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load

Chapter 6

Fluctuating load?

What is special about it?

M S Dasgupta BITS Pilani

load or the induced stress on a component is

not constant but changes with time

In reality most mechanical components

experience variable loading due to

-Change in the magnitude of applied load

-Change in direction of load application

-Change in point of load application

max maximum stress

r range of stress max min

m midrange or mean stress

max min

max min

2

Completely Reversed : mean

stress is zero; equal reversals on

both sides; useful in conducting

experiments

is zero; mean stress equal to half of

the range stress

minimum and mean stress are all

non-zero and arbitrary

Fatigue

Fatigue is a phenomenon associated with

variable loading or more precisely to cyclic

stressing or straining of a material

The process of progressive localized

permanent structural changes occurring in a

material subjected to conditions that produce

fluctuating stresses at some point or points

and that may result in cracks or complete

fracture after a sufficient number of

5

fluctuations.

Crack initiation, propagation and rupture in a shaft subjected to repeated bending

over a limited area,

characterizing a very

small load required

to cause it

Beach

marks

showing the nature

of crack propagation

Crack initiation at

the outer surface

predict the failure in number of cycles N to failure for a specific type of

loading

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) : 1 N 103 ; High cycle fatigue (HCF) : N 103

Based on stress levels only

Least accurate of the three, particularly for LCF

It is the most traditional because easiest to implement for a wide range of

applications

Has ample supporting data

Represents high cycle fatigue adequately

Strain life methods

Involves more detailed analysis of plastic deformation at localized regions

Good for LCF

Some uncertainties may exist in results because several idealizations get

compounded

Hence normally not used in regular (special occasions)

Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods (LEFM)

Assumes that crack is already present and detected

The crack location is then employed to predict crack growth and sudden rupture with

respect to the stress nature and intensity

7

S-N Diagram

The S-N Diagram for steel (UNS G41300), normalized, Sut=812 MPa.

beam machine.

Se

Endurance Limit,

component can sustain

infinite number of cycles 8

Sut Se relation

0.5 Sut

S e'

for Sut 1460 MPa

700 MPa

S e' Endurance limit obtained in reverse bending

S e Endurance limit in the actual loading conditions

Se Se relation

S e k a kb k c k d k e S

'

e

kb size modificati on factor

kc load modificati on factor

k d temperature modificati on factor

ke reliabilit y factor

k f miscellane ous effects modificati on factor

10

The surface modification factor depends on the quality of the

finish of the actual part surface and on the tensile strength of

the part material.

b

ka aSut

For rotating circular bars in bending and torsion only :

d / 7.620.107 1.24d 0.107 if

kb

if

0.859 0.000837d

2.79 d 51 mm

51 d 254 mm

What happens when bars are not rotating but

say under bending.

Or non-circular bars like square, or I section?

Concept of Equivalent Diameter de

Effective dimension de

obtained by equating the

volume of material stressed

at and above 95 percent of

the maximum stress to the

same volume in the

rotating-beam specimen

1, bending

kc 0.85, axial

0.59, torsion

to Sut of the material. Tables

6-11 to 6-14 (page no. 333)

in Text Book give the

details. The above values

are representative.

Brittle fracture is a strong possibility when

operating temp is below RT

At temp. higher than RT, yielding should be

investigated first because the yield strength drops

off rapidly with temperature.

Creep at elevated temperature

For carbon and alloy steels experimental result

expressed as a fourth-order polynomial curve fit

to the data underlying

where

70 TF 1000o F

Or interpolate from a chart / table of

operating temp. vs tensile

Reliability factor, ke

ke 1 0.08za

Based on standard

deviation of Endurance

strength data

Accounts for

Residual stress

Coating failure

Frettage corrosion material of mating part.

Synergic effect of corrosion and temperature

where is Se is function of frequency of loading.

Kf is a reduced value of Kt and it is also called fatigue

strength reduction factor

maximum stress in notched specimen

Kf

stress in notch - free specimen

K f 1 qKt 1 or K fs 1 qshearKts 1

q notch sensitivity value (from Fig. 6 - 20 & 6 - 21)

Kt Theoretical stress concentrat ion factor (geometric factor)

Stress-concentration factors for a variety of geometries under

different loading conditions can be found in Table A15

19

(page:1026-1032)

Notch Sensitivity

20

Estimation of Kf

Kf = 1+q(Kt -1).

When q=1, or when notch radius is large for which q is

almost equal to 1, the material has full notch sensitivity, and

Kf = Kt.

For all grades of cast iron, use q=0.20.

Use the different graphs to obtain q for bending/axial and

torsional loading.

Whenever the graphs do not give values of q for certain

combinations of data, use either Neuber equation or

Heywood equation.

21

Estimation of Kf

Use the Neuber equation when the notch is circular/cylindrical.

q

1

a

r

and

K f 1 q K t 1

100psi = 0.689MPa

a f ( Sut ), i.e function of ultimate strength.

r notch radius

approximated by a third-order polynomial fit of data as

Torsion :

22

Estimation of Kf

Use Heywood equation when the notch is NOT circular/cylindrical but is a

tranverse hole or shoulder or groove.

Kf

Kt

2K t 1

1

Kt

a

r

where

a values are given in the Table 6 - 15; p age 335

23

24

Goodman Method

Predictor of failure in ductile materials

experiencing fluctuating stress

a

Sn = endurance strength

a = alternating stress

m = mean stress

Sy

Sn

FATIGUE

FAILURE REGION

Goodman Line

a m

1

Sn Su

NO FATIGUE

FAILURE REGION

-Sy

Sy

Su

m

25

Goodman Diagram

Safe Stress Line

S n S u

N

Sy

Yield Line

Sn

Sn =endurance strength

a = alternating stress

m = mean stress

FATIGUE

FAILURE REGION

Goodman Line

a m

1

Sn Su

Sn/N

SAFE ZONE

-Sy

Su/N

Sy

Su

m

26

a

m

S e S ut

a

Se

m

S yt

1

nf

a

a

Se

m

S yt

Se

a

Se

m

S ut

S

yt

27

a

Se

a

Se

S yt

Sut

1

nf

Soderberg line

1

nf

2

1

n f m

Se

nf

Sut

2

Gerber line

2

a m 1

ASM E Elliptic line

Se S yt n f

a m 1

S yt S yt n y

2

28

Langer Failure Criteria

29

Failure Criteria

30

Failure Criteria

31

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