRADIENTS

!
!
!
!
!

DISPLAY EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES


DISPLAY VECTOR ELECTRIC FIELD (VECTOR)
SUM ENERGY
GET ENERGY AS W
CALCULATE CAPACITANCE (F/M)

! FULL GEOMETRY CAPACITANCE (PF/M)


! DISPLAY CAPACITANCE

14.4.2. Example: Capacitance Calculation


The following is an example of how to perform a capacitance matrix calculation by issuing ANSYS
commands. You can also perform the analysis through the ANSYS GUI menus.
For details on extracting capacitance from multi-conductor systems, see Extracting Capacitance from
Multi-conductor Systems (p. 329) in this manual.

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)

14.4.2.1. Description
Two long cylinders sit above an infinite ground plane. The objective is to compute the self and mutual
capacitance coefficients between the conductors and ground.

14.4.2.2. Modeling
The ground plane and the Infinite elements share a common boundary at the outer radius of the
model. The Infinite elements by nature can only represent a zero potential at the infinite location. Since
the ground plane shares a common boundary with the infinite elements, they together represent the
ground conductor. The nodes of the ground plane are sufficient to represent the ground conductor
since the infinite element nodes are internally grounded by the program. By grouping the other two
cylindrical conductor node sets into node components as well, you arrive at a 3-conductor system.
Figure 14.5: Model Areas of Capacitance Example Problem (p. 343) displays the model areas and Figure 14.6: Elements of Capacitance Example Problem (p. 344) displays the finite elements.
Figure 14.5: Model Areas of Capacitance Example Problem

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Electrostatic Field Analysis (h-Method)


Figure 14.6: Elements of Capacitance Example Problem

14.4.2.3. Results
The computed ground and lumped capacitance results for this example problem are as follows:
(Cg)11 = 0.454E-4
pF

(Cl)11 = 0.354E-4
pF

(Cg)12 = -0.998E-5
pF

(Cl)12 = 0.998E-5
pF

(Cg)22 = 0.454E-4
pF

(Cl)22 = 0.354E-4
pF

14.4.2.4. Command Listing


You can perform this example capacitance matrix calculation using the ANSYS commands shown below.
Text prefaced by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.
/batch,list
/prep7
/title, Capacitance of two long cylinders above a ground plane
a=100
d=400
ro=800

! Cylinder inside radius (m)


! Outer radius of air region
! Outer radius of infinite elements

et,1,121
et,2,110,1,1
emunit,epzro,8.854e-6
mp,perx,1,1

! 8-node 2-D electrostatic element


! 8-node 2-D Infinite element
! Set free-space permittivity for MKSV units

cyl4,d/2,d/2,a,0
cyl4,0,0,ro,0,,90
cyl4,0,0,2*ro,0,,90

! Create mode in first quadrant

aovlap,all
numcmp,area
smrtsiz,4
mshape,1

344

! Mesh air region

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Example Electrostatic Field Analyses (h-Method)


amesh,3
lsel,s,loc,x,1.5*ro
lsel,a,loc,y,1.5*ro
lesize,all,,,1
type,2
mshape,0
mshkey,1
amesh,2
arsymm,x,all
nummrg,node
nummrg,kpoi

! Mesh infinite region


! Reflect model about y axis

csys,1
nsel,s,loc,x,2*ro
sf,all,inf
local,11,1,d/2,d/2
nsel,s,loc,x,a
cm,cond1,node
local,12,1,-d/2,d/2
nsel,s,loc,x,a
cm,cond2,node
csys,0
nsel,s,loc,y,0
cm,cond3,node
allsel,all
finish
/solu
cmatrix,1,'cond',3,0
finish

! Set infinite flag in Infinite elements

! Assign node component to 1st conductor

! Assign node component to 2nd conductor

! Assign node component to ground conductor

! Compute capacitance matrix coefficients

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Chapter 15: Electric Circuit Analysis


Electric circuit analysis determines the voltage and current distribution in an electric circuit due to applied
source voltages or currents. The type of source determines the type of analysis you do, as follows:
If the source is ...

The analysis type is ...

AC

Harmonic

DC

Static

Time-varying

Transient

Realizing the full potential of FEA simulation in electromagnetics requires complete flexibility in simulating circuit-fed electromagnetic devices. The ANSYS program has the following capabilities for circuit
analysis:
A modified nodal analysis method for simulating circuits
Direct coupling of circuits to stranded coils and massive conductors
Coupling for both 2-D and 3-D models
Support for DC, AC, and time-transient simulations.
The advanced circuit-coupled simulation available in the ANSYS program allows for accurate simulation
of items such as those listed below:
Solenoid actuators
Transformers
AC machines.
The following electric circuit analysis topics are available:
15.1. Elements Used in Circuit Analysis
15.2. Using the CIRCU125 Element
15.3. Using the Circuit Builder
15.4. Avoiding Inconsistent Circuits
15.5. Static (DC) Electric Circuit Analysis
15.6. Harmonic (AC) Electric Circuit Analysis
15.7.Transient Electric Circuit Analysis
15.8. Example Electric Circuit Analyses

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15.1. Elements Used in Circuit Analysis


The ANSYS program provides three circuit elements for simulating circuits. For a detailed description
of these elements, see the Element Reference.
Table 15.1: Circuit Elements
Element
CIRCU94

Type
Piezoelectric
circuit

Circuit Options
Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor

Notes
Legacy element

Independent Current Source


Independent Voltage Source
CIRCU124

General circuit

Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor


Mutual Inductor

Current-technology
element

Voltage-controlled Current Source


Current-controlled Current Source
Voltage-controlled Voltage Source
Current-controlled Voltage Source
Stranded Coil Current Source
2-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source
3-D Massive Conductor Voltage Source
CIRCU125

Diode

Common Diode, Zener Diode

Current-technology
element

15.2. Using the CIRCU125 Element


You can use the CIRCU125 element to model common and Zener diodes. When using this element,
keep in mind the following:
At any diode state, the piece-wise linear characterization of the diode I-U curve corresponds to a Norton
equivalent circuit with a dynamic resistance (i.e. inverse of the slope at the operating point) and a current
generator (where the tangent of the I-U curve intersects the I-axis).
The element voltage drop, current, and Joule heat loss computed data provided in the element miscellaneous records may be loaded with some cancellation error if the voltage drop is much smaller than the
nominal voltage level typical for the diode (especially ideal) open state.
To obtain more accurate results, obtain the element current by retrieving the reaction force on the
element and recalculating the voltage according to the diode status and I-U curve.
The diode's power and status can be plotted in POST26.
Auto time stepping follows standard ANSYS auto time stepping behavior when AUTOTS is turned ON.
The time stepping is estimated according to the eigenvalues of the dynamic system. The element issues

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Using the Circuit Builder


a signal to decrease step size when a state change is anticipated, similar to the gap closing of a contact
element.
CIRCU125 elements are highly nonlinear. To obtain convergence, you may have to define convergence
criteria, instead of using the default values. Use CNVTOL,VOLT,,0.001,2,1.0E-6 if you need to change the
convergence criteria.

15.3. Using the Circuit Builder


For all circuit analyses, you first need to build a circuit model using the CIRCU124, CIRCU125, TRANS126,
COMBIN14, COMBIN39, and MASS21 elements. The preferred method for building the circuit is to use
the Circuit Builder, an interactive builder available in the ANSYS graphical user interface (GUI). The Circuit
Builder performs the tasks listed below:
Enables you to select circuit components and place them at the desired location in the circuit with
the help of a mouse
Creates a model of the circuit interactively
Assigns "real" constants to circuit components and allows you to edit them
Assigns excitation to independent sources
Verifies excitation graphically
Provides an interactive connection to the FEA domain
Lets you specify source loads for voltage and current source components.
The Circuit Builder establishes the element types, real constants, and node and element definitions. It
sets up multiple element types, one for each circuit element. As with any other GUI feature, the Circuit
Builder writes to the log file all the commands used to create the circuit elements.
The GUI offers a special wire element option. This option is provided as a convenience tool to connect
regions of an electrical circuit with a wire. The wire represents a short circuit (infinite conductivity)
between the two connection points. A MESH200 element is created for visualization purposes only. The
end nodes of the wire are coupled together (using the CP command) to represent the short circuit. If
two or more wire elements are connected together, the nodes of these wire elements are all coupled
together in one node coupling set with the VOLT degree of freedom. Deleting any one of these wire
elements will force an automatic deletion of all the connected wire elements, the node coupling set,
and any node that is not attached to a non-wire element.

15.3.1. Building a Circuit


To build a circuit, activate the ANSYS GUI and use the procedure described below. These additional tips
also may help you:
To set an initial focus and distance in the GUI consistent with the circuit icon size, issue the Circuit
Builder's "Center WP" option. To do so, choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create>
Circuit> Center WP. When the Center WP option is issued, the WP Settings dialog box will appear
as a convenience for turning the working plane grid on or off, adjusting the snap increments, etc.
To scale the circuit icons or change the width of the circuit lines, issue the Circuit Builder's Scale
Icon option. To do so, choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Circuit> Scale Icon.
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Consider displaying two windows: one for the circuit and the other for your model.
Remember to ground the circuit at one node. To do so, either choose Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage> On Nodes or issue the D command
with the VOLT label.
1. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences dialog box appears.
2. Choose "Electromagnetic" if you are planning to do a circuit-coupled electromagnetic analysis.
Choose "Electric" if you are just running a circuit analysis.
3. Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Jobname. In the dialog box that appears, specify a jobname
for your analysis and click on OK.
4. Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. In the dialog box that appears, specify a title for your
analysis and click on OK.
5. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Circuit> Builder.
6. If you need to locate the circuit away from an existing finite element model (for instance, if you are
doing a coupled electromagnetic-circuit analysis), use the WorkPlane option on the Utility Menu to
move the working plane origin to the location where you want to start the circuit. (Otherwise, skip
this step.) The location of the circuit can be arbitrary and does not affect the analysis results. For
convenience, you can center the working plane origin in the Graphics Window by choosing Main
Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Circuit> Center WP.
7. Choose the circuit component you want from the Circuit Menu and follow the prompts shown in
the ANSYS Input Window. Most choices display the "picker" you use to locate the I and J nodes of
the element and then position the circuit component by picking an offset location from the I-J line.
The length of each circuit element, and the element's location relative to other circuit elements, can
be arbitrary and does not affect analysis results. Once you have picked all necessary locations, a
dialog box appears requesting an ID number (element number) and real constants to identify the
component. If the icon size is too small, or the circuit lines to thin, you can make adjustments by
choosing Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Circuit> Scale Icon.
8. After building the circuit, verify it and modify the data if necessary. The Plot> Src Waveform menu
choice allows you to plot and verify the wave form of any input loads. Another menu choice, Edit
Real Cnst, allows you to check and modify the real constants of any circuit component. To delete
specific circuit components, choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Delete> option.
The Circuit Builder is the most convenient way to construct a circuit. However, you can also build a
circuit by individually defining each node, element type, element, and real constant.
Once you have built the circuit, you are ready to perform a static, harmonic, or transient analysis (the
source determines the type of analysis).

15.4. Avoiding Inconsistent Circuits


You should avoid building electric circuits that are inconsistent. The following section illustrates inconsistent circuits.

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Avoiding Inconsistent Circuits

15.4.1. DC and Harmonic Analyses


15.4.1.1. Voltage Generators Should Not Form a Loop
In Figure 15.1: Voltage Generators Forming a Loop (p. 351) monitoring Kirchhoff's loop equation on the
lower loop, what is the voltage between node 1 and 2? If V1 and V2 are not equal, the voltage forces
are inconsistent. Note in that figure that voltage generators form a loop . Even if V1 and V2 were consistent, numerical solution difficulties would occur.
Figure 15.1: Voltage Generators Forming a Loop

The circuit in Figure 15.2: Voltage Generators in Parallel With Resistors (p. 351) is more complicated than
that shown in Figure 15.1: Voltage Generators Forming a Loop (p. 351), yet the main topological inconsistency is still present. The voltage generators form a loop.
Figure 15.2: Voltage Generators in Parallel With Resistors

Figure 15.3: Voltage Generators in Parallel With Other Circuit Components (p. 351) is even more complex.
But you can easily identify the inconsistent loop of voltage generators.
Figure 15.3: Voltage Generators in Parallel With Other Circuit Components

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15.4.1.2. Current Generators Should Not Form a Cut


In Figure 15.4: Current Generators in Parallel (p. 352), monitoring Kirchhoff's nodal equation of node 1,
what is the balance? If I1 I2, then the balance is not zero, the current forces are inconsistent. Even if
I1 = I2 numerical solution difficulties would occur.
Figure 15.4: Current Generators in Parallel

The circuit in Figure 15.5: Circuit Generators and a Supernode (p. 352) is more complex. Here, the current
generators have no common node. Kirchhoff's nodal law is violated on a "super-node" in that figure.
The "super-node" is called a cut. Current generators cannot form cuts; that is, there should be no supernode such that only current generators are entering it.
Figure 15.5: Circuit Generators and a Supernode

15.4.2. Transient Analyses


15.4.2.1. Capacitors and Voltage Operators Should Not Form a Loop
In a transient analysis, at t = 0, a capacitor can be represented by a voltage generator having the same
voltage as the initial voltage of the capacitor. See Figure 15.6: Voltage Generator and Capacitor Equivalence (p. 352).
Figure 15.6: Voltage Generator and Capacitor Equivalence

In Figure 15.7: Velocity Generators Forming a Loop (p. 353), right after closure of the switch, the initial
current distribution can be computed by the equivalent circuit shown on the right-hand side. This is
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Avoiding Inconsistent Circuits


an inconsistent circuit (producing infinite current) because the voltage generators form a loop. Thus,
the DC/harmonic rule that voltage generators should not form a loop should be applied such that the
capacitors are considered as voltage generators.
Figure 15.7: Velocity Generators Forming a Loop

15.4.3. Inductors and Current Generators Should Not Form a Cut


In a transient analysis, at t = 0, an inductor can be represented by a current generator having the same
current as the initial current of the inductor. See Figure 15.8: Current Generator and Inductor Equivalence (p. 353).
Figure 15.8: Current Generator and Inductor Equivalence

In Figure 15.9: Current Generators Forming a Cut (p. 353), right after the closure of the switch, the initial
voltage distribution can be computed by the equivalent circuit shown on the right-hand side. This is
an inconsistent circuit (producing infinite voltage) because the current generators form a cut. Thus, the
DC/harmonic rule that the current generators should not form a cut should be applied such that the
inductors are considered as current generators.
Figure 15.9: Current Generators Forming a Cut

These circuits are contradictory, and they do not have physical meanings. Therefore, the ANSYS program
cannot detect them.

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15.5. Static (DC) Electric Circuit Analysis


In a static (DC) electric circuit analysis, you determine the voltage and current distribution in an electric
circuit that is subjected to applied DC source voltages or currents. Static circuit analyses allow all circuit
components.

15.5.1. Building a Circuit for Static Analysis


In a static analysis, the ANSYS program treats capacitors as open circuits and inductors as short circuits.
To represent a short circuit condition, couple the two nodes of the inductor in the VOLT degree of
freedom, using one of the following:
Command(s): CP
GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Coupling/Ceqn> Couple DOFs
Once you have built the circuit, you apply loads and obtain the solution, then view the results.

15.5.2. Applying Loads and Solving the Static Analysis


You need to define the analysis type and options, apply loads, and initiate the finite element solution.
To accomplish these tasks, follow the steps listed below.

15.5.2.1. Enter the SOLUTION Processor


To enter the SOLUTION processor, use either of the following:
Command(s): /SOLU
GUI: Main Menu> Solution

15.5.2.2. Define the Analysis Type


To specify the analysis type, do either of the following:
In the GUI, choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis and choose
a Static analysis.
If this is a new analysis, issue the command ANTYPE,STATIC,NEW.
Restarting an analysis usually is required only for continuing a transient circuit analysis.

15.5.2.3. Apply Loads on the Model


Normally, you specify source loads for circuits in the Circuit Builder, as element real constants. Besides
the source loads, the only other "load" is a VOLT = 0 specification at the ground nodes. To specify VOLT
= 0, use either of the following:
Command(s): D
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Electric> Boundary> Voltage> On Nodes
Should you need to modify the source loads, use one of the following:
Command(s): R, RMODIF
GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete The RMODIF
command has no GUI equivalent.

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Static (DC) Electric Circuit Analysis

15.5.2.4. Copy t