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ISOMERIZATION OF LIGHT

NAPHTHA

Group No. 1

Batch: 2008-2009

Names

Seat no.

MUHIB NASEER MANSURI

CH-005

WAHAJ SHAFI

CH-006

FARHAN AHMED LARIK

CH-058

KHURRAM REHMAN NIZAMI

CH-063

Internal Advisor: Sir Fahim Uddin

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY

Dedicated to
Our beloved Parents & Teachers

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work in this project report on ISOMERIZATION OF
LIGHT NAPHTHA is entirely written by the following students under the
supervision of Mr. Fahim Uddin. This project is submitted to Department of
Chemical Engineering for the fulfillment of the Bachelor Degree in Chemical
Engineering.

Group No. 1

Batch: 2008-2009

Names

Seat no.

MUHIB NASEER MANSOORI

CH-005

WAHAJ SHAFI

CH-006

FARHAN AHMED LARIK

CH-058

KHURRAM REHMAN NIZAMI

CH-063

___________
Internal Adviser

___________

___________

Examiner 1

Examiner 2

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
i

ABSTRACT

Energy exploration and conservation is one of the most critical challenge faced by
todays engineering world. Engineers of various expertises are working all over the
world for developing new modes of power generation and energy conservation. This
surge includes not only to find the new sources of energy but rather more significantly
to enhance the efficiency of already existing resources by adopting more fruitful ways
of power generation and reducing the amount of waste. Conversion of low energy
fuels into high energy fuels is one of the key aspects in this regard.
Petroleum refinery sector is also facing this widespread challenge. De-bottle necking
of various refinery processes are being carried out. For refinery sector, bringing a
maximum amount or refinery product into gasoline pool has been an attractive choice
for years. This has been done by converting various straight run cuts of crude oil into
the gasoline cut which is only about 7% of the feed crude. Several processes including
alkylation, reforming, cracking and isomerization are carried out to enhance the
production of gasoline pool. In Pakistan, the refinery sector is in practice of exporting
Light straight run naphtha (LSR) which is one of the key products, where it is either
used in petrochemical industries or it processed to increase its octane rating thus
making it fit to be used as an automobile fuel.
Isomerization of light straight run naphtha has now been done worldwide to increase
its octane rating. The octane rating of LSR can be enhanced by converting the straight
chain paraffins into branched chains. However the benzene present in LSR is
hazardous for the environment due to its carcinogenicity. This problem can be solved
by saturating this benzene into cyclo-hexane. Consequently a combination of two
processes that is saturation of benzene into cyclo-hexane followed by isomerization of
normal paraffin into iso paraffin under the action of Platinum based on alumina
catalyst is developed.
This report will discuss in detail this process for the LSR produced from Atmospheric
distillation column at Pakistan Refinery Limited. This report will discuss process
history, chemistry of the process, material and energy balances, equipment design,
economics for the process and environmental and safety concerns.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Our first thanks is to Allah The Almighty, the most merciful who blessed us with the
strength to achieve our task and helped us in all ups and downs during the final year
project in particular and in circles of life in general.
This final year project will hopefully serve us as a milestone in signifying the essence
of Chemical Engineering design. This project was rather an expedition characterized
by the team work, as well as by help from various personnel. Henceforth we are in
debt to acknowledge their support and guidance in completion of our project.
First and foremost we would like to acknowledge our project facilitator Engineer
Fahim Uddin who supported us and always drew a helping hand when needed. Most
importantly encouraged us to attempt this project unconventionally and provide us
full autonomy to enhance our talent and abilities.
Secondly, we would like to express our gratitude and acknowledgement to the support
of Engineer Tariq Masood (Senior Engineer Pakistan Refinery Limited) and Engineer
Rashid Hafeez (Process Manager Pakistan Refinery Limited)
Apart from the above mentioned, we would also like to acknowledge the grand
support of Professor Dr. Tufail Ahmed (Dean Chemical and Process Engineering),
Professor Dr. Inayatullah Memon (Chairman DEC) and all the faculty members of
department of Chemical Engineering especially Prof. Dr. Shazia F. Ali, Mr. Asim
Mushtaq, Mr. Adeel-ur-Rehman and our class advisor Mr. Saad Nadeem for his time
by time encouragement.

Authors

iii

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iii

CONTENTS

iv

LIST OF FIGURES

viii

NOTATIONS

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

01-12

1.1

Refinery Products

02

1.2

Automobile Fuels

06

1.3

Octane number

06

1.4

Processing of heavier and lighter hydrocarbons than C7 and C8

07

1.5

What is Isomerization?

10

CHAPTER

ISOMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

13-22

2.1

UOPS Penex Process

13

2.2

Process Description

19

2.3

Octane Comparison for Different Processes

22

CHAPTER

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

23-42

3.1

Simple Process Description

23

3.2

Process Chemistry

24

3.3

Reactions

26

3.4

Process Variables

30
iv

3.5

Process Equipment

CHAPTER

35

CATALYST SELECTION

43-49

4.1

Catalyst

43

4.2

Types of Catalysts

43

4.3

Dual-Functional Isomerization Catalysts

45

4.4

Alumina Catalyst

46

4.5

Chlorinated-Alumina based Catalysts

48

4.6

Zeolites

48

4.7

Zeolite Characteristics

49

CHAPTER

MATERIAL BALANCE

50-65

5.1

Material Balance Equations

50

5.2

Mass Balance on Mixer M 101

53

5.3

Material Balance around Reactors R 101 & R 102

55

5.4

Material Balance around Stabilizer T 101

61

5.5

Material Balance around Scrubber T 102

64

CHAPTER

ENERGY BALANCE

66-93

6.1

Energy Balance Equations

66

6.2

Energy Balance Around Reactor R-101

66

6.3

Energy Balance Around Reactor R-102

72

6.4

Energy Balance Around Heat Exchanger E 101

78

6.5

Energy Balance Around Heat Exchanger E 102

85

6.6

Energy Balance Around Stabilizer T 101

CHAPTER

92

PLANT DESIGN CALCULATIONS

94-118

7.1

Reactors And its Types

94

7.2

Algorithm for determining reaction mechanism and


rate-limiting step

95

7.3

Designing of Reactor R 101

97

7.4

Designing of Reactor R 102

99

7.5

Designing of Naphtha Feed Pump P 101

101

7.7

Designing of Heat Exchanger E 101

104

7.8

Designing of Stabilizer T-101

107

7.6

Designing of Hydrogen Feed Compressor K 101

113

CHAPTER

COST ESTIMATION

119-128

8.1

Cost Estimation

120

8.2

Cost Estimation of our plant

123

8.3

Economics of Plant Location

125

8.4

Plant Location and Site Selection

126

CHAPTER

ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY

129-142

9.1

Definition of a Petroleum Refinery

129

9.2

Background

129

9.3

Processes involved in refining crude oil

130

vi

9.4

Environmental hazards of petroleum refineries

134

9.5

Material Safety Data Sheet

134

CHAPTER

10

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

143-151

10.1

Components of the Control System

144

10.2

Analysis of Measurement

144

10.3

Controller

145

10.4

Characteristics of Controller

145

10.5

Modes of Control

146

10.6

Alarms and Safety Trips

146

10.7

Control loops

146

10.8

Feed Back Control Loop

147

10.9

Feed Forward Control Loop

147

10.10 Ratio Control

147

10.11 Auctioneering Control Loop

148

10.12 Split Range Loop

148

10.13 Cascade Control Loop

148

10.14 Interlocks

148

10.15 Control of Heat Exchanger

148

REFERENCES

152

LIST OF APPENDICES

154

vii

LIST OF FIGURES
Number Figure

Title

Page Number

Figure 1.1

Crude Distillation Products

Figure 1.2

The isomerization reactions kinetics

11

Figure 1.3

Comparison of operating Conditions of Catalyst

12

Figure 2.1

Hydrocarbon Once-Through Penex Process

15

Figure 2.2

Block flow diagram of one through process

17

Figure 2.3

Block flow diagram of process with DIP

18

Figure 2.4

DIP-Penex-DIH

19

Figure 2.5

Penex/Molex Process flow scheme

19

Figure 2.6

BFD of Molex Process

20

Figure 2.7

Octane Comparison for different Processes


{Feed RON = 60 to 70}

22

Figure 3.1

C5 paraffin equilibrium plot

26

Figure 3.2

Equilibrium composition of hexane isomers


in relation to temperature

26

Figure 3.3

Iso-pentane equilibrium curve

32

Figure 3.4

2-2Dimethyl butane Equilibrium curve

33

Figure 3.5

Equilibrium Curve

33

Figure 3.6

Process Flow Diagram

42

Figure 4.1

Dependence of n-paraffins conversion on


reaction temperature
viii

43

Figure 4.2

Aluminum Oxide

47

Figure 4.3

Characteristics of chlorinated alumina


Catalysts

Figure 4.4

48

Structure and dimension of different types


of zeolite

49

Figure 4.5

Catalysts Performance Curves

49

Figure 5.1

Thermodynamic equilibrium for the isomerization


of heptane

Figure 5.2

51

Thermodynamic equilibrium for the isomerization


of Butane, pentane and hexane

ix

52

NOTATIONS

Rd

Fouling Factor

Viscosity

Cp

Specific Heat

Heat Duty

Ux

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Ax

Surface area for heat transfer

Fa

Factor Area

Nt

Number of tubes

At

Area of tubes

Gt

Mass velocity

ht

Film coefficient

Wa

Mass flow rate of air

ha

Film coefficient

da

Density of air

Nmin

Minimum no. of stages

Separation Factor

Rmin

Minimum reflux ratio

CFS

Vapor flow rate

GPM

Liquid flow rate

Surface Tension

Vapor density

Liquid density

Relative Volatility

Reflux ratio

Tray spacing

hct

Clear liquid height

Dh

Hole diameter

UN

Superficial vapor velocity based on net area

AN

Net area

SF

Derating factor

Ad

Down comer top area

At

Total tower cross section area

Dt

Tower diameter

Af

Fractional hole area

hw

Outlet weir height

hcl

Clearance under the down comer

Tray deck thickness

Lw

Outlet weir length

Ql

Liquid load

Adt

Down comer top area

Adb

Down comer bottom area

Ac

Active area

hd

Dry plate pressure drop

Cd

Orifice coefficient

Uh

Velocity through holes

Ah

Hole area

Aa

Active area

Hr

Residual head

how

Liquid head over the outlet weir

tr

Down comer residence time

Viscosity gradient correction

Thermal Conductivity

Correction Factor

Correction Factor

Correction Factor

Fp

Air pressure drop factor

DR

Density ratio

Number of rows of tube in direction of flow

ACFM

Actual cubic feet per minute


xi

NR

Modified Reynolds number

AR

Area ratio of fin tube

Specific gravity

de

Equivalent diameter (inch)

De

Equivalent diameter (ft)

H2

Hydrogen Gas

C1

Methane

C2

Ethane

C3

Propane

n C4

Normal Butane

n C5

Normal Pentane

n C6

Normal Hexane

n C7

Normal Heptane

i C4

Iso Butane

i C5

Iso Pentane

2 MP

2 Methyl Pentane

3 MP

3 Methyl Pentane

2, 2 DMB

2, 2 Di Methyl Butane

2,3DMB

2, 3 Di Methyl Butane

2 MH

2 Methyl Hexane

3 MH

3 Methyl Hexane

2, 2 DMP

2, 2 Di Methyl Pentane

2, 3 DMP

2, 3 Di Methyl Pentane

2, 4 DMP

2, 4 Di Methyl Pentane

3, 3 DMP

3, 3 Di Methyl Pentane

3 EP

3 Ethyl Pentane
xii

C6H6

Benzene

C7H8

Toluene

CP

Cyclo Pentane

MCP

Methyl Cyclo Pentane

CH

Cyclo Hexane

ECP

Ethyl Cyclo Pentane

MCH

Methyl Cyclo Hexane

2, 2, 3 TMB

2, 2, 3 Tri Methyl Butane

H2O

Water

C2Cl4

Perchloro Ethylene

HCL

Hydrochloric Acid

xiii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Introduction

CHAPTER # 1
INTRODUCTION

The world of today puts great emphasis on the use of the available sources of energy
in the most economical way to meet the forthcoming challenges in the field of global
energy consumption. This has enhanced the need of not only developing methods of
efficient ways of utilizing a fuel but much more than that on developing fuels that are
more equipment friendly and environment friendly. Energy sectors are working not
only to find alternatives of conventional fossil fuels by replacing them with solar,
wind and geothermal energy sources but at the same time already existing fuels are
being made more efficient by treating them with various chemical and physical
processes.

In the field of automotive the fuel consumption is increasing day by day with the
decreasing prices of automotive for last few decades. This has forced the refinery
sector to acquire possible ways which may increase the percentage of the crude
distillate that can be used as gasoline. The gasoline cut that is obtained from the crude
oil contains hydrocarbons of C7 and C8 range. This range of hydrocarbons has better
compatibility with the operating conditions (temperature and pressure) of gasoline
engine and thus required rate of combustion is obtained in the gasoline engine using
them as fuels. This property of the fuel is distinguished by a quantity remarked as
octane number. Hence in gasoline engines a major criterion for selection of fuels is
its octane number.

For the reason mentioned above the crude refining sector turned its attention towards
the effective ways of increasing the octane number of fractions of crude distillate (not
C7and C8) by adopting different methods. The addition of small amount of TEL
(tetra ethyl lead) in the gasoline pool has a remarkable increase in the pool octane
number; this method was relatively very cheap and had been used for several years.
However the carcinogenity of the lead urged the environmental safety organizations
to put a ban on the use of TEL in the commercial gasoline. Ultimately a surge of
finding the alternative methods of increasing the octane number of the gasoline pool
1

Chapter 1

Introduction

raised in the refining sectors, methods such as Alkylation and Isomerization were
adopted for enhancing the octane ratings of the lighter ends of the crude distillate and
method of Cracking was adopted to convert heavier ends (above C8) distillate into
fractions of gasoline range. These different methods are being used in the refineries
throughout the world.
1.1 REFINERY PRODUCTS:
We shall firstly be discussing the types of the products that are obtained from a
refinery (general fractions of crude distillate) and their classification. Raw crude oil
obtained from the earth crust is pretreated to remove water and salt contents, then it is
distilled at atmospheric pressure to obtain a series of products having a specific
boiling range from 32 to 4300C.The residue from the atmospheric distillation column
is further fractionated in a vacuum distillation column. A list of these products is
given below:

Figure 1.1 Crude Distillation Products (Gary and Handwerk, 2001)


Light straight run naphtha and heavy straight run naphtha constitute about 3% to 4%
of the input crude. The range for naphtha is from C5 to C12. Light naphtha are the
hydrocarbon fractions of range C5 to C6 (including normal, iso and cyclo pentanes and
hexanes, olefins of C5 and C6 and benzene and its derivatives) whereas heavy naphtha
ranges from C7 to C10 (including gasoline, jet fuels and aviation fuels).
Crude oil is a complex liquid mixture made up of a vast number of hydrocarbon
compounds that consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen in differing proportions. In
addition, small amounts of organic compounds containing sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen
and metals such as vanadium, nickel, iron and copper are also present. Hydrogen to
2

Chapter 1

Introduction

carbon ratios affects the physical properties of crude oil. As the hydrogen to carbon
ratio decreases, the gravity and boiling point of the hydrocarbon compounds
increases.
Moreover, the higher the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the feedstock, the higher its
value is to a refinery because less hydrogen is required. The composition of crude oil,
on an elemental basis, falls within certain ranges regardless of its origin.

We shall be further discussing the types of the hydrocarbons that are obtained from
the refining of crude oil. These different hydrocarbons are then classified according to
their octane ratings. All types of crude oil give the following 4 major types of
hydrocarbons.

Paraffin

Olefins

Naphthenes

Aromatics

1.1.1

Paraffins:

These are the hydrocarbons that have single bond between all carbons present in the
chain. They have a general formula of CnH2n+2. The range of carbons in this type is
from a single carbon to hundreds of carbon atoms.

These paraffins are further of two types:

a) Normal (n) paraffins


b) Iso paraffins

Normal paraffins (n-paraffins or n-alkanes) are unbranched straight-Chain molecules.


Each member of these paraffins differs from the next higher and the next lower
member by a CH2 group called a methylene group. They have similar chemical and
physical properties, which change gradually as carbon atoms are added to the chain.
Iso paraffins (or iso alkanes) are branched-type hydrocarbons that exhibit Structural
isomerization.
3

Chapter 1

1.1.2

Introduction

Olefins:

These are the hydrocarbons that have either double or triple (at least one or more) or
both types of bondings between the carbon atoms. They have a general formula of
CnH2n.
Olefins, also known as alkenes, are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing carbon
carbon double bonds. Compounds containing carboncarbon triple bonds are known
as acetylenes, and are also known as biolefins or alkynes.

Olefins are not naturally present in crude oils but they are formed during the
conversion processes. They are more reactive than paraffins. The lightest alkenes are
ethylene (C2H4) and propylene (C3H6), which is important feedstock for the
petrochemical industry. The lightest alkyne is acetylene.

1.1.3

Naphthenes:

Hydrocarbons lying in this range have a cyclic or ring structure but with the limitation
that all the bonds among neighboring carbons are single, they have a general formula
of CnH2n.
The boiling point and densities of naphthenes are higher than those of alkanes having
the same number of carbon atoms. Naphthenes commonly present in crude oil are
rings with five or six carbon atoms. These rings usually have alkyl substituents
attached to them. Multi-ring naphthenes are Present in the heavier parts of the crude
4

Chapter 1

Introduction

oil. Examples of naphthenes are shown below

1.1.4

Aromatics:

These hydrocarbons have a cyclic structure along with alternative double bonds
between the carbons joined in the ring. Benzene is a six carbon containing compound
with alternative double and single bonds, benzene and its alternatives collectively
constitute this group of hydrocarbons.

Crude oils from various origins contain different types of aromatic compounds in
different concentrations. Light petroleum fractions contain mono-aromatics, which
have one benzene ring with one or more of the hydrogen atoms substituted by another
atom or alkyl groups. Examples of these compounds are toluene and xylene. Together
with benzene, such compounds are important petrochemical feedstock, and their
presence in gasoline increases the octane number.

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.2 AUTOMOBILE FUELS:


The wide range of the refinery products obtained are sorted to be used as the fuel for
different sectors. The cut of the refinery products used by the automobile sector is
heptane and octane. This selection is governed by the combustion properties and the
conditions provided by these engines to the fuel. One of the significant properties is
the octane number of the fuel.
1.3 OCTANE NUMBER:
An octane number is a measure of the knocking tendency of gasoline fuels in spark
ignition engines. The ability of a fuel to resist auto-ignition during compression and
prior to the spark ignition gives it a high octane number.

The octane number of a fuel is determined by measuring its knocking value


compared to the knocking of a mixture of n-heptane and isooctane (2, 2, 4-rimethyl
pentane). Pure n-heptane is assigned a value of zero octane while isooctane is
assigned 100 octane. Hence, an 80 vol% isooctane mixture has an octane number of
80. Two octane tests can be performed for gasoline.

The motor octane number (MON) indicates engine performance at highway


conditions with high speeds (900 rpm).

On the other hand, the research octane number (RON) is indicative of low-speed
city driving (600 rpm).

The posted octane number (PON) is the arithmetic average of MON and RON. One
of the standard tests is ASTM D2700.

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.4 PROCESSING OF HEAVIER AND LIGHTER HYDROCARBONS THAN C 7


AND C8:
The range commonly used in gasoline pool is the C7 and C8 hydrocarbons. However
some lighter ends and some heavier ends are converted into this range by processing
to accommodate the increasing demand of the automobile fuel. Some of the common
procedures are briefly discussed.

1.4.1

Alkylation:

The addition of an alkyl group to any compound is an alkylation reaction but in


petroleum rening terminology the term alkylation is used for the reaction of low
molecular weight olens with an isoparafns to form higher molecular weight
isoparafns. Although this reaction is simply the reverse of cracking, the belief that
parafn hydrocarbons are chemically inert delayed its discovery until about 1935.
The need for high-octane aviation fuels during World War II acted as a stimulus to the
development of the alkylation process for production of isoparafnic gasoline of high
octane number. The need for high-octane aviation fuels during World War II acted
as a stimulus to the development of the alkylation process for production of
isoparafnic gasoline of high octane number.

The reactions occurring in both processes are complex and the product has a rather
wide boiling range. By proper choice of operating conditions, most of the product can
be made to fall within the gasoline boiling range with motor octane numbers from 88
to 94 and research octane numbers from 94 to 99.
Alkylation processes using hydrouoric or sulfuric acids as catalysts, only iso
parafns with tertiary carbon atoms, such as isobutane or isopentane, react with the
olens. In practice only isobutane is used because isopentane has a sufciently high
octane number and low vapor pressure to allow it to be effectively blended directly
into nished gasoline.
The principal reactions which occur in alkylation are the combinations of olens with
isoparafns as follows:

Chapter 1

Introduction

The product streams leaving an alkylation unit are:

LPG grade propane liquid

Normal butane liquid

C5+ alkylate

Tar

1.4.2

Catalytic Reforming:

Catalytic reforming of heavy naphtha and isomerization of light naphtha constitute a


very important source of products having high octane numbers which are key
components in the production of gasoline, Environmental regulations limit on the
benzene content in gasoline. If benzene is present in the final gasoline it produces
carcinogenic material on combustion. Elimination of benzene forming hydrocarbons,
such as hexane will prevent the formation of benzene, and this can be achieved by
increasing the initial point of heavy naphtha. These light paraffinic hydrocarbons can
be used in an isomerization unit to produce high octane number isomers. Catalytic
reforming is the process of transforming C7C10 hydrocarbons with low octane
numbers to aromatics and iso-paraffins which have high octane numbers. It is a highly
endothermic process requiring large amounts the straight run naphtha from the crude
distillation unit is hydrotreated to remove sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen which can all
deactivate the reforming catalyst. The hydrotreated naphtha (HTN) is fractionated into
light naphtha (LN), which Is mainly C5C6, and heavy naphtha (HN) which is mainly
8

Chapter 1

Introduction

C7C10 hydrocarbons. It is important to remove C6 from the reformer feed because it


will form benzene which is considered carcinogenic up on combustion. Light naphtha
(LN) is isomerized in the isomerization unit.

Light naphtha can be cracked if introduced to the reformer. Hydrogen, produced in


the reformer can be recycled to the naphtha hydrotreater, and the rest is sent to other
units demanding hydrogen.

In catalytic reforming the structure of the straight run cuts are altered by using several
techniques to make them lie within the gasoline range.
Reforming Reactions

Paraffin Dehydrogenation

Naphthene Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexanes

Isomerization
Isomerization is a mildly exothermic reaction and leads to the increase of an octane
number.

Dehydrocyclization

Chapter 1

Introduction

Hydrocracking Reactions

1.5 WHAT IS ISOMERIZATION:


Isomerization is the process in which light straight paraffins of low RON are
transformed into branched chain using proper catalysts. The paraffins used are C4, C5
and C6. The number of the carbon atoms remains constant but the octane number
increases. The naphtha obtained from the fractionation column of crude oil is
hydrotreated and further fractionated into heavier and light naphtha. Heavier naphtha
is (90-1900C) is used as a feed to the reforming unit. The light naphtha obtained (max
800C) is used as a feed for the isomerization unit. The reforming unit cannot treat
lighter naphtha because the C6 component of the paraffins tends to form benzene in
the reforming unit; this is an undesirable event as benzene concentrations in the
gasoline pool must be maintained down to a level because of its carcinogenity.
1.5.1

Thermodynamics of reaction:

The isomerization reactions are slightly exothermic and the reactions are carried out at
equilibrium (reversible reaction of significant level) the reaction equilibrium is
unaffected by the pressure variation as the number of moles on both sides remain
same. However kinetic studies have shown that a temperature of 125-1300C is
optimum for the reaction to be carried out.

10

Chapter 1

Introduction

Figure 1.2

1.5.2

Isomerization Reactions:

Isomerization is a reversible and slightly exothermic reaction:

The conversion to iso-paraffin is not complete since the reaction is equilibrium


conversion limited. It does not depend on pressure, but it can be increased by
lowering the temperature. However operating at low temperatures will decrease the
reaction rate. For this reason a very active catalyst must be used.
1.5.3

Isomerization Catalysts:

There are two types of isomerization catalysts

The standard Pt/chlorinated alumina

The Pt/zeolite catalyst.

Standard Isomerization Catalyst (Pt/chlorinated alumina)


This bi-functional nature catalyst consists of highly chlorinated alumina (815w%
chlorine) responsible for the acidic function of the catalyst. Platinum is deposited
(0.30.5 wt%) on the alumina matrix. Platinum in the presence of hydrogen will
prevent coke deposition, thus ensuring high catalyst activity. The reaction is
performed at low temperature at about 1300C.
To improve the equilibrium yield and to lower chlorine elution. The standard
isomerization catalyst is sensitive to impurities such as water and sulphur traces which
11

Chapter 1

Introduction

will poison the catalyst and lower its activity. For this reason, the feed must be
hydrotreated before isomerization. Furthermore, carbon tetrachloride must be injected
in to the feed to activate the catalyst. The pressure of the hydrogen in the reactor will
result in the elution of chlorine from the catalyst as hydrogenchloride. For all these
reasons, the zeolite catalyst, which is resistant to impurities, was developed.
1.5.4

Zeolite Catalyst:

Zeolites are crystallized silico-aluminates that are used to give an acidic function to
the catalyst. Metallic particles of platinum are impregnated on the surface of zeolites
and act as hydrogen transfer centres. The zeolite catalyst can resist impurities and
does not require feed pretreatment, but it does have lower activity and thus the
reaction must be performed at a higher temperature of 250 0C. A comparison of the
operating conditions for the alumina and zeolite processes is shown

Figure 1.3 Comparison of operating Conditions of Catalyst

12

CHAPTER 2

ISOMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

CHAPTER # 2
INTRODUCTION
UOPS PENEX PROCESS:

2.1

The Penex process has served as the primary isomerization technology for upgrading
C5/C6 light straight-run naphtha feeds since UOP introduced it in 1958. This process
has a wide range of operating configurations for optimum design flexibility and
feedstock processing capabilities.
The Penex process is a fixed-bed procedure that uses high activity chloride-promoted
catalysts to isomerize C5/C6 paraffins to higher octane branched components. The
reaction is conducted in the presence of a minor amount of hydrogen. Even though the
chloride is converted to hydrogen chloride, carbon steel construction is used
successfully because of the dry environment. For typical C5/C6 feeds, equilibrium will
limit the product to 83 to 86 RON (Research Octane Number) on a single
hydrocarbon pass basis.
The operating conditions are such that promote isomerization and minimize
hydrocracking. Operating conditions are not severe, as reflected by moderate
operating pressure, low temperature, and low hydrogen partial pressure requirements.
Ideally, this isomerization catalyst would convert all the feed paraffins to the high
octane-number branched structures: normal pentane (nC5) to isopentane (iC5) and
normal hexane (nC6) to 2,2- and 2,3-dimethylbutane. The reaction is controlled by a
thermodynamic equilibrium that is more favorable at low temperature.
Equipments Used in Penex Process:

Methanator feed effluent exchanger

Methanator feed steam exchanger

Methanator

Methanator knockout drum

Make-up gas dryers (2 in number)

Liquid feed dryer (2 in number)

Regenerant super heater


13

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

Regenerant evaporator

Liquid feed surge drum

Charge pump (2 in number)

Chloride drum

Chloride injection pump (2 in number)

Combine feed exchanger (3 in number)

Reactors (2 in number)

Stabilizer column

Stabilizer re-boiler

Stabilizer overhead air cooler

Stabilizer overhead trim cooler

Stabilizer overhead separator

Stabilizer reflux pump (2 in number)

Net gas scrubber

Caustic circulation pump (2 in number)

Caustic tank

Water circulation pump (2 in number)

Water Tank

Water injection pump (2 in number)

Operation and Operating Conditions of some Penex Process Equipment:


2.1.1

Liquid Feed Driers Operation:

Hydro treated SR light naphtha at temperature 45 0C & pressure 4.5 kg/cm2 is passed
through driers to control moisture at 1.0 ppmw in the feed. Drying medium is the
molecular sieves. There are two drier, one remain in operation while the other is on
regeneration. Isomerate is used as regenerant. Dry liquid feed is collected in feed
surge drum. Molecular sieves are regenerated by isomerate & there replacement
depends on the efficiency or after period of four year.
2.1.2

Make Up Gas Driers Operation:

Make up gas is dry by passing into dryers. Molecular sieves used as drying agents.
Dry gas is control at moisture < 1.0 ppmv. Before drying of gas CO & CO2 is
14

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

removed from the makeup gas. It is accomplished by passing the gas through
Methanator. CO & CO2 are converted into methane in presence of Nickel oxide
catalyst. Nickel catalyst cannot be regenerated. It is replaced totally; its life is 4-5
years. Temperature & pressure of Methanator is maintained 220 C & 27 kg/cm2.
2.1.3

Reactor Operations:

Combine liquid feed & make up gas is heated in pre-heat exchangers & chloride is
injected before entering the reactors. The Reactor System is typically designed to
operate at a minimum pressure of 31.6 Kg/cm2 (g). Lead reactor inlet temperatures
range from 131C to 200C and lag reactor inlet temperatures range from 142C to
186C. H2/HCBN mole ratio is maintained as 0.20 at reactors inlet & 0.05 at reactors
outlet.
2.1.4

Stabilizer Operation:

Reactor effluents passed through stabilizer where lighter gases & propane is separated
from the isomerate. Stabilizer column is operated at temperature 145 C & pressure
18.0 kg/cm2.
2.1.5

Stabilizer Net Gas Scrubber Operation:

The purpose of net gas scrubbers is that to neutralize the net gas prior sending to fuel
gas header with caustic (strength is 10%wt). Operating parameters of net scrubbers is
that pressure is 6.5 kg/cm2 and temperature is 45 C.
The most common Penex process is Hydrocarbon Once-Through Penex process.
2.1.6

Hydrocarbon Once-Through Penex Process:

Figure 2.1
15

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

2.1.6.1 Process Description:


Hydrogen Once-Through Penex process flow scheme results in a substantial saving in
capital equipment and utility costs by eliminating product separator and recycle gas
compressor.

Light naphtha feed is charged to one of the two dryer vessels. These vessels are filled
with molecular sieves, which remove water and protect the catalyst. After mixing with
makeup hydrogen, the feed is heat-exchanged against reactor effluent. It then enters a
charge heater before entering the reactors.

Typically, two reactors in series are used to achieve high on-stream efficiency. The
catalyst can be replaced in one reactor while operation continues in the other. One
characteristic of the process is that catalyst deactivation begins at the inlet of the first
Reactor and proceeds slowly as a rather sharp front downward through the bed. The
adverse effect that such deactivation can have on unit on-stream efficiency is avoided
by installing two reactors in series. Each reactor contains 50% of the total required
catalyst. Piping and valving are arranged to permit isolation of the reactor containing
the spent catalyst while the second reactor remains in operation. After the spent
catalyst has been replaced, the relative processing positions of the two reactors are
reversed. During the short time when one reactor is off-line for catalyst replacement,
the second reactor is fully capable of maintaining continuous operation at design
throughput, yield, and conversion.

The reactor effluent flows to stabilizer after passing through the heat exchanger. The
stabilizer overhead vapors are caustic scrubbed for removal of the HCl formed from
organic chloride added to the reactor feed to maintain catalyst activity. After
scrubbing, the overhead gas then flows to fuel. The stabilized, isomerized liquid
product from the bottom of the column then passes to gasoline blending.

The Penex process (see below) uses the most active chlorided-alumina catalyst and
operates in the range 120-180C.

16

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

LHSV is set during the design phase of any isomerization project and reflects the
compromise between residence time and overall catalyst cost. At lower LHSVs, more
catalyst is loaded resulting in a longer residence time. As a result lower temperature
Operation is possible, resulting in a higher octane product.

System pressure is another variable and is considered in conjunction with the


hydrogen flow rate to the reactor. Chlorided-alumina is more active at higher
pressures. It requires only a slight excess over stoichiometric hydrogen, since the
catalyst does not produce coke. A Penex unit operates at about 30 to 32 bar with oncethrough hydrogen.

Figure 2.2 (Block flow diagram of one through process)


To achieve higher octane, UOP offers several schemes in which lower octane
components are separated and recycled back to the reactors. These recycle modes of
operation can lead to product octane as high as 93 RON.

2.1.7

Penex Process/DIH (De-isoHexanizer):

This flow scheme is same as Penex Process with an addition of deisohexanizer


column to recycle the methylpentanes, n-hexane, and some C6 cyclics. It is the lowest
cost option of the recycle flow schemes & provide high octane isomerate product,
especially on C6 rich feed.

17

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

Figure 2.3 (Block flow diagram of process with DIP)


2.1.8

Penex Process With Recycle And Fractionation (DIP/Penex Process/DIH):

Separation and recycle of unconverted normal C5 and C6 paraffins and low octane C6
isoparaffins back to the reactor, produce a higher octane product. The most common
flow scheme uses a deisohexanizer (DIH) column to recycle methylpentanes, nhexane, and some C6 cyclics. It is the lowest capital cost option of the recycle flow
schemes and provides a higher octane isomerate product, especially on C6 rich feeds.
In the Penex/DIH process the stabilized isomerate is charged to a DIH column
producing an overhead product containing all the C5 and dimethylbutanes. Normal
hexane and some of the methylpentanes are taken as a side-cut and recycled back to
the reactors. The small amount of bottoms (C7+ and some C6 cyclics) can be sent to
gasoline blending or to a reformer
.
The addition of a deisopentanizer (DIP) or a super DIH will achieve the highest
octane from a fractionation hydrocarbon recycle flow scheme. In this scheme, both
low octane C5 and normal and isoparaffin C6 are recycled to the Penex reactors.

Figure 2.4 (DIP-Penex-DIH)


18

Chapter 2

2.1.9

Isomerization Techniques

Penex/Molex Process:

Figure 2.5 (Penex/Molex Process flow scheme)

2.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION:


This flow scheme uses Molex technology for the economic separation and recycle of
n-paraffin from the reactor effluent.

The Molex process is an adsorptive separation method that utilizes molecular sieves
for the separation of n-paraffins from branched and cyclichydrocarbons. The
separation is effected in the liquid phase under isothermal conditions according to the
principles of the UOP Sorbex separations technology. Because the separation takes
place in the liquid phase, heating, cooling and power requirements are remarkably
low.

Sorbex is the name applied to a particular technique developed by UOP for separating
a component or group of components from a mixture in the liquid phase by selective
adsorption on a solid adsorbent.

Sorbex is a simulated moving bed adsorption process operating with all process
streams in the liquid phase and at constant temperature within the adsorbent bed. Feed
is introduced and components are adsorbed and separated from each other within the
bed. A separate liquid of different boiling point referred to as desorbent is used to
19

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

displace the feed components from the pores of the adsorbent. Two liquid streams
emerge from the bed an extract and a raffinate stream, both diluted with desorbent.
The desorbent is removed from both product streams by fractionation and is recycled
to the system.

The adsorbent is fixed while the liquid streams flow down through the bed. A shift in
the positions of liquid feed and withdrawal, in the direction of fluid flow through the
bed, simulates the movement of solid in the opposite direction. It is, of course,
impossible to move the liquid feed and withdrawal points continuously. However,
approximately the same effect can be produced by providing multiple Liquid access
lines to the bed, and periodically switching each net stream to the next adjacent line.
A liquid circulating pump is provided to pump liquid from the bottom outlet to the top
inlet of the adsorbent chamber. A fluid-directing device, known as a rotary valve, is
also provided.

Figure 2.6 (BFD of Molex Process)

2.2.1

Operating Conditions Of Molex Process:

Molex unit involves three processes.


a) Adsorption
b) Purification
c) Desorption

20

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

2.2.1.1 Adsorption Operation:

The adsorbent employed in Molex is a specially prepared molecular sieve with


selective pores. Molex feed enter the adsorbent chamber via rotary valve. Adsorbent
chamber is operated at pressure 15 kg/cm2.
2.2.1.2 Purification Operation:

Non-normal paraffins (iso-paraffins) are removed from the adsorption chamber &
purified in raffinate column. Operating temperature & pressure of raffinate column is
125 C & 13.0 kg/cm2.
2.2.1.3 Desorption:
Operating temperature & pressure of the extract column 130 C & 16.0 kg/cm2.
2.2.2 Penex-Plus Technology
The performance of the Penex process can be compromised when processing this
feedstock because benzene hydrogenation is a highly exothermic reaction. The heat
generated by the benzene hydrogenation reaction can cause the reactors to operate at
conditions that are less favorable for octane upgrading. For these applications, UOP
offers the Penex-Plus Technology.

It includes two reactor sections. The first section is designed to saturate the benzene to
cyclohexane. The second section is designed to isomerize the feed for an overall
octane increase. Each reactor is operated at conditions that favor the intended
reactions for maximum conversion.

21

Chapter 2

Isomerization Techniques

2.3 OCTANE COMPARISON FOR DIFFERENT PROCESSES:

Figure 2.7 (Octane Comparison for different Processes) {Feed RON = 60 to 70

22

CHAPTER 3

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Chapter 3

Process Description

CHAPTER # 3
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
3.1

SIMPLE PROCESS DESCRIPTION:

The isomerization of light paraffins is an important industrial process to obtain


branched alkanes which are used as octane boosters in gasoline. Thus, isoparaffins are
considered an alternative to the use of oxygenate and aromatic compounds, whose
maximum contents are subjected to strict regulations in order to protect the
environment.
The UOPs Penex process is specifically designed for the catalytic isomerization of
pentane, hexanes, and mixtures thereof. The reactions take place in the presence of
hydrogen, over a fixed bed of catalyst, and at operating conditions that promote
isomerization and minimize hydrocracking. Operating conditions are not severe,
reaction takes place at moderate operating pressure, low temperature, and low
hydrogen partial pressure is required.

Light naphtha feed is charged to one of the two dryer vessels. These vessels are filled
with molecular sieves, which remove water and protect the catalyst. After mixing with
makeup hydrogen, the feed is heat-exchanged against reactor effluent. It then enters a
charge heater before entering the reactors. Two reactors normally operate in series.
The reactor effluent is cooled before entering the product stabilizer. Only a slight
excess of hydrogen above chemical consumption is used. The makeup hydrogen,
which can be of any reasonable purity, is typically provided by a catalytic reformer.
The stabilizer overhead vapors are caustic scrubbed for removal of the HCl formed
from organic chloride added to the reactor feed to maintain catalyst activity. After
scrubbing, the overhead gas then flows to fuel. The stabilized, isomerized liquid
product from the bottom of the column then passes to gasoline blending.

Ideally, this isomerization catalyst would convert all the feed paraffins to the high
octane- number branched structures: normal pentane (nC5) to isopentane (iC5) and

23

Chapter 3

Process Description

normal hexane (nC6) to 2,2- and 2,3-dimethylbutane. The reaction is controlled by a


thermodynamic equilibrium that is more favorable at low temperature.

With C5 paraffins, interconversion of normal pentane and isopentane occurs. The C 6paraffin isomerization is somewhat more complex. Because the formation of 2- and 3methylpentane and 2,3-dimethylbutane is limited by equilibrium, the net reaction
involves mainly the conversion of normal hexane to 2,2-dimethylbutane. All the feed
benzene is hydrogenated to cyclohexane, and a thermodynamic equilibrium is
established between methylcyclopentane and cyclohexane. The octane rating shows
an appreciation of some 14 numbers.
3.2

PROCESS CHEMISTRY:

Isomerization mechanism and Kinetics Paraffin isomerization is most effectively


catalyzed by a dual-function catalyst containing a noble metal and an acid function.
The reaction is believed to proceed through an olefin intermediate that is formed by
the dehydrogenation of the paraffin on the metal site. We use butane for simplicity
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH2 CH CH2 + H2
These dual-functional hydro-isomerization catalysts which operate at very low
temperatures have stronger acid site. In this case it is possible that the necessary
carbonium ion is former by direct hydride ion abstraction from the paraffin by the
acid function of the catalyst:
CH3 CH2 CH CH2 + [H+][A-] CH3 CH2 CH+ CH3 + A
Then carbonium ion undergoes skeletal isomerization. However this reaction proceeds
with difficulty because it requires the formation of a primary carbonium ion at some
point in the reaction. Nevertheless, the strong acidity of the isomerization catalyst
provides enough driving force for the reaction to proceed at high rates.
+
+
CH3 CH2 CH CH3 CH3 C CH3

CH3
The isoparaffinic carbonium ion is then converted to an olefin through loss of a proton
to the catalyst site.
24

Chapter 3

Process Description

+
CH3 C CH3 + A- CH3 C CH2 + [H+][A-]

CH3
CH3
In the last step, the isoolefin intermediate is hydrogenated rapidly back to the
analogous isoparaffin:

CH3 C CH2 + H2 CH3 CH CH3

CH3
CH3
Equilibrium limits the maximum conversion possible at any given set of conditions.
This maximum is a strong function of the temperature at which the conversion takes
place. A more favorable equilibrium exists at lower temperatures.

Figure 3.1 shows the equilibrium plot for the pentane system. The maximum
isopentane content increases from 64 mol % at 260C to 82 mol % at 120C (248F).
Neopentane and cyclopentane have been ignored because they seem to occur only in
small quantities and are not formed under isomerization conditions.

The hexane equilibrium curve shown in Figure 3.2 is somewhat more complex than
that shown in Fig. 3.3. The methylpentanes have been combined because they have
nearly the same octane rating. The methylpentane content in the C6-paraffin fraction
remains nearly constant over the entire temperature range. Similarly, the fraction of
2,3-dimethylbutane is almost constant at about 9 mol % of the C6 paraffins.
Theoretically, as the temperature is reduced, 2,2-dimethylbutane can be formed at the
expense of normal hexane. This reaction is highly desirable because nC6 has a RON
of 30. The RON of 2,2- dimethylbutane is 93.

25

Chapter 3

Process Description

Figure 3.1 C5 paraffin equilibrium plot

Figure 3.2 Equilibrium composition of hexane isomers in relation to temperature.

3.3

REACTIONS:

The C5/C6 paraffin isomerization reactions which occur in Penex unit are shown
below:

26

Chapter 3

3.3.1

Process Description

Hexane Reactions
Normal Hexane

2-Methyl Pentane
CH3

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH3CHCH2CH2CH3

24.8 RON

73.4 RON

3-Methyl Pentane
CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH3CH2CHCH2CH3
74.5 RON

2-2 Dimethyl Butane


CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH3CCH2CH3
CH3
91.8 RON

2-3 Dimethyl Butane


CH3
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

CH3CHCHCH3
CH3
104.3RON

27

Chapter 3

3.3.2

Process Description

Pentane Reaction

Normal Pentane

Iso-Pentane
CH3

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CHCH2CH3
61.8 RON

3.3.2

93.0 RON

Other Reactions

Apart from the paraffins isomerization reactions, there are several other important
reactions including:

Naphthene Ring Opening

Naphthene Isomerization

Benzene Saturation

Hydrocracking

3.3.2.2 Ring Openinig:


The three naphthenes which are typically present in feed are cyclopentane (CP),
methyl cyclopentane (MCP) and cyclohexane (OH). The naphthene rings will
hydrogenate to form paraffins. This ring opening reaction increases with increasing
reactor temperature. At typical isomerization reactor conditions the conversion of
naphthenes rings to paraffins will be on the order of 20-40 percent.

28

Chapter 3

Process Description

3.3.2.3 Naphthene Isomerization:


The naphthenes Methyl Cyclopentane (MCP) and Cyclo Hexane (CH) exists in
equilibrium. Naphthene isomerization will shift towards MCP production as
temperature is increased.

3.3.2.4 Benzene Saturation:


The catalyst will saturate benzene to cyclohexane. This reaction proceeds very
quickly and is achieved at very low temperatures. Saturation a benzene is not
equilibrium limited at the isomerization reactor conditions ant conversion should be
100%. The amount of heat generated by the saturation of benzene limits the amount
of benzene which can be tolerated in the feed. The isomerization section feed can
contain up to 5% benzene. The platinum function on the isomerization catalyst is
responsible for benzene saturation.

3.3.2.5 Hydrocracking:
Hydrocracking occurs in the reactors to a degree which depends on the feed quality
and severity of operation. Large molecules such a C7s tend to hydrocrack more easily
than smaller molecules. C5 and C6 paraffin will also hydrocrack to a certain extent. As
C5/C6 paraffin isomerization approaches equilibrium, the extent of hydrocracking
increases. If isomerization is pushed too hard, hydrocracking will reduce the liquid
yield and increase heat production. Methane, ethane, propane and butane are produced
as a result of hydrocracking.

29

Chapter 3

Process Description

Normal Heptane

Propane

i Butane
CH3

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH3 + CH3CHCH3

3.3.3

Chloride promoter:

The addition of the chloride promoter (perchloroethylene C2Cl4) to the process stream
is intended to maintain the acid function of the catalyst with chloride atoms (Cl). At a
reactor temperature of 105C (220F) or higher, the organic chloride will decompose
to HCl in the presence of the catalyst.
Perchloroethylene + Hydrogen Hydrogen Chloride + Ethane
C2Cl4 + 5H2 4HCl + C2H6
3.3.4

Caustic Scrubbing Reactions:

The hydrogen chloride formed in the isomerization reactors is neutralized in the


Stabilizer Net Gas Scrubber, by means of an acid-base reaction between sodium
hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). The result of this neutralization
reaction is sodium chloride (NaCl) and water. The strength of the caustic should be
monitored by determining the total alkalinity of the solution. Report the concentration
of strong base as wt% NaOH.
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

3.4

PROCESS VARIABLES:

In the normal operation of a Penex Unit, having once set the operating pressure fresh
feed rate and makeup hydrogen flows, it is usually only necessary to adjust the reactor
inlet temperatures.

Once the catalyst has been loaded into the unit, the manner in which the catalyst it
placed in seance and the treatment it receives when in service will to a large extent
influence its effectiveness for making quality product as well as the length of service
30

Chapter 3

Process Description

it will give. In making any changes to the operation, the welfare of the catalyst must
be given prime consideration for it can be regarded as the heart of the operation or
which the quality of the results obtained will depend.
3.4.1

Reactor Temperature:

In general, reactor temperature is the main process control. A definite upper limit
exists for the amount of iso-paraffins which can exist in the reactor product at any
given outlet temperature, as shown in Figures 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5. This is the equilibrium
imposed by thermodynamics, and can be reached only after an infinity length of time,
i.e. with an infinitely large reactor. In practice, therefore, the product will contain less
than this equilibrium concentration of iso-paraffins. As reactor temperature is raised
to increase the rate of isomerization, the equilibrium composition will be approached
more closely. At excessively high temperatures, the concentration of iso-paraffins in
the product will actually decrease because of the downward shift in equilibrium curve,
even though the high temperature gives a high reaction rate.

The use of temperatures higher than necessary to achieve a reasonably close approach
to equilibrium accomplishes nothing other than to increase the amount of
hydrocracking. Extremely high temperatures may lead to an increased rate of carbon
laydown on the catalyst; however, the carbon forming propensity of the catalyst is
inherently so low that excessive hydrocracking would normally be encountered before
carbon formation problems would develop. It is recommended, however, that UOP be
consulted before temperatures above about 204C (400F) are employed.

A typical C5/C6 Penex Unit has two series reactors with provision for independent
temperature control. The first reactor system effects the bulk of the isomerization so
long as most of the catalyst therein is still active. Any benzene in the feed it
hydrogenated in the first reactor, even when the catalyst therein has lost its activity
with respect to paraffin isomerization. Some conversion, ring opening, of cyclohexane
and methyl Cyclopentane to hexanes also occurs, as does some hydrocracking of C7 to
C3 and C4. These three reactions (benzene hydrogenation, naphthene ring opening to
hexane, and C7 hydrocracking) are exothermic and, for a typical feed stock contribute
more to the temperature rise in the first reactor that does paraffin isomerization, which
is also exothermic.
31

Chapter 3

Process Description

Normally, the first reactor system will be operated at such a temperature as to


maximize the concentration of isopentane and 2,2 dimethyl butane in its effluent. The
concentrations attainable and the required outlet temperature will be influenced by the
amount of active catalyst present and by the amount of C6 cyclic and C7 components
present in the feed, higher the temperatures being required with high concentrations of
these components in the feed. By this procedure, the required operating temperature
on the second reactor system is reduced and it is possible to operate under conditions
where the equilibrium is more favorable.

Figure 3.3 Iso-pentane equilibrium curve

32

Chapter 3

Process Description

Figure 3.4 2-2Dimethyl butane Equilibrium curve

Figure 3.5 Equilibrium Curve

33

Chapter 3

3.4.2

Process Description

Liquid Hourly Space Velocity:

This term, commonly shortened to LHSV, is defined as the volumetric hourly flow of
reactor charge divided by the volume of catalyst contained in the reactors in
consistent units. The design LHSV for C5/C6 Penex operation is normally between 1
and 2. Increasing the LHSV beyond this will lead to lower product isomer ratios.
In order to avoid excessive reactor severity, the Penex reactor LHSV should always
be maintained above 0.5 hr-1 overall or 1.0 LHSV minimum per reactor.
3.4.3

Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon Mole Ratio:

This ratio is defined as the number of moles hydrogen at the reactor outlet per mole of
reactor charge passing over the catalyst, and is specified at 0.05 moles H2/mole
HCBN. The primary purpose of maintaining the ratio at or above the design is to
avoid carbon deposition on the catalyst and maintain enough H2 for the reactions to
proceed. If necessary, the reactor charge rate is to be reduced to maintain the design
hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio. The H2/HCBN ratio is determined by measuring the
total mole of hydrogen in the stabilizer overhead gas and dividing by the total moles
of fresh feed feedstock.
3.4.4

Pressure:

C5/C6 Penex Units are normally designed to operate at 31.6 kg/cm2 gauge (450 psig)
at the reactor outlet. Methylcyclopentane and cyclohexane appear to adsorb on the
catalyst and reduce the rate of isomerization reactions. Higher pressure helps to offset
this effect of the C6 cyclic compounds. Lowering the unit pressure or operating at a
slightly lower level would not affect the catalyst life but the extent of isomerization
would be influenced.
3.4.5

Catalyst Promoter:

To sustain catalyst activity, the addition of chloride is necessary. At no time should


the plant be operated for longer than six hours without the injection of chloride.
Whenever there is a catalyst chloride deficiency, the product isomer ratios will
decrease (although not necessarily instantaneously), other things being equal.
Restarting the injection of chloride will tend to return the activity of the catalyst to its
previous level, but it is possible that full activity will not be restored if a decline in
34

Chapter 3

Process Description

activity as a result no chloride injection has been observed. Isomerization grade


perchloroethylene (C2Cl4) is UOP's recommended source of chloride.

3.5

PROCESS EQUIPMENTS:

3.5.1

Sulfur Guard Bed:

The purpose of the sulfur guard bed is to protect the Penex catalyst from sulfur in the
liquid feed. The hydrotreater will remove most of the sulfur in the Penex feed. The
guard bed reduces the sulfur to a safe level for operation and serves as insurance
against upsets in the NHT which could result in higher that formal level of sulfur in
the feed.
The guard bed is loaded with an adsorbent, a nickel containing extrudate designed to
chemisorb sulfur from the liquid feed. The feedstock is heated to the required
temperature for sulfur removal, usually 121 C (250F), and passed down flow over
the adsorbent.

Once sulfur breakthrough occurs, normally after one year or so of operation, the guard
bed is taken off line and reloaded with fresh adsorbent. The Penex Unit need not be
shut down during the short period of time required to reload the guard bed so long as
the NHT is performing properly.
3.5.2

Liquid Feed Driers:

The purpose of the liquid feed driers is to ensure that the hydrocarbon stream from the
treating section is dry before entering the Penex Unit.

The driers are operated in series except when they are in the regeneration mode when
at that time only one will be in service.

The hydrotreated C5/C6 stream is introduced to the liquid feed drier at the bottom and
passes up flow through the molecular sieve desiccant and exits at the top. The flow is
then routed through one of the drier crossovers to the other liquid feed drier. The flow
through the liquid feed drier is also in the up flow pattern. The dried hydrocarbon is
then routed to feed surge drum. Over a period of time, the drier in the lead position
35

Chapter 3

Process Description

will become spent as indicated by the moisture analyzer located between the two
driers. At this time, it will become necessary to regenerate this drier. The driers
should be regenerated on a schedule frequent enough to avoid moisture breakthrough.
The spent drier is taken out of service by closing the appropriate block valves. The
second series drier is now alone in service as the only drier drying the feed. The
moisture analyzer tap is switched to monitor this in service drier. After the drier
regeneration has been completed, it is now ready for service. A switch is made such
that the regenerated drier takes the tail position with the in-service drier remaining as
the lead drier. Over a period of time the lead drier will become spent and is now set
up far regeneration with the tail drier now being the only one in service. This will be
the manner in which these driers will be lined up for process flow.

3.5.3

Make-up Gas Driers:

Make-up gas must be dried in order to protect the catalyst. The two gas driers operate
in the same manner as the liquid feed driers. The driers operate up flow, in series. The
dried hydrogen is then sent to the reactor circuit on flow control. The hydrogen is also
used for pressure control in the feed surge drum and, for startup, in the stabilizer.
3.5.4

Feed Surge Drum:

The purpose of this drum is to provide liquid feed surge capacity for the Penex Unit.
Dried feed from the liquid feed driers is routed to this drum. The feed surge drum is
blanketed with dry hydrogen gas originating from the outlet of the make-up gas driers
with the feed surge drum pressure being controlled by a PRC.
3.5.5

Reactor Exchanger Circuit:

The dried liquid feed from the feed surge drum is pumped by either of the t reactor
charge pumps through the reactor exchanger circuit on flow control. The reactor
exchanger circuit consists of the cold combined feed exchanger, the hot combined
feed exchanger and the reactor charge heater.

Prior to the entry of the liquid hydrocarbon into the cold combined feed exchanger, it
combines with the makeup hydrogen stream. After combining, the mix hydrocarbon-

36

Chapter 3

Process Description

hydrogen stream passes through the exchanger circuit in the order previously
mentioned.
The cold combined feed exchanger is equipped with a bypass which can be used to
regulate the amount of combined feed preheat. The bypass is regulated with a board
mounted control valve to maintain reactor charge heater control. The combined feed
is further preheated by exchange with a portion of the lead reactor effluent in the hot
combined feed exchanger.

A small quantity of catalyst promoter (perchloroethylene) is added upstream of the


reactor charge heater. This promoter is pumped into the process by either of two
injection pumps. The catalyst promoter is stored in a nitrogen blanketed storage drum.

The combined feed is finally brought up to the desired temperature in the reactor
charge heater by a temperature controller which resets the exchangers heat medium
flow. The charge heater is equipped with an automatic shutdown which is activated by
low feed or low makeup gas flow.

After exiting the reactor charge heater, the heated combined stream then flows into
the first reactor.
3.5.6

Regenerant Vaporizer:

The regenerant vaporizer uses low pressure steam to heat the regenerant stream before
it reaches the electric superheater. The vaporizer is an upright heat exchanger which
uses bayonet type tubes that have been strength welded and fully rolled. This heater is
equipped with a level indicator and a high level alarm, and is designed to operate with
the top portion of the tubes uncovered. Low pressure steam on the inside of the
bayonet tubes transfers heat to the regenerant on the outside of the bayonet tubes. This
arrangement allows hot stream in the tip of the bayonet tube to transfer heat to the
vaporized regenerant stream, giving it several degrees of superheat. This prevents the
regenerant from condensing which could damage the electric bundles in the super
heater when operating.

37

Chapter 3

3.5.7

Process Description

Regenerant Superheater:

The regenerant superheater, raises the temperature of the vaporized regenerate to a


temperature of 315C (600F). The regenerant stream is heated by Inconel electric
elements, which are capable of reaching temperatures of over 600C (1112F).The
regenerant entering the superheater must be in the vapor phase to avoid damaging the
electric bundles when power is applied to the superheater.

3.5.8

Isomerization Reactors:

The reactors are the heart of the process. The operation of them is such that, reactor
will be placed in series with the other reactor. At various times throughout the unit's
history it will be possible to have either reactor in the lead or tail position. A single
reactor bypass allows operation of one reactor only during startup or partial catalyst
replacement. Thermocouples are inserted into the catalyst bed of each reactor to
monitor the activity of the catalyst in conjunction with product ratios.

After exiting the reactor charge heater, the heated combined stream then flows to the
first reactor. Upon exiting the first reactor, the stream then passes to the hot combined
feed exchanger where the first reactor's heat of reaction is partially removed. The
degree of temperature removal can be achieved by adjusting the amount of exchanger
by-passing with a temperature controller. This temperature controller fixes the lag
reactor's inlet temperature.

The partially cooled stream is then routed to the second reactor where the find process
reactions are completed.
The reactors are equipped with hydrogen purge lines which are located at the inlet of
each reactor. The hydrogen purge is used to remove hydrocarbon from a reactor
which is to be unloaded or to pressurize a reactor. A hydrogen quench line is located
at the lead reactor inlet header to aid in cooling the catalyst during a temperature
excursion as well as removing hydrocarbon. The quench is controlled by an HIC with
flow indication.

38

Chapter 3

Process Description

In case of a high reactor temperature emergency, the reactors are equipped with
depressuring lines to the flare system. The reactors are depressured from the outlet of
the lag reactor. The depressuring line is equipped with two motorized o pneumatically
operated valves which can be operated from the control room once the reactors have
been isolated from the charge heater and stabilizer.

After exiting the second reactor, the stream is then routed to the tube side of the cold
combined feed exchanger. The cold combined feed exchanger tube side effluent is
then routed to the stabilizer on pressure control.
3.5.9

Stabilizer:

The purpose of this column is to separate any dissolved hydrogen, HCI and cracked
gases (C1, C2, and C3's) from the isomerate.
The feed to this column is routed hot directly from the cold CFX before entering the
stabilizer.

The column is reboiled by either steam or hot oil. The reboiler heat input is controlled
by an FRC on the heating medium. The amount of heat input is adjusted to maintain
sufficient reflux to adequately strip the HCl and light ends from the stabilizer bottoms
material. The typical design external reflux to feed ratio is approximately 0.5 on a
volume basis and is recommended as a starting point.

The stabilizer column overhead vapor, consisting of the light hydrocarbon


components of the column's feed, is routed to an air or water cooled condenser and
then to the stabilizer receiver. To maintain pressure control on the column, gas is
vented on pressure control to the stabilizer gas scrubber. Liquid is pumped from the
receiver on level control with the stabilizer reflux pump. All liquid from the stabilizer
overhead receiver is refluxed to the column on tray No. 1.
Bottoms product is routed to storage on level control after first being cooled in the
stabilizer bottoms cooler. If the stabilizer bottoms is sent to a deisohexanizer it is not
cooled, but is charged hot to the column. Part of the stabilizer bottoms is used for
regenerating the driers.
39

Chapter 3

Process Description

3.5.10 Stabilizer Net Gas Scrubber:


The function of the Stabilizer Net Gas Scrubber is to neutralize the hydrogen chloride
present in the Stabilizer off Gas prior to its entry into the fuel gas system o the flare
header. The HCI is formed in the reactor section and then vented off through the
Stabilizer Overhead Receiver, to the Stabilizer Net Gas Scrubber.
In this vessel, the off gas from the Stabilizer Receiver is contacted through a liquid
level and later with a counter current flow of caustic solution (10 wt. % NaOH) which
reacts with HCl to form sodium chloride and water. The entry point for the off gas is
located at the bottom of the scrubber, and consists of a monel distributor with small
holes to allow even gas distribution. The bottom distributor and the inlet flange are
both made of monel to prevent corrosion, resulting from contact with high
concentrations of HCl in an aqueous environment. The vessel is constructed of killed
carbon steel.

The top portion of the vessel is filled with 25mm (1) Carbon Raschig Rings, which
provide a good contact area for the interaction of the liquid caustic and the acidic
overhead gas. The packing in the scrubbing section is held in place by a support
orating on the bottom and a hold down grating on the top.

The incoming gas is contacted with the caustic in the bottom portion of the scrubber
or "reservoir" section. This is where most of the HCl is removed before it reaches the
top portion or the scrubbing section of the column. A high level of caustic solution is
usually kept in the reservoir section of the column to ensure that there is always an
ample supply of caustic for circulation. A pump is used to circulate the caustic to the
two infection points on the scrubber column. One injection point if located at the top
of the packed section (a spray nozzle or slot type distributor) ant the other is located
just below the packed section (a spray nozzle or ring type distributor). The purpose of
the lower spray distributor is to direct the caustic flow to the conical walls of the
scrubber to keep the walls wetted with caustic. The design flow of caustic should be
continuously maintained to each distributor to ensure goof flow distribution.

40

Chapter 3

Process Description

A water wash section may be included above the circulating caustic to remove
entrained caustic from the net gas. Circulating water monitored by an FI is passed
over a bed of 25mm (1) Carbon Raschig Rings at design rate. Makeup water is
added to overflow a chimney trap tray which replaces water lost to saturating the dry
gas in the caustic inventory section. The water is typically changed out if the caustic
strength reaches 2 wt. % NaOH in the circulating water or if caustic entrainment is
observed.
3.5.11 Pumps:
Centrifugal pumps are used for several applications in the Penex Unit. Common
applications for the centrifugal pumps are for reactor charge pumps, reflux pumps for
the fractionation columns, and caustic recirculation pumps. Proportioning pumps are
used for chloride injection into the feed stream and make-up water to the net gas
scrubber.

Pumps used in hydrocarbon service use tandem seals with API 52 seal plans. In this
application the seal oil circulation is established by way of a siphon. The seal oil is
contained in a reservoir where it can be pumped to and from the pump seal. The oil is
continuously pumped between the two seals. In the event of a seal failure,
hydrocarbon will leak into the oil system and cause a pressure increase in the
reservoir. The seal oil reservoir is equipped with a pressure alarm and pressure gauge
to alert the operator to a seal failure. The reservoir is usually vented to flare through
an orifice plate.

41

CHAPTER 4

CATALYST SELECTION

Chapter 4

Catalyst Selection

CHAPTER # 4
CATALYST SELECTION
4.1

CATALYST:

Substance that changes the rate of reaction but does not take part in reaction.

4.2

TYPES OF CATALYSTS:

The schemes of proposing processes are analogous generally. The differences are
defines by performances of usable catalysts due to their type. Main parameter which
is the octane number of produced isomerate depends on process temperature. Thats
why we will dwell on the issue of thermodynamic of isomerization reaction. First of
all hydrocarbons isomerization reaction is balanced reaction, and equilibrium yield of
isoparaffins increases with temperature reducing, but it can be reached only after an
infinite residence time of the feed in reaction zone or an equivalent very small value
for LHSV. On the other hand an increase in temperature always corresponds to an
increase in reaction velocity. So that at low temperature the actual yield will be far
below the equilibrium yield, because of low reaction velocity. On the contrary, at
higher temperature, the equilibrium yield will be more easily reached, due to a high
reaction rate. Consequently, at higher temperature the yield of isoparaffins is limited
by the thermodynamic equilibrium, and at lower temperature it is limited by low
reaction rate (kinetic limitation) (Figure 4.1)

Figure 4.1 Dependence of n-paraffins conversion on reaction temperature


43

Chapter 4

Catalyst Selection

Paraffin-isomerization catalysts fall mainly into two principal categories: those based
on Friedel-Crafts catalysts as classically typified by aluminum chloride and hydrogen
chloride and dual-functional hydro isomerization catalysts.
4.2.1

First Generation Catalysts:

The Friedel-Crafts catalysts represented a first-generation system. Although they


permitted operation at low temperature, and thus a more favorable isomerization
equilibrium, they lost favor because these systems were uneconomical and difficult to
operate. High catalyst consumption and a relatively short life resulted in high
maintenance costs and a low on-stream efficiency.
4.2.2

Second Generation Catalysts:

These problems of first generation systems were solved with the development of
second-generation dual-functional hydro isomerization catalysts. These catalysts
included a metallic hydrogenation component in the catalyst and operated in a
hydrogen environment. However, they had the drawback of requiring a higher
operating temperature than the Friedel-Crafts systems.
4.2.3

Third Generation Catalysts:

The desire to operate at lower temperatures, at which the thermodynamic equilibrium


is more favorable, dictated the development of third-generation catalysts. The
advantage of these low-temperature [below 200C (392F)] catalysts contributed to
the relative nonuse of the high-temperature versions. Typically, these noble-metal,
fixed-bed catalysts contain a component to provide high catalytic activity. They
operate in a hydrogen environment and employ a promoter. Because hydrocracking of
light gases is slight, liquid yields are high.

An improved version of these third-generation catalysts is used in the Penex process.


Paraffin isomerization is most effectively catalyzed by a dual-function catalyst
containing a noble metal and an acid function. The reaction is believed to proceed
through an olefin intermediate that is formed by the dehydrogenation of the paraffin
on the metal site.

44

Chapter 4

4.2.4

Catalyst Selection

Aluminum Chloride:

The isomerization catalysts employed during World War II were all of the Friedel
Crafts type. Those which contained aluminum chloride only were either a
hydrocarbon/aluminum chloride complex (the so-called sludge process) or they were
manufactured in-situ by deposition onto a support such as alumina or bauxite. They
were intended to operate at very low temperatures [49-129C (120-265F)] and to
approach the very favorable equilibrium composition characteristic of these
temperatures.

The catalyst tended to consume itself by reaction with the feedstock and/or product.
When temperature was raised a little in an effort to compensate for loss of catalyst
and to speed the reaction to effect more isomerization, light fragments were formed
by cracking and these, when vented caused an excessive loss of the HCI promoter.

Corrosion of downstream equipment was also commonplace, due to the solubility of


aluminum chloride in hydrocarbon, to its relatively high volatility and to the difficulty
of removing it from the product by caustic washing. Aluminum chloride deposition in
and plugging of reboiler tubes was not uncommon.
4.3

DUAL-FUNCTIONAL HYDROISOMERIZATION CATALYSTS:

4.3.1

Hydro-isomerization catalysts [above 199c (390f)]:

The operational problems which had characterized the Friedel-Crafts type


isomerization plants, the advent of catalytic reforming which not only made hydrogen
generally available in refineries but also demonstrated the practicality of using noble
metal containing catalysts on a large scale, and the octane numbed race which postwar
high compression engines initiated all combined in the 1950's to spawn a spate of
hydro-isomerization processes. These catalysts generally contained a noble metal and
some halide, operated at temperatures between about

299C (560F) and

temperatures approaching those characteristic of catalytic reforming, employed


recycle hydrogen to prevent catalyst carbonization and utilized either no promoter or
traces at most. In general, they did not require an especially dry feedstock but did
benefit from a low sulfur content feedstock. Most achieved a close approach to the
equilibrium characteristic of their particular operating temperature.
45

Chapter 4

Catalyst Selection

Because of their high operating temperatures and their necessarily low conversions to
iso-paraffins, these high temperature catalysts were quickly replaced with the advent
of the third generation low temperature catalysts.
4.3.2

Hydro-isomerization catalysts [below 199c (390f)]:

Low temperature is considered rather arbitrarily for catalyst classification purposes as


anything below 199C (390F) operating temperature. Typically these are fixed bed
catalysts containing a supported noble metal and a component to provide acidity in
the catalytic sense. They operate in a hydrogen atmosphere and may employ a catalyst
promoter whose concentration in the reactor may range from parts per million to
substantially higher levels. They generally all require a dry, low sulfur feedstock;
however, they may differ importantly in their tolerance of certain types and molecular
weights of hydrocarbons. Hydrocracking to light gases is generally slight, so liquid
product yields are high. The type of catalyst used in the Penex unit is of this type.

The acid function is the support itself and some examples include acid zeolites,
chlorided alumina and amorphous silica alumina. Noble metals have a positive effect
on the activity and stability of the catalyst. However they have a low resistance to
poisoning by sulfur and nitrogen compounds present in the processed cuts.

In order to prepare a suitable catalyst for hydroconversion of alkanes, good balance


between the metal and acid functions must be obtained. Rapid molecular transfer
between the metal and acid sites is necessary for selective conversion of alkanes into
desirable products.
4.4

ALUMINA CATALYST:

Alumina or aluminum oxide (AlR2ROR3R) is a chemical compound with melting


point of about 2000C and sp. gr. of about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic
liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two
crystalline forms. Alpha alumina is composed of colorless hexagonal crystals with the
properties given above; gamma alumina is composed of minute colorless cubic

46

Chapter 4

Catalyst Selection

crystals with sp. gr. of about 3.6 that are transformed to the alpha form at high
temperatures. Figure (4.2) shows the shape of AlR2ROR3R [Ulla, 2003].
The most common form of crystalline alumina, -aluminum oxide, is known as
corundum. If a trace of the element is present it appears red, it is known as ruby, but
all other colorations fall under the designation sapphire. The primitive cell contains
two formula units of aluminum oxide. The oxygen ions nearly form a hexagonal
close-packed structure with aluminum ions filling two-thirds of the octahedral
interstices.

Typical alumina characteristics include:

Good strength and stiffness


Good hardness and wear resistance
Good corrosion resistance

Good thermal stability

Excellent dielectric properties (from DC to GHz frequencies)


Low dielectric constant
Low loss tangent

Figure 4.2 Aluminum Oxide

47

Chapter 4

4.5

Catalyst Selection

CHLORINATED-ALUMINA BASED CATALYSTS:

These are the most active and supply the highest isomerize yield and isomerize
octane.

Figure 4.3 Characteristics of chlorinated alumina catalysts


4.6

ZEOLITES:

Zeolites are micro porous crystalline solids with well-defined structures. Generally
they contain silicon, aluminum and oxygen in their framework and cations, water
and/or other molecules within their pores. Zeolites occur naturally as minerals or
synthetic, Figure (4.3) shows the shape of different types of zeolites [Matthew, 2008].
Because of their unique porous properties, zeolites are used in a variety of
applications with a global market of several million tons per annum. In the western
world, major uses are in petrochemical cracking, ion-exchange (water softening and
purification), and in the separation and removal of gases and solvents. Other
applications are in agriculture, animal husbandry and construction. They are often
also referred to as molecular sieves [Danny, 2002].
Zeolites have the ability to act as catalysts for chemical reactions which take place
within the internal cavities. An important class of reactions is that catalyzed by
hydrogen-exchanged zeolites, whose framework-bound protons give rise to very high
acidity. This is exploited in many organic reactions, including crude oil cracking,
isomerization and fuel synthesis [Jirong, 1990].

4.5.1

Zeolite Characteristics:

Well-defined crystalline structure.


High internal surface areas (>600 m 2 /g).
P

48

Chapter 4

Catalyst Selection

Uniform pores with one or more discrete sizes.


Good thermal stability.
Highly acidic sites when ion is exchanged with protons.
Ability to sorb and concentrate hydrocarbons.

Figure 4.4 Structure and dimension of different types of zeolite

Figure 4.5
49

CHAPTER 5

MATERIAL BALANCE

Chapter 5

Material Balance

CHAPTER # 5
MATERIAL BALANCE

5.1

Material Balance:

Material balances are important first step when designing a new process or analyzing
an existing one. They are almost always prerequisite to all other calculations in the
solution of process engineering problems.
Material balances are nothing more than the application of the law of conservation of
mass, which states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus, you cannot,
for example, specify an input to a reactor of one ton of naphtha and an output of two
tons of gasoline or gases or anything else. One ton of total material input will only
give one ton of total output,
i.e. total mass of input = total mass of output.
5.1.1

Conservation Law:

Total flow
rate of (S)
into the
system

Generation
rate of (S)
within
system

Total flow
rate of (S)
out of the
system

Accumulation
rate of (S)
within
system

Amount of
(S)
exchanged
with the
surrounding

The quantity S can be any one of the following quantities:

5.1.2

Mass
Energy
Momentum
Component Mass (Mole)
Total Mass Balance:

Since mass is always conserved, the balance equation for the total mass (m) of a given
system is:
Rate of mass in - Rate of mass out = rate of mass accumulation
5.1.3

Component Balance:

The mass balance for a component A is generally written in terms of number of moles
of A. Thus the component balance is:
Flow of
Flow of
Rate of
Rate of
moles (A) + mole of (A) + Generation of = Accumulation of
in
out
moles of (A)
moles of (A)
50

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Basis:
Naphtha Feed Stream
600 Barrel of Naphtha per stream day to be Isomerized
Mass flow rate

25000 kg/hr

Molecular Weight

83.085

Density

660 kg/m3

Hydrogen Feed Stream


Mass flow rate

732 kg/hr

Molecular Weight

7.907

Density

1.215 kg/m3

Equilibrium Data:
Equilibrium Conversions are taken from the following curves

Figure 5.1 Thermodynamic equilibrium for the isomerization of heptane

51

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Figure 5.2 Thermodynamic equilibrium for the isomerization of Butane, pentane and
hexane

52

Chapter 5

5.2

Material Balance

Mass Balance on Mixer

Stream 3
Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

n C4

58.00

0.0267

667.50

11.51

nC5

72.00

0.1673

4182.50

58.09

nC6

86.00

0.1589

3971.25

46.18

n C7

100.00

0.0929

2321.75

23.22

iC5

72.00

0.1077

2693.25

37.41

2 MP

86.00

0.0750

1875.25

21.81

3 MP

86.00

0.0482

1204.25

14.00

2,2 DMB

86.00

0.0056

138.75

1.61

2,3DMB

86.00

0.0121

301.75

3.51

2 MH

100.00

0.0373

931.65

9.32

Components

3 MH

100.00

0.0373

931.40

9.31

2,2 DMP

100.00

0.0027

68.40

0.68

2,3 DMP

100.00

0.0112

279.15

2.79

2,4 DMP

100.00

0.0057

141.65

1.42

3,3 DMP

100.00

0.0018

43.93

0.44

3 EP

100.00

0.0028

69.90

0.70

C6 H 6

78.00

0.0253

632.50

8.11

C7 H 8

92.00

0.0288

719.25

7.82

CP

70.00

0.0118

295.50

4.22

MCP

84.00

0.0400

998.75

11.89

CH

84.00

0.0387

967.25

11.51

ECP

98.00

0.0028

70.00

MCH

98.00

0.0598

1494.50

Total

1.00

25000.08

53

0.71
15.25
301.51

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 2

Components

Molecular
Mass

Volume
fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass

Mass
Fraction

H2

0.78

0.780

1.56

0.1980

144.91

72.4569

C1

16

0.099

0.099

1.58

0.2010

147.14

9.1964

C2

30

0.064

0.064

1.92

0.2437

178.36

5.9452

C3

44

0.038

0.038

1.67

0.2122

155.32

3.5299

n-C4

58

0.008

0.008

0.46

0.0589

43.10

0.7431

i-C4

58

0.008

0.008

0.46

0.0589

43.10

0.7431

n-C5

72

0.002

0.002

0.14

0.0183

13.38

0.1858

i-C5

72

0.001

0.001

0.07

0.0091

6.69

0.0929

1.00

1.00

7.88

1.00

732.00

92.8934

Total

Stream 4
Components

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0056

0.1837

144.91

72.4569

C1

16.00

0.0057

0.0233

147.14

9.1964

C2

30.00

0.0069

0.0151

178.36

5.9452

C3

44.00

0.0060

0.0090

155.32

3.5299

n C4

58.00

0.0276

0.0311

710.60

12.2518

nC5

72.00

0.1631

0.1478

4195.88

58.2761

nC6

86.00

0.1543

0.1171

3971.25

46.1773

n C7

100.00

0.0902

0.0589

2321.75

23.2175

i-C4

58.00

0.0017

0.0019

43.10

0.7431

72.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
78.00
92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00

0.1049
0.0729
0.0468
0.0054
0.0117
0.0362
0.0362
0.0027
0.0108
0.0055
0.0017
0.0027
0.0246
0.0280
0.0115
0.0388
0.0376
0.0027
0.0581
1.00

0.0951
0.0553
0.0355
0.0041
0.0089
0.0236
0.0236
0.0017
0.0071
0.0036
0.0011
0.0018

2699.94
1875.25
1204.25
138.75
301.75
931.65
931.40
68.40
279.15
141.65
43.93
69.90
632.50
719.25
295.50
998.75
967.25
70.00
1494.50
25732.08

37.4991

iC5
2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6 H 6
C7 H 8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH

Total

0.0206
0.0198
0.0107
0.0301
0.0292
0.0018
0.0387
1.00

54

21.8052
14.0029
1.6134
3.5087
9.3165
9.3140
0.6840
2.7915
1.4165
0.4393
0.6990
8.1090
7.8179
4.2214
11.8899
11.5149
0.7143
15.2500
394.40

Mass Flow Molar Flow


Rate
Rate

Chapter 5

5.3

Material Balance

Material Balance around Reactors:

55

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 7
Components

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0056

0.1837

144.91

72.4569

C1

16.00

0.0057

0.0233

147.14

9.1964

C2

30.00

0.0069

0.0151

178.36

5.9452

C3

44.00

0.0060

0.0090

155.32

3.5299

n C4

58.00

0.0276

0.0311

710.60

12.2518

nC5

72.00

0.1631

0.1478

4195.88

58.2761

nC6

86.00

0.1543

0.1171

3971.25

46.1773

n C7

100.00

0.0902

0.0589

2321.75

23.2175

i-C4

58.00

0.0017

0.0019

43.10

0.7431

iC5

72.00

0.1049

2699.94

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C 6 H6

86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

0.0729
0.0468
0.0054
0.0117
0.0362
0.0362
0.0027
0.0108
0.0055
0.0017
0.0027

0.0951
0.0553
0.0355
0.0041
0.0089
0.0236
0.0236
0.0017
0.0071
0.0036
0.0011
0.0018

37.4991
21.8052
14.0029
1.6134
3.5087
9.3165
9.3140
0.6840
2.7915
1.4165
0.4393
0.6990

78.00

0.0246

632.50

C7 H 8

92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
18.00
94.00

0.0280
0.0115
0.0388
0.0376
0.0027
0.0581
0.0000
3.000E-06
1.00

0.0206
0.0198
0.0107
0.0301
0.0292
0.0018
0.0387
0.0000
0.0000

CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
H2 O
C2Cl4
Total

1.00

56

1875.25
1204.25
138.75
301.75
931.65
931.40
68.40
279.15
141.65
43.93
69.90
719.25
295.50
998.75
967.25
70.00
1494.50
0.00
7.50E-05
25732.08

8.1090
7.8179
4.2214
11.8899
11.5149
0.7143
15.2500
0.0000
7.98E-07
394.40

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 8

Components

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0013

0.0482

32.6411

16.3205

C1

16.00

0.0057

0.0272

147.4071

9.2129

C2

30.00

0.0070

0.0177

179.3759

5.9792

C3

44.00

0.0062

0.0107

159.0078

3.6138

n C4

58.00

0.0137

0.0180

353.4739

6.0944

nC5

72.00

0.0394

0.0416

1013.8848

14.0817

nC6

86.00

0.0362

0.0320

932.4828

10.8428

n C7

100.00

0.0072

0.0055

185.7398

1.8574

i-C4

58.00

0.0154

0.0202

396.9166

6.8434

iC5

72.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
78.00
92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
100.00
18.00
94.00
36.50

0.2321
0.1192
0.0730
0.0455
0.0287
0.0600
0.0497
0.0162
0.0307
0.0136
0.0116
0.0045
0.0000
0.0000
0.0080
0.0252
0.0663
0.0027
0.0733
0.0072
0.0000
1.00E-06
2.30E-05
1.00

0.2451
0.1054
0.0646
0.0403
0.0254
0.0457
0.0378
0.0123
0.0233
0.0104
0.0088
0.0034

5971.2138
3066.6213
1879.3603
1171.2736
738.5866
1545.0732
1279.6610
416.6620
789.9341
350.6071
299.3171
116.3349
0.6325
0.7192
206.8498
649.1867
1707.1082
69.9999
1886.2642
185.7398
0.0000
0.0257
0.5918
25732.69

82.9335
35.6584
21.8530
13.6195
8.5882
15.4507
12.7966
4.1666
7.8993
3.5061
2.9932
1.1633

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C 6H6
C7 H 8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
2,2,3 TMB
H2 O
C2Cl4
HCL
Total

57

0.0000
0.0000
0.0087
0.0228
0.0601
0.0021
0.0569
0.0055
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000

0.0081
0.0078
2.9550
7.7284
20.3227
0.7143
19.2476
1.8574
0.0000
0.0003
0.0162
338.32

Chapter 5

Material Balance

58

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 9
Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0013

0.0482

32.6411

16.3205

C1

16.00

0.0057

0.0272

147.4071

9.2129

C2

30.00

0.0070

0.0177

179.3759

5.9792

C3

44.00

0.0062

0.0107

159.0078

3.6138

n C4

58.00

0.0137

0.0180

353.4739

6.0944

nC5

72.00

0.0394

0.0416

1013.8848

14.0817

nC6

86.00

0.0362

0.0320

932.4828

10.8428

n C7

100.00

0.0072

0.0055

185.7398

1.8574

i-C4

58.00

0.0154

0.0202

396.9166

6.8434

iC5

72.00

0.2321

0.2451

5971.2138

82.9335

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C 6 H6

86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00

0.1192
0.0730
0.0455
0.0287
0.0600
0.0497
0.0162
0.0307
0.0136
0.0116
0.0045

0.1054
0.0646
0.0403
0.0254
0.0457
0.0378
0.0123
0.0233
0.0104
0.0088
0.0034

3066.6213
1879.3603
1171.2736
738.5866
1545.0732
1279.6610
416.6620
789.9341
350.6071
299.3171
116.3349

35.6584
21.8530
13.6195
8.5882
15.4507
12.7966
4.1666
7.8993
3.5061
2.9932
1.1633

78.00

0.0000

0.0000

0.6325

0.0081

C 7 H8

92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
100.00
18.00
94.00
36.50

0.0000
0.0080
0.0252
0.0663
0.0027
0.0733
0.0072
0.0000
1.00E-06
2.30E-05

0.0000
0.0087
0.0228
0.0601
0.0021
0.0569
0.0055
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.7192
206.8498
649.1867
1707.1082
69.9999
1886.2642
185.7398
0.0000
2.57E-02
5.92E-01

0.0078
2.9550
7.7284
20.3227
0.7143
19.2476
1.8574
0.0000
2.74E-04
1.62E-02

1.00

1.0000

25732.69

338.32

Components

CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
2,2,3 TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
Total

59

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 10
Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0013

0.0479

32.3827

16.1914

C1

16.00

0.0057

0.0272

147.1509

9.1969

C2

30.00

0.0069

0.0176

178.3647

5.9455

C3

44.00

0.0060

0.0104

155.3259

3.5301

n C4

58.00

0.0041

0.0054

106.5960

1.8379

nC5

72.00

0.0079

0.0083

202.8658

2.8176

nC6

86.00

0.0029

0.0026

74.6026

0.8675

n C7

100.00

0.0004

0.0003

9.2875

0.0929

i-C4

58.00

0.0251

0.0330

647.1486

11.1577

iC5

72.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
78.00

0.2637

6784.4979

92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
100.00
18.00
94.00
36.50

0.0000
0.0080
0.0252
0.0663
0.0027
0.0733
0.0077
1.00E-06
2.30E-05

0.2787
0.1144
0.0691
0.0531
0.0286
0.0460
0.0388
0.0132
0.0247
0.0108
0.0094
0.0037
0.0000
0.0000
0.0087
0.0229
0.0601
0.0021
0.0569
0.0059
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0026
206.8608
649.2215
1707.1996
70.0037
1886.3652
198.7522
0.0000
0.0257
0.5918

94.2291
38.6965
23.3723
17.9576
9.6730
15.5630
13.1316
4.4640
8.3641
3.6549
3.1791
1.2563
0.0000
0.0000
2.9552
7.7288
20.3238
0.7143
19.2486
1.9875
0.0000
0.0003
0.0162

1.00

1.0000

25732.69

338.14

Components

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6 H6
C7 H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
2,2,3 TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
Total

0.1293
0.0781
0.0600
0.0323
0.0605
0.0510
0.0173
0.0325
0.0142
0.0124
0.0049
0.0000

0.0000

3327.8947
2010.0155
1544.3494
831.8794
1556.3009
1313.1645
446.4043
836.4138
365.4858
317.9081
125.6286
0.0019

Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon Ratio at the outlet of R-102


Should be 0.05
H2 : HC Ratio
0.05

60

Chapter 5

5.4

Material Balance

Material Balance around Stabilizer T 101:

61

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 11
Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0013

0.0479

32.3835

C1

16.1917

16.00

0.0057

0.0272

147.1544

9.1971

C2

30.00

0.0069

0.0176

178.3689

5.9456

C3

44.00

0.0060

0.0104

155.3296

3.5302

n C4

58.00

0.0041

0.0054

106.5985

1.8379

nC5

72.00

0.0079

0.0083

202.8706

2.8176

nC6

86.00

0.0029

0.0026

74.6044

0.8675

n C7

100.00

0.0004

0.0003

9.2877

0.0929

i-C4

58.00

0.0251

0.0330

647.1641

11.1580

iC5

72.00

0.2637

6784.6607

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6

86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
78.00

0.1293
0.0781
0.0600
0.0323
0.0605
0.0510
0.0173
0.0325
0.0142
0.0124
0.0049
0.0000

0.2787
0.1144
0.0691
0.0531
0.0286
0.0460
0.0388
0.0132
0.0247
0.0108
0.0094
0.0037

94.2314
38.6974
23.3728
17.9580
9.6732
15.5634
13.1320
4.4641
8.3643
3.6549
3.1792
1.2563

C7 H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
2,2,3 TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL

92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
100.00
18.00
94.00
36.50

0.0000
0.0080
0.0252
0.0663
0.0027
0.0733
0.0077
0.0000
1.000E-06
2.300E-05
1.00

Components

Total

62

0.0000
0.0000
0.0087
0.0229
0.0601
0.0021
0.0569
0.0059
0.0000
8.096E-07
4.795E-05
1.0000

3327.9746
2010.0637
1544.3865
831.8994
1556.3382
1313.1960
446.4150
836.4339
365.4946
317.9158
125.6316
0.0019
0.0026
206.8658
649.2371
1707.2405
70.0053
1886.4105
198.7570
0.0000
2.573E-02
5.919E-01
25733.31

0.0000
0.0000
2.9552
7.7290
20.3243
0.7143
19.2491
1.9876
0.0000
2.738E-04
1.622E-02
338.15

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 13

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0245

0.3332

32.6412

16.3206

C1

16.00

0.1105

0.1881

147.4076

9.2130

C2

30.00

0.1344

0.1221

179.3766

5.9792

C3

44.00

0.1191

0.0738

159.0084

3.6138

n C4

58.00

0.0779

0.0366

103.9217

1.7918

i-C4
iC5

58.00
72.00

0.4828
0.0508

644.3509

C2Cl4
HCL

94.00
36.50

1.000E-06
2.300E-05
1.00

0.2268
0.0192
8.970E-07
5.313E-05
1.00

2.440E-02
5.611E-01
1335.12

11.1095
0.9420
2.595E-04
1.537E-02
48.99

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

n C4
nC5

58.00
72.00

0.0001
0.0083

0.0001

0.0366

0.0097

2.1210
202.7881

nC6

86.00

0.0031

0.0030

74.6027

0.8675

n C7

100.00

0.0004

0.0003

9.2875

0.0929

iC5

72.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
86.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
78.00
92.00
70.00
84.00
84.00
98.00
98.00
100.00
18.00

0.2752
0.1364
0.0824
0.0633
0.0341
0.0638
0.0538
0.0183
0.0343
0.0150
0.0130
0.0051
0.0000
0.0000
0.0085
0.0266
0.0700
0.0029
0.0773
0.0081
0.000E+00
1.00

0.3223
0.1337
0.0808
0.0621
0.0334
0.0538
0.0454
0.0154
0.0289
0.0126
0.0110
0.0043
0.0000
0.0000
0.0102
0.0267
0.0702
0.0025
0.0665
0.0069
0.0000
1.00

6714.8678
3327.8996
2010.0184
1544.3517
831.8807
1556.3032
1313.1664
446.4049
836.4150
365.4864
317.9086
125.6288
0.0019
0.0026
206.8611
649.2224
1707.2021
70.0038
1886.3680
198.7525
0.0000
24397.55

93.2621
38.6965
23.3723
17.9576
9.6730
15.5630
13.1317
4.4640
8.3642
3.6549
3.1791
1.2563
0.0000
0.0000
2.9552
7.7288
20.3238
0.7143
19.2487
1.9875
0.0000
289.35

Components

Total

67.8235

Stream 14
Components

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C 7 H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
2,2,3 TMB
H2O
Total

63

2.8165

Chapter 5

5.5

Material Balance

MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND SCRUBBER:


Material Balance Around Scrubber
T-102

/ hr
48.75
kmole
/hr

Stream 16

0.59
0.02

Stream 13

kg / hr
kmole/hr

1334.53
48.75

kg / hr
kmole/hr

64

Chapter 5

Material Balance

Stream 13
Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0245

0.3332

32.6412

16.3206

C1

16.00

0.1105

0.1881

147.4076

9.2130

C2

30.00

0.1344

0.1221

179.3766

5.9792

C3

44.00

0.1191

0.0738

159.0084

3.6138

n C4

58.00

0.0779

0.0366

103.9217

1.7918

i-C4

58.00

0.4828

0.2268

644.3509

11.1095

iC5
C2Cl4
HCL

72.00
94.00
36.50

0.0508
1.000E-06
2.300E-05
1.00

0.0192
8.970E-07
5.313E-05

67.8235
2.440E-02
5.611E-01
1335.12

0.9420
2.595E-04
1.537E-02

Molecular
Mass

Mass
Fraction

Mole
Fraction

Mass Flow
Rate

Molar Flow
Rate

H2

2.00

0.0245

0.3332

32.6412

16.3206

C1

16.00

0.1105

0.1881

147.4076

9.2130

C2

30.00

0.1344

0.1221

179.3766

5.9792

C3

44.00

0.1191

0.0738

159.0084

3.6138

n C4

58.00

0.0779

0.0366

103.9217

1.7918

i-C4

58.00

0.4828

0.2268

644.3509

11.1095

iC5
C2Cl4
HCL
NaCl

72.00
94.00
36.50
40.00

0.0508
0.0000
0.0000
2.400E-05
1.00

0.0192
0.0000
0.0000
5.403E-05
1.00

67.8235
0.0000
0.0000
5.855E-01
1335.12

0.9420
0.0000
0.0000
1.563E-02
48.99

Components

Total

1.00

48.99

Stream 15
Components

Total

65

CHAPTER 6

ENERGY BALANCE

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

CHAPTER # 6
ENERGY BALANCE

The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of energy conservation. Although


energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can be converted from one form to another
(for example, internal energy stored in molecular bonds can be converted into kinetic
energy; potential energy can be converted to kinetic or to internal energy, etc.).
Energy can also be transferred from one point to another, or from one body to a
second body. Energy transfer can occur by flow of heat, by transport of mass
(transport of mass is otherwise known as convection), or by performance of work.
The general energy balance for a process can be expressed in words as:
Accumulation of Energy in System =
Input of Energy into System Output of Energy from System
6.1

ENERGY BALANCE AROUND REACTOR R-101:

66

Chapter 6

6.1.1

Energy Balance

Molar Composition

Components

STREAM IN
Mol%

STREAM OUT
Mol%

H2

18.3713

4.8240

C1

2.3317

2.7232

C2

1.5074

1.7673

C3

0.8950

1.0682

n C4

3.1064

1.8014

nC5

14.7758

4.1623

nC6

11.7082

3.2049

n C7

5.8868

0.5490

i-C4

0.1884

2.0228

iC5

9.5079

24.5136

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

5.5287

10.5400

3.5504

6.4593

0.4091

4.0257

0.8896

2.5385

2.3622

4.5669

2.3616

3.7824

0.1734

1.2316

0.7078

2.3349

0.3592

1.0363

0.1114

0.8847

0.1772

0.3439

C6H6

2.0560

0.0024

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4

1.9822

0.0023

1.0703

0.8734

3.0147

2.2844

2.9196

6.0070

0.1811

0.2111

3.8666

5.6892

0.0000

0.5490

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.00E+00

4.79E-03

HCL

67

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.1. 2 Heat of Formation

Hf Reactants

Components

HfProducts
Heat of formation at 25 C

ni

Hf

niHf

ni

Hf

niHf

kmol/hr

kJ/kmole

kJ/hr

kmol/hr

kJ/kmole

kJ/hr

H2

72.49

0.00

16.32

0.00

C1

9.20

-74900

-689130.06

9.21

-74900

-690056.81

C2

5.95

-84738

-504013.73

5.98

-84738

-506670.71

C3

3.53

-103890

-366894.77

3.61

-103890

-375443.21

n C4

12.26

-126190

-1546760.31

6.09

-126190

-769057.96

nC5

58.30

-146490

-8540779.57

14.08

-146490

-2062855.48

nC6

46.20

-167290

-7728550.98

10.84

-167290

-1813915.64

n C7

23.23

-187890

-4364338.62

1.86

-187890

-348990.26

i-C4

0.74

-134590

-100066.10

6.84

-134590

-921061.70

iC5

37.52

-154590

-5799653.70

82.93

-154590

-12820832.96

2 MP

21.82

-174390

-3804360.11

35.66

-174390

-6218533.77

3 MP

14.01

-171690

-2405262.73

21.85

-171690

-3751986.83

2,2 DMB

1.61

-185690

-299724.59

13.62

-185690

-2529025.09

2,3DMB

3.51

-177890

-624452.89

8.59

-177890

-1527774.43

2 MH

9.32

-195090

-1818390.34

15.45

-195090

-3014315.96

3 MH

9.32

-192390

-1792743.05

12.80

-192390

-2461966.49

2,2 DMP

0.68

-206290

-141167.13

4.17

-206290

-859541.38

2,3 DMP

2.79

-199390

-556852.69

7.90

-199390

-1575066.62

2,4 DMP

1.42

-202090

-286391.89

3.51

-202090

-708549.55

3,3 DMP

0.44

-201690

-88633.00

2.99

-201690

-603699.30

3 EP

0.70

-189790

-132724.11

1.16

-189790

-220794.33

C6H6

8.11

82977

673167.24

0.01

82977

672.86

C7H8

7.82

50029

391303.01

0.01

50029

391.13

CP

4.22

-77288

-326415.54

2.96

-77288

-228388.25

MCP

11.90

-106790

-1270303.26

7.73

-106790

-825326.23

CH

11.52

-123190

-1419169.36

20.32

-123190

-2503582.59

ECP

0.71

-127190

-90891.70

0.71

-127190

-90850.88

MCH

15.26

-154890

-2363156.82

19.25

-154890

-2981292.20

223TMB

0.00

-204890

0.00

1.86

-204890

-380566.37

H2O

0.00

-241814

-0.19

0.00

-241814

0.00

C2Cl4

0.00

-100488

0.00

0.00

-100488

-27.51

HCL
NaOH

0.00

-100488

0.02

-100488

-1629.40

0.00

0.00

0.00

TOTAL

394.58

-45996357

338.34

-50790738

68

Chapter 6

6.1.3

Energy Balance

For reactants
Cp of Gas at 25 C to 170 C
Components

H2
C1
C2
C3
n C4
nC5
nC6
n C7
i-C4
iC5
2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

kmole/hr

Mol%

kJ/kmole

kJ/kmole

72.4
9
9.2
0
5.9
5
3.5
3
12.2
6
58.3
0
46.2
0
23.2
3
0.7
4
37.5
2
21.8

18.37

4214.10

774.1861

2.3
3
1.5
1
0.9
0
3.1
1
14.78

5746.43

133.9922

9020.95

135.9811

12889.61

115.3638

16918.74

525.5668

20860.70

3082.3384

11.71

24834.86

2907.7137

5.8
9
0.1
9
9.5
1
5.5

28805.94

1695.7378

16967.58

31.9710

20771.74

1974.9472

25105.30

1387.9933

2
14.0
11.6

3
3.5
5
0.4

24821.51

881.2673

24901.95

101.8659

1
3.5
1
9.3

1
0.8
9
2.3

24640.13

219.2063

29441.95

695.4734

2
9.3
2
0.6

6
2.3
6
0.1

28781.12

679.6809

29355.81

50.9110

8
2.7
9
1.4

7
0.7
1
0.3

-4163.13

-29.4658

28781.12

103.3678

2
0.4
4
0.7

6
0.1
1
0.1

28781.12

32.0539

28781.12

51.0089

0
8.1
1
7.8

8
2.0
6
1.9

15030.04

309.0205

18801.43

372.6870

2
4.2
2
11.9

8
1.0
7
3.0

15761.36

168.6997

20285.01

611.5245

0
11.5
20.7

1
2.9
2
0.1

19945.76

582.3328

24921.30

45.1340

1
15.2
60.0

8
3.8
7
0.0

24238.46

937.2080

0
0.0
0
0.0

28927.16
0.0
0
0.0

0.0000

0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
0.0
0
394.58

0
0.0
0
0.0
010
0

69

00
0

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
18577.77

Chapter 6

6.1.4

Energy Balance

For products
Cp of gas at 25C to 175C
ni

xi

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

kmole/hr

Mol%

kJ/kmole

kJ/kmole

H2

16.32

4.82

4360.15

210.336

C1

9.21

2.72

5965.68

162.456

C2

5.98

1.77

9379.74

165.772

C3

Components

3.61

1.07

13407.51

143.216

n C4

6.09

1.80

17592.94

316.917

nC5

14.08

4.16

21695.55

903.033

nC6

10.84

3.20

25828.32

827.781

n C7

1.86

0.55

29957.92

164.473

i-C4

6.84

2.02

17647.22

356.964

iC5

82.93
35.66
21.85
13.62
8.59
15.45
12.80
4.17
7.90
3.51
2.99
1.16

24.51
10.54
6.46
4.03
2.54
4.57
3.78
1.23
2.33
1.04
0.88
0.34

21607.06
26111.09
25814.45
25905.34
25632.22
30627.01
29932.92
30545.77
-4377.30
29932.92
29932.92
29932.92

5296.669
2752.097
1667.445
1042.861
650.678
1398.720
1132.194
376.194
-102.206
310.204
264.824
102.929

0.01
0.01
2.96
7.73
20.32
0.71
19.25
1.86
0.00
0.00
0.02

0.00
0.00
0.87
2.28
6.01
0.21
5.69
0.55
0.00
0.00
0.00

15649.22
19568.49
16429.78
21129.78
20790.13
25959.49
25243.14
30093.11
0.00
0.00
0

0.375
0.452
143.505
482.683
1248.866
54.808
1436.140
165.215
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.00
338.34

0.00
100

0.000
21675.600

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

70

Chapter 6

6.1.5

Energy Balance

Heat of reaction

Hrxn

Hprd

Hrea

Hprd

niHf

nT CpGdT

Hprd

-50790738

Hprd

-43457097 kJ/hr

now,

now,
niHf

Hrea

Hrea

-45996357

Hrea

-38665890

kJ/hr

Hrxn

Hprd

Hrea

Hrxn

-43457097

-38665890

Hrxn

-4791208

kJ/hr

Hrxn

-5.E+06

kJ/hr

nT CpGdT

7330467.333

SO,

6.1.6

For cooling coils


Components
Water

ni
kmole/hr
2900.00

xi

CpLdT

Mol%
100.00

kJ/kmole K
1510.00

Total

nCpLdT
kJ/hr
4379000
4379000

Heat Gained By Cooling Water


4.379E+06 kJ/hr

71

= Heat generated by Reactions


=

-4.791E+06 kJ/hr

Chapter 6

6.2

Energy Balance

ENERGY BALANCE AROUND REACTOR R-102:

72

Chapter 6

6.2.1

Energy Balance

Molar Composition

Components

STREAM IN
Mol%

STREAM OUT
Mol%

H2

4.8240

4.7884

C1

2.7232

2.7199

C2

1.7673

1.7583

C3

1.0682

1.0440

n C4

1.8014

0.5435

nC5

4.1623

0.8333

nC6

3.2049

0.2565

n C7

0.5490

0.0275

i-C4

2.0228

3.2998

iC5

24.5136

27.8671

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

10.5400

11.4440

6.4593

6.9121

4.0257

5.3107

2.5385

2.8607

4.5669

4.6026

3.7824

3.8835

1.2316

1.3202

2.3349

2.4736

1.0363

1.0809

0.8847

0.9402

0.3439

0.3715

C6H6

0.0024

0.0000

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

0.0023

0.0000

0.8734

0.8740

2.2844

2.2857

6.0070

6.0105

0.2111

0.2113

5.6892

5.6925

0.5490

0.5878

0.0000

0.0000

0.0001

0.0001

0.0048

0.0048

0.0000

0.0000

73

Chapter 6

6.2.2

Energy Balance

Heat of Reaction

Hf Reactants

Components

HfProducts
o

ni
kmole/hr

Hf

Heat of formation at 25 C
niHf

ni

Hf

niHf

kJ/kmole

kJ/hr

kmole/hr

kJ/kmole

kJ/hr

H2

16.32

0.00

16.20

0.00

C1

9.21

-74900

-690056.81

9.20

-74900

-689222.26

C2

5.98

-84738

-506670.71

5.95

-84738

-504081.16

C3

3.61

-103890

-375443.21

3.53

-103890

-366943.86

n C4

6.09

-126190

-769057.96

1.84

-126190

-232045.09

nC5

14.08

-146490

-2062855.48

2.82

-146490

-412970.40

nC6

10.84

-167290

-1813915.64

0.87

-167290

-145197.88

n C7

1.86

-187890

-348990.26

0.09

-187890

-17459.69

i-C4

6.84

-134590

-921061.70

11.16

-134590

-1502531.13

iC5

82.93
35.66
21.85
13.62
8.59
15.45
12.80
4.17
7.90
3.51
2.99
1.16

-154590
-174390
-171690
-185690
-177890
-195090
-192390
-206290
-199390
-202090
-201690
-189790

-12820832.96
-6218533.77
-3751986.83
-2529025.09
-1527774.43
-3014315.96
-2461966.49
-859541.38
-1575066.62
-708549.55
-603699.30
-220794.33

94.28
38.72
23.38
17.97
9.68
15.57
13.14
4.47
8.37
3.66
3.18
1.26

-154590
-174390
-171690
-185690
-177890
-195090
-192390
-206290
-199390
-202090
-201690
-189790

-14574755.94
-6751921.51
-4014954.53
-3336340.09
-1721663.04
-3037828.49
-2527762.64
-921385.12
-1668626.89
-739009.55
-641535.51
-238559.35

0.01

82977

672.86

2.04

50029
-77288
-106790
-123190
-127190
-154890
-204890
-241814
-100488
0

391.13
-228388.25
-825326.23
-2503582.59
-90850.88
-2981292.20
-380566.37
0.00
-27.51
0

0.00
0.00
2.96
7.73
20.33
0.71
19.26
1.99
0.00
0.00
0.02

82977

0.01
2.96
7.73
20.32
0.71
19.25
1.86
0.00
0.000273748
0.016214908

50029
-77288
-106790
-123190
-127190
-154890
-204890
-241814
-100488
0

1.40
-228521.45
-825807.58
-2505042.75
-90903.86
-2983030.96
-407443.50
0.00
-27.52
0.00

0
338.34

0
-50789109

0.00
338.34

0.00
-51085568

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
NaOOOH
TOTAL

74

Chapter 6

6.2.3

Energy Balance

For Reactants
Cp of Gas 25oC to 120oC
ni

xi

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

kmolw/hr

Mol%

kJ/kmole

kJ/kmole

H2

16.32

4.82

2755.90

132.95

C1

9.21

2.72

3631.20

98.88

C2

5.98

1.77

5602.91

99.02

C3

3.61

1.07

7969.39

85.13

n C4

6.09

1.80

10499.69

189.14

nC5

14.08

4.16

12918.82

537.72

nC6

10.84

3.20

15382.42

493.00

n C7

1.86

0.55

17844.04

97.97

i-C4

6.84

2.02

10504.74

212.49

iC5

82.93
35.66
21.85
13.62
8.59
15.45
12.80
4.17
7.90
3.51
2.99
1.16

24.51
10.54
6.46
4.03
2.54
4.57
3.78
1.23
2.33
1.04
0.88
0.34

12837.25
15538.33
15374.77
15375.37
15219.10
18178.23
17822.99
18070.27
-2304.75
17822.99
17822.99
17822.99

3146.87
1637.73
993.11
618.96
386.34
830.19
674.14
222.55
-53.81
184.70
157.68
61.29

0.01
0.01
2.96
7.73
20.32
0.71
19.25
1.86
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
338.34

0.00
0.00
0.87
2.28
6.01
0.21
5.69
0.55
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100

9189.32
11547.23
9515.48
12346.59
12055.61
15166.19
14782.92
17857.25
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
369150.25

0.22
0.27
83.11
282.04
724.18
32.02
841.03
98.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12866.97

Components

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

75

Chapter 6

6.2.4

Energy Balance

For Products
Cp of Gas 25oC to 123oC
ni

xi

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

kmolw/hr

Mol%

kJ/kmole

kJ/kmole

H2

16.20

4.79

2843.26

136.147

C1

9.20

2.72

3754.15

102.108

C2

5.95

1.76

5799.15

101.967

C3

3.53

1.04

8251.04

86.140

n C4

1.84

0.54

10867.99

59.070

nC5

2.82

0.83

13374.02

111.441

nC6

0.87

0.26

15924.28

40.853

n C7

0.09

0.03

18472.49

5.074

i-C4

11.16

3.30

10875.05

358.851

iC5

94.28
38.72
23.38
17.97
9.68
15.57
13.14
4.47
8.37
3.66
3.18
1.26

27.87
11.44
6.91
5.31
2.86
4.60
3.88
1.32
2.47
1.08
0.94
0.37

13291.37
16086.56
15916.28
15920.31
15758.11
18822.99
18451.11
18714.89
-2402.39
18451.11
18451.11
18451.11

3703.923
1840.947
1100.144
845.485
450.789
866.342
716.553
247.072
-59.425
199.434
173.473
68.552

0.00
0.00
2.96
7.73
20.33
0.71
19.26
1.99
0.00
0.00
0.02

0.00
0.00
0.87
2.29
6.01
0.21
5.69
0.59
0.00
0.00
0.00

9521.25
11960.61
9867.22
12796.14
12500.07
15718.56
15319.17
18490.44
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.001
0.001
86.235
292.482
751.319
33.206
872.051
108.684
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.00
338.34

0.00
100

0.00

Components

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

76

0.000
13298.917

Chapter 6

6.2.5

Energy Balance

Heat of reaction

Hrxn

Hprd

Hrea

Hprd

niHf

nTCpGdT

Hprd

-51085568

4499509.04

Hprd

-46586059.29

Hrea

niHf

nT CpGdT

Hrea

-50789109

4353361.694

Hrea

-46435747

now,

kJ/hr

now,

so,

6.2.6

kJ/hr

Hrxn

Hprd

Hrxn

-46586059

Hrxn

-2.E+05

Hrea
-46435747

kJ/hr

For cooling coils


Components
Water

ni

xi

kmole/hr
95.00

Mol%
100.00

CpGdT
kJ/kmole K
1510.00

Total

nCpLdT
kJ/hr
143450
143450

Heat Gained By Cooling Water

1.435E+05 kJ/hr

77

Heat generated by Reaction

-1.503E+05 kJ/hr

Chapter 6

6.3

Energy Balance

ENERGY BALANCE AROUND HEAT EXCHANGER E 101:

E-101

TUBE SIDE

SHELL SIDE

Temperature ( C)
Inlet Temperature

36.84

Outlet Temperature
Boiling Point

70

93.63

5.901

44.5039

2400

2200

2370

2100

0.205

0.0917

Pressure (kPa)
Inlet Pressure
Outlet Pressure
Average Pressure
vapor Fraction in
vapor Fraction out
vapor Fraction avg

123

0.249

0.0678

0.227

0.07975

78945.18

87741.00

Constant
Heat of Vaporization
(kJ/kmole)

78

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.3.1 Molar Composition:

Stream No.3

Stream No.4

Stream No.10

Stream No.11

Mol%

Mol%

Mol%

Mol%

H2

18.3713

18.3713

4.7884

4.7884

C1

2.3317

2.3317

2.7199

2.7199

C2

1.5074

1.5074

1.7583

1.7583

C3

0.8950

0.8950

1.0440

1.0440

n C4

3.1064

3.1064

0.5435

0.5435

nC5

14.7758

14.7758

0.8333

0.8333

nC6

11.7082

11.7082

0.2565

0.2565

n C7

5.8868

5.8868

0.0275

0.0275

i-C4

0.1884

0.1884

3.2998

3.2998

iC5

9.5079
5.5287
3.5504
0.4091
0.8896
2.3622
2.3616
0.1734
0.7078
0.3592
0.1114
0.1772

9.5079
5.5287
3.5504
0.4091
0.8896
2.3622
2.3616
0.1734
0.7078
0.3592
0.1114
0.1772

27.8671
11.4440
6.9121
5.3107
2.8607
4.6026
3.8835
1.3202
2.4736
1.0809
0.9402
0.3715

27.8671
11.4440
6.9121
5.3107
2.8607
4.6026
3.8835
1.3202
2.4736
1.0809
0.9402
0.3715

2.0560
1.9822
1.0703
3.0147
2.9196
0.1811
3.8666
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

2.0560
1.9822
1.0703
3.0147
2.9196
0.1811
3.8666
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.8740
2.2857
6.0105
0.2113
5.6925
0.5878
0.0000
0.0001
0.0048
0.0000

0.0000
0.0000
0.8740
2.2857
6.0105
0.2113
5.6925
0.5878
0.0000
0.0001
0.0048
0.0000

100

100

100

100

Components

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
Total

79

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.3.2 Tube Side

ni

xi

CpLdT

xiiCpLdT

Mol%

liquid
Fraction

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

H2

72.49

18.37

0.0170

163840.79

2784.06634

C1

9.20

2.33

0.0077

127630.87

988.271101

C2

5.95

1.51

0.0111

7264.71

80.3047805

C3

3.53

0.90

0.0090

4742.84

42.4946293

n C4

12.26

3.11

0.0360

5055.50

182.108916

nC5

58.30

14.78

0.1810

nC6

46.20

11.71

0.1469

6853.99

1006.81056

n C7

23.23

5.89

0.0745

7784.82

579.918369

i-C4

0.74

0.19

0.0021

5168.13

10.9664692

iC5

37.52

9.51

0.1160

5884.95

682.360958

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

21.82

5.53

0.0691

6811.58

470.452231

14.01

3.55

0.0444

6688.65

297.186824

1.61

0.41

0.0051

6649.77

33.8243427

3.51

0.89

0.0111

6642.84

73.7434272

9.32

2.36

0.0298

7826.38

233.617288

9.32

2.36

0.0299

7701.81

230.101309

0.68

0.17

0.0022

7802.27

17.0513012

2.79

0.71

0.0089

7631.96

68.2607597

1.42

0.36

0.0045

7904.69

35.7737834

0.44

0.11

0.0014

7552.68

10.6206163

0.70
8.11

0.18
2.06

7689.52
4748.36

17.2390551
122.37503

7.82

1.98

0.0022
0.0258
0.0251

5456.22

137.127268

4.22

1.07

0.0133

4556.56

60.4014987

11.90

3.01

0.0379

5625.98

213.162185

11.52

2.92

0.0368

5477.83

201.410753

0.71

0.18

0.0023

6587.94

15.1176227

15.26

3.87

0.0490

6545.43

320.449969

0.00

0.00

0.0000

7490.68

0.00

0.00

0.0000

2496.55

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-5566.74

0.00

0.00

0.0004

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.0000

Components

TOTAL

kmole/hr

394.58

100.00

80

1.00

5890

464434.24

1065.39389

7715.01

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

Components

ni
kmole/hr

H2
C1
C2
C3
n C4
nC5
nC6
n C7

72.49
9.20
5.95
3.53
12.26
58.30
46.20
23.23

xi

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

Mol%

Vapor
Fraction

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

18.37

0.7923

960.45

760.9602

2.33

0.0801

1231.83

98.6947

1.51

0.0297

1871.97

55.5301

0.90

0.0088

2651.24

23.4494

3.11

0.0130

3505.53

45.4545

14.78

0.0254

4303.76

109.3437

11.71

0.0083

5125.09

42.3745

5.89

0.0018

5945.75

10.8981

i-C4

0.74

0.19

0.0010

3498.95

3.4979

iC5

37.52

9.51

0.0200

4268.77

85.4095

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

21.82

5.53

0.0050

5172.99

25.8335

14.01

3.55

0.0029

5122.97

14.9625

1.61

0.41

0.0005

5108.03

2.3304

3.51

0.89

0.0008

5057.87

4.2946

9.32

2.36

0.0009

6035.99

5.3863

9.32

2.36

0.0009

5936.93

5.0777

0.68

0.17

0.0001

5984.00

0.5420

2.79

0.71

0.0003

-700.73

-0.1885

1.42

0.36

0.0002

5936.93

1.0988

0.44

0.11

0.0000

5936.93

0.2739

0.70

0.18

0.0001

5936.93

0.3638

C6H6

8.11

2.06

0.0013

3025.39

4.0382

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

7.82

1.98

0.0005

3818.32

1.8633

4.22

1.07

0.0014

3098.21

4.3221

11.90

3.01

0.0020

4049.71

8.0060

11.52

2.92

0.0016

3930.95

6.2002

0.71

0.18

0.0000

4973.82

0.2319

15.26

3.87

0.0012

4857.50

5.6009

0.00

0.00

0.0000

5931.16

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.0000

394.58

100.00

1.00

122577.23

300.97

TOTAL

81

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.3.3 Shell Side

ni

xi

CpLdT

xiiCpLdT

kmole/hr

Mol%

liquid
Fraction

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

H2

16.20

4.79

0.0126

-199512.06

-2514.64852

C1

9.20

2.72

0.0143

-279046.67

-3994.81536

C2

5.95

1.76

0.0136

-14568.75

-198.505567

C3

3.53

1.04

0.0095

-6659.42

-63.2080384

0.54

0.0054

-5626.65

-30.3939262

Components

n C4

1.84

nC5

2.82

0.83

0.0087

nC6

0.87

0.26

0.0028

-6894.52

-19.223717

n C7

0.09

0.03

0.0003

-7634.15

-2.48558706

i-C4

11.16

3.30

0.0324

-6170.29

-199.987136

-5.96E+03

-51.844729

iC5

94.28

27.87

0.2898

-6036.68

-1749.62666

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

38.72

11.44

0.1221

-6805.47

-830.901233

23.38

6.91

0.0739

-6650.91

-491.458483

17.97

5.31

0.0564

-6632.83

-373.849325

9.68

2.86

0.0305

-6613.38

-201.695991

15.57

4.60

0.0498

-7801.45

-388.551913

13.14

3.88

0.0420

-7632.19

-320.811117

4.47

1.32

0.0142

-7800.55

-111.039608

8.37

2.47

0.0267

-7551.44

-201.977523

3.66

1.08

0.0116

-7890.58

-91.9132828

3.18

0.94

0.0102

-7563.20

-76.915539

1.26

0.37

0.0040

-7595.10

-30.4626677

C6H6

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-4675.81

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-5385.02

2.96

0.87

0.0092

-4701.57

-43.2365038

TOTAL

7.73

2.29

0.0246

-5691.74

-139.988369

20.33

6.01

0.0648

-5623.11

-364.213341

0.71

0.21

0.0023

-6637.69

-15.1551398

19.26
1.99

5.69
0.59

0.0618
0.0064

-6628.75
-7355.24

-409.653369
-46.8487831

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-2241.28

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-5566.74

0.02

0.00

0.0004

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.0000

338.33

100.00

1.00

-673158.11

-11929.58

82

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

Components

ni
kmole/hr

Vapor
Fraction

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

Mol%

xi

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

H2

16.20

4.79

0.3974

-768.02

-305.229

C1

9.20

2.72

0.1548

-1060.10

-164.112

C2

5.95

1.76

0.0570

-1676.96

-95.562

1.04

0.0194

-2401.60

-46.630

0.54

0.0054

-3146.11

-16.970

C3
n C4

3.53
1.84

nC5

2.82

0.83

0.0044

-3884.61

-17.250

nC6

0.87

0.26

0.0007

-4624.54

-3.431

n C7

0.09

0.03

0.0000

-5363.89

-0.254

i-C4

11.16

3.30

0.0389

-3159.54

-122.906

iC5

94.28

27.87

0.1691

-3871.29

-654.638

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

38.72

11.44

0.0385

-4677.25

-180.028

23.38

6.91

0.0218

-4621.61

-100.737

17.97

5.31

0.0209

-4643.51

-97.089

9.68

2.86

0.0099

-4593.80

-45.345

15.57

4.60

0.0084

-5494.82

-46.326

13.14

3.88

0.0069

-5360.15

-36.822

4.47

1.32

0.0030

-5485.32

-16.370

8.37

2.47

0.0045

788.53

3.541

3.66

1.08

0.0024

-5360.15

-12.992

3.18

0.94

0.0018

-5360.15

-9.652

1.26

0.37

0.0006

-5360.15

-3.382

-2814.73

0.000

C6H6

0.00

0.00

0.0000

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-3513.06

0.000

2.96

0.87

0.0038

-2964.10

-11.284

7.73

2.29

0.0062

-3803.45

-23.468

20.33

6.01

0.0140

-3747.10

-52.430

0.71

0.21

0.0003

-4673.08

-1.360

19.26

5.69

0.0085

-4541.58

-38.697

1.99

0.59

0.0013

-5395.11

-6.827

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.000

0.02

0.00

0.0000

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.000

TOTAL

338.33

1.00

83

-167.974

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.3.4 Calculations:
TUBE SIDE

Total Enthalpy =
HT

Sensible Heat of Liquid + Latent Heat + Sensible Heat of Vapor


HL

HV + HG

HG

nCpGdT

HG

HV

HV

1370608.32 kJ/hr

HL

n CpLdT

HL

3044189.64 kJ/hr

HT

4533553.9 kJ/hr

HT

4.53E+06

118755.937 kJ/hr

kJ/hr

SHELL SIDE

Total Enthalpy =

Sensible Heat of Liquid + Latent Heat + Sensible Heat of Vapor

HT

HL

HV

HG

HG

-56830.9023 kJ/hr

HV

HV

-709486.596 kJ/hr

HL

HG

nCpGdT

nCpLd

HL

-4036164.38 kJ/hr

HT

-4802481.88 kJ/hr

HT

-4.80E+06

kJ/hr

Heat Gained By Tube Side

Heat Lost By Shell Side

4.534E+06

-4.802E+06

kJ/hr

84

kJ/hr

Chapter 6

6.4

Energy Balance

ENERGY BALANCE AROUND HEAT EXCHANGER E 102:

E-102

TUBE SIDE

SHELL SIDE

Temperature ( C)
Inlet Temperature

70

175

Outlet Temperature
Boiling Point

147

120

5.901

30.43

2370

2269

2330

2210

Pressure (kPa)
Inlet Pressure
Outlet Pressure
Average Pressure
vapor Fraction in
vapor Fraction out
vapor Fraction avg
Boiling Point
Constant
Heat of Vaporization
(kJ/kmole)

0.2146

0.3641

0.3489

8.61E-02

0.28175

0.2251

5.901

30.43

10589.08

85

-23473.32

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.4.1 Molar Composition:

Components

Stream No.3

Stream No.4

Stream No.10

Stream No.11

Mol%

Mol%

Mol%

Mol%

H2

18.3713

18.3713

4.8240

4.8240

C1

2.3317

2.3317

2.7232

2.7232

C2

1.5074

1.5074

1.7673

1.7673

C3

0.8950

0.8950

1.0682

1.0682

n C4

3.1064

3.1064

1.8014

1.8014

nC5

14.7758

14.7758

4.1623

4.1623

nC6

11.7082

11.7082

3.2049

3.2049

n C7

5.8868

5.8868

0.5490

0.5490

i-C4

0.1884

0.1884

2.0228

2.0228

iC5

9.5079
5.5287
3.5504
0.4091
0.8896
2.3622
2.3616
0.1734
0.7078
0.3592
0.1114
0.1772

9.5079
5.5287
3.5504
0.4091
0.8896
2.3622
2.3616
0.1734
0.7078
0.3592
0.1114
0.1772

24.5136
10.5400
6.4593
4.0257
2.5385
4.5669
3.7824
1.2316
2.3349
1.0363
0.8847
0.3439

24.5136
10.5400
6.4593
4.0257
2.5385
4.5669
3.7824
1.2316
2.3349
1.0363
0.8847
0.3439

2.0560
1.9822
1.0703
3.0147
2.9196
0.1811
3.8666
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
100

2.0560
1.9822
1.0703
3.0147
2.9196
0.1811
3.8666
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
100

0.0024
0.0023
0.8734
2.2844
6.0070
0.2111
5.6892
0.5490
0.0000
0.0001
0.0048
0.0000
100

0.0024
0.0023
0.8734
2.2844
6.0070
0.2111
5.6892
0.5490
0.0000
0.0001
0.0048
0.0000
100

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
Total

86

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.4.2 Tube Side

ni

xi

CpLdT

xiiCpLdT

kmole/hr

Mol%

liquid
Fraction

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

H2

72.49

18.37

0.0170

524673.28

8915.51612

C1

9.20

2.33

0.0077

758742.22

5875.091135

Components

C2

5.95

1.51

0.0111

39811.05

440.075118

C3

3.53

0.90

0.0090

17954.99

160.8721251

15009.50

540.6714188

n C4

12.26

3.11

0.0360

nC5

58.30

14.78

0.1810

nC6

46.20

11.71

0.1469

18107.01

2659.813793

1.57E+04

2835.3435

n C7

23.23

5.89

0.0745

20036.58

1492.595104

i-C4

0.74

0.19

0.0021

16529.78

35.07521004

iC5

37.52
21.82
14.01
1.61
3.51
9.32
9.32
0.68
2.79
1.42
0.44
0.70

9.51
5.53
3.55
0.41
0.89
2.36
2.36
0.17
0.71
0.36
0.11
0.18

0.1160

15866.01
17855.82
17448.62
17398.60
17347.93
20470.78
20020.43
20459.10
19805.23
20693.98
19844.47
19919.07

1839.666534
1233.239608
775.2681686
88.49878246
192.5827109
611.0525945
598.1359298
44.7119097
177.1392678
93.6535025
27.90540672
44.65634249

8.11
7.82
4.22
11.90
11.52
0.71
15.26
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
394.58

2.06
1.98
1.07
3.01
2.92
0.18
3.87
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00

0.0258

12272.22
14132.02
12335.95
14925.56
14827.71
17405.47
17395.98
19272.40
5875.66
-5566.74
0.0000
0.0000
1776537.03

316.2807209
355.1701859
163.5246758
565.5136593
545.1904029
39.94105385
851.6697922
0
0
0
0
0
22638.42

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

87

0.0691
0.0444
0.0051
0.0111
0.0298
0.0299
0.0022
0.0089
0.0045
0.0014
0.0022
0.0251
0.0133
0.0379
0.0368
0.0023
0.0490
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0004
0.0000
1.00

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

Components

H2

ni
kmole/hr
72.49

Vapor
Fraction

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

Mol%

xi

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

18.37

0.7923

2240.16

1774.8758

C1

9.20

2.33

0.0801

3099.31

248.3173

C2

5.95

1.51

0.0297

4906.03

145.5322

C3

3.53

0.90

0.0088

7026.70

62.1490

n C4

12.26

3.11

0.0130

9204.49

119.3501

nC5

58.30

14.78

0.0254

11364.60

288.7354

nC6

46.20

11.71

0.0083

13529.06

111.8589

n C7

23.23

5.89

0.0018

15691.84

28.7620

9243.86

9.2411

11326.69
13683.03
13520.74
13586.11
13440.61
16073.41
15681.00
16047.89
-2332.94
15681.00
15681.00
15681.00

226.6241
68.3319
39.4895
6.1982
11.4123
14.3433
13.4115
1.4536
-0.6275
2.9021
0.7234
0.9608

8238.34
10281.35
8682.12
11136.05
10976.71
13682.27
13295.61
15784.86
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
326452.92

10.9963
5.0173
12.1120
22.0152
17.3133
0.6378
15.3305
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
917.79

i-C4

0.74

0.19

0.0010

iC5

37.52
21.82
14.01
1.61
3.51
9.32
9.32
0.68
2.79
1.42
0.44
0.70

9.51
5.53
3.55
0.41
0.89
2.36
2.36
0.17
0.71
0.36
0.11
0.18

0.0200

8.11
7.82
4.22
11.90
11.52
0.71
15.26
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
394.58

2.06
1.98
1.07
3.01
2.92
0.18
3.87
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00

0.0013

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP
C6H6
C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH
TOTAL

88

0.0050
0.0029
0.0005
0.0008
0.0009
0.0009
0.0001
0.0003
0.0002
0.0000
0.0001
0.0005
0.0014
0.0020
0.0016
0.0000
0.0012
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.00

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.4.3 Shell Side

Components

ni

xi

kmole/hr

H2
C1
C2
C3
n C4
nC5

Mol%

16.32
9.21
5.98
3.61
6.09
14.08

liquid
Fraction

CpLdT

xiiCpLdT

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

4.82

0.0075

-456122.95

-3408.41681

2.72

0.0077

-909163.18

-7029.54256

1.77

0.0082

-48009.05

-391.363277

1.07

0.0067

-18809.95

-126.759605

1.80

0.0147

-13693.05

-201.275326

4.16

0.0411

-1.24E+04

-508.97138

3.20

0.0364

-14260.24

-518.854674

n C7

1.86

0.55

0.0069

-15486.31

-106.757685

i-C4

6.84

2.02

0.0156

-15880.13

-246.956911

nC6

10.84

iC5

82.93

24.51

0.2348

-12690.75

-2980.16715

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

35.66

10.54

0.1162

-13913.02

-1616.61507

21.85

6.46

0.0722

-13550.51

-977.749908

13.62

4.03

0.0429

-13520.48

-580.567259

2.54

0.0279

-13468.91

-376.203287

15.45

8.59

4.57

0.0560

-15940.33

-892.872845

12.80

3.78

0.0466

-15503.51

-722.528748

4.17

1.23

0.0146

-15904.92

-232.571117

7.90

2.33

0.0287

-15304.59

-438.49287

3.51

1.04

0.0124

-16066.59

-198.80811

2.99

0.88

0.0107

-15485.36

-166.463623

1.16

0.34

0.0042

-15373.62

-64.8511144

-9508.10

C6H6

0.01

0.00

0.0000

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

0.01

0.00

0.0000

-10953.97

2.95

0.87

0.0091

-9784.23

-88.6629931

7.73

2.28

0.0263

-11667.38

-306.572716

6.01

0.0712

-12119.17

-863.057646

0.21

0.0027

-13571.47

-36.3929815

TOTAL

20.32
0.71
19.25

0
0

5.69

0.0722

-13677.27

-987.079201

1.86

0.55

0.0066

-14725.77

-97.3980337

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-4268.44

0.00

0.00

0.0000

-5566.74

0.02

0.00

0.0004

0.0000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.0000

1.00

-1786381.51

338.33

100.00

89

-18726.20

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

Components

ni
kmolw/hr

H2
C1
C2
C3
n C4
nC5
nC6

xi

CpGdT

xiiCpGdT

Mol%

Vapor
Fraction

kJ/kmole K

kJ/kmole K

4.82

0.1194

-1604.25

-77.390

2.72

0.0612

-2334.47

-63.572

1.77

0.0344

-3776.83

-66.749

1.07

0.0176

-5438.13

-58.089

1.80

0.0238

-7093.26

-127.777

4.16

0.0426

-8776.73

-365.314

3.20

0.0244

-10445.90

-334.784

16.32
9.21
5.98
3.61
6.09
14.08
10.84

n C7

1.86

0.55

0.0031

-12113.88

-66.507

i-C4

6.84

2.02

0.0283

-7142.48

-144.477

iC5

82.93

24.51

0.2632

-8769.80

-2149.795

2 MP
3 MP
2,2 DMB
2,3DMB
2 MH
3 MH
2,2 DMP
2,3 DMP
2,4 DMP
3,3 DMP
3 EP

35.66

10.54

0.0866

-10572.76

-1114.364

21.85

6.46

0.0515

-10439.68

-674.335

13.62

4.03

0.0357

-10529.97

-423.901

2.54

0.0210

-10413.12

-264.339

15.45

4.57

0.0277

-12448.77

-568.529

12.80

3.78

0.0225

-12109.92

-458.050

4.17

1.23

0.0083

-12475.50

-153.645

7.90

2.33

0.0140

2072.56

48.392

3.51

1.04

0.0070

-12109.92

-125.499

2.99

0.88

0.0054

-12109.92

-107.140

1.16

0.34

0.0020

-12109.92

-41.642

C6H6

0.01

0.00

0.0000

-6459.90

-0.155

C7H8
CP
MCP
CH
ECP
MCH
223TMB
H2O
C2Cl4
HCL
NaOH

0.01

0.00

0.0000

-8021.26

-0.185

2.95

0.87

0.0081

-6914.30

-60.392

7.73

2.28

0.0167

-8783.19

-200.641

6.01

0.0407

-8734.52

-524.684

0.21

0.0011

-10793.30

-22.788

5.69

0.0303

-10460.21

-595.106

1.86

0.55

0.0036

-12235.86

-67.176

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.00

0.000

0.02

0.00

0.0000

0.000

0.00

0.00

0.0000

0.000

338.33

100.00

1.00

-1982.823

TOTAL

8.59

20.32
0.71
19.25

90

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

6.4.4 Calculations:
TUBE SIDE

Total Enthalpy =

Sensible Heat of Liquid + Latent Heat + Sensible Heat of Vapor


HL

HT

HV + HG

HG

HG

362142.117 kJ/hr

HV

HV

4178240.08 kJ/hr

HL

n CpLdT

HL

8932666.754 kJ/hr

HT

13473048.95 kJ/hr

HT

1.35E+07

nCpGdT

kJ/hr

SHELL SIDE

Total Enthalpy =

Sensible Heat of Liquid + Latent Heat + Sensible Heat of Vapor

HT

HL

HV

HG

HG

-670852.8413 kJ/hr

HV

HV

-7941779.131 kJ/hr

HL

HG

nCpGdT

nCpLd

HL

-6335675.669 kJ/hr

HT

-14948307.64 kJ/hr

HT

-1.49E+07

kJ/hr

Heat Gained By Tube Side

Heat Lost By Shell Side

1.347E+07

-1.495E+07

kJ/hr

91

kJ/hr

Chapter 6

6.5

Energy Balance

ENERGY BALANCE AROUND STABILIZER T-101

Energy balance around the stabilizer has been performed following the mass balance.
The reboiler duty and the condenser duties are calculated and the results are verified.
Heat in + Heat generated = Heat out + Heat consumed
Since there is no heat generation and consumption, therefore,
Heat in = Heat out.

The enthalpy of the feed entering (Hin) the column from reference temperature
Tr = 120oC
Hin = 0
The distillate temperature is Td = 115oC
The bottoms temperature is Tb = 125oC

92

Chapter 6

Energy Balance

The enthalpy of the distillate from reference temperature of 120oC is


Hd = -308 kW
The enthalpy of bottom product is
Hb = 96 kW
The reboiler duty can be calculated as
Qreb = V x
Qreb = 260 kW
The saturated steam flow rate for reboiling at 1 bar is
ms= Qreb/hs
ms =0.13 kg/s
The cooling duty of the condenser is
Qcon = (L+D) x Cp x (Tavg Td)
Qcon = 50 kW
The flow rate of cooling water available at 40 oC
mc = Qcon/ (Cp) (Tavg Td)
mc = 2.38 kg/s

93

CHAPTER 7

PLANT DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

CHAPTER # 7
PLANT DESIGN CALCULATIONS

7.1

REACTOR

Types of Reactors The most common types of Reactors are


1. Fixed bed Reactor
2. Fluidized bed Rector
3. Stirrer tank Reactor

Fixed bed reactor can be further classified on the biases of either heat is supplied
during reaction or not.
i.

Adiabatic

ii.

Non adiabatic

The reactions taking place within the reactor may be in gas phase or there might a
case of trickle operation. For gas phase reactions some important reactor
configurations are as under.
1. Single adiabatic bed
2. Radial flow
3. Adiabatic beds in series with intermediate cooling or heating
4.

Direct-fired non-adiabatic

Except reactor type and configuration some other factors are important like ,
Distribution system and Sporting ceramic balls which also serves for uniform
distribution of flow as well. Our Reactor in this case is non-isothermal adiabatic
reactor with basket type distribution system and standard ceramic balls installation.
Detailed calculations of distribution system is given in design calculations.

94

Chapter 7

7.2

Plant Design Calculations

ALGORITHM FOR DETERMINING REACTION MECHANISM AND


RATE-LIMITING STEP:

Adsorption

Surface Reaction

Desorption

Assume surface reaction is


rate limiting
If the surface reaction is
limiting then:

Site balance:

Substituting for CN-S, CI-S, and CV into CT = CV (1 + KN PN + KI PI) :

95

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

where KP is the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the reactor.


Linearizing the Initial Rate:

96

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

Reactor R-101
Design
Reaction

n-Butane

n-Pentane

n-Hexane

n-Heptane

K
KN
KI

8.5

7.9

6.7

5.5

1.12

1.2

1.6

1.75

13

11

Pressure P
Temperature T
Compressibility Factor Z
Universal Gas Constant R
Molar Flow rate Fo

2300
443
0.8392
8.314
394.58

kPa
K

Volume Flow Rate

530.26

kPa/kmol K
kmol/hr
m3/hr

Overall Concentration

744.13

mol/dm3

Stream 7
Components

Mole Fraction

Molar Flow
Rate

n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane

0.0309
0.1476
0.117
0.0588

12.19
58.25
46.18
23.22

Volumetric Flow Fao Concentration CAo Conversion X


16.38
78.27
62.04
31.18

22.9936
109.8335
87.0632
43.7548

0.5
0.75
0.765
0.919

WB

209.9

kg

WH

281.823

kg

WP

357.159

kg

WHe

330.038

kg

WT

1178.92

kg

Weight of catalyst

packing density

x 1.6

1.6 is a designing factor for catalytic Reactor


V

2.3727

97

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

PRESSURE DROP IN REACTOR R-101

Using ERGUN equation for the pressure drop in packed bed reactors

For the given reactor


Length to dia Ratio L/D
Diameter D
Length L

5.000
0.845
4.227

m
m

2.773
13.864

ft
ft

Area A

0.561

m2

6.039

ft2

Volume V

2.373

m3

83.726

ft3

For Feed of R-101


Density
Molecular Mass M
Inlet Molar Flow Rate Fo
Outlet Molar Flow Rate F

73.560
65.410
394.580
338.3

kg/m3

4.586

lb/ft3

kmol/h
kmol/h

109.606
93.972

mol/s
mol/s

Pressure P
Temperature T
Viscosity
Compressibility Factor Z

2300.000
170.000
8.320E-06
0.839
12.772

kPa
C
lb/ft s

48049.741
443.000

lbf/ft
K

Mass Flux G
o

dy/dw

475.371
0.000
1.12451E-05

0.986664298

Pressure at outlet P
Pressure Drop P

kg/m2 s

1/y

2269.327886

kPa

30.672

kPa

98

2.612

lb/ft s

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

Reactor R-102
Design

Reaction

n-Butane

n-Pentane

n-Hexane

K
KN
KI

8.5

7.9

6.7

5.5

1.12

1.2

1.6

1.75

13

11

Pressure P

2210

kPa

Temperature T

393

Compressibility Factor Z

0.9808

Universal Gas Constant R

8.314

kPa/kmol K

Molar Flow rate Fo

338.32

kmol/hr

Volume Flow Rate

490.59

Overall Concentration

689.62

m3/hr
mol/dm3

n-Heptane

Stream 9
Components

n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane

Mole Fraction

Molar Flow
Rate

0.0180
0.0416
0.0320
0.0055

6.09
14.08
10.84
1.86

Volumetric Flow Fao Concentration CAo Conversion X


8.84
20.42
15.72
2.69

12.4227
28.7040
22.1019
3.7861

0.4201
0.7183
0.7263
0.9067

WB

391.619

kg

WH

937.904

kg

WP

920.785

kg

WHe

1547.613

kg

WT

3797.921

kg

Weight of catalyst

packing density

x 1.6

1.6 is a designing factor for catalytic Reactor


V

7.64

99

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

PRESSURE DROP IN REACTOR R-102

Using ERGUN equation for the pressure drop in packed bed reactors

For the given reactor


Length to dia Ratio L/D
Diameter D
Length L

5.000
1.249
6.243

m
m

4.095
20.476

ft
ft

Area A

1.224

m2

13.173

ft2

Volume V

7.644

m3

269.724

ft3

For Feed of R-101


3

Density
Molecular Mass M
Inlet Molar Flow Rate Fo
Outlet Molar Flow Rate F
Pressure P

27.340
73.950
338.320
338.3
2210.000

kg/m

Temperature T
Viscosity
Compressibility Factor Z

46169.534
120.000
7.160E-06
0.839
5.676

lbf/ft
C
lb/ft s

Mass Flux G
o

dy/dw

262.053
0.000
3.44951E-06

0.995928192

Pressure at outlet P
Pressure Drop P

2201.001304
8.999

kmol/h
kmol/h
kPa

1.705

lb/ft

93.978
93.972

mol/s
mol/s

393.000

kg/m2 s

1/y

kPa
kPa

100

1.161

lb/ft s

Chapter 7

7.3

Plant Design Calculations

DESIGNING OF NAPHTHA FEED PUMP:

A pump is one of the most important pieces of mechanical equipment that is present
in industrial processes. A pump moves liquid from one area to another by increasing
the pressure of the liquid above the amount needed to overcome the combined effects
of friction, gravity and system operating pressures.

There are two types of pump which are generally used in industrial processes: positive
displacement pump and centrifugal. It is important to choose the suitable type of
pump based on process requirement and fluid process properties.

In designing the pump, the knowledge of the effect of parameters; such as pump
capacity, NPSH, pumping maximum temperature, specific gravity, fluid viscosity,
fluid solid content, and the other process requirements are very important. All of these
parameters will affect the selection and design of the pump which will affect the
performance of the pump in the process.

NPSH as a measure to prevent liquid vaporization or called cavitation of pump. Net


Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is the total head at the suction flange of the pump less
the vapor pressure converted to fluid column height of the liquid.

Naphtha feed is coming from the atmospheric distillation column is treated with
hydrogen and brought to a pressure about 4 bar. This stream is then raised to a
pressure of 24 bar using a centrifugal compressor. The design of pump is carried out
using energy balance (extended Bernoullis equation) and the power of the pump is
calculated.

101

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

The stream at the inlet of the pump is at given conditions and rates specified.

Inlet pressure
Outlet pressure
Temperature
Density
Viscosity
Mass flow rate
Molar flowrate
Volumetric flowrate
Vapour pressure

4
24
35
664.8
1.037
25000
301
37.605
69.6

P1
P2
T

m
F
Q
Pv

bar
bar
C
Kg/m3
Kg/m hr
Kg/hr
Kmol/hr
m3/hr
kPa

The optimum diameter of the pipe is found against given flow rate using the graph
Dopt = 0.1061 m
The velocity of the fluid through the pump is given by
4XQ
D2

V =

(m/s)

V = 1.289 m/s
The work done per unit mass is given by the extended Bernoullis equation.
W = (P/ ) + (PF/ ) + (V/2g) (J/kg)
W= (2000000/664.8) + (PF/664.8) + (0)
The pressure drop due to the friction is given by the Darcys equation
PF

8 x f x L x V2 x
2xD

For relative roughness () =0.046 m


Friction factor (f) = 0.002
An assumed length of 100 m from pump outlet to the inlet of the reactor
PF = 8670 N/m2
hence the work done per unit mass is
102

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

W =2419.82 N/m2
The total work is given by taking efficiency of pump ()=0.7
W = (W x m)/
W = 2419.82 x 25000/ (3600 x 0.7)
W = 24 KW or 32 hp
The Net positive suction head of the pump can be found by using the formula
NPSHavail = (P1/g) (Pf/g) (Pv/g)
NPSHavail = 49.37 m

103

Chapter 7

7.4

Plant Design Calculations

HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN:

Heat exchanger E-101 is installed to recover the heat of the effluent from reactor R101 and heat the naphtha feed to bring it to the required temperature. The hot stream
which is coming from R-101 is at a temperature of 1750C and the cold stream is the
preheated naphtha feed coming from E-101 and is at a temperature of 78.21. The hot
stream is cooled to 1200C which is the required inlet temperature for R-102. Hence
the outlet temperature of naphtha feed can be determined.
The physical properties of both the streams are found at their mean temperatures. The
first iteration is done by assuming a constant specific heat; this is used to find the final
temperature of the naphtha stream to be 1120C.
Cold stream (Naphtha feed)
0

Inlet temperature (t1)

78.21

Outlet temperature (t2)

120

Molar flow rate (n)

338.316

Molecular mass (M)

67

Specific heat (Cp)

161.75

kJ/kg. k

Viscosity ()

1.50E-5

Ns/m2

Density ()

112.36

kg/m3

Conductivity (k)

0.091205

W/m k

Inlet temperature (T1)

175

Outlet temperature (T2)

120

Molar flow rate (n)

394.58

Molecular mass (M)

74

Specific heat (Cp)

162.4

kJ/kg. k

Viscosity ()

1.01E-05

Ns/m2

Density ()

12.75

kg/m3

Conductivity (k)

2.86E-02

W/m k

kmol/hr

Hot stream (effluent R-101)

104

kmol/hr

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

Tubes of BWG 14 are selected the specifications are


Outer diameter (do)

0.016

Inner diameter (di)

0.0117836

Tube thickness (t)

0.0021082

Tube length (L)

The true temperature is found by


T = F x Tm
Tm

(T2-t1)-(T1-t2)
Ln (T2-t1/T1-t2)

Tm = 51.671510020C
F can be found by using graph for two tube passes and one shell pass
F= 0.88
T = 0.88 x 51.671510020C
T = 45.47oC
The heat transfer area is given by
Q = 2.6 E+6 KJ/hr
Q
A =

U x T

Assume U= 1000 KJ/m2 k


A = 52.78 m2
Number of tubes =

Number of tubes (Nt)

A
x I.D x L
=

210

Number of tubes per pass (Np) =

105

Bundle diameter = do x ( Nt/k )1/n

105

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

For two tube passes k= 0.249 and n=2.207


Bundle diameter (Db)

0.3388 m

From graph at given bundle diameter clearance =0.0133 m


Shell diameter (Ds) = bundle diameter +shell clearance
Shell diameter

0.3522 m

For tube pitches of 1.25 do


Number of baffles (b)

Baffle spacing (lb) = L/number of baffles


Baffle spacing

0.0705 m

Flow area at shell side (As) = (0.25 x di x lb x tubes at central plane)


Tubes at central plane = bundle diameter/ tube pitch
Tubes at central plane

17

Shell flow area

0.00477 m2

Hence,

The equivalent diameter of shell (de) = 4 x hydraulic radius


The equivalent diameter of shell = .02565 m
The tube side and shell side velocities can be found by using formula
Velocity = mass flow/ (density x area)
Us = 0.031733114 m/s
Ut = 5.707451295 m/s
Finding tube side heat transfer co=efficient
hi = (k/do)(jh x Re x Pr0.33)
Reynolds number (Re) = ( x di x Ut)/
Prandalts number (Pr) = (Cp x)/k
Re = 500000
Pr=0.02664
hi = 2707.3
106

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

Finding shell side heat transfer co=efficient


ho = (k/de)(jh x Re x Pr0.33)
Re = 3700000
Pr = 0.057
ho = 2811.45
Overall heat transfer coefficient
U = (1/hi) +(1/ho) (di/do) + (t x di)/(kt x dw)
dw = (di +do)/2
kt= 15 W/m k
U = 981 KJ/m2 k
Pressure drop at tube side
Pt= Np ((8 x jf (L/d) +2.5)x( x Ut))/2
Pt=1000 Pa
Shell side pressure drop
Ps= 8 x Jf x (Ds/de) x (L/lb) x (Us2/2)
Ps=440 Pa

107

Chapter 7

7.5

Plant Design Calculations

DESIGNING OF STABILIZER T-101:

The naphtha stabilizer column is designed as a distillation column. The feed is the
stream coming from the heat exchanger E-102. The stream temperature is 120oC and a
pressure of 18.5 bara. The feed of the column is fractionated and the product are
obtained as specified in the figure.

The method used for design is HENGTEBECKS METHOD, it is a modification to


the binary MCCABE AND THIELE method for binary distillation. The key
components selected are butane (iso and normal) and iso pentane. The heavier key is
iso-pentane and lighter key is butane stream.

KEYS

FEED FLOW
RATE
(F)

DISTILLATE
FLOW RATE
(D)

BOTTOMS
FOW RATE
(B)

Butane (LK)

12.996

12.9013

0.0946

ISO PENTANE
(HK)

94.234

0.9420

93.292

108

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

COMPOSITIONS:
The molar fractions of butane and isopentane according to HENGTEBECKS
METHOD in the streams are given as
Feed

distillate

bottoms

Butane

0.12

0.9315

0.001

Iso pentane

0.88

0.0685

0.999

Using Antoine equation at column average temperature the saturation pressure of the
key components is found to be
Psatbutane= 15810 mm Hg
Psatiso pentane= 1480 mm Hg
Relative volatility of the stream with respect of the heavier key
avg= 10.68
The expression for the vapor liquid equilibrium relation is given as
y=

x
1+(-1)x

Using this data and developing a table for liquid vapour equilibrium curve
Liquid fraction
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

Vapor fraction
0
0.546
0.7275
0.8206
0.8769
0.9143
0.9412
0.9614
0.9771
0.9897
1.0

Using MCCABE AND THIELE method for pseudo binary distillation for
Reflux ratio=5
Feed at bubble point=120oC

feed line is vertical


109

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

Intercept of top operating line= (xd)/(R+1)


Intercept of top operating line= 0.155
Number of ideal plates= 7
Feed plate= 5th
Efficiency of column
According to OCORNELLS equation, the overall efficiency of the column can be
estimated by the relation
Eo= 51-32.5log(avgavg )
avg=(0.12x0.104)+(0.88x0.104)
avg=0.104 mNs/m2
Using given equation the overall efficiency of the column is found to be EO=45%
Actual number of plates = 14
Column diameter calculations
The diameter of the column is calculated by using the formula for vapor flow through
a cylinder
Diameter of column =

(4 x molar flow of vapors x mol.massavg)1/2


(g x Vx )1/2

For bottom of the column


Mavg= 84.32
Molar flow rate = (R+1) D
Molar flow rate = 292.5 kmol/hr
g = 47.44kg/m3

using general gas equation

l = 550 kg/m3
V= K (l/ g -1)1/2
K can be found for 18 inches (460mm) tray spacing to be 0.135
V=0.437m/s
Diabottom = 0.65m (2.13 ft)
110

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

For top of the column


Mavg= 76
Molar flow rate = (R+1) D
Molar flow rate = 292.5 kmol/hr
g = 44kg/m3

using general gas equation

l = 480kg/m3
V= K (l/ g -1)1/2
K can be found for 18 inches (460mm) tray spacing to be 0.252
V=0.6295m/s
Diatop = 0.0.532 m (1.74 ft)
The minimum diameter of the column must be 0.65 m
Height of the column
height of the column can be approximated as
LC =tray spacing x number of trays
LC =6.1 m appx
Pressure drop
Pressure drop across each plate is given by the relation
P =(9.81 X 10-3)( ht)( l)

Where,
ht = hd+hw+how+hr
hd = dry pressure drop (due to friction)
hw = weir height
how = weir crest ( liquid level above weir)
hr = residual pressure drop
taking weir height hw =50 mm (2 inches)
111

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

weir length = 0.7 x Dc


weir length = 0.455m
since,
hd = 51(Va/Co)2(g/ l)
Co = 0.84

(for 10% downcomer area, & hole dia/ plate thickness = 1)

hd= 119.6 mm
how =(750 Lw)/( lxlw)
how = 135mm
hw = 50mm
hr = (1.25 x 10-3)/ l
hr = 2.38 mm
ht = 307 mm
P =(9.81 X 10-3)( 307)( 525)
P =1581 Pa (0.23psi)
Total pressure drop across column Pc
Pc = 1581 x 14
Pc = 22120 Pa (3.2 psi)

Column specifications
Number of plates
Column diameter
Tray spacing
Height of column
Weir height
Pressure drop
Downcomer area

14
0.65 m
460 mm (18 inches)
9.10 m
50 mm (2 inches)
22.12 Kpa (3.2 psi)
10%

112

Chapter 7

7.6

Plant Design Calculations

DESIGNING OF HYDROGEN FEED COMPRESSOR K-101:

Pressure At Different Stages

113

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

For First Stage

= Cp/(Cp-R)

114

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

W = W/Ep

For Second Stage

= Cp/(Cp-R)

115

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

W = W/Ep

For Third Stage

= Cp/(Cp-R)

116

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

W = W/Ep

117

Chapter 7

Plant Design Calculations

For Fourth Stage

= Cp/(Cp-R)

W = W/Ep

118

Chapter 7

Plant De sign Calculations

Total Work & Power

118

CHAPTER 8

COST ESTIMATION

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

CHAPTER # 8
COST ESTIMATION

8.1

COST ESTIMATION:

Feasibility means that the project being considered is technically possible. Economic
feasibility, in addition to acknowledging the technical possibility of a project, further
implies that it can be justified on an economic basis as well. Economic feasibility
measures the overall desirability of the project in financial terms and indicates the
superiority of a single approach over others that may be equally feasible in a technical
sense.
The cost analysis of an industrial process includes capital investment cost,
manufacturing cost and general expense such as income taxes.
8.1.1

Capital investments:

Before an industrial plant can be put into operation, large amount of money must be
supplied to purchase and install the necessary machinery and equipment, land and
service facilities must be obtained and the plant must be erected. Complete with all
pipe controls inn services. In addition it is necessary to have money available for
payment of expenses involved in the plant operation.
8.1.2

Fixed capital:

Fixed capital is that portion of the total capital that is invested in fixed assets (such as
land, buildings, vehicles, and equipment) that stay in the business almost
permanently. The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant
facilities is called the fixed-capital investment
It includes

capital necessary for the installed process equipments

All design and construction overheads supervision

All piping, instruments and controls

insulation, foundations, and site preparation

119

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

land, processing buildings, administrative, and other offices, warehouses,


laboratories.

Auxiliary facilities, such as utilities, land and civil engineering work

The fixed capital investment classified in to two sub divisions.

i.

Direct Cost

ii.

Indirect Cost

8.1.3

Working capital:

Working capital is additional investment which represents operating liquidity


available to a processing plant.
It includes the cost of

Startup

Initial catalyst charge

raw materials and supplies carried in stock

Inventories of intermediates and products

cash kept on hand for monthly payment of operating expenses, such as


salaries, wages etc.

Payable accounts and taxes.

The total capital investment is the sum of fixed and working capital. The ratio of
working capital to total capital investment varies with different companies, but most
chemical plants use an initial working capital amounting to 10 to 20 percent of the
total capital investment. This percentage may increase to as much as 50 percent or
more for companies producing products of seasonal demand because of the large
inventories which must be maintained for appreciable periods of time.

By far the most important item is the raw material expense. Labor is the component of
immediate secondary magnitude. This increased by the fact that pay role over head

120

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

and plant overhead are always calculated fraction of labor expense and that
laboratories charges and supervision maybe estimated similarly if one chooses.
Depreciation, property taxes, insurance and sometimes maintenance and plant
supplied are estimated from the fixed capital investment. Individually there are small
in the manufacturing cost, but together they can represent a sizable total- Utilities take
collectively represent an amount of relative importance in a manufacturing cost.
Royalties on the average are small but should be carefully conceded when large.
Similarly, shipping is usually minor. Packaging expenses are usually small since the
petrochemical industry is primarily bulk supplier. However in particular face of the
industry packaging may prove to be of major importance. General expenses are a
sizable portion of total cost, can be estimated as percentage of manufacturing cost.

8.1.4

Direct cost:

Purchased Equipment Cost = E


Component
Purchased equipment Installation
Instrumentation (installed)
Piping (installed)
Electrical (installed)
Building (including Service)
Yard improvement
Service facilities

Percentages of Purchased Equipment


Cost (E)
47 %
12 %
66 %
11 %
18 %
10 %
70 %

Total Direct Cost = D


8.1.5

Indirect cost:

Engineering and supervision

33 % E

Construction Expenses

46 % E

Total Indirect cost

Total Direct and Indirect Cost

D+I

Contractors Fees

5 % (D+I) = x

121

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

Contingency

10 % (D+I)=y

Fixed Capital investment

D+I+x+y

Working Capital Investment

0.15 * (D+I+x+y)

Total Plant Cost (TPC)

8.2

Fixed Capital + Working Capital

Land Cost

2 * TPC

Total Cost

TPC + Land Cost

COST ESTIMATION OF OUR PLANT:

Cost of Equipment:
Cost of 2012 = cost of 2007 (Index 2012/ Index 2007)
Cost Index of year 2007 = 525.4
Cost Index of year 2012 = 593.8

Equipment Purchased Cost (E):


Equipment
Drier
Mixer
Compressor
pump
Exchanger E-101
Exchanger E-102
Exchanger E-103
Reactor R-101
Reactor R-102
Distillation Column
Scrubber
Total
8.2.1

2007 Cost (US $)


12600
7800
128400
7900
183500
183500
183500
31100
56300
53300
4200
852100

2012 Cost (US $)


14240.35021
8815.454892
145115.9498
8928.473544
207389.2273
207389.2273
207389.2273
35148.80091
63629.50133
60238.94176
4746.783403
963031.9376

Direct cost estimation:


Purchased equipment installation

452625.0107 $

Instrumentation installation

115563.8325 $

Piping installed

636501.0788 $
122

Chapter 8

8.2.2

Cost Estimation

Electrical installed

105933.5131 $

Building including services

173345.7488 $

Yard improvement

96303.19376 $

Service facilities

674122.3563 $

Total direct cost

2253494.734 $

Indirect cost estimation:


Engineering and supervision

317800.5394 $

Construction expenses

394843.0944 $

Total direct and indirect cost

2966138.368 $

Miscellaneous,
Contractors fee

148306.9184 $

Contingency

2966138.8368 $

Total plant cost

3922717.991 $

Land cost

7845345.983 $

Total cost

11768153.97 $

Including present worth of catalyst for 4 years life, and given plant life of 16 years at
rate of $ 196/kg.
Present worth of catalyst

1611366

Miscellaneous

4541961.6

Annual revenues
For 24500 kg/hr and a production capacity of 24 hours a day and 300 days a year
Inflows

37849680

Electricity

651183.16

Salaries and wages

65684.211

Income tax (40%)

15139872

Annual expenses

123

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

Sales tax (16%)

8.2.3

6055948.8

Net annual revenues

inflows outflows

Net annual revenues

12152024

Payback period:

Calculating discounted payback period at a MARR of 25%.


End of year 1

-3657901

End of year 2

4119394.4

Hence 2nd year is the payback period.

8.3

ECONOMICS OF PLANT LOCATION:

The final choice of the plant site usually involves a presentation of the economic
factors for several equally attractive sites. The exact type of economic study of plant
locations will vary with each company making a study. It should include the
following:
8.3.1

Investment:

Plant

New Money

Existing facilities

Working capital

Annual sales

Cost

Manufacturing

Distributing

Selling

Research

Annual Earnings

Operative

Net after taxes

Net annual return on total investment

124

Chapter 8

Cost Estimation

The limitations of preliminary plant location cost studies should be recognized


pointed out a management. No matter how carefully a survey is prepared, future
trends such as population and marketing shifts, development of competitive processes
and the advent of new industries. Services and transportation facilities cannot be
reliably predicated.
8.4

PLANT LOCATION AND SITE SELECTION:

The location of plant has a crucial effect on the profitability of project and the scope
for future expansion. Many factors are considered when selecting a suitable site. A
brief explanation of each factor is given below:
8.4.1

Raw Materials Supply:

Probably the location of the raw materials of an industry contributes more towards
the choice of a plant site than any other factor. This is especially noticeable in
those industries in which the raw material is inexpensive and bulky and is made
more compact and obtains a high bulk value during the process of manufacturing.
8.4.2

Marketing Area:

For materials that are produced in bulk quantities, such as cement, minerals acids
and fertilizers, where the cost of e product per ton is relatively low and cost of
transportation has a significant fraction of the sale price. The plant should be
located closed to the primary market. This consideration will be less important for
low volume production, high price product such as pharmaceuticals.
8.4.3

Transportation Facilities:

The Transport of material and products to and from the plant will be overriding
consideration in site selection. If practicable, a site should be selected that is
closed to at least two major forms of transport, road, rail, water way (canal or
river) or a sea port. Road transport is being increasingly used and is suitable for
local distribution from a central ware house. Rail transportation will be cheaper
for long distance transport of bulk chemicals. Air transport is convenient and
efficient for the movement of personnel and essential equipment and supplies and
the proximity of the site to a major airport should be considered.

125

Chapter 8

8.4.4

Cost Estimation

Sources of Power:

Power for chemical industry is primarily from coal, water and oil; these fuels
supply (he most flexible and economical sources, in as much as they provide for
generation of steam both for processing and for electricity production power can
be economically developed as a by-product in the most chemical plants. If the
needs are great enough, since the process requirements generally call for lowpressure steam. The turbines of engines used to generate electricity can be
operated non-condensing and supply exhaust steam for processing purposes.
8.4.5

Availability of Labor:

Labor will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation. Skilled
construction workers will usually be brought in from outside the site area, but here
should be an adequate pool of unskilled labor available locally; and lab our
suitable for training to operate plant. Skilled tradesmen will be needed for plant
maintenance. Local trade union customs and restrictive practices will have to be
considered when assessing the availability and suitability of the local labor for
recruitment and training.
8.4.6

Water Supply:

Water for industrial purpose can be obtained from one of two general sources: the
plant's own source or municipal supply. If the demand for water is larger, it is
more economical for the industry to supply its own water. Such a supply may be
obtained from drilled wells, rivers, lakes, dammed streams or other impounded
supplies. Before a company enters upon any project, it must ensure itself of a
sufficient supply of water for all industrial, sanitary and fire demands, both
present and future.
8.4.7

Effluent Disposal:

All industrial process produce waste products and full consideration must be given
to the difficulties and cost of their disposal. The disposal of toxic and harmful
effluents will be covered by local regulations and appropriate authorities must be
consulted during the initial site survey to determine the standards that must be
met.

126

Chapter 8

8.4.8

Cost Estimation

Local Community Considerations:

The proposed plant must fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. Full
consideration must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it dies not
impose a significant additional risk to the community. On a new site, the local
community must be able to provide adequate facilities for, the plant personnel:
school, banks, housing and recreational and cultural facilities.
8.4.9

Land Considerations:

Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed pant and for future
expansion. The land should ideally be flat, well drained and have suitable load
bearing characteristics. A full site evaluation should be made to determine the
need for piling or other special foundation.
8.4.10 Climate:
Adverse climatic conditions at a site will increase costs. Abnormally low
temperature will require the provision of additional insulation and special heating
for equipment and pipe runs. Stronger structures will be need at locations
subjected to strong winds (cyclone hurricane areas) or earthquakes.
8.4.11 Political and Strategic Considerations:
Capital grants, tax concessions, and other inducements are often given by
government's direct new investment to preferred locations such as areas of high
unemployment. The availability of such grants can be over-riding consideration
site selection.

127

CHAPTER 9

ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY

Chapter 9

Environment And Safety

CHAPTER # 9
ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY
Petroleum refining is one of the largest industries and a vital part of the national
economy. However, potential environmental hazards associated with refineries have
caused increased concern for communities in close proximity to them. This update
provides a general overview of the processes involved and some of the potential
environmental hazards associated with petroleum refineries.
9.1

DEFINITION OF A PETROLEUM REFINERY:

Petroleum refineries separate crude oil into a wide array of petroleum products
through a series of physical and chemical separation techniques. These techniques
include fractionation, cracking, hydro treating, combination/blending processes, and
manufacturing and transport. The refining industry supplies several widely used
everyday products including petroleum gas, kerosene, diesel fuel, motor oil, asphalt,
and waxes.
9.2

BACKGROUND:

A refinery is an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance. The refining sector
investment in Pakistan has been almost nonexistent since the 1960s.In the late 90s,
Pakistans refining capacity was less than 150k bbl. /day. Pakistan imported over 60%
of

its

total

POL

product

consumption.

capacity stands slightly below 300Kbb/day. This

At present, Pakistans
was

mainly

due

refining
to the

commencement of PARCO in the late 2000.Almost the refineries work at around 80%
capacity except Byco, which just utilized 45% of its capacity. NRL and PPl operate at
full capacity. Inspite of current condition there is a general lack of refineries; where
Pakistan is facing a deficit 100,000 to 150,000 barrels a day in refining fuel oil and
diesel. There are certain standards that are followed internationally known as EURO 2
and EURO 4 that relate to environmental cleanliness. Neither of these is followed in
Pakistan. The major players or the 5 refineries under OCAC (Oil Companies
Advisory Committee) are:
1. Pak Arab Refinery Complex
2. National Refinery Limited
129

Chapter 9

Environment And Safety

3. Pakistan Refinery Limited


4. Attock Refinery Limited
5. Byco Refinery Limited
Two refineries that have been introduced and dont come under OCAC. Enar
Petrotech Services Limited and Dohaka Refinery Limited.

9.3

PROCESSES INVOLVED IN REFINING CRUDE OIL:

The process of oil refining involves a series of steps that includes separation and
blending of petroleum products. The five major processes are briefly described below:
9.3.1

Separation Processes:

These processes involve separating the different fractions/ hydrocarbon compounds


that make up crude oil based on their boiling point differences. Crude oil generally is
composed of the entire range of components that make up gasoline, diesel, oils and
waxes. Separation is commonly achieved by using atmospheric and vacuum
distillation. Additional processing of these fractions is usually needed to produce final
products to be sold within the market.
9.3.2

Conversion Processes:

Cracking, reforming, coking, and visbreaking are conversion processes used to break
down large longer chain molecules into smaller ones by heating or using catalysts.
These processes allow refineries to break down the heavier oil fractions into other
light fractions to increase the fraction of higher demand components such as gasoline,
diesel fuels or whatever may be more useful at the time.

9.3.3

Treating:

Petroleum-treating processes are used to separate the undesirable components and


impurities such as sulfur, nitrogen and heavy metals from the products. This involves
processes such as hydro treating, deasphalting, acid gas removal, desalting,
hydrodesulphurization, and sweetening.

130

Chapter 9

9.3.4

Environment And Safety

Blending/Combination Processes:

Refineries use blending/combination processes to create mixtures with the various


petroleum fractions to produce a desired final product. An example of this step would
be to combine different mixtures of hydrocarbon chains to produce lubricating oils,
asphalt, or gasoline with different octane ratings.
9.3.5

Auxiliary Processes:

Refineries also have other processes and units that are vital to operations by providing
power, waste treatment and other utility services. Products from these facilities are
usually recycled and used in other processes within the refinery and are also important
in regards to minimizing water and air pollution. A few of these units are boilers,
wastewater treatment, and cooling towers.
9.4

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS OF PETROLEUM REFINERIES:

Refineries are generally considered a major source of pollutants in areas where they
are located and are regulated by a number of environmental laws related to air, land
and water. Some of the regulations that affect the refining industry include the
following Laws, Rules and Regulations have been issued under the Pakistan
Environmental Protection Act, 1997.
9.4.1

Rules:

National Environmental Quality Standards (self-monitoring and Reporting by


Industries) Rules, 2001

Provincial Sustainable Development Fund (Procedure) Rules, 2001

Pakistan Sustainable Development Fund (Utilization) Rules, 2001

Provincial Sustainable Development Fund (Utilization) Rules, 2003

Pollution Charge for Industry (Calculation and Collection) Rules, 2001

Environmental Tribunal Rules, 1999

Environmental Tribunal Procedures and Qualifications Rules, 2000

Environmental Samples Rules, 2001


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Environment And Safety

Hazardous Substances Rules, 2000

Hazardous Substances Rules, 2003

9.4.2

Regulations :
Review of IEE/EIA Regulations, 2000 Pakistan Environmental Protection
Agency (Review of IEE1EIA) Regulations, 2000

National Environmental Quality Standards (Environmental Laboratories


Certification) Regulations, 2000

National Environmental Quality Standards


Draft Hospital waste Management Rules
Draft Composition of Offences and Payment of Administrative Penalty Rules,
1999

9.4.3

Policies &Strategies:

National Environment Policy

National Resettlement Policy March, 2002 (Draft)

National Drinking water Policy (Draft)

National Drinking water Policy

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

National Operational Strategy

Here is a breakdown of the air, water, and soil hazards posed by refineries:
9.4.4

Air Pollution Hazards:

Petroleum refineries are a major source of hazardous and toxic air pollutants such as
BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylem). They are also a
major source of criteria air pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (Knox),
carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Refineries
also release less toxic hydrocarbons such as natural gas (methane) and other light
volatile fuels and oils. Some of the chemicals released are known or suspected cancercausing agents, responsible for developmental and reproductive problems. They may
132

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also aggravate certain respiratory conditions such as childhood asthma. Along with
the possible health effects from exposure to these chemicals, these chemicals may
cause worry and fear among residents of surrounding communities. Air emissions can
come from a number of sources within a petroleum refinery including: equipment
leaks (from valves or other devices); high-temperature combustion processes in the
actual burning of fuels for electricity generation; the heating of steam and process
fluids; and the transfer of products. Many thousands of pounds of these pollutants are
typically emitted into the environment over the course of a year through normal
emissions, fugitive releases, accidental releases, or plant upsets. The combination of
volatile hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen also contribute to ozone formation, one
of the most important air pollution problems in the United States.
9.4.5

Water Pollution Hazards:

Refineries are also potential major contributors to ground water and surface water
contamination. Some refineries use deep-injection wells to dispose of wastewater
generated inside the plants, and some of these wastes end up in aquifers and
groundwater. These wastes are then regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA). Wastewater in refineries may be highly contaminated given the number of
sources it can come into contact with during the refinery process (such as equipment
leaks and spills and the desalting of crude oil). This contaminated water may be
process wastewaters from desalting, water from cooling towers, storm water,
distillation, or cracking. It may contain oil residuals and many other hazardous
wastes. This water is recycled through many stages during the refining process and
goes through several treatment processes, including a wastewater treatment plant,
before being released into surface waters. The wastes discharged into surface waters
are subject to state discharge regulations and are regulated under the Clean Water Act
(CWA). These discharge guidelines limit the amounts of sulfides, ammonia,
suspended solids and other compounds that may be present in the wastewater.
Although these guidelines are in place, sometimes significant contamination from past
discharges may remain in surface water bodies.
9.4.6

Soil Pollution Hazards:

Contamination of soils from the refining processes is generally a less significant


problem when compared to contamination of air and water. Past production practices
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may have led to spills on the refinery property that now need to be cleaned up.
Natural bacteria that may use the petroleum products as food are often effective at
cleaning up petroleum spills and leaks compared to many other pollutants. Many
residuals are produced during the refining processes, and some of them are recycled
through other stages in the process. Other residuals are collected and disposed of in
landfills, or they may be recovered by other facilities. Soil contamination including
some hazardous wastes, spent catalysts or coke dust, tank bottoms, and sludge from
the treatment processes can occur from leaks as well as accidents or spills on or off
site during the transport process.

9.5

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET:

Material name:

Light Straight Run Naphtha

Synonym(s):

LSR; LSR Gasoline; Light Straight Run; Light Straight Run


Gasoline; Gasoline - Straight-Run, Topping-Plant

Physical State Liquid.


Appearance Colorless to light yellow liquid.
9.5.1

Emergency Overview DANGER!

Extremely flammable liquid and vapor - vapor may cause flash fire. Will be easily
ignited by heat spark or flames. Heat may cause the containers to explode. Harmful if
inhaled, absorbed through skin, or swallowed. Aspiration may cause lung damage.
Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. In high concentrations, vapors and
spray mists are narcotic and may cause headache, fatigue, dizziness and nausea.

Contains benzene, Cancer hazard, Mutagen, may cause heritable genetic damage.
May cause adverse reproductive effects -such as birth defects, miscarriages, or
infertility. Hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, may be present or released. Signs and
symptoms of overexposure to hydrogen sulfide include respiratory and eye irritation,
dizziness, nausea, coughing, a sensation of dryness and pain in the nose, and loss of
consciousness. Odor does not provide a reliable indicator of the presence of hazardous
levels in the atmosphere. Prolonged exposure may cause chronic effects. Toxic to
aquatic Organisms. May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
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9.5.2

Environment And Safety

OSHA Regulatory Status:

This product is considered hazardous under 29 CFR 1910.1200 (Hazard


Communication).

9.5.3

Potential Health Effects:

9.5.3.1 Eyes: Contact may irritate or burn eyes. Eye contact may result in corneal
injury.

9.5.3.2

Skin:

Harmful if absorbed through skin. Irritating to skin. Frequent or

prolonged contact may defat and dry the skin, leading to discomfort and dermatitis.

9.5.3.3

Inhalation:

Harmful if inhaled. Irritating to respiratory system. In high

concentrations, vapors and spray mists are narcotic and may cause headache, fatigue,
dizziness and nausea. May cause breathing disorders and lung damage. May cause
cancer by inhalation. Prolonged inhalation may be harmful.

9.5.3.4 Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed. Ingestion may result in vomiting; aspiration


(breathing) of vomiting into lungs must be avoided as even small quantities may
result in aspiration pneumonitis. Irritating to mouth, throat, and stomach.

9.5.3.5

Target organs: Blood. Eyes. Liver, Respiratory system, Skin, Kidneys,

Central nervous system.

9.5.3.6

Chronic effects:

Cancer hazard. Contains material which may have

reproductive toxicity, teratogenetic or Mutagenic effects. Liver injury may occur.


Kidney injury may occur. May cause central nervous system disorder (e.g., narcosis
involving a loss of coordination, weakness, fatigue, mental confusion and blurred
vision) and/or damage. Frequent or prolonged contact may defat and dry the skin,
leading to discomfort and dermatitis.

9.5.3.7 Signs and symptoms: Irritation of nose and throat. Irritation of eyes and
mucous membranes. Skin irritation, Unconsciousness, Corneal damage, Narcosis,
135

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Environment And Safety

Cyanosis (blue tissue condition, nails, lips, and/or skin). Decrease in motor functions.
Behavioral changes, Edema, Liver enlargement. Jaundice, Conjunctivitis. Proteinuria,
Defatting of the skin rash.

9.5.3.8 Potential environmental effects: Toxic to aquatic organisms. May cause longterm adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

9.5.4

Composition:

component
Gasoline, straight-run, topping-plant
Pentane
Hexane (Other Isomers)
Pentane Isomers Mixture
n-Hexane
Benzene
Cyclohexane
Cyclopentane
Methyl cyclohexane
n- Heptanes
n-Butane
Hydrogen sulfide
9.5.5

percentage
0 - 100
0 - 35
0 - 25
0 - 25
0 - 20
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-5
0-4
<1

First Aid Measures:

9.5.5.1 Eye Contact :


Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contact
lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Get medical attention.

9.5.5.2 Skin Contact :


Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash off immediately with soap and
plenty of water. Get medical attention if irritation develops or persists. Wash clothing
separately before reuse. Destroy or thoroughly clean contaminated shoes. If high
pressure injection under the skin occurs, always seek medical attention.

9.5.5.3 Inhalation:

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Move to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not breathing, give artificial
respiration. Get medical attention.

9.5.5.4 Ingestion:
Rinse mouth thoroughly. Do not induce vomiting without advice from poison control
center. Do not give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If vomiting occurs, keep head low
so that stomach content does not get into the lungs. Get medical attention
immediately.

9.5.5.5 Notes To Physician:


In case of shortness of breath, give oxygen. Keep victim warm. Keep victim under
observation. Symptoms may be delayed.

9.5.5.6 General Advice:


If exposed or concerned: get medical attention/advice. Ensure that medical personnel
are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves.
Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance. Wash contaminated clothing
before re-use.

9.5.6

Fire Fighting Measures:

9.5.6.1 Extinguishing Media:


Suitable Extinguishing Media: Foam, CO2 or dry powder.
For Large Fire Use: Water.
Unsuitable Extinguishing Media: Do not use water jet.

9.5.6.2 Special Hazards Arising From The Substance Or Mixture:


Vapor may create explosive atmosphere. The vapor is heavier than air; beware of pits
and confined spaces. May give off toxic fumes in a fire. Carbon monoxide, Carbon
dioxide and various hydrocarbons.

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9.5.6.3 Advice For Fire-Fighters:


A self-contained breathing apparatus and suitable protective clothing should be worn
in fire conditions. Keep fire exposed containers cool by spraying with water.

Flash Point (C): < 0

Flammable Limits (Lower) (%v/v): 1

Flammable Limits (Upper) (%v/v): 10

Auto Ignition Temperature (C): > 250

9.5.7

Accidental Release Measures:

9.5.7.1 Personal Precautions:


Keep unnecessary personnel away. Local authorities should be advised if significant
spills cannot be contained. Keep upwind. Keep out of low areas. Ventilate closed
spaces before entering. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled material unless
wearing appropriate protective clothing. See Section 8 of the MSDS for Personal
Protective Equipment.
9.5.7.2 Environmental Precautions:
Gasoline may contain oxygenated blend products (Ethanol, etc.) that are soluble in
water and therefore precautions should be taken to protect surface and groundwater
sources from contamination. If facility or operation has an "oil or hazardous substance
contingency plan", activate its procedures. Stay upwind and away from spill. Wear
appropriate protective equipment including respiratory protection as conditions
warrant. Do not enter or stay in area unless monitoring indicates that it is safe to do
so. Isolate hazard area and restrict entry to emergency crew. Extremely flammable.
Review Fire Fighting Measures, Section 5, before proceeding with lean up. Keep all
sources of ignition (flames, smoking, flares, etc.) and hot surfaces away from release.
Contain spill in smallest possible area. Recover as much product as possible (e.g. by
vacuuming). Stop leak if it can be done without risk. Use water spray to disperse
vapors. Use compatible foam to minimize vapor generation as needed. Spilled
material may be absorbed by an appropriate absorbent, and then handled in
accordance with environmental regulations. Prevent spilled material from entering
sewers, storm drains, other unauthorized treatment or drainage systems and natural
waterways. Contact fire authorities and appropriate federal, state and local agencies. If
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Environment And Safety

spill of any amount is made into or upon navigable waters, the contiguous zones, or
adjoining shorelines, contact the National Response Center
9.5.7.3 Methods For Containment:
Eliminate all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks, or flames in immediate
area). Stop leak if you can do so without risk. This material is a water pollutant and
should be prevented from contaminating soil or from entering sewage and drainage
systems and bodies of water. Dike the spilled material, where this is possible. Prevent
entry into waterways, sewers, basements or confined areas.

9.5.7.4 Methods For Cleaning Up:


Use non-sparking tools and explosion-proof equipment. Small Spills: Absorb spill
with vermiculite or other inert material, then place in a container for chemical waste.
Clean surface thoroughly to remove residual contamination. This material and its
container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Large Spills: Use a noncombustible material like vermiculite, sand or earth to soak up the product and place
into a container for later disposal. Prevent product from entering drains. Do not allow
material to contaminate ground water system. Should not be released into the
environment.
9.5.7.5 Other Information:
Clean up in accordance with all applicable regulations.
9.5.8

Handling And Storage:

9.5.8.1 Handling:
Wear personal protective equipment. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapors/spray.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Do not taste or swallow. Avoid
prolonged exposure. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after
handling. The product is extremely flammable, and explosive vapor/air mixtures may
be formed even at normal room temperatures. DO NOT handle, store or open near an
open flame, sources of heat or sources of ignition. Protect material from direct
sunlight. Take precautionary measures against static discharges. All equipment used
when handling the product must be grounded. Use non-sparking tools and explosion139

Chapter 9

Environment And Safety

proof equipment. When using, do not eat, drink or smoke. Avoid release to the
environment.
9.5.8.2 Storage :
Flammable liquid storage. Do not handle or store near an open flame, heat or other
sources of ignition. This material can accumulate static charge which may cause spark
and become an ignition source. The pressure in sealed containers can increase under
the influence of heat. Keep container tightly closed in a cool, well-ventilated place.

9.5.9

Exposure Controls/Personal Protection:

9.5.9.1 Appropriate Engineering Controls:


Provide adequate ventilation, including appropriate local extraction, to ensure that the
occupational exposure limit is not exceeded occupational Exposure Limit assigned.
9.5.9.1.2

Personal Protection

9.5.9.1.2.1 Eye/face protection: Goggles giving complete protection to eyes

9.5.9.1.2.2 Skin protection: Protective gloves

9.5.9.1.2.3 Respiratory protection: In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable


respiratory equipment

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9.5.10 Physical And Chemical Properties


Information on basic physical and chemical properties

Appearance:
Color:
Odour:
Boiling Point (C):
Flash Point (C):<0
Flammable Limits (Lower) (%v/v) :
Flammable Limits (Upper) (%v/v):
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg):
Specific Gravity:
Solubility (Water):
Partition Coefficient:
(n-Octane/water)
Auto Ignition Temperature (C):
Viscosity:
Explosive Properties:
atmosphere.
Oxidizing Properties:
Vapor Density (Air=1):>2

Liquid.
Pale yellow.
Hydrocarbon.
< 35
1
10
200 (@ 20C)
0.70-0.80
Negligible.
1.0-8.0
>250
1 mm2/s (@ 20C)
Vapor may create explosive
Not oxidizing.

Other information

Conductivity:

15-35

9.5.11 Stability And Reactivity:

Reactivity Reacts with


Chemical stability
conditions.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Conditions to avoid

Strong oxidizing agents.


Stable under normal
No information available.
Keep away from heat, sources of
141

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Environment And Safety

ignition and direct sunlight.

9.5.12

Incompatible materials
Hazardous Decomposition Product(s)
fire.

Oxidizing agents.
May give off toxic fumes in a
Carbon monoxide, Carbon
dioxide and various hydrocarbons

Toxicological Information:

Ingestion
Inhalation

LD50 (oral/rat):>5000 mg/kg


LC50 (inhalation/rat):>5.2 mg/l/4
h
Skin Contact
LD50 (dermal/rabbit):>2000
mg/kg
Eye Contact
No information available.
Skin corrosion/irritation
Irritating to skin.
Serious eye damage/irritation
May cause eye irritation.
Respiratory or skin sensitization
Negative.
Mutagenicity
May cause heritable genetic
damage.
Carcinogenicity
May cause cancer.
Reproductive toxicity
Suspected of damaging
fertility.
Suspected of damaging the unborn
child.
STOT-single exposure
Vapors may cause drowsiness and
dizziness.
STOT-repeated exposure
Negative.
Aspiration hazard
Risk of aspiration .Aspiration of
Liquid may cause pulmonary
edema.

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INSTRUMENTATION AND
CONTROL

Chapter 10

Instrumentation and Control

CHAPTER # 10
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

The important feature common to all process is that a process in never in a state of
static equilibrium except for a very short period of time and process is a dynamic
entity subject to continual upset or disturbance which' tend to drive it away from the
desired state of equilibrium the process must then be manipulated upon or
corrected to derive some disturbance bring about only transient effect in the process
behavior. These passes away and the never occur again. Others may apply periodic or
cycle forces which may make the process respond in a cyclic or periodic fashion.
Most disturbances are completely random with respect to time a show no repetitive
pattern. Thus their occurrence may be expected hut cannot be predicated at any
particular time. If a process is to operate efficiently, disturbances in the process must
be controlled.
A process is designed for a particular objective or output and is then found.
Sometimes by trial and error and sometimes by referring from the previous,
experience that control of a particular variable associated with some stages of the
process is necessary to achieve the desired efficiency.
Each process will have associated with it number of variables which are independent
of the process and/ or its operation and which are likely to change at random. Each
such change will lead to changes in the dependent variables of the process one of
which is selected as bring indicative of successfully operation. One of the input
variable will be manipulated to cause further changes in the output variable will be
manipulated to cause further

changes

in

the

output

variable

the

original

conditions, Process may controlled more precisely to give more uniform and
higher quality products by the application of automatic control, often leading to
higher profits additionally, process which response too rapidly to be controlled by
human operators can be controlled automatically. Automatic control

is

also

beneficial in certain remote, hazardous or routine operations. After a period of


experimentation, computers are now being used to operate automatic ally control

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Instrumentation and Control

processing systems, which may too large and too complex for effective direct
human control.
Since process profit is usually the most important benefit to obtained by
applying automatic control. The quality of control and its cost should be
compared

with

the economic

return

expected and

the

process

technical

objective. The economic return includes reduced operating costs, maintenance and of
the specification product along with improved process operability and increased
throughout.
10.1

COMPONENTS OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM:

10.1.1 Process:
Any operation of series of operations that produce a desired final result is a process.
In this discussion the process is the purification of natural
10.1.2 Measuring Means:
As all the parts of the control system, measuring element, is perhaps the most
important. If the measurements are not made properly the remainder of the system
cannot operate satisfactorily. The measured variable is chosen to represent the desired
condition in the process.
10.2

ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT:

10.2.1 Variables to be Measured:


a. Pressure Measurement
b. Temperature Measurement
c. Flow Rate Measurement
d. Level Measurement

10.2.2 Variables to be Recorded:


Indicated temperature, composition, pressure etc.

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10.3

Instrumentation and Control

CONTROLLER:

The controller is the mechanism that responds to any error indicated by the
error detecting mechanism. The output of the controller is some predetermined
function of the error. There are three types of controllers.
1. Proportion action which moves the control valve indirect proportion to
the magnitude of the error.
2. Integral action (reset) which moves the control valve based on the time
integral of the error and the purpose of integral actions is to drive the process
back to .its set point when it has been disturbed.
3. Ideal derivative action and its purpose are to anticipate where the process
is heading by cooking at the time a rate of change of error. The final
control

element receives the signal from the controller and by some

predetermined relationship changes the energy input to the process.


10.4

CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLER:

In general the process controllers can be classified as


a. Pneumatic controllers
b. Electronic controllers
c. Hydraulic controllers
While dealing with the gases, the controller and the final control element may
be pneumatically operated due to the following reasons.
i.

The pneumatic controller is very rugged and almost free of maintenance.


The maintenance men have not had sufficient training and background in
electronics, so pneumatic equipment is simple.

ii.

Pneumatic controller appears to be safer in a potentially explosive


atmosphere which is often present in the industry.

iii.

Transmissions distances are short pneumatic and electronic transmissions


system are generally equal up to about 200 to 300 feet. Above this distance
electronic system beings to offer savings.

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10.5

Instrumentation and Control

MODES OF CONTROL:

The various types of control are called modes, and they determine type of
response obtained. In other words these describe the action of controller that is the
relationship of output of output signal to the input or error signal. It must be noted
that is error that achieve the controller. The four basic mode of control are:
1. On-off control
2. Integral control
3. Proportional control
4. Rate or derivative control
In industry purely integral, proportional or derivative modes seldom occur alone in
the control system. The on-off controller is the controller with very high gain. In this
case the error signal at once off the valve or any other parameter upon which it sites
or completely sets system.

10.6

ALARMS AND SAFETY TRIPS:

Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous,


deviations in process conditions, key instruments are fitted with switches and relays
to operate audible and visual alarms on the control panels.
The basic components of an automatic trip system are
1. A sensor to monitor the control variable and provide and output signal when a
preset value is exceeded (the instrument).
2. A link to transfer the signal to the activator, usually consisting of a
system of pneumatic or electric relays.
3. An activator to carry out the required action close or open a valve, switch off a
motor.
10.7

CONTROL LOOPS:

For instrumentation and control of different sections and equipments of plants,


following control loops are most often used.

1. Feed backward control loop


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Chapter 10

Instrumentation and Control

2. Feed forward control loop


3. Ratio control loop
4. Auctioneering control loop
5. Split range control loop
6. Cascade control loop
Here is given a short outline of these control schemes, so that to justify our selection
of a control loop for specified equipment.
10.8

FEED BACK CONTROL LOOP:

A method of control in which a measured value of a process variable is compared


with the desired value of the process variable and any necessary action is taken.
Feedback control is considered as the basic control loops system. Its disadvantage
lies in its operational procedure. For example if a certain quantity is entering in a
process, then a monitor will be there at the process to note its value. Any changes
from the set point will be sent to the final control element through the controller so
that to adjust the incoming quantity according to desired value (set point). But in fact
change has already occurred and only corrective action can be taken while using
feedback-control system.
10.9

FEED FORWARD CONTROL LOOP:

A method of control in which the value of a disturbance is measured, and action is


taken to prevent the disturbance by changing the value of a process variable. This is a
control method designed to prevent errors from occurring in a process variable.
This control system is better than feedback control because it anticipates the change in
the process variable before it enters the process takes the preventive action. While in
feedback enter system action is taken after the change has occurred.
10.10 RATIO CONTROL:
A control loop in which, the controlling element maintains a predetermined ratio of
one variable to another. Usually this control loop is attached to such a system
where two different streams enter a vessel for reaction that may be of any kind.
To maintain the stoichiometric quantities of different streams this loop is used
so that to ensure proper process going on in the process vessel.

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Instrumentation and Control

10.11 AUCTIONEERING CONTROL LOOP:


This type of control loop is normally used for a huge vessel where, readings of a
single variable may be different at different locations. This type of control loop
ensures safe operation because it employs all the readings of different locations
simultaneously, and compares them with the set point, if any of those readings is
deviating from the set point then the controller sends appropriate signal to final
control element.
10.12 SPLIT RANGE LOOP:
In this loop controller is per set with different values corresponding to different action
to be taken at different conditions. The advantage of this loop is to maintain the
proper conditions and avoid abnormalities at very differential levels.
10.13 CASCADE CONTROL LOOP:
This is a control in which two or more control loops are arranged so that the output of,
one controlling element adjusts the set point of another controlling element. This
control loop is used where proper and quick control is difficult by simple feed forward
or feed backward control. Normally first loop is a feedback control loop. We have
selected a cascade control loop for our heat exchanger in order to get quick on proper
control.
10.14 INTERLOCKS:
Where it is necessary to follow a fixed sequence of operations for example, during a
plant start-up and shut-down, or in batch operations. Interlocks are includes to prevent
operators departing from the required sequence. They may be incorporated in the
control system design, as pneumatic or electric relays or may be mechanical
interlocks.
10.15 CONTROL OF HEAT EXCHANGER:
10.15.1

The Normal Way:

The normal method of controlling a heat exchanger is to measure exit


temperature of process fluid and adjust input of heating or cooling medium to
hold the desired temperature.
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Chapter 10

Instrumentation and Control

To stabilize this feedback control, in almost all cases the control must have a
wide proportional band (i.e., wide range of exit temperature change operates the
control valve through full stroke). The proportional band is determined by gain of
other components in the control loop by process considerations.
Since heat-exchanger control require a wide proportional band for stabilization,
reset response (rate of change of heating medium How proportional to exit
temperature.
deviation from controller set point is normally required to correct for offset in
the controlled variable (temperature). It there are process load change and reset
response can be eliminated in cases where disturbance such as heating fluid header
pressure, product flow rate or inlet temperature changes have small effects relative to
desired tolerance on the controlled variable.
When throughout to a heat exchanger is changed rapidly a short-term error in control
temperature results. The magnitude and duration of this error can normally be reduced
by a factor of two by adding derivative response to the control mechanism and
adjusting it properly. In derivative responses, heating fluid flow rate is proportional to
rate or change of temperature derivation from the set point.
10.15.2

A Pressure Cascade Control:

A pressure cascade control system cascades output of a standard three action


temperature controller into the set point of a pressure controller. It achieves a more
rapid recovery to process load disturbances in a shell-and-tube exchanger than can be
obtained without the pressure controller. Heating fluid to the heater is regulated
by the pressure controller which is normally provided with proportional and reset
responses. Load change is rapidly sensed by a change is shell pressure which is
compensated for by the pressure controller. The temperature control system senses the
residual error and resets the pressure control set point.

10.15.3

Bypass Improves Control of Slow-Response Exchanger:

In certain cascade, the time response characteristic of heat exchanger is too slow to
hold temperature deviations resulting from load changes within desired tolerances. In
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Instrumentation and Control

some of these cases, the transient characteristic of the heat exchanger can be
circumvented by by- passing the heater with a parallel line and bleeding cold process
fluid with hot fluid from the heater. In the by-pass system care must be taken in sizing
valves to obtain the-desired flow sprit with adequate flow versus steam travel
characteristics. Thermal elements response time is particularly important since this tie
constant is a major factor influencing performance of the system.
10.15.4

Flow Controllers:

These are used to control tin-feed rate into a process unit Orifice plates are by far the
most type of How-rate sensor. Normally orifice plates arc designed to give pressure
drops in the range of 20 to 200 inch of water Venture tubes amend turbine meter are
also used.
10.15.5

Temperature controller:

Thermocouples are the most commonly used temperature sensing device. The two
dissimilar wires produce a millivolt emf that varies with the hot- functions
temperature. Iron constant to thermocouples are commonly used over the 0 to 1300 F.
temperature range.
10.15.6

Pressure Controller:

Bourdon tubes, bellows and diaphragms are used to sense pressure and differential
pressure. For example, in mechanical system the process pressure force is balanced by
the movement of a spring. The spring positing can be related to process pressure.
10.15.7

Level Indicator:

Liquid levels are detected in a variety of ways. The three common are
1. The following the position of a float that is lighter than the fluid.
2. Measuring one apparent-weight of a heavy cylinder as it is buoyed up more or
less by the liquid (they are called displacement meters).
3. Measuring the difference in static pressure between two fixed elevations, one
in the vapour above the liquid and the other under the liquid surface.
The differential pressure between the two level taps is directly related to the
liquid level in the vessel.

150

Chapter 10

10.15.8

Instrumentation and Control

Transmitter:

The transmitter is the interface between the process and its control system. The Job of
the transmitter is to convert the sensor signal (millivolts, mechanical movement,
pressure difference etc.) into a control signal 3 to 15 psig air pressure signal, 1 to 5 10
to 50 milli ampere electrical signal etc.

10.15.9

Control Valves:

The interface with the process at the other end of the control loop is made by the final
control element in an automatic control valves control the flow of heating fluid the
open or close and orifice opening as the system is raised or lowered.

151

REFERENCES

1.

M.A Fahim, Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining, 1st edition, Elsevier ,2010

2.

J.H Gray, Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics, 4th edition, Marcel
Dekker 2001

3.

Serge Raseev, Thermal and Catalytic Processes in Petroleum Refining, Marcel


Dekker 2003

4.

Ludwig, E.E, Applied process design , 3rd ed, vol. 2, Gulf


Professional Publishers, 2002.

5.

Ludwig, E.E, Applied Process Design, 3 rd

ed, vol. 3, Gulf

Professional Publishers, 2002.


6.

McKetta, J.J., Encyclopedia of chemical Processing and Design, Executive


ed, vol. 1, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 1976.

7.

Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering:, 3rd ed ,John Wily and


Sons Inc., 1999.

8.

Peters, M.S. and Timmerhaus ,K.D., Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineering , 5th ed, McGraw Hill, 1991.

9.

Rase, H.F., Fixed Bed Reactor Design and Diagnostics, Butterworth


Publishers, 1990.

10.

Frank L., Evans Jr. Equipment Design Hand Book For Refineries &
Chemical Plants Vol 2, 2nd Ed., 1980,

11.

Peacock, D.G., Coulson & Richardsons Chemical engineering,


3rd ed,vol,Butterworth Heinenann, 1994.

12.

Kern D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw H ill Inc.,2000.

13.

Mcabe, W.L, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering ,5 th ed, McGraw


Hill, Inc,1993.

14.

Perry, R.H and D.W. Green (eds): Perrys Chemical Engineering Hand Book,
7 thed. McGraw Hill New York, 1997.

15.

Sinnot, R.K.,Coulson & Richardsons


vol.6, Butterword Heinenann, 1993.
152

Chemical Engineering, 2nd ed,

16.

Rohsenow,Hartnett,Ganic Hand Book of Heat Transfer Application 2 nd


edition.

17.

Fogler H.S. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 2 nd Edition.

18.

W.L.Nelson. Petroleum Refinery Engineering4 th Ed ,McGraw Hill.

19.

Kern, Donald Q:Process Heat Transfer , McGraw-Hill International Edition


,New York

20.

W.L. Nelson: Petroleumner Refiy Engineering Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill,


New York.

21.

Kirk: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology John Willey and Sons, New


York

22.

Macketta, John J:

Encyclopedia of chemical Processing and Design

Marceer Dekker, INC., New York


23.

Warren M. Rohenson: Hand book of Heat Transfer , McGrawHill, New York

153

APPENDICES

Components Properties

Thermodynamic Properties

Equilibrium Constants

Graphs used in the designing of Compressor, pump,


heat exchanger and Distillation column

154

APPENDIX A

Components

Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
i-Butane
i-Pentane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane
Mcyclopentan
Cyclohexane
Ecyclopentan
Mcyclohexane
223-Mbutane
H2O
CCl4

Boiling
Temperature C
-252.595
-161.525
-88.6
-42.102
-0.50199
36.059
68.73
98.429
-11.73
27.878
60.261
63.27
49.731
57.977
90.049
91.847
79.191
89.778
80.493
86.059
93.472
80.089
110.649
49.248
71.809
80.73
103.467
100.929
80.876
99.998
76.748

155

Mol Wt

2.016
16.0429
30.0699
44.097
58.124
72.151
86.1779
100.205
58.124
72.151
86.1779
86.1779
86.1779
86.1779
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
100.205
78.11
92.1408
70.135
84.1619
84.16
98.189
98.189
100.205
18.0151
153.822

Critical
Pressure Kpa
1315.5
4640.68
4883.85
4256.66
3796.62
3375.12
3031.62
2736.78
3647.62
3333.59
3010.36
3123.84
3880.62
3126.87
2733.62
2813.79
2773.26
2908.02
2736.78
2945.51
2890.8
4924.39
4100.04
4508.95
3789.55
4053
3397.62
3475.37
2953.62
22120
4559.99

Critical Temp
C
-239.71
-82.451
32.278
96.748
152.049
196.45
234.748
267.008
134.946
187.248
224.347
231.299
231.299
226.83
257.219
262.1
247.35
264.198
246.639
263.248
267.49
288.948
318.649
238.45
259.55
280.05
296.37
298.948
258.019
374.149
283.25

Heat of
Combustion
kJ/Kmol
-241942
-802703
-1.43E+06
-2.04E+06
-2.66E+06
-3.27E+06
-3.89E+06
-4.50E+06
-2.65E+06
-3.27E+06
-3.85E+06
-3.88E+06
-3.87E+06
-3.88E+06
-4.50E+06
-4.50E+06
-4.49E+06
-4.49E+06
-4.49E+06
-4.49E+06
-4.50E+06
-3.17E+06
-3.77E+06
-3.10E+06
-3.71E+06
-3.69E+06
-4.32E+06
-4.29E+06
-4.49E+06
-258069

Heat of
Formation
kJ/Kmol
0
-74900
-84738
-103890
-126190
-146490
-167290
-187890
-134590
-154590
-174390
-171690
-185690
-177890
-195090
-192390
-206290
-199390
-202090
-201690
-189790
82977
50029
-77288
-106790
-123190
-127190
-154890
-204890
-241814
-100488

MON

100.789
97.1
89.6
62.6
26
0
97.6
90.3
73.5
74.3
93.4
94.3
46.4
55.8
95.6
88.5
83.8
86.6
69.3
101
103.524
84.9
80
77.2
61.2
71.1
101

156

RON

130
120
111.378
112.135
93.8
61.7
24.8
0
101.426
92.3
73.4
74.5
91.8
100
42.4
52
92.8
91.1
83.1
80.8
65
106
120.083
101.426
91.3
83
67.2
74.8
100

Flash point

-40.15
-21.15
-4.15
-56.15
-35.15
-32.15
-48.15
-29.15
-23.15
-4.15
-15.15
-15.15
-12.15
-19.15
-12.15
-11.15
3.85
-40.15
-27.15
-20.15
-4.15
-6.15
-24.15

Freez point

-259.25
-182.75
-182.75
-187.65
-138.15
-130.15
-95.15
-90.15
-159.15
-160.15
-153.15
-163.15
-99.15
-128.15
-118.15
-119.15
-124.15
-119.15
-134.15
-118.15
5.85
-95.15
-94.15
-142.15
6.85
-138.15
-126.15
-24.15

APPENDIX B

Antoine Equation
Tmin

Tmax

ln(P) = a + b/(T + c) + d*ln(T) + e*T^f


Default Q

Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane

13
91
133

32
190.4
305.4

101.3
101.3
101.3

9.183
31.35
44.01

-107.9
-1308
-2569

0
0
0

0.1641
-3.261
-4.976

6.02E-04
2.94E-05
1.46E-05

2
2
2

Propane

145

369.8

101.3

52.38

-3491

-6.109

1.12E-05

n-Butane
i-Butane
n-Pentane
i-Pentane
22-Mpropane
n-Hexane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
n-Heptane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
223-Mbutane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane

170
165
195
220
260
220
230
235
225
235
230
230
235
225
230
225
225
265
250
213
178.2
288

425.2
408.1
469.6
460.4
433.8
507.5
497.5
504.4
488.8
500
540.2
530.4
535.3
520.5
537.3
519.8
536.4
540.6
531.2
552
591.8
511.6

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

66.94
58.78
63.33
66.76
69.98
70.43
72.46
70.35
56.69
67.02
78.33
75.79
74.79
70.43
70.99
71.35
77.56
78.75
69.23
169.7
76.45
51.84

-4604
-4137
-5118
-5059
-4845
-6056
-5929
-5909
-5087
-5625
-6947
-6688
-6650
-6198
-6430
-6255
-6450
-6816
-6100
-1.03E+04
-6995
-4915

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

-8.255
-7.017
-7.483
-8.089
-8.701
-8.379
-8.765
-8.419
-6.384
-7.959
-9.449
-9.1
-8.95
-8.363
-8.391
-8.497
-9.517
-9.568
-8.213
-23.59
-9.164
-5.623

1.16E-05
1.04E-05
7.77E-06
9.25E-06
1.11E-05
6.62E-06
7.62E-06
7.06E-06
5.41E-06
6.96E-06
6.48E-06
6.44E-06
6.30E-06
6.29E-06
5.88E-06
6.39E-06
7.89E-06
6.93E-06
6.30E-06
2.09E-05
6.23E-06
4.80E-06

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Mcyclopentan
Cyclohexane
Cyclopentane
Mcyclohexane
H2O
CCl4

288
293
376.6
298
275
250

532.7
553.2
569.5
572.1
647.3
556.4

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

71.34
70.98
98.91
72.24
65.93
74.22

-6030
-6187
-7885
-6555
-7228
-6240

0
0
0
0
0
0

-8.572
-8.465
-12.58
-8.597
-7.177
-8.987

7.17E-06
6.45E-06
8.90E-06
5.97E-06
4.03E-06
7.19E-06

2
2
2
2
2
2

157

Gibbs Free Energy

G = a + b*T + c*T^2 + d*T^3 + e*T^4

a
Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
n-Pentane
i-Pentane
22-Mpropane
n-Hexane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
n-Heptane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
223-Mbutane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane
Cyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Ecyclopentane
Mcyclohexane
H2O
CCl4

0
-7.72E+04
-8.58E+04
-1.06E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.69E+05
-1.71E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.92E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.96E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.05E+05
-1.93E+05
-2.09E+05
8.15E+04
4.78E+04
-8.05E+04
-1.10E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.31E+05
-1.60E+05
-2.41E+05
-1.01E+05

0
0
87.74 8.60E-03
168.6 2.69E-02
264.8 3.25E-02
360.5 3.83E-02
376.4 3.75E-02
457.5 4.44E-02
464 4.34E-02
502.8 3.96E-02
554.2 5.03E-02
563 4.83E-02
562.7 5.04E-02
586.5 4.76E-02
577.8 4.97E-02
650.5 5.64E-02
658.4 5.65E-02
654.3 5.65E-02
685.6 5.64E-02
664.6 5.63E-02
681.9 5.63E-02
678.9 5.63E-02
666.9 5.65E-02
698.1 5.26E-02
152.8 2.65E-02
238.3 3.19E-02
384.5 4.52E-02
474 4.91E-02
520.3 4.47E-02
571.4 5.48E-02
612.5 4.63E-02
43.41 4.96E-03
145.6 -8.68E-03

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

158

Enthalpy

H = a + b*T + c*T^2 + d*T^3 + e*T^4


a

Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
n-Pentane
i-Pentane
22-Mpropane
n-Hexane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
n-Heptane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
223-Mbutane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane
Mcyclopentan
eCyclohexane
Ecyclopentane
Mcyclohexane
H2O

-49.68
-12.98
-1.768
39.49
67.72
30.9
63.2
64.25
0
74.51
111.5
83.82
0
0
71.41
47.74
1.96E-08
77.69
80.01
75.92
82.69
78.61
86.02
84.47
74.16
1.56E-08
127.2
4.56E-09
64.92
107.6
-5.73
0

13.84 3.00E-04
2.365 -2.13E-03
1.143 -3.24E-04
0.395 2.11E-03
8.54E-03 3.28E-03
0.1533 2.64E-03
-1.17E-02 3.32E-03
-0.1318 3.54E-03
-2.20E-02 3.29E-03
-9.67E-02 3.48E-03
-0.6057 4.92E-03
-0.1695 3.68E-03
-0.193 3.65E-03
-0.1695 3.57E-03
-9.69E-02 3.47E-03
-0.125 3.60E-03
-5.61E-02 3.38E-03
0.2155 2.82E-03
0.158 2.83E-03
0.2227 2.82E-03
0.1556 2.83E-03
0.1546 2.83E-03
0.1548 2.83E-03
-0.5133 3.25E-03
-0.4231 3.18E-03
-0.7645 3.87E-03
-0.6841 4.01E-03
-0.6481 3.63E-03
-0.677 4.22E-03
-0.7046 4.10E-03
1.915 -3.96E-04
0.2649 6.67E-04

159

d
3.46E-07
5.66E-06
4.24E-06
3.97E-07
-1.11E-06
7.27E-08
-1.17E-06
-1.33E-06
-8.71E-07
-1.32E-06
-3.02E-06
-1.56E-06
-2.42E-06
-2.35E-06
-1.33E-06
-1.28E-06
-1.21E-06
-6.68E-07
-6.76E-07
-6.68E-07
-6.75E-07
-6.77E-07
-6.74E-07
-1.54E-06
-1.44E-06
-1.44E-06
-1.68E-06
-9.99E-07
-2.12E-06
-1.53E-06
8.76E-07
-4.92E-07

e
-9.71E-11
-3.73E-09
-3.39E-09
-6.67E-10
1.77E-10
-7.28E-10
2.00E-10
2.51E-10
-9.07E-11
2.52E-10
1.07E-09
3.54E-10
6.44E-10
6.41E-10
2.56E-10
9.86E-11
1.85E-10
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.65E-10
3.27E-10
2.31E-10
3.58E-10
3.92E-11
7.00E-10
1.83E-10
-4.95E-10
1.44E-10

Heat Capacity (Gas) CpG


CpG = a + b*T + c*T^2 + d*T^3
a
Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
i-Butane
i-Pentane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane
Mcyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Ecyclopentane
Mcyclohexane
223-Mbutane

27.143
19.251
5.409
-4.224
9.487
-3.626
-4.413
-5.146
-1.39
-9.525
-10.57
-2.386
-16.634
-14.608
-39.389
-7.046
-50.099
-7.046
-7.046
-7.046
-7.046
-33.917
-24.355
-53.625
-50.108
-54.541
-61.919
-55.312
-22.944

b
c
9.27E-03 -1.38E-05
5.21E-02
1.20E-05
1.78E-01 -6.94E-05
3.06E-01 -1.59E-04
3.31E-01 -1.11E-04
4.87E-01 -2.58E-04
5.82E-01 -3.119E-04
6.76E-01 -3.65E-04
3.85E-01 -1.85E-04
5.07E-01 -2.73E-04
6.18E-01 -3.57E-04
5.69E-01 -2.87E-04
6.29E-01 -3.48E-04
6.15E-01 -3.38E-04
8.64E-01 -6.29E-04
6.84E-01 -3.73E-04
8.96E-01 -6.36E-04
7.05E-02 -3.73E-04
6.84E-01 -3.73E-04
6.84E-01 -3.73E-04
6.84E-01 -3.73E-04
4.74E-01 -3.02E-04
5.12E-01 -2.77E-04
5.43E-01 -3.03E-04
6.38E-01 -3.64E-04
6.11E-01 -2.52E-04
7.84E-01 -4.44E-04
7.51E-01 -4.40E-04
7.52E-01 -4.42E-04

160

d
7.65E-09
-1.13E-08
8.71E-09
3.21E-08
-2.82E-09
5.30E-08
6.49E-08
7.66E-08
2.90E-08
5.72E-08
8.08E-08
5.03E-08
6.85E-08
6.82E-08
1.84E-07
7.83E-08
1.74E-07
7.83E-08
7.83E-08
7.83E-08
7.83E-08
7.13E-08
4.91E-08
6.49E-08
8.01E-08
1.32E-08
9.37E-08
1.00E-07
1.00E-07

Heat Capacity (Liquid) CpL


CpL = a + b*T + c*T^2 + d*T^3 +e*T^4
a

Hydrogen
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
n-Heptane
i-Butane
i-Pentane
2-Mpentane
3-Mpentane
22-Mbutane
23-Mbutane
2-Mhexane
3-Mhexane
22-Mpentane
23-Mpentane
24-Mpentane
33-Mpentane
3-Epentane
Benzene
Toluene
Cyclopentane
Mcyclopentane
Cyclohexane
Ecyclopentane
Mcyclohexane
223-Mbutane
H2O

15.84
370.4
143.4
124.03
319.19
164.2199
198.2
218.5
172.37
108.3
142.22
140.49
125.45
129.45
174.01
157.94
133.57
146.42
133.5
156.03
148.02
129.44
140.1399
122.53
155.92
-220.6
178.52
131.34
88.446
276.37

-0.8189
-11.3
-2.118
-1.0717
-3.5845
-0.3209
-0.3866
-0.2968
-1.7839
0.146
-4.78E-02
-3.48E-02
3.54E-02
1.85E-02
-0.10578
-4.40E-03
0.1093999
5.92E-02
0.1278
-5.28E-02
6.39E-02
-0.1695
-0.1523
-0.4038
-0.4899999
3.1183
-0.51835
-6.31E-02
0.40272
-2.0901

4.87E-02
0.1483
2.15E-02
1.01E-02
2.26E-02
1.11E-03
1.26E-03
1.06E-03
1.48E-02
-2.92E-04
7.39E-04
6.81E-04
5.96E-04
6.08E-04
9.05E-04
7.10E-04
6.19E-04
6.04E-04
5.92E-04
8.34E-04
5.91E-04
6.48E-04
6.95E-04
1.73E-03
2.14E-03
-9.42E-03
2.33E-03
8.13E-04
5.62E-05
8.13E-03

161

0
-8.55E-04
-9.35E-05
-3.84E-05
-6.07E-05

0
1.86E-06
1.52E-07
5.57E-08
6.28E-08

-4.79E-05
1.51E-06

5.81E-08

-2.72E-17

3.61E-20

3.98E-20
-1.10E-06
-1.56E-06
1.07E-05
-1.68E-06

-3.47E-23

-1.41E-05

9.37E-09

9.34E-22
1.17E-22

Temerature Temerature
K
C
373
100
383
110
393
120
403
130
413
140
423
150
433
160
443
170
453
180
463
190
473
200

X%
69.74414
68.24566
66.78855
65.37429
64.00378
62.67745
61.39534
60.15713
58.96228
57.80999
56.69932

X
0.697441
0.682457
0.667886
0.653743
0.640038
0.626775
0.613953
0.601571
0.589623
0.5781
0.566993

K
2.305145
2.149176
2.01101
1.888027
1.77807
1.679346
1.590361
1.50986
1.436782
1.370229
1.309433

ln K
0.835144
0.765084
0.698637
0.635533
0.575528
0.518404
0.463961
0.412017
0.362406
0.314978
0.269594

G
-2.59E+03
-2.44E+03
-2.28E+03
-2.13E+03
-1.98E+03
-1.82E+03
-1.67E+03
-1.52E+03
-1.36E+03
-1.21E+03
-1.06E+03

G iC4
8.82E+03
1.29E+04
1.69E+04
2.10E+04
2.51E+04
2.91E+04
3.32E+04
3.73E+04
4.14E+04
4.55E+04
4.96E+04

c
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02
3.75E-02

b
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02
3.76E+02

a
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05
-1.37E+05

G nC4
1.14E+04
1.53E+04
1.92E+04
2.31E+04
2.70E+04
3.10E+04
3.49E+04
3.88E+04
4.28E+04
4.67E+04
5.07E+04

c
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02
3.83E-02

3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02
3.60E+02

-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05
-1.28E+05

iC4/nC4

APPENDIX C

162

iC5/nC5
Temperature
Temperature
K
C
100
373
110
383
120
393
130
403
140
413
150
423
160
433
170
443
180
453
190
463
200
473

a
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05
-1.49E+05

b
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02
4.57E+02

c
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02
4.44E-02

G nC5
2.77E+04
3.26E+04
3.75E+04
4.24E+04
4.74E+04
5.23E+04
5.73E+04
6.22E+04
6.72E+04
7.22E+04
7.72E+04

a
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05
-1.57E+05

163

b
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02
4.64E+02

c
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02
4.34E-02

G iC5
2.17E+04
2.66E+04
3.16E+04
3.66E+04
4.16E+04
4.66E+04
5.16E+04
5.66E+04
6.17E+04
6.67E+04
7.17E+04

G
-6.01E+03
-5.95E+03
-5.90E+03
-5.84E+03
-5.78E+03
-5.73E+03
-5.67E+03
-5.61E+03
-5.56E+03
-5.50E+03
-5.45E+03

ln K

X%

1.938594
1.869926
1.804815
1.742994
1.684226
1.628294
1.575001
1.524169
1.475634
1.429249
1.384875

6.948976
6.487819
6.078845
5.714428
5.38828
5.095175
4.830747
4.591326
4.373809
4.17556
3.994328

0.874198
0.86645
0.858734
0.851067
0.843463
0.835936
0.828495
0.821152
0.813912
0.806784
0.799773

87.41976
86.64498
85.8734
85.1067
84.34633
83.59358
82.84954
82.11515
81.39123
80.67842
79.97728

2MP/nC6
Temperature
Temperature
C
K
100
373
110
383
120
393
130
403
140
413
150
423
160
433
170
443
180
453
190
463
200
473

a
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05

b
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02

c
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02

G nC6
4.36E+04
4.96E+04
5.55E+04
6.15E+04
6.75E+04
7.35E+04
7.94E+04
8.55E+04
9.15E+04
9.75E+04
1.04E+05

-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05
-1.78E+05

5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02

c
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02

G 2MP
3.91E+04
4.51E+04
5.11E+04
5.71E+04
6.31E+04
6.91E+04
7.52E+04
8.12E+04
8.73E+04
9.34E+04
9.95E+04

G
-4.57E+03
-4.52E+03
-4.47E+03
-4.42E+03
-4.37E+03
-4.32E+03
-4.27E+03
-4.22E+03
-4.17E+03
-4.13E+03
-4.08E+03

ln K

X%

1.473963
1.418852
1.366833
1.317678
1.271178
1.227145
1.185408
1.145811
1.108213
1.072484
1.038506

4.366507
4.132373
3.922909
3.73474
3.565051
3.411476
3.272021
3.144991
3.028941
2.922631
2.824993

0.813659
0.805158
0.796868
0.788795
0.780944
0.773319
0.765919
0.758745
0.751796
0.745069
0.738562

81.36591
80.51583
79.68681
78.87952
78.09444
77.33185
76.59188
75.8745
75.17958
74.5069
73.85616

ln K

X%

0.603146
0.571776
0.542291
0.514551
0.488429
0.463811
0.440591
0.418676
0.39798
0.378422
0.359931

1.827861
1.771411
1.719943
1.672888
1.629755
1.590122
1.553626
1.519949
1.488814
1.459979
1.43323

0.646376
0.639173
0.632345
0.625873
0.619736
0.613918
0.6084
0.603167
0.598202
0.593492
0.589024

64.63758
63.91729
63.23453
62.58728
61.97364
61.39178
60.84
60.31665
59.82021
59.34924
58.90237

3MP/nC6
Temperature
Temperature
C
K
100
373
110
383
120
393
130
403
140
413
150
423
160
433
170
443
180
453
190
463
200
473

a
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05

b
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02

c
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02

G nC6
4.36E+04
4.96E+04
5.55E+04
6.15E+04
6.75E+04
7.35E+04
7.94E+04
8.55E+04
9.15E+04
9.75E+04
1.04E+05

-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05
-1.75E+05

164

5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02
5.63E+02

c
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02
4.83E-02

G 3MP
4.18E+04
4.78E+04
5.38E+04
5.98E+04
6.58E+04
7.18E+04
7.79E+04
8.39E+04
9.00E+04
9.60E+04
1.02E+05

G
-1.87E+03
-1.82E+03
-1.77E+03
-1.72E+03
-1.68E+03
-1.63E+03
-1.59E+03
-1.54E+03
-1.50E+03
-1.46E+03
-1.42E+03

22DMB/nC6
Temperature
Temperature
C
K
100
373
110
383
120
393
130
403
140
413
150
423
160
433
170
443
180
453
190
463
200
473

G nC6

G 22DMB

ln K

X%

-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05

5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02

5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02

4.36E+04
4.96E+04
5.55E+04
6.15E+04
6.75E+04
7.35E+04
7.94E+04
8.55E+04
9.15E+04
9.75E+04
1.04E+05

-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05
-1.89E+05

5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02
5.86E+02

4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02
4.76E-02

3.62E+04
4.24E+04
4.86E+04
5.49E+04
6.11E+04
6.74E+04
7.37E+04
7.99E+04
8.62E+04
9.25E+04
9.88E+04

-7.47E+03
-7.18E+03
-6.90E+03
-6.62E+03
-6.34E+03
-6.07E+03
-5.79E+03
-5.51E+03
-5.24E+03
-4.96E+03
-4.69E+03

2.407693
2.256172
2.112692
1.976655
1.847522
1.724801
1.608049
1.496861
1.39087
1.289738
1.193157

11.10831
9.546472
8.270474
7.218559
6.344076
5.611403
4.993059
4.467645
4.018345
3.631835
3.297476

0.917412
0.905182
0.892131
0.878324
0.863836
0.848746
0.83314
0.817106
0.800731
0.784103
0.767305

91.74121
90.51816
89.21307
87.83242
86.38358
84.87462
83.31403
81.71059
80.07311
78.41028
76.73053

23DMB/nC6
Temperature
Temperature
C
K
100
373
110
383
120
393
130
403
140
413
150
423
160
433
170
443
180
453
190
463
200
473

G nC6

G 23DMB

ln K

X%

-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05
-1.70E+05

5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02
5.54E+02

5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02
5.30E-02

4.36E+04
4.96E+04
5.55E+04
6.15E+04
6.75E+04
7.35E+04
7.94E+04
8.55E+04
9.15E+04
9.75E+04
1.04E+05

-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05
-1.81E+05

5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02
5.78E+02

4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02
4.97E-02

4.11E+04
4.73E+04
5.35E+04
5.96E+04
6.58E+04
7.20E+04
7.82E+04
8.44E+04
9.07E+04
9.69E+04
1.03E+05

-2.48E+03
-2.27E+03
-2.06E+03
-1.85E+03
-1.64E+03
-1.43E+03
-1.23E+03
-1.02E+03
-8.10E+02
-6.04E+02
-3.98E+02

0.801183
0.713815
0.631096
0.55268
0.478253
0.407534
0.340265
0.276213
0.215164
0.156924
0.101315

2.228175
2.041766
1.87967
1.737904
1.613254
1.503107
1.40532
1.318128
1.240065
1.169907
1.106625

0.690227
0.671244
0.652738
0.634757
0.617335
0.600496
0.584255
0.568617
0.553584
0.539151
0.525307

69.02275
67.12436
65.2738
63.47571
61.73354
60.04965
58.42549
56.86175
55.35844
53.91507
52.53071

165

2MH/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 2MH

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05
-1.99E+05

6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02
6.58E+02

5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02

5.48E+04
6.18E+04
6.88E+04
7.59E+04
8.29E+04
9.00E+04
9.70E+04
1.04E+05
1.11E+05
1.18E+05
1.25E+05

-4.19E+03
-4.11E+03
-4.03E+03
-3.95E+03
-3.87E+03
-3.79E+03
-3.72E+03
-3.64E+03
-3.56E+03
-3.48E+03
-3.40E+03

1.350422
1.290441
1.233511
1.179405
1.127916
1.078861
1.032069
0.987389
0.944679
0.903813
0.864673

3.859053
3.634389
3.433263
3.252437
3.089213
2.941327
2.806869
2.684216
2.571988
2.469
2.37423

0.794199
0.784222
0.774433
0.764841
0.755454
0.746278
0.737317
0.728572
0.720044
0.711732
0.703636

79.41986
78.42218
77.44325
76.48407
75.54542
74.62783
73.73169
72.85719
72.00439
71.17325
70.36361

3MH/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 3MH

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05
-1.96E+05

6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02
6.54E+02

5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02
5.65E-02

5.59E+04
6.29E+04
6.98E+04
7.68E+04
8.38E+04
9.09E+04
9.79E+04
1.05E+05
1.12E+05
1.19E+05
1.26E+05

-3.08E+03
-3.04E+03
-3.00E+03
-2.97E+03
-2.93E+03
-2.89E+03
-2.85E+03
-2.82E+03
-2.78E+03
-2.74E+03
-2.70E+03

0.993105
0.955376
0.919566
0.885533
0.853148
0.822293
0.792863
0.764761
0.737899
0.712197
0.687581

2.699603
2.599647
2.508202
2.424276
2.347023
2.275712
2.209713
2.14848
2.091536
2.038464
1.988899

0.729701
0.722195
0.714954
0.707967
0.701227
0.694723
0.688446
0.682386
0.676536
0.670886
0.665429

72.97007
72.2195
71.49537
70.79675
70.1227
69.47228
68.84457
68.23864
67.65362
67.08864
66.54286

166

22DMP/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 22DMP

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05
-2.10E+05

6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02
6.86E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.37E+04
6.10E+04
6.83E+04
7.56E+04
8.29E+04
9.02E+04
9.76E+04
1.05E+05
1.12E+05
1.20E+05
1.27E+05

-5.29E+03
-4.94E+03
-4.59E+03
-4.24E+03
-3.89E+03
-3.53E+03
-3.18E+03
-2.83E+03
-2.48E+03
-2.13E+03
-1.78E+03

1.704711
1.550164
1.403488
1.264096
1.13146
1.005101
0.884583
0.769511
0.659525
0.554294
0.453517

5.499794
4.712242
4.069368
3.539892
3.100181
2.732183
2.421975
2.158711
1.933873
1.740712
1.573838

0.846149
0.824937
0.802737
0.77973
0.756108
0.73206
0.707771
0.683415
0.659154
0.635131
0.611475

84.6149
82.49374
80.27368
77.97305
75.61083
73.20603
70.77711
68.34152
65.91536
63.51313
61.14752

23DMP/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 23DMP

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05
-2.03E+05

6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02
6.65E+02

5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02

5.27E+04
5.98E+04
6.69E+04
7.39E+04
8.11E+04
8.82E+04
9.53E+04
1.02E+05
1.10E+05
1.17E+05
1.24E+05

-6.28E+03
-6.14E+03
-6.00E+03
-5.86E+03
-5.72E+03
-5.58E+03
-5.44E+03
-5.30E+03
-5.16E+03
-5.02E+03
-4.88E+03

2.023518
1.926974
1.835352
1.748287
1.665448
1.586534
1.511274
1.439421
1.370748
1.30505
1.242138

7.564889
6.868691
6.267342
5.744756
5.288042
4.886784
4.532504
4.218252
3.938296
3.687873
3.463009

0.883244
0.872914
0.862398
0.851737
0.840968
0.830128
0.81925
0.808365
0.797501
0.786684
0.775936

88.32443
87.29141
86.23981
85.17367
84.0968
83.0128
81.925
80.8365
79.7501
78.66837
77.59359

167

24DMP/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 24DMP

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05
-2.06E+05

6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02
6.82E+02

5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02

5.64E+04
6.37E+04
7.09E+04
7.82E+04
8.55E+04
9.28E+04
1.00E+05
1.07E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-2.54E+03
-2.23E+03
-1.92E+03
-1.61E+03
-1.29E+03
-9.81E+02
-6.68E+02
-3.55E+02
-4.24E+01
2.70E+02
5.83E+02

0.820507
0.700839
0.587269
0.479341
0.376646
0.278813
0.185506
0.096416
0.011267
-0.0702
-0.14821

2.271651
2.015443
1.799068
1.615009
1.457388
1.321561
1.203827
1.101218
1.01133
0.932208
0.862246

0.694344
0.668374
0.642738
0.617592
0.593064
0.569255
0.546244
0.524085
0.502817
0.482457
0.463014

69.43439
66.83738
64.27382
61.75922
59.30639
56.92553
54.62438
52.40855
50.28166
48.24574
46.3014

33DMP/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 33DMP

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05
-2.05E+05

6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02
6.79E+02

5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02
5.63E-02

5.57E+04
6.29E+04
7.02E+04
7.74E+04
8.47E+04
9.19E+04
9.92E+04
1.06E+05
1.14E+05
1.21E+05
1.28E+05

-3.25E+03
-2.97E+03
-2.69E+03
-2.40E+03
-2.12E+03
-1.84E+03
-1.56E+03
-1.27E+03
-9.92E+02
-7.09E+02
-4.27E+02

1.048635
0.932509
0.8223
0.717567
0.617913
0.522978
0.432434
0.345984
0.263357
0.184305
0.108602

2.853753
2.540876
2.275728
2.049441
1.855053
1.687044
1.541003
1.413379
1.301291
1.202382
1.114718

0.740513
0.717584
0.694724
0.672071
0.649744
0.627844
0.606455
0.585643
0.565461
0.545946
0.527124

74.05127
71.7584
69.47243
67.20711
64.97438
62.78438
60.64546
58.56433
56.54612
54.59462
52.71238

168

2EP/nC7
Temperatu Temperature
a
re
K
eC
100
373
-1.92E+05
110
383
-1.92E+05
120
393
-1.92E+05
130
403
-1.92E+05
140
413
-1.92E+05
150
423
-1.92E+05
160
433
-1.92E+05
170
443
-1.92E+05
180
453
-1.92E+05
190
463
-1.92E+05
200
473
-1.92E+05

G nC7

G 2EP

ln K

X%

6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02
6.51E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

5.90E+04
6.59E+04
7.29E+04
7.98E+04
8.68E+04
9.37E+04
1.01E+05
1.08E+05
1.15E+05
1.22E+05
1.29E+05

-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05
-1.93E+05

6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02
6.67E+02

5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02
5.64E-02

6.32E+04
7.03E+04
7.74E+04
8.45E+04
9.17E+04
9.88E+04
1.06E+05
1.13E+05
1.20E+05
1.27E+05
1.35E+05

4.25E+03
4.41E+03
4.58E+03
4.74E+03
4.90E+03
5.07E+03
5.23E+03
5.39E+03
5.56E+03
5.72E+03
5.88E+03

-1.37008
-1.38566
-1.40045
-1.41451
-1.42789
-1.44063
-1.45279
-1.46439
-1.47549
-1.4861
-1.49627

0.254086
0.250157
0.246485
0.243045
0.239815
0.236779
0.233918
0.231219
0.228667
0.226253
0.223964

0.202606
0.200101
0.197744
0.195524
0.193428
0.191448
0.189573
0.187796
0.18611
0.184507
0.182983

20.26065
20.01007
19.7744
19.55236
19.34282
19.14478
18.95733
18.77965
18.61101
18.45074
18.29825

169

Figure 3.1 C5 paraffin equilibrium plot

Equilibrium Curve

170

Iso-pentane equilibrium curve

2-2Dimethyl butane Equilibrium curve

171

APPENDIX D

Typical Baffles clearances and Tolerances

Shell Bundle Clearance

172

Tube side heat transfer Factor

173

Tube side friction factor


174

Shell side heat transfer factor, for segmental baffles


175

Shell side friction Factor, for segmental baffles


176

Temperature Correction factor: Two shell passes, four or multiple of four tube passes

Temperature Correction factor: One shell passes, two or even tube passes
177

Typical Overall Coefficients

178

Designing Algorithm for Heat Exchanger

179

Discharge Coefficient sieve plate

180

Pump selection guide

181

Pipe Friction verse Reynolds number and relative roughness

182

183

Compressor operating range

184