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Failure resulting from fluctuating

load

Chapter 6
Fluctuating load?
What is special about it?
M S Dasgupta BITS Pilani

Fluctuating / Variable load

Variable loading results when the applied


load or the induced stress on a component is
not constant but changes with time
In reality most mechanical components
experience variable loading due to
-Change in the magnitude of applied load
-Change in direction of load application
-Change in point of load application

Stress variation: Sinusoidal

min minimum stress


max maximum stress
r range of stress max min
m midrange or mean stress

max min

a amplitude or variabl e stress

max min
2

Idealized types of cyclic loading: Sinosoidal


Completely Reversed : mean
stress is zero; equal reversals on
both sides; useful in conducting
experiments

Repeated stress: minimum stress


is zero; mean stress equal to half of
the range stress

Fluctuating stress: maximum,


minimum and mean stress are all
non-zero and arbitrary

Fatigue
Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with
variable loading or more precisely to cyclic
stressing or straining of a material

ASTM Definition of fatigue


The process of progressive localized
permanent structural changes occurring in a
material subjected to conditions that produce
fluctuating stresses at some point or points
and that may result in cracks or complete
fracture after a sufficient number of
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fluctuations.

Fatigue failure in Metals


Crack initiation, propagation and rupture in a shaft subjected to repeated bending

Final rupture occurs


over a limited area,
characterizing a very
small load required
to cause it

Beach
marks
showing the nature
of crack propagation

Crack initiation at
the outer surface

Fatigue Life Prediction


predict the failure in number of cycles N to failure for a specific type of
loading

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) : 1 N 103 ; High cycle fatigue (HCF) : N 103

Stress life methods


Based on stress levels only
Least accurate of the three, particularly for LCF
It is the most traditional because easiest to implement for a wide range of
applications
Has ample supporting data
Represents high cycle fatigue adequately
Strain life methods
Involves more detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions
Good for LCF
Some uncertainties may exist in results because several idealizations get
compounded
Hence normally not used in regular (special occasions)
Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods (LEFM)
Assumes that crack is already present and detected
The crack location is then employed to predict crack growth and sudden rupture with
respect to the stress nature and intensity
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S-N Diagram
The S-N Diagram for steel (UNS G41300), normalized, Sut=812 MPa.

R. R. Moore highspeed rotating


beam machine.

Se

Endurance Limit,

Non-Ferrous materials tested up to 5*108 cycles

It is the stress at which the


component can sustain
infinite number of cycles 8

Sut Se relation

for Sut 1460 MPa


0.5 Sut
S e'
for Sut 1460 MPa
700 MPa
S e' Endurance limit obtained in reverse bending
S e Endurance limit in the actual loading conditions

Se Se relation

S e k a kb k c k d k e S

'
e

k a surface condition modificati on factor


kb size modificati on factor
kc load modificati on factor
k d temperature modificati on factor
ke reliabilit y factor
k f miscellane ous effects modificati on factor
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Surface cond. Mod. factor (ka)


The surface modification factor depends on the quality of the
finish of the actual part surface and on the tensile strength of
the part material.
b

ka aSut

Size modification factor, kb


For rotating circular bars in bending and torsion only :
d / 7.620.107 1.24d 0.107 if
kb
if
0.859 0.000837d

2.79 d 51 mm
51 d 254 mm

For axial loading no size effect, kb 1.


What happens when bars are not rotating but
say under bending.
Or non-circular bars like square, or I section?
Concept of Equivalent Diameter de

Kb for non-rotating shapes

Effective dimension de
obtained by equating the
volume of material stressed
at and above 95 percent of
the maximum stress to the
same volume in the
rotating-beam specimen

Load modification factor, kc


1, bending

kc 0.85, axial
0.59, torsion

Actually the kc is sensitive


to Sut of the material. Tables
6-11 to 6-14 (page no. 333)
in Text Book give the
details. The above values
are representative.

Temperature modifying factor, kd


Brittle fracture is a strong possibility when
operating temp is below RT
At temp. higher than RT, yielding should be
investigated first because the yield strength drops
off rapidly with temperature.
Creep at elevated temperature

Temperature modifying factor, kd


For carbon and alloy steels experimental result
expressed as a fourth-order polynomial curve fit
to the data underlying

k d 0.975 0.432 10 3 TF 0.115 10 5 TF2 0.104 10 8 TF3 0.595 10 12 TF4


where
70 TF 1000o F
Or interpolate from a chart / table of
operating temp. vs tensile

Reliability factor, ke

ke 1 0.08za

Based on standard
deviation of Endurance
strength data

Miscellaneous effects factor, kf

Accounts for
Residual stress
Coating failure
Frettage corrosion material of mating part.
Synergic effect of corrosion and temperature
where is Se is function of frequency of loading.

Actual / Fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf


Kf is a reduced value of Kt and it is also called fatigue
strength reduction factor
maximum stress in notched specimen
Kf
stress in notch - free specimen

K f 1 qKt 1 or K fs 1 qshearKts 1
q notch sensitivity value (from Fig. 6 - 20 & 6 - 21)
Kt Theoretical stress concentrat ion factor (geometric factor)
Stress-concentration factors for a variety of geometries under
different loading conditions can be found in Table A15
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(page:1026-1032)

Notch Sensitivity

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Estimation of Kf
Kf = 1+q(Kt -1).

When q=0, the material has no sensitivity to notches, Kf=1.


When q=1, or when notch radius is large for which q is
almost equal to 1, the material has full notch sensitivity, and
Kf = Kt.
For all grades of cast iron, use q=0.20.
Use the different graphs to obtain q for bending/axial and
torsional loading.
Whenever the graphs do not give values of q for certain
combinations of data, use either Neuber equation or
Heywood equation.
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Estimation of Kf
Use the Neuber equation when the notch is circular/cylindrical.

q
1

a
r

and

K f 1 q K t 1

100psi = 0.689MPa

where a is Neuber constant and is a material constant


a f ( Sut ), i.e function of ultimate strength.
r notch radius

For steel, with Sut in kpsi, the Neuber constant can be


approximated by a third-order polynomial fit of data as

Bending or axial : a 0.246 3.08(103 ) Sut 1.51(105 ) Sut2 2.67(108 ) Sut3


Torsion :

a 0.19 2.51(103 ) Sut 1.35(105 ) Sut2 2.67(108 ) Sut3


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Estimation of Kf
Use Heywood equation when the notch is NOT circular/cylindrical but is a
tranverse hole or shoulder or groove.

Kf

Kt

2K t 1
1
Kt

a
r

where
a values are given in the Table 6 - 15; p age 335

r= hole/ shoulder/groove size

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Goodman Method
Predictor of failure in ductile materials
experiencing fluctuating stress
a

Sn = endurance strength
a = alternating stress
m = mean stress

Sy

Yield Line (Langer line)


Sn

FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION

Goodman Line

a m

1
Sn Su

NO FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION
-Sy

Sy

Su

m
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Goodman Diagram
Safe Stress Line

S n S u
N

Sy

Yield Line
Sn

Sn =endurance strength
a = alternating stress
m = mean stress

FATIGUE
FAILURE REGION
Goodman Line

a m

1
Sn Su

Sn/N
SAFE ZONE

-Sy

Su/N

Sy

Su

Safe Stress Line

m
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Design under cyclic loading


a

m

S e S ut

a
Se

m
S yt

1
nf

a
a
Se

m
S yt

Se
a

Se

m
S ut

S
yt

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Different fatigue failure models


a
Se

a
Se

S yt
Sut

1
nf

Soderberg line

1
nf

M odified Goodman line


2


1
n f m
Se
nf
Sut
2

Gerber line
2

a m 1
ASM E Elliptic line


Se S yt n f
a m 1

Langer line (only for checking


S yt S yt n y
2

for static yielding)

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Important Intersections in First Quadrant

Modified Goodman and


Langer Failure Criteria

M S Dasgupta BITS Pilani

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Important Intersections in First Quadrant

Gerber and Langer


Failure Criteria

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Important Intersections in First Quadrant

ASME-Elliptic and Langer


Failure Criteria

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