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EUROPEAN UNION AND INDIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT UNDER SEMESTER BASED


CREDIT AND GRADING SYSTEM FOR POST GRADUATE SEMESTER I

Program under faculty of commerce


Master of commerce (morning )

SYDENHAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS

SUBMITTED BY :

SAYALI SHIVAJI.REWALE
ROLL NO: 101
PROJECT GUIDE :
DR. A.R.CHOUGULE (Assistant professor )
DR.R.K.SINGHAL (Assistant professor )
SYDENHAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMIC

DECLARATION

I ms. Sayali Shivaji Rewale Student Of Sydenham college Of Commerce And Economics .
M.Com Part I (Morning)Banking And Finance Semester I Have Completed This Project On
India and European Union In The Academic Year 2014-15.
The Information Submitted Is True And Original To The Best Of My Knowledge.

Signature of student

Roll no: 101

BONA FIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Miss. Sayali Shivaji Rewale of M.com-I (morning)


Semester I (2014-2015) has successfully completed the project on INDIA AND EUROPEAN
UNION Under the guidance of Dr. A.R.chougule and DR.R.K.singhal.

1. Project guide

__________________________

2. Internal examiner :

__________________________

3. External examiner :

__________________________

DATE :

PLACE :

_____________

_____________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would firstly like to thank the UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI for giving the
liberty of choosing such topic which will be benefited to us in future. I would like
to thanks the principal of Sydenham college Dr.Annasaheb Khemnar for giving
me the opportunity to study in this esteemed college and doing the course of
banking and finance. I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to
Prof.Chougle And Prof.Singhal who is my project guide , as she have been the
guiding light for this project and has also provided me with best of my knowledge
,advice and encouragement which helped me in successful completion of my
project . My colleagues and specially my parents who have also supported and
encouraged me the success of this project to the large extent is also dedicated to
them .I would like to thank all those who have helped me and whom i forgotten to
mention in this space .

Signature of student
____________________
INDEX

Sr.no

Particulars

INTRODUCTION

United in diversity" is the motto of the European Union.


It signifies how Europeans have come together, in the form of the EU, to work for peace and
prosperity, while at the same time being enriched by the continent's many different cultures,
traditions and languages.
The EU is indias most important trading partner while vice versa india is a top-10 destination of EU
trade. Nonetheless, with a trade value of euro 46 bn in 2006 and euro 55bn in 2007 .
The EU and India already enjoy a close relationship based on shared values and mutual respect.
In recent years, the relationship has developed exponentially in terms of shared vision, goals
and challenges. Against this background the Commission proposes a new strategy based on the
following objectives:

international cooperation through multilateralism, including promoting peace, combating

terrorism, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and human rights;


enhanced commercial and economic interaction, in particular through sectoral dialogue

and dialogue on regulatory and industrial policy;


cooperation on sustainable development, protecting the environment, mitigating climate

change and combating poverty;


continuous improvement of mutual understanding and contacts between the EU's and
India's civil society.
International cooperation

Since the EU and India are seen as forces for global stability, the focus of relations has shifted
from trade to wider political issues. The Commission proposes a strategic alliance to enhance
relations with India and promote an effective multilateral approach.
India is an important partner in conflict prevention. The EU should therefore explore means of
formalising regular cooperation with India in this area. The Commission wishes to step up
political dialogue on non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and proposes setting up
dialogue on export control measures.
Real cooperation should be established on combating terrorism and organised crime.
The EU is strongly committed to peace and stability in South Asia and encourages dialogue
between India and Pakistan.
Economic partnership
The EU is India's largest trading partner and main source of foreign inward investment, whereas
India is only the EU's 14th trading partner. India needs to further open up its market and
accelerate market reform to realise the potential of its market. It must address such matters as
customs tariffs and the many non-tariff trade barriers, as well as considerably improving its
infrastructure.
The strategic dialogue should address regulatory and industrial policy to improve business
competitiveness on both sides. India and the EU should also promote cooperation on the world's
major environmental challenges such as biodiversity, climate change and the depletion of the
ozone layer.
In many areas, dialogue with India has already made considerable progress. Strategic sectoral
dialogues should be developed in the following areas:

the information society;


transport;
energy;
biotechnology;
the Galileo programme (the European global satellite navigation system);
a space partnership.
The EU and India must start dialogue on investment, intellectual property rights and trade
defence instruments. The EU has an interest in enhancing cooperation with India on technical
barriers to trade and sanitary and phytosanitary issues. The EU-India customs cooperation
agreement should also be exploited and sustainable development and South Asian regional
cooperation should be promoted.
There is enormous potential for EU-India collaboration in science and technology. Indian
researchers should be encouraged to participate in the EU's 6th Framework Programme.
The EU should invite India to regularly attend ministerial level consultations on subjects of
mutual interest in the field of monetary and financial policy.

Development cooperation
The EU must help India to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Coordination with
other EU donors needs to be improved. The EU could also share its experience of social security
systems.
Mutual understanding
The European and Indian Parliaments are considering organising regular, institutionalised
parliamentary exchanges. In terms of culture, cooperation in all disciplines should be reinforced.
All Member States and institutions should cooperate and coordinate their activities to inform
Indian public opinion. The Government of India should be encouraged to visit EU institutions as
often as possible and devise its own communications strategy.
Institutional architecture
EU-Indian partnership is based on the 1994 Cooperation Agreement and the Joint Political
Declaration of 1993. The first Lisbon summit of 2000 was also key to the development of
bilateral relations. The Commission proposes a number of initiatives to streamline the structure
of the partnership.
Implementation and follow-up
The Commission hopes that this Communication will be a starting point for collective reflection
on how to improve EU-India relations. The proposals emerging from such reflection could serve
as the basis for an action plan and a new EU-Indian joint political declaration. Both could be
endorsed at the Sixth EU-India Summit in 2005.

OVERVIEW OF EUROPEAN UNION

HEADQUARTER

Brussels, Belgium

CAPITAL

Brussels

LARGEST CITIES

London and Paris

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES

24

MEMBER STATES

28

LEADERS
President of
European council
European commission
European council(elect )
European commission (designated)

Herman van rompuy


Jose manuel barroso
Donald tusk
Jean-claude juncker

FORMATION
Treaty of paris
Treaty of rome

23 july 1952
1 january 1958

Merger treaty
Treaty of maastricht
Treaty of Lisbon

1 july 1967
1 November 1993
1 december 2009

AREA
Total
Water

4,381,376 km2
3.08%

POPULATION
2014 estimate
Density

507,416,607
115.8/km

CURRENCY

Euro and 11 others

WEBSITE

Europa .eu

HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION

Founders

Konrad Adenauer

Joseph Bech

Johan Beyen

Winston Churchill

Alcide De Gasperi

Walter Hallstein

Sicco Mansholt

Jean Monnet

Robert Schuman

Paul-Henri Spaak

Altiero Spinelli

The above visionary leaders inspired the creation of the European Union we live in today.
Without their energy and motivation we would not be living in the sphere of peace and stability that
we take for granted. From resistance fighters to lawyers,
the founding fathers were a diverse group of people who held the same ideals:
a peaceful, united and prosperous Europe. Beyond the founding fathers described below, many others
have worked tirelessly towards and inspired the European project.
This section on the founding fathers is therefore a work in progress.

PHASES OF EUROPEAN UNION


1945-1959
The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War. Europeans are
determined to prevent such killing and destruction ever happening again. Soon after the war, Europe
is split into East and West as the 40-year-long Cold War begins. West European nations create
the Council of Europe in 1949. It is a first step towards cooperation between them, but six countries
want to go further.
1960-1969
In August 1961, the communist authorities in East Germany build a wall across Berlin to prevent
their citizens from escaping to a freer life in the West. A few people still escape; others are shot by
guards in the attempt.
1970-1979
In August 1961, the communist authorities in East Germany build a wall across Berlin to prevent
their citizens from escaping to a freer life in the West. A few people still escape; others are shot by
guards in the attempt.

The fight against pollution intensifies in the 1970s. The EU adopts laws to protect the environment,
introducing the notion of the polluter pays for the first time. Pressure groups such as Greenpeace
are founded.
1980-1989
In summer 1980, shipyard workers in the Polish city of Gdansk, led by Lech Walesa, strike for more
rights. Other strikes follow across the country. In August, the government capitulates and Solidarno
is created as an independent trade union. The government gradually reasserts its power and imposes
martial law in December 1981, ending Polands brief encounter with people power. But the seeds
have been sown for later.
1990-1999
In the Balkans, Yugoslavia begins to break apart in 1991. Fighting erupts first in Croatia, then in
Bosnia and Herzegovina where Serbs, Croats and Muslims fight in a bloody civil war.
2000-2009
On 11 September 2001, hijacked airliners are flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre
in New York and the Pentagon building in Washington. Nearly 3 000 people die. The EU countries
stand firmly alongside the United States in the fight against international terror.

THE EURO

The euro Europe's new single currency - represents the consolidation and culmination of
European economic integration.

Its introduction on January 1, 1999, marked the final phase of Economic and Monetary Union
(EMU), a three-stage process that was launched in 1990 as EU member states prepared for
the 1992 single market.

THE EURO EARLY 1990S

1990: Aimed at boosting cross-border business activity, the first stage of EMU lifted
restrictions on movements of capital across internal EU borders.

1994: The European Monetary Institute was established in Frankfurt to pave the way for the
European Central Bank.

1999: the Euro was introduced as the single currency for eleven EU member states: Austria,
Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal,
and Spain.
THE EURO AT 1999- AT PRESENT

1999-2002: The Euro and the previous national currencies were concurrently used in
participating states.

2002: The participating countries had their previous national currencies withdrawn
permanently as legal tender.
EU member states not yet using the Euro as currency: Denmark, Greece, Sweden, United
Kingdom

PURPOSE OF EUROPEAN UNION

Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 498 million citizens in a fairer, safer
world.

v a lu e s

id e n tit y a nd di v e rs it y in a g lo b al is e d w o r ld

Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
A IM

Czech
Republic
e c o no m ic a nd s o c ia l so li da r it y

pe a ce a nd st a b ilit y

Cyprus
Denmark
Estonia
sa fe t y a nd s e c ur it y

Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Latvia
Lithuania
Luxembour
g
Malta
TheNetherl
ads
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain

THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERS

,l;k;

FRAME WORK OF INSTITUTION

European council
25
heads
of
state
or
government and the president
of the commission
Council of the EU

European court of
justice

25 MINISTERS
Committee of the
regions

European parliament

Economic and social


committee

732 members

317 members
Court of auditors
25 members
European central bank

317 members
European commission
25 commissioners

European investment
bank

European Parliament
Is made up of Elected Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
Elections are held every 5 years
Council of the European Union
The council is made up of national ministers who with the European Parliament,
adopt EU law
European Commission
Is made up of appointed Commissioners and the EUs civil service.
The Commission is responsible for the day-to-day running of the the EU and ensures
EU treaties are being complied with.
The Commission is also responsible for proposing legislation and carrying out
decisions made by the European Council and Parliament.

Court of Justice of the European Communities


EU law courts.
Are Responsible for interpreting EU law and ensuring it is carried out.
European Court of Auditors
Reviews and audits the financing of the EUs institutions activities.
Is composed of one member from each EU member state.
European Ombudsman
Investigates complaints made by a citizen or resident of the Union about
maladministration by EU institutions and bodies
European Data Protection Supervisor
Its duty is to uphold data protection standards in EU institutions and bodies and plays
advising role on data protection legislation.

INDIA EMERGING ECONOMY

India is a large country in southern Asia. It is the second largest country in the world in population.
The river valleys of north eastern India are among the most densely populated places in the world.
India ranks seventh in the world in area.

India occupies a strategic position in Asia, looking across the seas to Arabia and Africa on the west
and Burma , Malaysia and the Indonesian archipelago on the east. Geographically, the Himalayan
range keeps India apart from the rest of Asia.

India has great varieties and differences in both its land and its people. The land includes
desert, jungles, and one of the world's rainiest areas. India also has broad plains, mighty rivers, the
tallest mountain system in the world, and tropical lowlands. The people of India belong to many
different ethnic groups and religions. They speak 14 major languages and more than 1,000 minor
languages and dialects.

ECONOMY OF INDIA :

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as of 2014, the Indian economy is nominally
worth US$2.047 trillion; it is the eleventh-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at
US$7.277 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity.

With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1%
during 201112,India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks
140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP.

Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist
economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the
outside world.

An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy, since then it
has slowly moved towards a free-market system by emphasising both foreign trade and direct
investment inflows.

India's recent economic model is largely capitalist. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January
1995.

The 486.6-million worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2011. The service
sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. Major
agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.

Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology,


food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. In
2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.

In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%; In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest
importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter. Major exports include petroleum products, textile
goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.

Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. Between 2001 and
2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to
42%.

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,India has more than
doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. Some 431 million Indians
have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by
2030.

Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication,
24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several
advanced economies, as of 2010. With 7 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing
companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing
destination after the United States, as of 2009. India's consumer market, currently the
world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.

India's telecommunication industry, the world's fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers
during the period 201011, and after the first quarter of 2013, India surpassed Japan to become the
third largest smart phone market in the world after China and the U.S.

Its automotive industry, the world's second fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during
200910, and exports by 36% during 200809.[Power capacity is 250 gigawatts, of which 8%
is renewable. At the end of 2011, Indian IT Industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated
revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's
merchandise exports.

The Pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma
industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D

spending constitutes 60% of Biopharmaceutical industry. India is among the top 12 Biotech
destinations of the world. The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 201213, increasing its
revenues from 204.4 Billion INR (Indian Rupees) to 235.24 Billion INR (3.94 B US$ - exchange rate
June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR)]Although hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes.

Despite impressive economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic
challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people living below the World Bank's
international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to
42% in 2005, and 25% in 2011 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight,] half
the children under five suffer from chronic malnutrition, and in the state
of MadhyaPradesh, AndhraPradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, and Uttar
Pradesh, which account for 50.04% of India's population, 70% of the children between the ages of
six months and 59 months are anaemic.] The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.
[
Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net
state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.[Corruption in
India is perceived to have increased significantly, with one report estimating the illegal capital flows
since independence to be US$462 billion.

Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991,
when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, and is estimated to increase to US$2,110
by 2016; however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as
Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the
near future. While it is currently higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and others.

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could
overtake that of the United States by 2045. During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to
grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major
economy until 2050.The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing workingage population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill
levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle class.
The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus
on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of
labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.

Citing persistent inflation pressures, weak public finances, limited progress on fiscal consolidation
and ineffectiveness of the government, rating agency Fitch revised India's Outlook to Negative from

Stable on 18 June 2012. Another credit rating agency S&P had warned previously that a slowing
GDP growth and political roadblocks to economic policy-making could put India at the risk of losing
its investment grade rating. However, Moody did not revise its outlook on India keeping it stable, but
termed the national government as the "single biggest drag" on business activity

FOREIGN RELATION OF INDIA

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the
1950s, it strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a lead role in the NonAligned Movement. In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of
neighbouring countries: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an
armed intervention to prevent a coup d'tat attempt in Maldives.

India has tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times:
in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of
Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of
Bangladesh. After waging the 1962 Sino-Indian War and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India pursued
close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its
largest arms supplier.
Aside from ongoing strategic relations with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with
Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation and the World Trade Organisation.
The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping
operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other
multilateral forums.
India has close economic ties with South America, Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East"
policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that
revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional
security.
China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the
1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. India conducted its first nuclear weapons
test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998.

Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-TestBan Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and
discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear
triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine. It is developing a ballistic
missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet. Other
indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft
carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.
Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military cooperation
with the United States and the European Union. In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed
between India and the United States.
Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and
the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce.
As a consequence, India became the sixth de fact o nuclear weapons state. India subsequently signed
cooperation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia, France, the United
Kingdom, and Canada.
The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.325 million
active troops, they compose the world's third-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army,
the Indian Navy, and the Indian Air Force; auxiliary organisations include the Strategic Forces
Command and three paramilitary groups: the Assam Rifles, Frontier Force, and the Indian Coast
Guard.
The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP. For the fiscal
year spanning 20122013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted. According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's
annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion,
In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%, although this does not include funds that
reach the military through other branches of government. As of 2012, India is the world's largest
arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms
purchases. Much military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering
growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.

WHO CAN BECOME THE MEMBER COUNTRY OF EUROPEAN UNION

According to Article 49 of the Treaty on European Union,


any European state which respects the principles on which the EU is based may apply for
membership. There is no definition of what is meant by a European state but,

when Morocco applied to join the EU in 1987, the application was rejected in an opinion of the
Commission on the grounds that Morocco was not a European country.
The enlargement of the EU on 1 May 2004 prompted the formulation of the Copenhagen criteria
concept, which is used to define the conditions which applicant states must meet in order to become
members of the EU.

From the conclusions of the Presidency, Copenhagen 21-22 June 1993 the Copenhagen
criteria

The European Council today agreed that the associated countries in Central and Eastern Europe
that so desire shall become members of the European Union. Accession will take place as soon as
an associated country is able to assume the obligations of membership by satisfying the economic
and political conditions required.
Membership requires that the candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing
democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities, the
existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive
pressure and market forces within the Union. Membership presupposes the candidates ability to
take on the obligations of membership including adherence to the aims of political, economic and
monetary union.
The Unions capacity to absorb new members, while maintaining the momentum of European
integration, is also an important consideration in the general interest of both the Union and the
candidate countries.
The European Council will continue to follow closely progress in each associated country towards
fulfilling the conditions of accession to the Union and draw the appropriate conclusions.

The Copenhagen criteria are a series of political and economic conditions laid down by the Heads of
State and Government of the Member States at the European Council meeting in Copenhagen in
1993.

Ultimately, however, it is the Council which decides on the accession of a country by unanimous
decision after consultation with the Commission and after the assent of the European Parliament,
which means that the European Parliament must approve the Councils decision.

In outline the Copenhagen criteria can be divided into three conditions, which must be met before a
decision is taken on whether a country can become a member of the EU:
1. The political criterion:
The country must have stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and
respect for and protection of minorities.
2. The economic criterion:
The country must have a functioning market economy and must be capable of withstanding the
pressure of competition and market forces in the European Union.
3. The criterion presupposing the ability to incorporate the entire body of laws and regulations
of the EU the acquis communautaire:
The country must be able to assume all the obligations flowing from membership, including the aim
of political, economic and monetary union
What comes closest to a catalogue of concrete requirements which must be met by applicant
countries is the third criterion, according to which the countries must be in a position to implement
all the EUs laws and regulations.

BENEFITS FOR THE MEMBER COUNTRIES

Members may use a common currency as EURO that makes trade easier .
EU works to improve trade, education , farming, industry among its members.
The main benefit is NO TARIFFS (taxes ) among member countries free trade zone

Citizen of one country can move freely to another country


Citizen can live and work in any other EU nation
Citizen can vote in local elections even if they arent citizens of the country

EVERY COIN HAS TWO SIDE

ADVANTAGES TO BUSINESS OF OPERATING WITHIN THE EU

Free access to huge potential market


Economies of scale gained from operating in a larger market
Protection from outside competition by a common external tariff
Competition from other Eu Firms Provides An Incentive To Improve Efficiency.

DISADVANTAGES TO BUSINESS OF OPERATING WITHIN THE EU

The common external tariff has increased the cost of imports from outside the EU
Business In The EU Have Free Access To The UK Market
Shelter From External Competition Can Reduce The Incentives For Efficiency.

INDIA EU RELATION

India- EU relations go back to the early 1960s. India was among the first countries to establish
diplomatic relations with the (then) EEC. The 1994 cooperation agreement signed between EU and
India took bilateral relations beyond merely trade and economic cooperation.
Together with the Joint Political Statement signed in 1993 it opened the way for annual ministerial
meetings and a broad political dialogue. The first India-EU Summit in Lisbon in June 2000 marked a
water she din the evolution of this relationship.
Since then there have been five Summit-level interactions, the last being the Fifth Summit in The
Hague on 8th November 2004. India-EU relations have grown exponentially from what used to be a
purely trade and economic driven relationship to one
covering all areas of interaction. The Summit in The Hague was a landmark Summit, as it
endorsed the proposal to upgrade the India-EU relationship to the level of a 'Strategic
Partnership'.
We see this Partnership as more than just the sum of its parts. We see it as a
qualitative transformation in the way we engage as equal partners and work together in
partnership with the world at large.
THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP
India-EU relations have developed substantially since the adoption of the 1993 Declaration. An
extensive bilateral political dialogue has evolved, which includes regular annual summits, Troika
Ministerial and Senior Official level meetings covering a wide range of issues.
In the economic sphere, ties have expanded and we have worked closely together to strengthen the
multilateral trading system and to pursue a constructive dialogue on trade and investment and
economic
cooperation.
India and the EU, as the largest democracies in the world, share common values and beliefs that
make them natural partners as well as factors of stability in the present world order. We share a

common commitment to democracy, pluralism, human rights and the rule of law, to an
independent judiciary and media.
India and the EU also have much to contribute towards fostering a rule-based international order - be
it through the United Nations (UN) or through the World Trade Organisation (WTO). We hold a
common belief in the fundamental importance of multilateralism in accordance with the UN Charter
and in the essential role of the U N for maintaining international peace and security, promoting the
economic and social advancement of all peoples and meeting global threats and challenges.

As the EU evolves and enlarges, and as we both face diverse and complex global challenges, it is
critically important to expand our multifaceted relationship and build upon these foundations.

We commit ourselves accordingly to:

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STRENGTHENING DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION MECHANISMS

India and the EU have effective mechanisms for dialogue at all levels. With the launching of the
India-EU Strategic Partnership, it is necessary to further intensify our dialogue, both by actively
strengthening existing mechanisms and making them more efficient as well as initiating
dialogues in new areas being considered for cooperation.
It would also be necessary to put follow up mechanisms in place in order to effectively implement
the decisions taken, with a view to ensuring a more sustained and cohesive approach to issues
affecting India and the EU over an increasingly wide range of sectors.
Towards this end, India and the EU will:
Maintain the high level dialogue at Summit and Ministerial level on all issues of mutual
interest. Make full use of opportunities for contacts between Indian Ministers and their EU
counterparts on issues of mutual relevance;
Continue to exchange views on regional issues and the international situation at the official
and ministerial level;
Review at the Senior Officials Meeting and EU-India Joint Commission the effective
implementation of decisions taken at the political level.
The progress in the implementation of the Joint Action Plan will be placed before each annual
Summit, and an overall assessment will be made for the 2008 India-EU Summit.

II. POLITICAL DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION


PLURALISM AND DIVERSITY
Both India and the EU are multi-cultural, multi-religious and multi-lingual societies. India is a
microcosm of the globe because of its sub-continental size and a population that accounts for
nearly one sixth of humanity.
India, with the second largest Muslim community in the world, is a
paradigm of Asia's syncretic culture, and of how various religions can flourish in a plural,
democratic and open society.
The EU, with its expanding geographical boundaries and diversifying demography, is one of the
most demographically diverse entities in the world and yet able to synthesise the diversity of its
member states into a coherent whole.
These are areas where both India and the EU could benefit from an exchange of experiences. Both
sides share the objective of contributing to the promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity, which
we consider
an inalienable value, and the promotion of dialogue among cultures at the international level.
Towards this end:
India and the EU will initiate a dialogue on Pluralism and Diversity with a view to sharing
experiences and enhancing mutual knowledge of the cultural and linguistic diversity

existing within India and EU;


India and the EU will continue to encourage academic exchanges on the dynamics of
pluralistic societies in Europe and Asia.
DIALOGUE ON REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE EU AND IN SAARC
SAARC and the EU are large entities with complex structures and diverse demographies. India
and the EU would benefit from a deepened exchange of views on developments in Europe and
South Asia.
The European Commission already has a Memorandum of Understanding with
SAARC, the main focus of which is technical assistance. The European Commission and
SAARC Secretariat are currently exploring the possibilities of strengthening cooperation for
technical assistance in various projects.
Towards this end, India and the EU will seek to have a regular exchange of views on regional
cooperation in the EU and in SAARC.

DEMOCRACY & HUMAN RIGHTS


Both India and the EU are committed to upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms and
have ratified the major international human rights instruments. These shared values, based on
democracy, pluralism and respect for the rule of law gives strength to the relationship.
We propose to:
Continue in a spirit of equality and mutual respect, the dialogue on Human Rights both in a
multilateral and bilateral context, with the objective of building greater mutual understanding and
expanding common ground in order to strengthen the foundations of the strategic partnership;
Consult and discuss positions on human rights and democracy issues and look at
opportunities for co-sponsoring resolutions on thematic issues in relevant fora such as UN
Commission on Human Rights or UNGA Third Committee;
Look together for possible synergies and initiatives to promote human rights and
democracy.
EFFECTIVE MULTILATERALISM
India and the EU believe that a multilateral approach, in which the UN plays a central role, is the
best way to address global challenges such as development which is economically, socially and
environmentally sustainable; effective management of globalisation; terrorism; drug trafficking;
organised crime; natural disasters; pandemics; and energy security.
Accordingly, we will:
Work closely to promote effective multilateralism;
Continue to hold regular consultations on thematic issues prior to the UN General
Assembly (UNGA), and work together on negotiation and implementation of the outcome

of major international conferences and Summits including on security, trade, environment,


development and human rights;
Exchange views on the issues raised by the Secretary General of the United Nations in his
comprehensive report entitled In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security, and
Human Rights for all;
Endeavour to invite each other reciprocally for conferences sponsored by either side where
the other is, or can be, a participant.
PEACEKEEPING, PEACE-BUILDING AND POST-CONFLICT ASSISTANCE
India and the EU have a common interest in UN peacekeeping and in post-conflict political and
economic rehabilitation and reconstruction.
We propose to work together in the first instance in the following areas:
Consultation before major UN debates on peacekeeping and peace-building and in the
preparation of major peace conferences;
Establishing a dialogue at official level on UN peacekeeping and peace-building to
exchange perspectives on conceptual and operational aspects of Peacekeeping Operations,
including post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation, in order to identify and develop
specific areas of cooperation in the following sectors:
Training for military and civilian components of peacekeeping missions, including
Police and other security forces;
Exchange of trainees and instructors between Peacekeeping Training Centres of India
and EU Member States;
5

Joint support of UN peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts, including as regards


improved analytical capacities and greater cooperation between EU and Indian
components of UN peacekeeping missions;
Trade and development in peace-building;
Post-conflict and confidence building projects in other regions of the world;
Seminars and other activities designed to facilitate post conflict management.
DISARMAMENT AND NON-PROLIFERATION OF WMD AND SECURITY DIALOGUE
India and the EU have a shared interest in working towards achieving the goals and objectives of
universal disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of
delivery. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and its linkages with terrorism poses a
threat to international peace and security.
In this context, we resolve to enhance collective action to fight the proliferation of WMD as well
as their means of delivery. We believe that our response to proliferation challenges requires
strengthened multilateral consultations and the pooling of all efforts and resources.

We agree that effective export control measures for dual use goods can play an important role in
preventing
proliferation, and at the same time, such measures should not hamper international co-operation
in materials, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes.
We will establish a bilateral India-EU Security Dialogue at Senior Official level which will
include regular consultations on global and regional security issues, disarmament and
nonproliferation
to increase mutual understanding and identify possible areas of cooperation.

FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM AND ORGANISED CRIME


India and the EU recognise the fact that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious threats to
international peace and security, and reaffirm their condemnation of all acts of terrorism as
criminal and unjustifiable, irrespective of their motivations, forms and manifestations.
We propose to work together to strengthen our cooperation in counter-terrorism efforts in
accordance with the UN Charter and applicable principles of international law.
We agree to:
Support the work of the UN to ensure universal respect for and full implementation of all
relevant UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCRs), UN conventions on terrorism and
related protocols;
Cooperate in the fight against terrorism and establish contacts between the Indian and EU
Counter Terrorism Coordinators;
Cooperate in the fight against trafficking in drugs and psychotropic substances, and the
diversion of chemical precursors related to their production;
Work closely to promote the early entry into force of the International Convention for
Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and for the early conclusion of the
Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism;
Work together to reduce terrorist access to financing and to fight money-laundering, and
monitor suspicious transactions, taking into account international standards adopted by the
Financial Action Task Force (FATF);
Exchange views on how to develop the comprehensive United Nations counter-terrorism
strategy based upon the recommendations in the Secretary Generals report In Larger
Freedom;
Expand the EU-India dialogue to include the link between drug trafficking and terrorism,
document security, illicit arms trafficking and cyber-terrorism;
Promote cooperation between Europol on the EU side and the Central Bureau of
Investigation (CBI) on the Indian side;

Establish an Indian contact point in India for Euro just.


III. BRINGING TOGETHER PEOPLE AND CULTURES
MIGRATION AND CONSULAR ISSUES
The subjects of Migration and Consular Issues are increasingly important in the context of
globalisation, given the large-scale movement of people from region to region for economic or
other reasons and the large migrant communities in both India and the EU.
It is important to note that India is a source, transit point and a destination for migrants. We recognise
that we need to maintain a constant dialogue on all aspects relating to migration and consular issues.
We also
recognise that facilitation of movement of people is an important aspect of improving people-to
people
contacts.
Given the inter-connections between migration and other issues such as public security, we are
convinced of the need for an exchange of views in this area. It is, therefore, felt useful to hold a
comprehensive dialogue on migration issues.
The India-EU Joint Working Group on Consular Issues was set up following the first India-EU
Summit in Lisbon in 2000, in order to enhance cooperation in facilitating the movement of
people between India and the EU, including the speedy delivery of consular and visa services and
enhancing business relations and tourism.
The Working Group meets twice a year to discuss issues of concern on either side. We encourage it
to continue its work, with a view to further facilitating progress.
We will therefore:
Hold dialogues on all aspects of migration and consular issues of interest to us;
Encourage institutions on either side to undertake joint studies on problems relating to skillset
shortages and the changing demographic profiles in our regions.

PARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGES
As the two largest democracies in the world, the importance of regular Parliamentary interactions
between India and the EU can hardly be over-emphasised. They are essential to enhance
understanding of each other's points of view on matters of interest to both sides. They also
encourage greater understanding of each other's democratic systems and areas of responsibility.
We propose to:
Work towards the further development of EU-India friendship groups in the Indian
Parliament and the European Parliament;

Organise regular exchanges of visits by Parliamentary delegations, including by the


Speaker of the Lok Sabha to the European Parliament and the President of the European
Parliament to the Indian Parliament;
Encourage greater interaction between subject-specific Parliamentary Committees on both
sides.
EDUCATION & ACADEMIC EXCHANGES
We are convinced that cooperation between institutions of higher education and the exchange of
scholars and students play a significant role in enhancing mutual knowledge. We therefore
propose to build on existing programmes between India and EU Member States and develop new
initiatives to accord greater opportunities to students from both sides to study in each other's
universities.
We will seek to:
Promote the implementation of the India Window of the Erasmus Mundus Scholarship
Programme; and encourage continuation of the programme;
Link up Websites of Indian and EU Universities and academic institutions in order to better
inform students of academic opportunities in each others areas;
Encourage the development of EU studies in India and Indian studies in the EU, by
encouraging installation of Chairs and/or Centres of Modern Indian Studies in EU
Universities and of EU Studies in Indian Universities including EU languages;
Facilitate access to academic institutions and residence in each other's territory of students
admitted into bona fide programmes of such institutions.
CIVIL SOCIETY EXCHANGES
The First India-EU Summit in Lisbon in June 2000 recognised that the involvement of organised
civil society in the dialogue between the two sides would add a new dimension to India-EU
relations.
Given the vibrant and free civil societies that flourish in India and in the EU, it was felt
that the creation of a forum to institutionalise such interaction would enhance each other's
understanding of regional and global problems through open and frank discussions. In pursuit of
this approach, the India-EU Round Table was inaugurated in January 2001 so as to complement
the existing political, economic and social links. Eight Round Tables covering diverse areas of
mutual interest have been successfully held. We will seek to expand our cooperation through:
Promoting cooperation between political parties, trade unions, business associations,
universities and civil society (including Think Tanks and NGOs);
Developing the India-EU Civil Society Internet Forum enabling enhanced exchange of
ideas between civil society actors;

Continuing to support the work of the India-EU Round Table, and its integration into the
institutional architecture of the India-EU relationship.

CULTURAL COOPERATION
The E U and India, which enjoy rich and diversified cultural traditions, recognise culture as an
important instrument to foster close cooperation among States. We express satisfaction at the
ongoing programmes and cultural exchanges between India and EU Member States and will
endeavour to increase these exchanges both at the institutional level as well as at the level of
public and private organisations.
We believe that more areas of cooperation can be further considered and exploited, especially in
fields where longstanding cultural traditions, as well as contemporary creations, can enrich such
cooperation and make it fruitful. We will identify such areas and explore ways of collaboration.
We will in particular seek to:
Work towards full implementation of the Cultural Declaration;
Hold India-EU Cultural weeks on a reciprocal basis as part of the India-EU Summit
activities, with both sides facilitating participation, funds and logistics;
Facilitate participation by both sides in Film Festivals and other relevant cultural events to
be organised in each other's territories;
Develop cooperation programmes in preservation and restoration techniques;
Promote dialogue between respective audiovisual industry with a view to stimulating
cooperation and exchange programmes; co-production, circulation of cultural works
between Europe and India and training professionals;
Exchange views on cultural diversity including on developments such as the adoption of
the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and the Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural
Expressions;
Undertake possible joint action to increase awareness of European culture in India and
Indian culture in Europe, including meetings, seminars and thematic conferences which
gather professionals, in particular from the audiovisual sector;
Undertake twinning between European and Indian cities, in accordance with each others
guidelines.

INCREASING MUTUAL VISIBILITY


India and the EU are large geographical entities, with complex and diverse demographies and
rich histories and cultural traditions. This necessitates a conscious effort on both sides to inform

each other's public opinion. Both societies are evolving rapidly and there is a constant need to
update the media image on both sides. The strategy to enhance mutual visibility should include
enhancing the effectiveness of available instruments at our disposal, in addition to exploring new
ones.
To this end, we propose to:
Promote more intensive media coverage of India in the EU and vice versa;
Enhance journalistic exchanges between the two sides;
Organise short term information courses and thematic conferences for journalists on a
reciprocal basis;
Promote tourism in both directions and especially enhance interaction between youth
groups including cooperation in the field of sport.
Develop periodically EU-India thematic cultural years (eg cinema, music, dance, literature.)

IV. ECONOMIC POLICY DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION


A strengthened exchange of views and information between India and the EU on matters of
mutual interest in the areas of economic cooperation will improve the business environment,
leading to strengthened economic relations.
Moreover, in the long term, it will help to reduce obstacles to bilateral trade and investment.
For this purpose, both sides agree to the setting up of discussion platforms including several new
Working Groups. Inter-linkages between the Working Groups will be through the existing SubCommissions and the Joint Commission.

INDUSTRIAL POLICY
Cooperation between India and the EU on industrial issues and understanding of the regulatory
framework has been growing in recent years. Under the 'Joint Initiative to Enhance Trade and
Investment, the two sides jointly carried out general as well as eight sector specific studies on
trade and investment matters.

On the basis of the results of the studies, Indian and European business associations brought out a set
of recommendations, which were placed before the 2001 and 2002 Summits.
Considering the potential for a further enhanced dialogue, both sides agree to:
Establish a platform for the exchange of information and views on industrial policy and to
enhance mutual understanding of regulatory frameworks;
Continue and reinforce dialogue in existing and strengthened Working Groups and
encourage discussion in various sectors;
Exchange information on competition policy in areas of mutual interest, with a view to
increasing cooperation;
Develop a dialogue on best practices in the field of corporate governance;
Establish a Working Group on Food Processing Industries.
Following the useful Joint Initiative studies, both sides also agree that a new initiative on
enhancing bilateral Trade and Investment would be taken up.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


In both India and the EU, the development of science and technology (S&T) capabilities, to help
boost innovation and competitiveness, has taken centre stage in policy making.
India and the EU began cooperation in the S&T sectors in the mid-1980s, which has now led to more
than a
hundred joint research projects. Research collaboration has mainly focused on sustainable
development key themes (health, agriculture, natural resources management).
The India-EC Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement entered into force on 14 October
2002. It has been a major milestone in bringing together our S&T expertise for our mutual interest.
Yet the potential for more India-EU collaboration in many new and emerging high-tech areas is
huge. India is a priority country for collaboration under the international dimension of the EUs
Sixth Framework Research Programme (FP6) and for participating in the preparation of FP7 so
as to synergise it with India-EC S&T Agreement.

We share a firm commitment to foster European and Indian joint research, for our mutual benefit and
as a contribution to solving global issues.
In order to build upon our well-established policy dialogue and partnership in S&T, India and the
EU propose to:
Organise joint workshops on research fields of mutual interest among EUs thematic
research priorities;
Promote participation by Indian researchers in the Research and Technological
Development (RTD) Framework Programme;
Explore with India other scientific and technical collaboration possibilities, such as joint
research in the areas of frontier technology/cutting edge technology;
Seek to increase mobility, exchanges and access of researchers between India and Europe.
As agreed at the 2nd India-EC Science and Technology Steering Committee meeting held
at New Delhi on 29th April 2005, make further pro-active use of the India-EC S&T
Agreement to co-sponsor collaborative activities and research projects in areas, such as:
Information Science and Technology;
Genomics and Biotechnology for Health;
Nanotechnology and Functional Materials;
Road Transport Research and Development;
High Energy Physics (Accelerator Science and Technology).
FINANCE AND MONETARY AFFAIRS
India and the EU have a strong and growing presence in international financial discussions. The
introduction of the Euro has strengthened the EUs role and responsibilities in the international
monetary arena.
In an increasingly interdependent and global economy, where the financial and
monetary policies of one major economic actor affect others, India and the EU share a common
interest in developing an in-depth policy dialogue on global financial and monetary issues.
For this reason, India and the EU should promote exchange of views and information between
relevant institutions and policy makers in the economic and financial domain. This would allow
an exchange of views on macroeconomic and financial matters of common interest. Dialogue
already taking place in various fora should be further strengthened.
To this end it is agreed to:
Hold regular consultations at an appropriate senior level on matters of common interest as
and when necessary for issues considered appropriate by mutual consent;
Establish a regular macroeconomic dialogue on matters of common interest;
Identify academic institutions on both sides for increasing academic cooperation and
exchange in these areas;

Exchange information on financial services regulatory policies, banking systems and


accounting standards;
Encourage the European Investment Bank to continue its involvement in investment in
India, and to explore strengthening it in the future.

ENVIRONMENT
India and the EU are committed to creating the conditions necessary for sustainable economic
development. Each recognises the interdependencies in the field of environment and the trans
boundary
character of many environmental problems. As major global actors, both partners are fully conscious
of their capacity to play a central role in international efforts towards better environmental global
governance. India and the EU are signatories and active contributors to the main multilateral
instruments, including the Kyoto Protocol, and the UN Convention on Biodiversity.
To realise our shared vision of making sustainable development a reality, India and the EU will
seek to:
Strengthen the dialogue on global environmental issues with a view to building mutual
understanding in particular on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer, the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on
Biological Diversity;
Hold meetings of the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Environment on a yearly basis and
develop high level visits;
Organise an India-EU environment forum in 2005 with stakeholders involving business,
academia and civil society to exchange views and information;
Hold an experts meeting to exchange views on voluntary eco labelling schemes;
Identify key environmental issues and approaches to sustainable development where
exchange of experiences and cooperation could be mutually beneficial.
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE
India and the EU agree that urgent action is required by all countries to address the issue of
climate change on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated
responsibilities and respective capabilities.
Both sides are of the view that in the years to come the UNFCCC and the Kyoto process must gain
further momentum. India and the EU also urge Parties to the Kyoto Protocol to achieve their targets,
where obligated for the first commitment period.
India and the EU further commit themselves to work together closely on future global
negotiations for tackling climate change, consistent with the principles of UNFCCC beyond2012.

Accordingly, India and the EU agree to launch an India-EU Initiative on Clean Development and
Climate Change. This Initiative will focus on voluntary practical measures, and be taken forward
at successive India-EU Summits. In view of the particular importance of cleaner technologies for
tackling climate change, both sides further agree to:

Identify and develop ways of widening access and overcoming the barriers to
dissemination of such technologies in India and the EU and more widely;
Increase funding and promote public-private partnerships for research and development of
cleaner technologies;
Promote adaptive research and development to suit the resource endowment of both
parties;
Reduce the price gap between cleaner and less efficient technologies by seeking
economies of scale;
Hold experts meetings on climate change, including on the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) in 2005.
It was further decided that India and the EU would take steps to encourage and promote
sustainable patterns of consumption and production to lessen the causes and adverse impacts of
climate change.
India and the EU agree to strengthen the implementation of the CDM to promote cooperation on
CDM between India and the EU and to encourage our companies to engage in CDM projects.
The proposed IndiaEU Seminar on CDM would also explore the possibilities of making CDM
processes more efficient, and with reduced transaction costs.
India and the EU will cooperate on improving our adaptation to climate change and integrate
adaptation concerns into our respective sustainable development strategies. Both sides agree to
cooperate to enhance the scientific, technical and institutional capacity to predict climate change
and its socio-economic impacts. Research and development on technologies and measures to
adapt to climate change will be further pursued by India and the EU.
ENERGY
Energy is of major significance for both India and the EU. Both sides recognise the need to work
towards achieving safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. Joint efforts in the
development of more efficient, cleaner and alternative energy chains will be paramount.
In this context, an India-EU Energy Panel has been set up to coordinate joint efforts and discuss

energy related matters of mutual interest. The Energy Panel has decided to set up Working
Groups in the areas of:
Energy efficiency and renewable energies;
Coal and clean coal conversion technologies;
Fusion energy including Indias membership in ITER.
Both sides agree to cooperate closely in the areas of:
Promoting energy efficiency and energy conservation;
Development of affordable clean energy technologies;
Identification of new technologies in the field of new, renewable, conventional and
nonconventional
energy sources;
Oil and gas, with a view to promoting security of supplies and stability in prices;
Nuclear energy;
Technology and expertise in exchange of energy between different grid systems and
development of energy markets;
Development of hydrogen and fuel cells;
Methane recovery and use.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES
Information and communication technologies (ICT) influence all areas of society, business and
government. The development and widespread adoption of new ICT services and networks have
powerful effects on economic and social development.
India has developed a strong capacity in ICT, capturing a large and growing share of the world
market for IT and software services. With its large pool of talented IT specialists and world class
facilities for IT research and development, India is considered an important partner for Europe
and vice versa. Many ICT researchers and businesses on both sides are keen to strengthen links
with their counterparts.
In 2001, India and the EU took further concrete steps to promote mutual cooperation in the
development of ICT and a modern information society, as expressed in the Joint EU-India Vision
Statement on IT adopted at the Second Summit in New Delhi.
By building upon our already extensive information society dialogue, the EU and India have
agreed to:
Enhance India-EU cooperation in the Seventh Framework Programme;
Under the umbrella of the India-EU Information Society Dialogue, exchange views on a
regular basis on:
e-commerce
internet governance
universal service;
Exchange views between relevant authorities of India and EC on these areas of common
interest in appropriate for a;

Encourage India-EU joint research proposals and collaboration activities, in particular, for
the following fields: 4G, e-government, e-education and e-health;
Exchange best practices and information on regulatory frameworks (internet governance,
privacy and security, spamming) and for electronic communications (e.g. mobile aspects,
universal service);
Exchange views on Telecommunication spectrum management and on roaming and
interoperability of telecommunication services;
Work towards GEANT-ERNET connectivity with the objective of connecting EU and
Indian Information networks to facilitate research and technology linkages;
Continue Information Society Technologies (IST) awareness through workshops and
seminars.
TRANSPORT
India and the EU have a common interest to explore synergies in developing reliable, safe and
secure transport networks and linkages, which respond to the needs of individuals and business.
Efficient transport systems will increase competitiveness on both sides and enhance our
attractiveness as investment locations.
The ECs economic cooperation with India in the field of transport is well established. The IndiaEC Civil Aviation Project is the largest bilateral economic cooperation project in India.
The project aims to strengthen civil air safety and stimulates cooperation between Indian and the EU
civil aviation authorities and European aerospace industries. The India-EC Maritime Transport
Project, which ended in late 2003, inter alia, contributed to electronic data interchange
programme in the port sector in India.
To advance our mutual interests in this important sector, India and the EU have agreed to:
Work towards the conclusion of a Maritime Agreement;
Launch a broad-based dialogue in the sector of civil aviation including closer cooperation
in air transport technology, regulation and infrastructure and assess the scope for mutual
benefits that could derive from such dialogue;
Explore the possibility of continuing and expanding the scope of the existing Civil Aviation
Project
Continue discussions, as a matter of priority, on a horizontal agreement between India and
the EU resolving legal issues in bilateral air services agreements.

SPACE TECHNOLOGY
Both India and Europe are at the cutting-edge of research in the field of Space Technology, and
there is a wide scope for cooperation. With a view to promote collaboration and provide an
appropriate environment for fruitful cooperation in the space sector, both parties will:

Support further collaboration and dialogue between Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO), Department of Space (DOS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) and the
European Commission, in areas such as earth observation and remote sensing for
monitoring of natural resources and environment, communications, meteorology,
navigation, life and material sciences under micro gravity conditions, space exploration,
space sciences and any other area relevant to our respective Space programmes;
Jointly identify specific new areas/projects of cooperation between the respective space
agencies for further discussion/implementation through the existing mechanism for
technical cooperation;
Conclude a framework agreement on Indias participation in Galileo Satellite Navigation
Systems.

PHARMACEUTICALS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY


The EU is the second largest centre of biotechnology research activity in the world and Indian
biotechnology is advancing rapidly. Opportunities for partnership in areas such as new
discoveries, preclinical/clinical trials and bio-informatics already exist and the potential for
collaboration in agri-biotechnology, food safety and pharmaceuticals is growing.
Greater interaction and enhanced cooperation between respective EU and Indian administrations,
industry and research institutions would lead to faster progress and greater benefits for all. For
this reason the EU and India agree to:
Set up a Working Group on Pharmaceuticals and Biotech and in this framework they agree
to hold experts meetings, as a matter of priority, with the participation of European
Agency for Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) on the EU regulatory approach in
the field of Ayurveda products;
Exchange information on the regulatory framework, on best practice in funding, research,
environmental issues, technical exchange programmes, and infrastructure support
institutions;
Cooperate on confronting global challenges posed by diseases such as HIV/AIDS,
tuberculosis and malaria, and as part of this seek to organise a Conference on development
of vaccines for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

AGRICULTURE
India and the EU appreciate the social and economic importance for both sides to develop and
preserve a dynamic agricultural sector. To create the conditions necessary for an efficient,
modern and diversified agricultural sector, the EU and India have agreed to:
Exchange views in relation to our respective agriculture policies including modernisation
and other issues;
Explore issues of reciprocal interest in agriculture trade;

Reinforce the dialogue in the restructured Working Group on Agriculture and Marine
products. Both sides will identify new areas of cooperation in this Working group and meet
in parallel with the newly created Joint Working Group on Sanitary and Phytosanitary
(SPS) and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBTs).

CUSTOMS
The EU is Indias largest trading partner and India-EU bilateral trade has been showing great
dynamism. Both sides agreed that trade volumes can be further boosted. The EU and India are
committed to understanding the problems faced by EU and Indian companies in relation to
customs controls.
To help overcome various obstacles to trade and improve supply chain security, India and the EU
propose to:
Ensure full exploitation of the agreement between the EC and India on cooperation and
mutual assistance on customs matters through development of a cooperation programme by
the Joint Customs Cooperation Committee;
Strengthen the dialogue on customs issues including issues such as valuation and
classification, rules of origin etc;
Discuss the role of customs in the implementation of relevant trade and commercial policy
issues. Both sides also agreed to:
Deliberate on harmonisation, implementation and enforcement of customs laws, procedures
and working methods;
Cooperate on security and facilitation in the international trade supply chain and in tackling
commercial fraud;
Discuss and cooperate in modernisation and capacity building;
Explore exchange of information within the framework of the customs agreement and to
discuss the establishment of formal channels of communication.

EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL POLICY


Employment and social policies are core issues within the EU and the Government of India has
put them at the heart of its policy approach. India and the EU are committed to promote full,
freely chosen and productive employment with full respect for fundamental principles, fair wages
and rights at work. India and the EU share a common interest to develop a policy dialogue on
employment and social security to share experience, periodic exchange of views and information
on:
Labour and employment issues, including on employment policies, restructuring, the global
employment opportunities and requirements for trained manpower;

Human resource management in particular through training and skills development;


Social security.
BUSINESS COOPERATION
The close association of industry and business in India-EU cooperation as well as dialogue
between businesses from both sides are crucial to achieving the common goal of enhanced trade
and investment. Industry and business of India and the EU are not only competitors but also partners.
Regular business summits have been held since 2001. These summits have helped to create
better understanding of the opportunities and obstacles in a broad variety of sectors. The recent
phenomenon of Indian investments in EU especially in knowledge-based sectors of IT, Pharma,
etc., has added a new dimension to overall India-EU economic relations.
Both sides should build on those experiences to promote a strategic discussion on improving
business links. We have therefore decided to:
Hold a Business Round Table on a regular basis together with the Business Summits.
Industry Associations concerned on both sides will take appropriate action to continue the
Business Summit and Business Round Table initiatives. The Round Table will come up
with innovative ideas to further trade and investment;
Promote the development of networks for sectoral industrial cooperation and investment
promotion;
Further discuss strengthening of the existing information dissemination mechanism and
explore the need for new instruments for facilitating EU-India trade and investment;
Reinforce business-to-government dialogue based on the work undertaken under the Joint
Initiative for Enhancing Trade and Investment, which should feed into the sectoral policy
dialogues;
Operationalise the Trade and Investment Development Programme (TIDP) Web portal to
provide both sides with comprehensive information on trade and investment issues.

DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
Against the backdrop of thirty years of engagement between India and EU both sides are
committed to achieve progress with regard to the Millennium Development Goals and related
international agendas.
Since 1976, the EC has committed around 2 billion of development cooperation to India. The
allocation for the 2002-2006 programming period is 225 million. An emphasis has been placed
on health, education, water and environment.
This commitment should be further enhanced. With a view to provide impetus to India-EU
cooperation it is proposed to deepen development cooperation in Health and Education sectors,
under which the EU - working together with the Government of India - will aim to significantly

enhance development cooperation to supplement Indian programmes, namely Sarva Shiksha


Abhiyan (SSA) and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), two important social sector
programmes, for the remaining period of the 10th Five Year Plan and the 11th Five year Plan
periods of the Government of India.
India is itself becoming an increasingly active player in an evolving development policy: it is
both a recipient and donor, a user of developmental innovations and an exporter of new concepts.
Indias position as an emerging bilateral donor under the Indian Development & Economic
Assistance Scheme (IDEAS) could pave the way for a fruitful EU-India dialogue on optimal
implementation of development cooperation in third countries.
We are committed to implementing the following actions:
Operation alise States Partnership programme (160 million) during 2005;
Exchange views on global development issues;
Evaluate the past fifteen years of India-EC bilateral cooperation and its impact, with the
involvement of relevant authorities on both sides;
Further explore EC-India cooperation in development projects in third countries;
Aim to enhance significantly EU development cooperation for the universalisation of
elementary education (Sarva Shiksa Abhiyan) and the National Rural Health Mission of the
Government of India.
V. DEVELOPING TRADE AND INVESTMENT
India and the EU agree to take positive steps to further increase bilateral trade and economic
cooperation and to tackling barriers to trade and investment. Private sector contacts would also
be further developed. While trade and investment flows between India and the EU have been
increasing, they remain below potential. Therefore, to enhance economic cooperation the
following steps are proposed:
HIGH LEVEL TRADE GROUP

India and the EU agree to establish a High Level Trade Group to study and explore ways and
means to deepen and widen their bilateral trade and investment relationship. The Group will
report to the next summit in 2006, including the possible launch of bilateral negotiations on a
broad-based trade and investment agreement. Within this framework, and in order to increase
investment in India and the EU, the scope of a possible investment agreement will be explored.
WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO)/DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA (DDA)
India and EU are committed to a successful outcome of the Hong Kong Ministerial in December
2005 and agree to move forward the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations to a
successful conclusion as a matter of priority. In this respect both parties agree to continue their
dialogue with a view to greater convergence in areas of mutual interest.
To this end the India and EU agree to strengthen their dialogue on the DDA negotiations which
inter alia include Agriculture, Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA), Services, Trade
Facilitation, Antidumping, Geographical Indications, Special and Differential Treatment, and
Implementation, including as regards the relationship between Trade-related Intellectual Property
Rights (TRIPs) and the Biodiversity Convention.
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP)
Both parties agree to initiate a discussion on Public Private Partnerships (PPP) and as a first step

to exchange information and experiences with a view to, inter alia, enhancing investment in
infrastructure. The two sides agree to set up an Expert Group to identify policy level changes
required to promote PPP.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPR)
India and the EU attach importance to achieving effective and comprehensive protection of
geographical indications (GIs). As a first step, India and the EU shall exchange information on
their respective GI protection regimes and hold an expert meeting on GIs in 2005 with a view to
strengthening their technical cooperation on GIs.
Both parties agree to establish an appropriate dialogue to discuss IPR policy, regulatory issues,
implementation and enforcement, as well as the general objectives and/or framework. To this
end, both parties agree to establish a forum for a regular exchange of views and information on
domestic regulatory policies and practices and enforcement issues. This forum shall also cover
related technical assistance and capacity building initiatives.
TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE(TBT)/SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY (SPS) ISSUES
The two sides agreed to establish a TBT/SPS Working Group and to hold the first meeting before
the end of 2005. This would deepen the dialogue on TBT and SPS issues respectively with a
view to facilitating bilateral trade and increasing market access.
TRADE DEFENCE INSTRUMENTS
India and the EU have agreed to activate the expert meetings according to the already agreed
terms of reference.
SERVICES
India and EU agree to exchange information and initiate a dialogue on regulatory policy
including Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs) and domestic regulations and market access
issues related to services. Priority areas should be agreed before the end of 2005.
PUBLIC PROCUREMENT
Both parties agreed to exchange information on public procurement policies.

TRADE & INVESTMENT RELATIONS


EU-India trade relations have progressed tremendously over the last years.
India ranked 8th in the list of the EUs main trading partners in 2011, up from 15th in 2002.
The EU is Indias largest trading partner accounting for 100 billion in trade in goods and services in
2011.
The EU accounted for 20.34% of Indias total exports and 14.31% of Indias total imports.
On the other hand, India accounts for 2.6% of EUs total exports and 2.3% of the EUs total imports.
FDI flows between EU and India

year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

Inflows from India into


eu(Ebn)
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.5
0.5
1.2
3.5
0.8
0.6
1.9

Outflows from the EU to


India (ebn)
0.7
0.4
1.1
0.8
0.6
2.5
2.5
4.6
3.3
3.1
3
12.0

TRADE IN SERVICES
In 2011, EU-India commercial services trade stood at 20.4 billion.
EU exports to India accounted for 10.7 billion, while EU services imports from India were 9.7
billion.
Other than commercial services, the key areas are in services trade are sea and air transport, other
business services and computer and information services.

EU trade in services with India


Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

EU exports to India
2.5
2.7
2.6
2.8
3.8
5.4
7.5
8.7
9.0
8.9
10.0
10.7

EU imports from India


2.6
3.0
2.7
3.0
4.1
5.1
5.8
7.2
8.1
7.4
8.2
9.7

EU trade balance with India


-0.1
-0.3
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0.3
1.6
1.5
0.8
1.5
1.8
1.1

Trade in Goods
Trade in goods between both partners has more than tripled from 25.6 billion in 2000 to nearly
80.0 billion in 2011.
The EUs exports to India during the same period increased from 13.3billion to 40.4 billion.
EU imports from India increased from 12.3 billion to 39.2 billion.

EU-India Trade basket


During the year 2011, the EUs major items of imports from India consisted of textiles and clothing
(18.68%), mineral products (13.14%), engineering goods (13.70%), chemical and allied products
(11.76%), gems and jewellery (7.67%), leather and leather goods (6.52%), metal and metal products
(8.22%),
transport equipment (6.13%), and agriculture and allied products (5.95%).
During the same period, the EUs major exports to India consisted of engineering goods (39.51%),
gems and jewellery (23.04%), metal and metal products (11.78%), chemicals and allied products
(8.47%), transport equipment (5.65%), and plastics and allied products (4.13%).

Export Helpdesk
The Export Helpdesk, set-up in 2004, is an online service, provided by the European Union, to
facilitate market access for developing countries to the European Union.
The Export Helpdesk is a user friendly service for exporters, importers, trade associations and
governments, providing the following information online:
_ EU import duties for different products and also the VAT rate applicable in a Member State;
_ General requirements, including commercial invoice, freight documents, customs value
declaration, single
administrative document (common import declaration);
_ Rules of Origin including rules concerning value addition to be carried out on a product by your
company to qualify for reduced or duty free tariff treatment.
_ Specific information is available on veterinary requirements, presence of residues of pesticides,
veterinary medicines that can be used, food additives and contaminants which are prohibited, etc.
Also import licence (called import certificate), labelling requirements, conformity certification, etc;
_ In order to see trade trends, statistics on imports and exports by value and volume are made
available from
2000;
_ Links to useful websites related to business associations and chambers of commerce in Europe are
also available.

THE FUTURE OF INDIA EU RELATION

THE EU-INDIA PARTNERSHIP IS TAPPING INTO THE VAST POTENTIAL FOR FUTURE
DEVELOPMENT ,
THE RELATIONSHIP PROMISES TO BENEFIT BOTH SIDES ON A RANGE OF
IMPORTANT ISSUES LONG INTO THE FUTURE.

Challenges and opportunities


In 2005, the EU & India agreed a landmark Joint Action Plan, revised in 2008, that aims to promote:
peace and security;
sustainable development;
research and technology;
people-to-people contacts and cultural exchanges.
Addressing political issues
The EU & India are developing an ever-closer bilateral dialogue on political issues. We agree on the
importance
of using multilateral institutions, in particular the United Nations, as key to dealing with many global
problems.
Promoting Sustainable Development
Through our joint work programme, we are further developing our cooperation in research,
environment and energy to address the impacts of climate change. Both sides are actively pushing for
a global agreement on this issue.
Ever-growing trade and investment
Over the last five years, EU-India trade has more than doubled and investments have multiplied tenfold.
We are currently negotiating a broad-based Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement, which should
maximise business opportunities for companies on both sides.
Bringing people together
Educational exchanges enable increasing numbers of young Indians to study in Europe.
Cultural exchanges are also becoming more prominent and are stimulating greater awareness of
cultural diversity.

PARTNERS IN DEVELOPMENT
The EU is a long standing and trusted partner in Indias development effort, helping to tackle
poverty while improving in particular healthcare and access to good education.
Against the backdrop of Indias rapid economic growth, both sides are cooperating in high-tech areas
such as civil aviation, solar energy, research on nuclear fusion, and information and communication
technologies.

BIBILIOGRAPHY
1. The official website of European union : EUROPA.EDU
2. www.wikipedia.com
3. www.scribd.com