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BEARING

Antifriction Bearing

Is a precision item and can not be Designed but only Selected out of available ones!

TIMKEN, SKF

Manufacturers Association)

AFBMA (Anti-friction Bearing

Manufacturers Association)

with conditions and has a dimension as unit of length.

The rolling resistance can be expressed as

Fr = c W

(1)

where

Fr = rolling friction (N)

c = rolling resistance coefficient - dimensionless (coefficient of rolling friction CRF)

W = m g = normal force or weight of body (N)

m = mass of body (kg)

g = accelaration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)

The rolling resistance can alternatively be expressed as

Fr = cl W / r

(2)

where

cl = rolling resistance coefficient with dimension length (coefficient of rolling

friction) (mm)

r = radius of wheel (mm)

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

Size?

Working

Advantage?

Although the starting friction is about twice the

running friction, but still it is negligible in

comparison with the starting friction of a journal

bearing

Rolling elements

Conrad type

M S Dasgupta, BITS Pilani

retainer

a) Straight roller

b) Tapered roller, thrust

d) Needle

e) Tapered roller (both radial and thrust)

f) Steep-angle tapered roller

Bearing life

Virtually infinite!

If maintained in condition of clean and properly lubricated,

is mounted and sealed against the entrance of dust and dirt

and is operated at reasonable temperatures, then metal

fatigue will be the only cause of failure.

For example Timken company takes the failure criterion as

a wear area of 6.45 mm2.

Wear debris, vibration etc. may be other criteria.

Bearing life of an individual bearing is defined as the total

number of revolutions (or hours at a constant speed) of

bearing operation until the failure criterion is developed.

Rating life

The rating life is used by AFBMA (Anti-friction Bearing

Manufacturers Association)

roller bearings is defined as the number of revolutions (or

hours at a constant speed) that 90% of the group of bearings

will achieve or exceed before the failure criterion develops.

SKF

: 106 revolutions

Timken : 90(10)6 revolutions

constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):

Using a regression equation of the form

Experimentally

obtained data

plotted, for 90%

reliability

Rating Life

Fig: Typical bearing load-life log-log curve.

constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):

2

Desired Load=FD

1

Rating Load=C10

F1L1 a F2 L2 a

Desired

Life=LD

Rating

Life=L10

Associating the load F1 with C10, the catalogue rating that you need to look at, and

the life measure in revolutions L1 with the L10, which is the manufacturer specific

quantity, FD and LD refer to the design quantities for the bearing to be selected, we

can write,

C10 L10

1/ a

FD LD

1/ a

Here If we want to specify in the life hours, then we can write, rpm (nR & nD) values:

C10 R nR 60

1/ a

FD D nD 60

1/ a

constant (rated, 90%) reliability (R):

C10 R nR 60

1/ a

FD D nD 60

1/ a

Catalog rating, kN

Rating life in hours

Desired life in hours

Desired load, kN

Catalogue load rating, C10

D n D 60

FD

LR n R 60

1/ a

D n D 60

FD

rating life

1/ a

The Desired load (FD) is not steady then Load application factor

(A.F) is used

Table 115

Cylindrical Roller Bearings

Table 113

As per ABMA, the bearings are identified by a two-digit number

called the dimension-series code.

The first number is from the width series, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6.

The second number is from the diameter series (outside), 8, 9, 0, 1, 2,

3, & 4.

Deep-Groove and Angular-Contact Ball Bearings

Table 112:

Shoulder dimensions:

What ds and dH in the catalogues

mean

listed in the tables should be used whenever

possible to secure adequate support for the

bearing and to resist the maximum thrust

loads

The combined reliability goal is normally specified, say, Rt.

Then each of the two bearings, if both of them are same type, must

possess a reliability of:

Rt RA RB

If RA RB R, Rt R R R 2

or R Rt

e.g ., Rt 0.90,

R 0.90 0.948

Thus, R Rt

When dissimilar bearings are to be chosen at the two ends, the more

critical of the two will be designed for Rt. RB=Rt/RA=Rt/Rt=1. Thus

automatically the second bearing will have 100% reliability.

three-way relationship

(What to do, if more than 90% reliability is desired?):

Using the Weibull distribution, along any

constant load line (horizontal line in the

graph):

x x0 b

R exp[(

) ]

x0

R=reliability

x=life measure dimensionless variate, L/L10

x0=guaranteed, or minimum value of the variate

=characteristic parameter corresponding to the 63.2121 percentile value of the

variate; b= shape parameter that controls the skewness

three-way relationship

1

FB xB a FD xDa FB FD

Along a constant load line (AB),

x x

0

RD exp B

x0

Solving xB

x Da

1

xB a

1/ b

xB x0 x0 ln

RD

substituti ng

1/ a

xD

xD

FB C10 FD 1 FD

1/ b

a

x

ln

1

/

R

xB

0

D

0

C10 FD (

xD

1/ a

)

, R 0.90

1/ b

x0 ( x0 )(1 RD )

Purpose is to find the equivalent radial load Fe, that

would do the same damage as that done by the

existing radial and thrust loads together. V is the

rotation factor. V=1 for inner ring rotation, V=1.2

for outer ring rotation.

Fe

1

VFr

when

Fe

F

X Y a

VFr

VFr

when

Fe X iVFr Yi Fa

Fe may separately be multiplied by service factor if load is not steady

For horizontal line zone, i=1 and for inclined line zone, i=2.

Table 11-1 gives the values of Xi and Yi.

Table 111

Equivalent Radial Load Factors for Ball Bearings

Variable loading:

Three types of variable loading are possible:

1) Piecewise constant loading in a cycle pattern

3) Random variation

F L= Constant = K

F may be already be an equivalent

steady radial load for radial-thrust load

combination

criteria, the area under the F1- L1 trace is

numerically equal to K

Fe2, and Fe3 is

D = Fae1 l1 + Fae2 l2 + Fae3 l3

The equivalent steady load Feq

when run for l1 + l2 + l3 revolutions

does the same damage D.

Thus

D = Faeq (l1 + l2 + l3)

steady radial loads for

combined

radialthrust

loads.

F l F l f l

Feq [

]

l1 l2 l3

a

1 1

Feq

a

2 2

nt F

[

n t

i i

i i

a

ei 1/ a

a

3 3 1/ a

[ fi Fi ]

a 1/ a

rotational speed at load Fei and ti is the

duration of that speed,

Feq { fi [( AF )i Fei ] }

a 1/ a

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