Fourier Representations of Signals and
Linear TimeInvariant Systems
Chapter 3
Outline
Introduction
Complex sinusoids and frequency response of LTI
systems
Fourier representations for four classes of signals
Discretetime periodic signals: Discretetime Fourier
series
Continuoustime periodic signals: Fourier series
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: Discretetime
Fourier transform
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: Fourier transform
Properties of Fourier representation
Linearity and symmetric properties
Convolution property
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Outline
Differentiation and Integration properties
Time and Frequencyshift properties
Finding inverse Fourier transforms by using partialfraction expansions
Multiplication property
Scaling property
Parseval relationships
Timebandwidth product
Duality
Exploring Concepts with MATLAB
Summary
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Introduction
Represents signals in terms of complex
sinusoids, we can
Obtain an alternative expression for the I/PO/P
behavior of an LTI system
Represents an I/P signal as a weighted superposition of
complex sinusoids
The O/P of an LTI system is a weighted superposition of
the system response to each complex sinusoids
Provide an insightful characterization of signals
and systems
The weight associated with a sinusoid of a given
frequency represents the contribution of that sinusoid to
the overall signal
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Introduction
Fourier analysis
Study of signals and systems using sinusoidal
representations
Four distinct Fourier representation
Discretetime Fourier series (DTFS)
Fourier series (FS)
Discretetime Fourier transform (DTFT)
Fourier transform (FT)
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Frequency response of a system
Response of an LTI system to a sinusoidal I/P
The representation is obtained by using
convolution and a complex sinusoidal I/P signal
Figure 3.1 (p. 196)
The output of a complex sinusoidal
input to an LTI system is a complex
sinusoid of the same frequency as
the input, multiplied by the
frequency response of the system.
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Consider a discretetime LTI system with impulse response h[n]
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x[n] e jn , the O/P is
y[n]
h[k ]x[n k ]
h[k ]e j ( n k ) e jn
k
j
where H (e )
h[k ]e jk H (e j )e jn
h[k ]e jk is the frequencyresponse of a discretetime
system. It is a function of frequency but not a function of time n
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Consider a continuoustime LTI system with impulse response h(t )
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x(t ) e jt , the O/P is
y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( )e
j ( t )
d e
jt
h( )e j d
H ( j )e jt
where H ( j )
h( )e j d is the frequencyresponse of a
continuoustime system.
H ( j ) is a function of frequency but not a function of time t
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Polar form:
b
c a jb c c e
, where c a b , arg{c} arctan{ }
a
H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )} , where
j arg{c}
H ( j ) : magnitude response
arg{H ( j )}: phase response
y (t ) H ( j )e jt H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}e jt H ( j ) e j (t arg{ H ( j )})
the system modifies the amplitude of the I/P by H ( j )
and the phase by arg{H ( j )}
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Ex. 3.1 RC circuit: Frequency response
t
RC
1
I/P: x(t ), O/P: y (t ), Impulse response: h(t )
e u (t )
RC
Find an expression for the frequency response and plot the
magnitude and phase response
Figure 3.2 (p. 197)
RC circuit for Example 3.1.
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
)
( j
1
1
j
j
RC
RC
Sol. H ( j ) h( )e d [
e u ( )]e d
e
d
RC
0
RC
1
( j
)
1
1
1
1
1
RC
e
0
(0 1)
1
1
RC ( j
RC ( j
( j RC 1)
)
)
RC
RC
1 j RC
( RC ) 2 1
1
RC
1
2
2
H ( j ) (
) (
)
,
2
2
2
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
arg{H ( j )} arctan{ RC}
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Figure 3.3 (p. 198)
Frequency response of the RC circuit in Fig. 3.2. (a) Magnitude response. (b) Phase response.
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
If ek is an eigenvector of a matrix A with eigenvalue k , then Aek k e k
We say that the complex sinusoid (t ) e jt is an eigenfunction of the
LTI system H associated with the eigenvalue H ( j ),
because satisfies H {e jt } H ( j )e jt H { (t )} (t )
i.e. H { .} and H ( . ) are different!!
H
Figure 3.4 (p. 198)
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[ n]
h[n]
x[n] x[n]* [n]
x[k ] [n k ]
y[n]
x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]
x[n] ak e jk n
y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n
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(t )
h(t )
x(t ) x(t ) * (t )
x( ) (t )d
y (t )
x( )h(t )d x(t )* h(t )
e jt
H ( j )e jt
x(t ) ak e jk t
y (t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k
Q: What is the value of k , ak , and the range of k ?
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
Consider expressing the I/P to an LTI system as the weighted sum of
M
M complex sinusoids, x(t ) ak e jk t
k 1
If e jk t is an eigenfunction of the system with eigenvalue of H ( jk ),
then each term in the I/P,ak e jk t , produces an O/P term ak H ( jk )e jk t
Hence, we can express the O/P of the system as
M
y(t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k 1
the operation of convolution, h(t ) * x(t ), becomes multiplication,
ak H ( jk ), because is expressed x(t ) as a sum of eigenfunctions
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Complex sinusoids and frequency
response of LTI systems
This property is a powerful motivation for
representing signals as weighted superposition of
complex sinusoids
Rather than describing the signals behavior as a
function of time, the weights describe it as a function
of frequency
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Fourier representations for four classes of
signals
Fourier series (FS)
Discretetime Fourier series (DTFS)
Discretetime, periodic signal
Fourier transform (FT)
Continuoustime, periodic signal
Continuoustime, nonperiodic signal
Discretetime Fourier transform (DTFT)
Discretetime, nonperiodic signal
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[ n]
h[n]
x[n] x[n]* [n]
x[k ] [n k ]
y[n]
x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]
x[n] ak e jk n
y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n
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Fourier representations for four classes
of signals
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Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
Consider representing a periodic signal as a
weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
Since the weighted superposition must have the
same period as the signal, each sinusoid in the
superposition must have the same period as the
signal
It implies that the frequency of each sinusoid must be
an integer multiple of the signals fundamental
frequency
0=2p/N, N=2p/0
0k0
NN/k
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Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
A sinusoid whose frequency is an integer multiple of a
fundamental frequency is said to be a harmonic of the
sinusoid at the fundamental frequency.
Thus, e jk0t is the k th harmonic of e j0t .
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Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
If is x[n] a discretetime signal with fundamental period N , then
we seek to represent x[n] by the DTFS,
x[ n] A[ k ]e jk 0 n ,
(3.4)
where
2p
0
is the fundamental frequency of x[n];
N
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. DTFS is not assumed to be existed yet)
The frequency of the k th sinusoid in the superposition is k 0 .
Each of these sinusoids has a common period N .
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Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
If is x(t ) a continuoustime signal with fundamental period T , we seek to
represents x(t ) by the FS,
x (t ) A[ k ]e jk0t ,
(3.5)
2p
is the fundamental frequency of x(t )
T
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. FS is not assumed to be existed yet)
where 0
The frequency of the k th sinusoid in the superposition is k0 .
Each of these sinusoids has a common period T
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f[n]= ejk0n(i.e., f[n]=f[n+N]),N=2p/0
f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0n=ejk0nejN0n=ejk0nej2pn=ejk0n=f[k]
f(t)= ejk0t(i.e., f(t)=f(t+T)),T=2p/0
f[n+N]=ejk0(n+N)=ejk0nejk0N=ejk0nej2pk=ejk0n=f[n]
f[k]=ejk0n (i.e., f[k]=f[k+N]),N=2p/0
f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x, N are integer
f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T
f(t+T)=ejk0(t+T)=ejk0tejk0T=ejk0tej2pk=ejk0t=f(t)
f[k]=ejk0t(i.e., f[k]!=f[k+N])
f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0t=ejk0tejN0t!=ejk0t=f[k], tejN0t!=1
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Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
Consider the complex sinusoids
e j ( N k ) 0 n e jN 0 n e jk 0 n e j 2p n e jk 0 n e jk 0 n
e jk 0 n are N periodic in the frequency index k , there are only N distinct
complex sinusoids of the form e jk 0 n
N 1
Hence, Eq.(3.4) can be rewritten as x[n] A[k ]e jk 0 n
k 0
In contrast, continuoustime complex sinusoids e jk0t with distinct
frequencies k0 are always distinct (+)0 = 0 0 0
Hence, Eq.(3.5) can be expressed as x (t )
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A[k ]e jk0t
Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
For periodic signal x[n]
k
2p
jk
n
2p
jk 0 n
N
0
, e
e
e
N
Fundamental period of
ak e jk n with period N (i.e.,x[n] x[n N ])
2p
n
N
( )
k
jk 0 n
a
e
k
kZ
Let k k 0 , x[n]
e
jk 0 n
j ( k mN ) 0 n
ae
N
k
N
is least common multiple (LCM) of
(i.e., N )
k
, the fundamental period of e jk 0 n is
jk 0 n
,
N 1
, m Z , x[n] A[k ]e jk 0 n , where
k 0
A[k ] ... ak N ak ak N ...
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k mN
Periodic signals: Fourier series
representations
Goal : Find the A[k ] such that x[n] and x (t ) are good
approximations to x[n] and x(t ), respectively
Meansquareerror (MSE):
1
Discretetime case: MSE
N
N 1
x[n] x[n]
n 0
2
1 T
Continuoustime case: MSE x(t ) x (t ) dt
T 0
i.e. the DTFS and FS coefficients minimize the MSEs.
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Nonperiodic signals: Fouriertransform
representations
There is no restriction on the period of the sinusoids
used to represent a nonperiodic signal. Hence, the
Fourier transform representations employ complex
sinusoids having a continuum of frequencies.
The signal is represented as a weighted integral of
complex sinusoids where the variable of integration is
the sinusoids frequency.
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f[n]= ejn(i.e., f[n]!=f[n+N])
f(T)=ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn=f(), if T=2p
f(t)= ejt(i.e., f(t)!=f(t+T))
f[n+N]=ej(n+N)=ejnejN!=ejn=f[n], , ejN!=1
f()=ejn (i.e., f()=f(T)),=2p
f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x Z, N is positive integer
f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T, x R, T is positive real
f(t+T)=ej(t+T)=ejtejT!=ejkt=f(t), , ejT!=1
f()=ejt(i.e., f()!=f(+T))
f(T)=ej(+T)t=ejtejTt!=ejt=f(), t, ejTt!=1
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Nonperiodic signals: Fouriertransform
representations
Continuoustime sinusoids are used to represent continuous signal in the FT.
(+) = , 2
Continuoustime sinusoids with distinct frequencies are distinct, so the FT
involves frequencies from  to , as shown by the equation
1
jt
x (t )
X
(
j
)
e
d,
2p
X ( j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency in the FT representation.
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Nonperiodic signals: Fouriertransform
representations
Discretetime sinusoids are used to represent discrete signal in the DTFT.
ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn, if T=2p
Discretetime sinusoids are unique only over a 2p interval of frequencies,
since discretetime sinusoids with frequencies separated by an integer
multiple of 2p are identical.
The DTFT involves frequencies from p to p , as shown by the equation
1 p
j
j n
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d ,
p
2p
X (e j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency n in the DTFT representation.
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[ n]
h[n]
x[n] x[n]* [n]
x[k ] [n k ]
y[n]
x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]
x[n] ak e jk n
y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n
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DTFS, FS
DTFS & FS()
k0k0()
f(k)=ejk0n(i.e., f(k)=f(k+N))DTFS
N
N 1
x[n] A[k ]e jk 0n
k 0
f(k)=ejk0tFS
(i.e., k )
x (t )
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A[k ]e jk0t
DTFT,FT
DTFT & FT
()()
f()=ejn(i.e., f()=f(+2p))
DTFT2p
1
x[n]
2p
p

X (e j )e jn d
f()=ejtFT
1
x (t )
2p
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X ( j )e jt d,
Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
The DTFS representation of a periodic signal x[n]
with fundamental period N and fundamental
frequency 0=2p/N is given by
N 1
x[n] X [k ]e jk 0 n ,
(3.10)
k 0
1
X [k ]
N
N 1
jk 0 n
x
[
n
]
e
arethe DTFS coefficients of the signal x[n].
n 0
We say that x[n] and X [k ] are a DTFS pair and is denoted by
x[n]
DTFS ; 0
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X [k ]
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Either x[n] or X[k] provides complete description of
the signal.
The DTFS coefficients X[k] are termed a frequencydomain representation for x[n], because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of
a different frequency.
k determines the frequency of the sinusoid
associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.
DTFS is the only Fourier representation that can be
numerically evaluated and manipulated in a
computer
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[ n]
x[n]
h[n]
x[k ] [n k ]
y[n]
x[n] X [k ]e
N 1
y[n] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )e jk 0n
jk 0 n
k 0
k 0
1
X [k ]
N
x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]
N 1
N 1
x[n]e
N 1
Y [k ]e jk 0 n
jk 0 n
k 0
n 0
Y [k ] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )
N 1
y[n] Y [k ]e jk 0n
k 0
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.2 Determining DTFS coefficients
Find the frequencydomain representation of the
following signal
Prob. 3.2
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Figure 3.5 (p. 203)
Timedomain signal for Example 3.2.
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Sol.
The signal has period N =5, so 0 2p / 5.
Also, the signal has odd symmetry. So we sum over n 2 to n 2
1 2
X [k ] x[n]e jk 2p n / 5
5 n 2
1
{x[ 2]e jk 4p / 5 x[ 1]e jk 2p / 5 x[0]e j 0 x[1]e jk 2p / 5 x[2]e jk 4p / 5 }
5
1
1
1
1
{1 e jk 2p / 5 e jk 2p / 5 } {1 j sin(2kp / 5)}
5
2
2
5
4p
1
X [2] j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531;
5
5
1
2p
1
X [1] j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ; X [0] 0.2e j 0 ;
5
5
5
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
1
2p
X [1] j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ;
5
5
1
4p
X [2] j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531.
5
5
Now, suppose we calculate X [k ] using n 0 to n 4
1
X [k ] {x[0]e j 0 x[1]e j 2 kp / 5 x[2]e j 4 kp / 5 x[3]e j 6 kp / 5 x[4]e j 8 kp / 5 }
5
1
1
1
{1 e j 2 kp / 5 0 e j 4 kp / 5 0 e j 6 kp / 5 e j 8 kp / 5 }
5
2
2
1
1 j 2 kp / 5 1 j 2 kp / 5
1
2 kp
{1 e
e
} {1 j sin(
)}
5
2
2
5
5
Note that e j 8 kp / 5 e j 2 kp e j 2 kp / 5 e j 2 kp / 5
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
X[k] is the magnitude spectrum of x[n]
arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x[n]
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Figure 3.6 (p. 204)
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Magnitude and phase of the DTFS coefficients for the signal in Fig. 3.5.
43
Prob. 3.2
Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.
p
p
p
jk ( 1)
jk 0
jk 1
1 2
1
X [k ] x[n]e jk 0 n (2e 3
1e 3 2e 3 )
N n 3
6
1
kp
2
kp
1
(2 2 cos( ) 1) cos( )
6
3
3
3
6
1 2
x[n] X [k ] cos(kp / 3)
6 3
DTFS ;p /3
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.3 Computing DTFS coefficients by inspection
Find the DTFS coefficients of x[n]=cos(pn/3+f)
Prob. 3.3
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.
x[n+6]=cos(pn/3+2p+f)=x[n]
We expend the cosine by Euler's Eq.
x[n] cos(
x[ n]
pn
3
f)
X [k ]e
j(
pn
3
f )
e
2
j(
pn
3
f )
1 jf j p3n 1 jf j p3n
e e
e e
2
2
jkp n / 3
k 2
X [2]e j 2p n / 3 X [1]e jp n / 3 X [0] X [1]e jp n / 3 X [2]e j 2p n / 3 X [3]e jp n
1 jf
e , k 1
1 jf
X [k ]
e ,k 1
2
0, otherwise on  2 k 3
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Prob. 3.3 (a) x[n] 1 sin(np /12 3p / 8)
Sol. The signal has period 0 p /12, so N =24.
x[n] 1
x[n]
j(
p
12
12
3p
)
8
X [k ]e
e
2j
jk 0 n
n 11
j(
p
12
3p
)
8
12
X [k ]e
jk
p
12
n 11
j
3p
8
7p
8
e
e
X [0] 1, X [1]
, X [1]
2j
2j
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3p
8
e
2j
p
12
3p
8
e
2j
p
12
Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.4 DTFS representation of an impulse train
Find the DTFS coefficients of the Nperiodic impulse
train
x[n]
[n lN ]
Figure 3.9 (p. 207)
A discretetime impulse train with period N.
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Sol.
1 N 1
1 N 1
1
jk 0 n
jkn 2p / N
X [k ] x[n]e
[n]e
N n 0
N n 0
N
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.5 The inverse DTFS
Find x[n] from the
DTFS coefficients
in Fig. 3.10
Prob. 3.4, 3.5
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Figure 3.10 (p. 208)
Magnitude and phase of
DTFS coefficients for Example
3.5.
Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Sol.
2p
The DTFS has period 9, so 0
9
x[n]
X [k ]e
jk 2p n / 9
k 4
0 e j 8p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 0 e j 2p n / 9 1e jp e j 0p
0 e j 2p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 0 e j 8p n / 9
2 cos(6p n / 9 2p / 3) 4 cos(4p n / 9 p / 3) 1
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.6 DTFS representation of a square wave
Find the DTFS coefficient of x[n]
1, M n M
x[n]
, where N 2M 1
0, M n N M
Figure 3.11 (p. 209)
Square wave for Example 3.6.
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Sol.
2p
The period is N , so 0
N
1 N M 1
1 M jk 0 n
jk 0 n
X [k ]
x[n]e
e
, let m n M ,
N n M
N n M
1 2 M jk 0 ( m M ) 1 jk 0 M 2 M jk 0 m
e
e
e
,
N m 0
N
m 0
For k 0, N , 2 N ,
1
X [k ]
N
2M
m 0
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, e jk 0 e jk 0 1,
2M 1
, k 0, N , 2 N ,
N
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
For k 0, N , 2 N ,
1 jk 0 M 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1)
X [k ] e
jk 0
N
(1 e
)
N e jk 0 / 2 1 e jk 0
1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 sin(k 0 (2 M 1) / 2)
,
jk 0 / 2
jk 0 / 2
N
e
e
sin(k 0 / 2)
N
Substituting 0
2p
, we have
N
2M 1
N , k 0, N , 2 N ,
X [k ]
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) , k 0, N , 2 N ,
sin(kp / N )
N
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Using L'Hopital's rule by treating k as a real number, it is easy
to show that
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) 2 M 1
lim
k 0, N , 2 N , N
sin(kp / N )
N
Hence, X [k ] is commonly written as
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N )
X [k ]
N
sin(kp / N )
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Figure 3.12 (p. 211)
The DTFS coefficients for the square
wave shown in Fig. 3.11, assuming a
period N = 50: (a) M = 4. (b) M = 12.
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Note that in this example, X[k] is real;
hence, the magnitude spectrum is the absolute value of X[k]
the phase spectrum is
0 for X[k] > 0
p for X[k] < 0 (1=ejp)
Prob. 3.6
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Prob. 3.6(a) Find the DTFS
2p p l n k l 1
,
(a ) N 10, 0
1
10 5 n k
1
X [k ]
N
x[n]e
n 5
jk n
5
5 jk 5
1
5 jk 5 n 1
e
10 n 2 4
10 n 2 4
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e
e
e
2p
jk
4
4
4
8
1
5
e
p
p
125
10
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e
1 e
4
4
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5
Prob. 3.6(b)
2p p l n k l 1
(b) N 10, 0
,
10 5 n k
1
4p
p
p
5p
jk
jk 0
jk
jk
jk n
jk n
jk n
1
1
1
e 5 e 5
e 5 e 5
5
5
5
X [k ] x[n]e
(1) e
1 e
(1)
p
p
jk
jk
N n 5
10 n 4
10
n 1
1 e 5
1 e 5
4p
4p
jk
jk
2
k
p
2 kp
4p
4p
10
10
jk
jk
e
sin
e
sin
4p
k
p
4
p
k
p
jk
j
jk
j
1
1 e 5
1 e 5 1
5
5
5
5
5
5
( e
)
(e
)
( e
)
(e
)
p
p
p
p
jk
jk
jk
jk
10
10
kp
kp
5
5
10
10
1
e
1
e
e
sin
e
sin
10
10
2 kp
2 kp
kp
sin
sin
j
sin(
)
5 kp
5 kp
1
5 (e j 10 e j 10 )
5
2
kp
10 sin kp
5
sin
10
10
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Examining Ex. 3.6, the DTFS coefficients
have even symmetry (i.e. X[k]=X[k]) .
We may rewrite Eq. (3.10) as a series
involving harmonically related cosines.
Assume that N is even, then N/2 is an
integer, let k range from N/2+1 to N/2, we
have
N
2
x[n]
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X [k ]e jk 0n
N
1
2
60
Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
x[n]
N
2
X [k ]e jk 0 n
N
1
2
N
1
2
N
j 0 n
N
X [k ]e jk 0 n X [ ]e 2
2
N
k ( 1)
2
N n
N
1
2
N j 20
X [0] X [ ]e
( X [ m]e jm0 n X [ m]e jm0 n )
2
m 1
X [m] X [m], and N 0 2p
N
1
2
N jp n
e jm0 n e jm0 n
x[n] X [0] X [ ]e 2 X [m](
)
2
2
m 1
N
1
2
N
X [0] X [ ]cos(p n) 2 X [ m]cos( m0 n)
2
m 1
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Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
N
1
2
N 0
N
x[n] X [0] 2 X [ m]cos( m0 n) X [ ]cos(
n)
2
2
m 1
X [k ], k 0, N / 2
Define B[k ]
,
2 X [k ], k 1, 2, , N / 2 1
N
2
we can have x[n] B[k ]cos(k 0 n)
k 0
A similar expression may be derived for odd N
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(3.17)
Discretetime periodic signals: DTFS
Ex. 3.7 Building a square wave from DTFS coefficients
The contribution of each term to the square wave may
be illustrated by defining the partialsum approximation
to x[n] in Eq. (3.17) as
J
xJ [n] B[k ]cos(k 0 n), where J
k 0
N
2
This approximation contains the first 2J+1 terms
centered on k=0 in Eq. (3.10) (p.202). Assume a square
wave has period N=50 and M=12. Find the cases that
J=1,3,5,23, and 25.
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Figure 3.14a (p. 213)
Individual terms in the DTFS expansion of
a square wave (left panel) and the
corresponding partialsum approximations
J[n] (right panel). The J = 0 term is 0[n]
= and is not shown. (a) J = 1. (b) J = 3.
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Figure 3.14b (p. 213)
(c) J = 5. (d) J = 23. (e) J = 25.
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
The FS representation of a periodic signal x(t) with
fundamental period T and fundamental frequency
0=2p/T is given by
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
(3.19)
1 T
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
(3.20)
0
T
X [k ] are the FS coefficients of the signal x(t ).
We say that x(t ) and X [k ] are an FS pair and is denoted by
FS ;
x(t )
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X [k ]
66
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Either x(t) or X[k] provides complete description of
the signal.
The FS coefficients X[k] are known as a frequencydomain representation for x(t) because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of a
different frequency.
k determines the frequency of the sinusoid
associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
The infinite series in Eq. (3.19) is not guaranteed to
converge for all possible signals
Define
x (t )
X [k ]e jk0t
and choose X[k] according to Eq. (3.20)
1 T
2
If x(t ) dt , then the MSE between x(t ) and x (t ) is zero.
T 0
1 T
2
Or, mathematically, x(t ) x (t ) dt 0
T 0
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Note that, in contrast to discretetime case, an MSE of
zero does not imply that x(t) and x (t ) are equal
pointwise, or x(t ) x (t ) at all value of t. It only implies
that there is zero power in their difference
Pointwise convergence of x (t ) to x(t) is guaranteed at
all value of t except those corresponding to
discontinuities if the Dirichlet conditions are satisfied:
x(t) is bounded
x(t) has a finite number of maximum and minimum in one period
x(t) has a finite number of discontinuities in one period
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
If x(t) satisfies the Dirichlet conditions and is not
continuous, then x (t ) converges to the midpoint of the
left and right limits of x(t) at each discontinuity.
The following three examples illustrate how the FS
representation is determined.
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.9 Direct calculation of FS coefficients
Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) depicted in Fig.
3.16
Figure 3.16 (p. 216)
Timedomain signal for Example 3.9.
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
T 2, 0 2p / 2 p
1 T
X [k ]= x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0
1
1 2 (2 jkp )t
1 2 2t jkp t
e (2 jkp ) t 02
dt
dt e
e e
2(2 jkp )
2 0
2 0
1 e4
1
4 jk 2p
)
(1 e e
4 jk 2p
4 jk 2p
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Figure 3.17 (p. 217)
Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.9.
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
X[k] is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)
arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x(t)
Since x(t) is periodic, the interval of integration in Eq.
(3.20) may be chosen as any interval one period in
length.
Choosing the appropriate interval of integration often
simplifies the problem
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.10 FS coefficients for an impulse train
Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal
x(t )
(t 4l )
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
T 4, 0 2p / 4 p / 2,
x(t ) is even symmetry it is easilier to evaluate X [k ] over  2 t 2
p
jk t
1 T
1 2
1
jk0t
X [k ]= x(t )e
dt (t )e 2 dt
T 0
4 2
4
in this case, the magnitude spectrum is constant and the phase spectrum is zero.
Note that we cannot evaluate the infinite sum in Eq. (3.19) in this case and that
x(t) does not satisfy the Dirichlet condition. However, the FS expension of an
impulse train is useful in spite of convergence difficulties.
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.11 Calculation of FS coefficients by inspection
Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal
x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4)
Prob. 3.7,3.8
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
T 4, 0 2 / 4 / 2, x(t )
X [ k ]e jk t / 2
Using Euler's formula to expend the cosine yields
e j ( t / 2 / 4) e j ( t / 2 / 4) 3 j / 4 j t / 2 3 j / 4 j t / 2
x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4) 3
e e
e
e
2
2
2
3 j / 4
, k 1
2 e
3
X [k ] e j / 4 , k 1
2
0, otherwise
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Figure 3.18 (p. 219)
Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.11.
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Prob. 3.7
Find FS for x(t ) 2sin(2 t 3) sin(6 t )
T 1, 0 2
e j (2 t 3) e j (2 t 3) e j 6 t e j 6 t e 3 j j 2 t e3 j j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
x(t ) 2
2j
2j
j
j
2j
2j
j
j
je 3 j e j 2 t je3 j e j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
2
2
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
X [k ]e
j
2 , k 3
3j
je , k 1
X [k ] je 3 j , k 1
j
,k 3
2
0, otherwise
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j 2 kt
Prob. 3.8
T 1, 0 2
1 j t j t
(e e )
2
x(t ) cos( t )
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
X [k ]e
j 2 k t
1
1 T
1 T2
jk0t
jk0t
X [k ] x(t )e
dt T x(t )e
dt 21 cos( t )e j 2 k t dt
T 0
T 2
2
1
2
1
e j t e j t j 2 k t
1 12 j (1 2 k ) t
e j (1 2 k ) t
j (1 2 k ) t
(
)e
dt 1 e
e
dt
2
2 2
2 j (1 2k )
j (1 2 k )
1
2
j (1 2 k )
e
2 j (1 2k )
1
2
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j (1 2 k )
1
2
j (1 2 k )
e
2 j (1 2k )
81
1
2
1
2
1
2
e j (1 2 k ) t
2 j (1 2k )
1 2k
1 2k
sin(
) sin(
)
2
2
(1 2k )
(1 2k )
1
2
1
2
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.12 Inverse FS
Find the timedomain signal x(t) corresponding to the
FS coefficients
1 k jk / 20
X [k ] ( ) e
2
Assume that the fundamental period T=2
Prob. 3.9
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol : T 2, 0 2 / 2 ,
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
1
1 k jk / 20 jk t
1 k jk / 20 jk t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
( ) e
e ( ) e
e ( ) e
e
k 2
k 2
k 0 2
1 l jl / 20 jl t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
1
1
= ( ) e
e
( ) e
e
1
1
1
l 1 2
k 0 2
1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20)
2
2
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 j ( k t / 20)
e
e
1 e
1 e
1
2
2
2
1
1
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20) 1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e
1 e
2
2
2
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 1 j ( k t / 20)
3
e
1 e
3
2
4 2
1 1
5
1 e j ( k t / 20) e j ( k t / 20)
cos( t / 20) 5 4 cos( t / 20)
4 2
4
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Prob. 3.9 (a)
(a) X [k ] j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3], 0
x(t )
X [k ]e jk0t
( j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3])e jk t
je j 2 t je j 2 t 2e j 3 t 2e j 3 t
j (e j 2 t e j 2 t ) 2(e j 3 t e j 3 t )
j 2 j sin(2 t ) 2 2 cos(3 t ) 2sin(2 t ) 4 cos(3 t )
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Prob. 3.9 (b)
x (t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
j 2 ( t 1)
e
e
k 4
e j 2 ( t 1) (1 e
k
2
jk t
2
k 4
j 4 ( t 1)
2
1 e
j 9 ( t 1)
2
j ( t 1)
2
j ( t 1)
2
e j 2 ( t 1)e
9
( t 1)
4
1 e
9 (t 1)
sin(
)
4
(t 1)
sin(
)
4
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j 5 ( t 1)
2
85
j ( t 1)
4
(e
(e
9
( t 1)
4
j ( t 1)
4
9
( t 1)
4
j ( t 1)
4
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.13 FS for a square wave
Determine the FS representation of the square wave
in Fig. 3.21
Figure 3.21 (p. 221)
Square wave for Example 3.13.
Prob. 3.10
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
0 2 / T ,
x(t) is even symmetry integrating over the range
T
T
t
2
2
1 T2
1 T0 jk0t
1 jk0t T0
jk0t
For k 0, X [k ] T x(t )e
dt e
dt
e
T0
0
T 2
T
Tjk0
2sin(k0T0 )
2 e jk0T0 e jk0T0
(
)
Tk0
2j
Tk0
2T
1 T2
1 T2
1 T0
j 00t
For k 0, X [0] T x(t )e
dt T x(t )dt dt 0
T 2
T 2
T T0
T
2sin(k0T0 ) 2T0
k 0
Tk0
T
By means of L'Hopital's
rule, it is straightforward to show that lim
Hence, we write X [k ]
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2sin(k0T0 ) 2sin(k 2 T0 / T ) 2T0
2T
sinc(k 0 )
Tk0
k 2
T
T
87
Figure 3.22a&b (p. 222)
The FS coefficients, X[k], 50 k
50, for three square waves. (see Fig.
3.21.) (a) Ts/T = 1/4 . (b) Ts/T =
1/16. (c) Ts/T = 1/64.
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Figure 3.22c (p. 222)
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Sinc function
sin( u )
sinc(u )
u
sinc(u) occurs sufficiently often in the Fourier
analysis
i.e.
The maximum of this function is unity at u=0
The zero crossing occurs at integer values of u
mainlobe & sidelobes
2sin(k 2 T0 / T ) 2sin(k 2 T0 / T )
2T sin( k 2T0 / T ) 2T0
2T
(T0 / T ) 0
sinc(k 0 )
k 2
k 2 (T0 / T )
T ( k 2T0 / T )
T
T
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Figure 3.23 (p. 223)
Sinc function sinc(u) = sin(u)/(u)
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
The form of FS described by Eqs. (3.19) and (3.20)
is termed the exponential FS
The trigonometric FS is often useful for realvalued
signals and is expressed as
x(t ) B[0] ( B[k ]cos(k0t ) A[k ]sin(k0t )),
(3.25)
k 1
1 T
B[0] x(t )dt
T 0
2 T
B[k ] x(t ) cos(k0t )dt
T 0
2 T
A[k ] x(t ) sin(k0t )dt
T 0
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(3.26)
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
B[0]=X[0] is the timeaveraged value of the
signal
Using Eulers formula to expend cosine and
sine functions in Eq. (3.26), we have
B[k]=X[k]+X[k]
A[k]=j(X[k]X[k])
Prob. 3.10
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(3.27)
93
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
The trigonometric FS coefficients of the
square wave in Ex. 3.13 are obtained from
(3.28)
B[0]=2T0/T
B[k]=2sin(k2T0/T)/(k)
A[k]=0 (i.e. it is because that x(t) is even)
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.14 Squarewave partial sum approximation
Let the partialsum approximation to the FS in (3.29)
be given by
J
J
xJ (t ) B[k ]cos(k0t ), xJ (t )
x(t )
k 0
Consider a square wave with T=1 and T0=1/4. Depict
one period of the Jth term in this sum and find x J (t )
for J=1,3,7,29, and 99
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
1
2 ,k 0
k 1
2
B[k ] (1) 2 , k is odd
k
0,k is even
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Figure 3.25a (p. 225)
Individual terms (left panel) in the FS expansion of a square wave and the corresponding partialsum approximations
wave has period T = 1 and Ts/T = . The J = 0 term is 0(t) = and is not shown. (a) J = 1.
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J(t)
(right panel). The square
Figure 3.25b3 (p. 226)
(b) J = 3. (c) J = 7. (d) J = 29.
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98
Figure 3.25e (p. 226)
(e) J = 99.
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H
y(t ) h(t )* x(t )
x(t )
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
y (t )
X [k ]H ( jk )e
0
Let Y [k ] X [k ]H ( jk0 )
1
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0
y (t )
Y [k ]e
100
jk0t
jk0t
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Ex. 3.15 RC Circuit: Calculation the O/P by means of
FS
Find the FS representation of the O/P y(t) of the RC
circuit depicted in Fig. 3.2 in response to the squarewave I/P in Fig. 3.21, assuming that T0/T=1/4, T=1,
and RC=0.1s
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Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Sol :
x(t )
X [k ]e
jk0t
y (t ) H {x(t )}
y (t )
Y [k ]e
jk0t
X [k ]H {e
FS ;0
, y (t )
Y [k ] H ( jk0 ) X [k ]
From Ex. 3.1 H ( j )
1/ RC
j 1/ RC
10
jk 2 10
2sin(k0T0 ) sin(k / 2)
From Ex. 3.13, X [k ]
Tk0
k
0 2 , RC 0.1s H ( jk0 )
Y [k ]
10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k
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jk0t
H ( jk ) X [k ]e
jk0t
Continuoustime periodic signals: FS
Y [k ]
10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k
k
Y [k ]
0, we can approximate y (t ) by
y (t )
100
Y [k ]e jk0t
k 100
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Figure 3.26 (p. 228)
The FS coefficients Y[k], 25
k 25, for the RC circuit output
in response to a squarewave
input. (a) Magnitude spectrum.
(b) Phase spectrum. c) One
period of the input signal x(t)
dashed line) and output signal
y(t) (solid line). The output
signal y(t) is computed from
the partialsum approximation
given in Eq. 3.30).
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
The DTFT representation of a nonperiodic signal
x[n] is given by
1
x[n]
2
j
X (e )
X (e j )e jn d
x[n]e
jn
(3.31)
(3.32)
X (e j ) are the DTFT coefficients of the signal x[n].
We say that x[n] and X (e j ) are an DTFT pair and is denoted by
x[n]
DTFT
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X (e j )
105
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
X (e j ) is the frequencydomain representation of
x[n] as a function of a sinusoidal frequency
Eq. (3.31) is usually termed the inverse DTFT, since
it maps the frequencydomain representation back
into timedomain
DTFT is used primarily to analyze the action of
discretetime system on discretetime signals
The infinite sum in Eq. (3.32) converges if x[n] has
finite duration and is finite values.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
If x[n] is of infinite duration, the the sum
converges only for certain classes of signals
If
x[n] (i.e. x[n] is absolute summable)
then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges uniformly to
a continuous function of
If x[n] is not absolute summable, but x[n] (i.e. x[n]
n
has finite energy), then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges in a
meansquare error sense,but does not converge pointwise.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.17 DTFT of an exponential sequence
Find the DTFT of the sequence x[n]=anu[n]
Prob. 3.11
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
Using Eq. (3.32), we have
j
X (e )
x[n]e
jn
u[n]e
jn
a n e jn
n 0
The sum diverges for a 1, for a 1, we have
1
, for a 1
j
1ae
n 0
n 0
1
1
1 a cos ja sin
If a is real valued, X (e j )
1 a e j 1 a cos ja sin (1 a cos ) 2 (a sin ) 2
1
1
j
X (e )
1
1
2
2 2
2
(1 a cos ) (a sin )
(a 1 2a cos ) 2
X (e ) a e
j
n j n
(a e j ) n
a sin
arg{ X (e j )} arctan(
)
1 a cos
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Figure 3.29 (p.232)
The DTFT of an exponential signal x[n] =
(a)nu[n]. (a) Magnitude spectrum for a =
0.5. (b) Phase spectrum for a = 0.5. (c)
Magnitude spectrum for a = 0.9. (d) Phase
spectrum for a = 0.9.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
X(ej) is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)
arg{X(ej)} is the phase spectrum of x(t)
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Prob. 3.11
X (e j )
Find DTFT for x[n] 2(3)n u[n]
x[n]e jn
2(3) u[n]e
n
jn
2 (3e j ) n
n
1 j m
2
2 ( e )
1 j
m0 3
1 e
3
m n
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.18 DTFT of a rectangular pulse
1, n M
x[n]
0, n M
Figure 3.30 (p. 233)
Example 3.18. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b)
DTFT in the frequency domain.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
j
X (e )
x[n]e
jn
1 e jn , let m n M n m M
n M
j (2 M 1)
e
j
M
2M
2M
, 0, 2 , 4 ,
e
j
j ( m M )
jM
j
X (e ) e
e (e j ) m
1 e
m 0
m 0
2 M 1,
0, 2 , 4 ,
j (2 M 1)
j (2 M 1) / 2
(e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 )
jM 1 e
jM e
e
e
j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )
e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 sin((2M 1) / 2)
j / 2
j / 2
e
e
sin( / 2)
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
lim
0, 2 , 4 ,
X (e ) e
sin((2M 1) / 2)
2M 1
sin( / 2)
jM
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1 e j (2 M 1) sin((2M 1) / 2)
j
1 e
sin( / 2)
115
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.19 Inverse DTFT of a rectangular spectrum
1, W
X (e )
0, W
j
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Figure 3.31 (p. 234)
Example 3.19. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the frequency domain. (b)
Inverse DTFT in the time domain.
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
W
1
1
jn
e
sin(Wn), n 0
W
1
1
2 nj
n
j
jn
j n
W
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d
e
d
2
2 W
W
, n 0
1
W
1
W
Wn
lim
sin(Wn) x[n]
sin(Wn) sinc( )
n 0 n
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.20 DTFT of the unit impulse
x[n] [n]
Prob. 3.12, 3.13
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
j
X (e )
x[n]e
jn
jn
[
n
]
e
1
DTFT
Hence, [n]
1
Figure 3.32 (p. 235)
Example 3.20. (a) Unit impulse in the time domain.
(b) DTFT of unit impulse in the frequency domain.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.21 Inverse DTFT of a unit impulse spectrum
X (e j ) (),
Figure 3.33 (p. 236)
Example 3.21. (a) Unit impulse in
the frequency domain. (b) Inverse
DTFT in the time domain.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
1
1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n]
X (e )e d
( )e d
2
2
2
1
DTFT
Hence,
(),
2
In this example, we have defined only one period of X (e j ).
alternatively, we can defind X (e j ) as
j
X (e )
( 2 k )
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Prob. 3.12(d)
j
X (e )
x[n]e
jn
(1)e
n 7
jn
(1)e jn
n 1
e j 7 1 e j e j 8 1 e j 7 e j (1 e j 7 )
j
j
1 e
1 e
1 e j
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j 7
j
e
(
e
e
)
e
(
e
e
)
(1 e
)(1 e )
j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )
e j 7 / 2
2 j sin( )2 cos( )
2
2
2 j sin( )
2
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Prob. 3.13(a)
X (e ) 2cos(2)
1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n ]
X
(
e
)
e
d
cos(2
)
e
d
1 j 2
1 j ( n 2)
j 2
jn
j ( n 2)
(
e
e
)
e
d
(
e
d
e
d )
2
2
1
2 1, for n 2,
2
0, otherwise ( e jk  e jk 0)
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Prob. 3.13(c)
1
j
jn
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d
j
1 0 j 2 jn
[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2
j
1 0 j 2 jn
[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2
j 0 (1 jn )
j 1 e e j n e e j n 1
(1 jn )
[ e
d e
d ]
[
0
2
2
1 jn
1 jn
e j n e j n cos( n )
1
1
j
2 jn
(1 e cos( n))[
]
(1 e cos( n))
2
1 jn 1 jn 2
1 n2
j
[1
e
cos( n)]
2
(1 n )
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cos( n ) ( 1) n
124
n(1 e (1) n )
(1 n 2 )
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.22 Movingaverage systems: Frequency
response
1
y
[
n
]
( x[n] x[n 1])
1
2
Consider two systems:
y [n] 1 ( x[n] x[n 1])
2
2
1
h
[
n
]
( [n] [n 1])
1
2
the impulse responses of the two systems are
h [n] 1 ( [n] [n 1])
2
2
Find the frequency response and plot the magnitude response of each system
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Sol :
H1 (e j )
j
H 2 (e )
h1[n]e jn
h2 [n]e
jn
1 1
e j e
2 2
j
2
j
1 1 j
e
e je 2
2 2
e
2
e
2j
je
cos( )
2
sin( )
2
H1 (e j ) cos( ) , arg{H1 (e j )}
2
2
, 0
2 2
H 2 (e j ) sin( ) , arg{H 2 (e j )}
2
, 0
2 2
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2 2
Figure 3.36 (p. 239)
The magnitude responses of two simple discretetime systems. (a) A
system that averages successive inputs tends to attenuate high
frequencies. (b) A system that forms the difference of successive
inputs tends to attenuate low frequencies.
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Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
Ex. 3.23 Multipath communication channel:
Frequency response
y[n] x[n] ax[n 1]
In Ex. 2.12, we have h[n] [n] a [n 1]
and hinv [n] (a) n u[n], a 1
j
Compare the magnitude response of both systems for a 0.5e 3 , a 0.9e
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2
3
Discretetime nonperiodic signals: DTFT
j
Sol : H (e )
h[n]e
jn
1 ae j (express a in polar form yields)
=1 a e j ( arg{a}) 1 a cos( arg{a}) j a sin( arg{a})
j
1
2 2
H (e ) ((1 a cos( arg{a})) ( a sin( arg{a})) )
2
1
2
(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a})) , a 1
2
the frequency response of the inverse system is the inverse of the frequency
response of the origional system.
H inv (e j )
1
1
1
H (e j ) 1 a e j ( arg{a}) 1 a cos( arg{a}) j a sin( arg{a})
H inv (e j )
j
H (e )
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1
(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a}))
2
129
1
2
Figure 3.37 (p. 241)
Magnitude response of the system in
Example 3.23 describing multipath
propagation. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a =
0.9ej2/3.
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Figure 3.38 (p. 241)
Magnitude response of the inverse
system for multipath propagation in
Example 3.23. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a = 0.9ej/3
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
The FT representation of a nonperiodic signal x(t) is
given by
1
x(t )
2
X ( j )e jt d
X ( j ) x(t )e jt dt

(3.35)
(3.36)
X ( j ) are the FT coefficients of the signal x(t ).
We say that x(t ) and X ( j ) are an FT pair and is denoted by
x(t )
FT
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X ( j )
132
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
X ( j ) is the frequencydomain representation of x(t)
as a function of a sinusoidal frequency
Eq. (3.35) is usually termed the inverse FT, since it
maps the frequencydomain representation back
into timedomain
FT is used primarily to analyze the action of
continuoustime system on continuoustime signals
The integral in Eq. (3.35), (3.36) may not converge
for all x(t) and X ( j )
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
1
jt
Define x (t )
X
(
j
)
e
d
2
It can be shown that the square error between x(t ) and x (t )
(i.e.error energy)
x(t ) x (t ) dt is zero if
2
x(t ) dt
Zero squared error does not imply pointwise convergence.
It implies that there is zero energy in the difference of terms.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Pointwise convergence is guaranteed at all values of t
except to those corresponding to discontinuities if x(t )
satisfies the Dirichlet condition for nonperiodic signals:
x(t ) is absolutely integrable:
x(t ) dt
x(t ) has finite number of maximum, minimum, and
discontinuities in any finite interval.
The size of each discontinuity is finite.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Almost all physical signals encountered in
engineering practice satisfy the second and the third
conditions.
Many idealized signals, such as the unit step, are
neither absolutely or square integrable.
We still use FT as a problemsolving tool, even through, in a
strict sense, the FT does not converge for such signals
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.24 FT of a real
decaying exponential
Find FT of x(t)=eatu(t)
in Fig. 3.39(a)
Figure 3.39 (p. 243)
Example 3.24. (a) Real timedomain exponential signal.
(b) Magnitude spectrum.
(c) Phase spectrum.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
the FT does not converge for a 0 since x(t) is not
absolutely integrable, that is
e u (t )dt e dt for a 0
at
at
For a 0,
X ( j ) e u (t )e
at
X ( j )
dt e
0
( a j ) t
1 ( a j ) t
dt
e
a j
1
1
2 2
(a 2 )
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jt
, arg{ X ( j )} arctan( )
a
138
a j
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.25 FT of a rectangular pulse
1, T0 t T0
x(t )
0, t T0
Figure 3.40 (p. 244)
Prob. 3.14
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Find the FT of x(t )
Example 3.25. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b) FT in
the frequency domain.
139
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
X ( j ) x(t )e
jt
T0
dt e
T0
jt
1 jt
dt
e
j
T0
T0
sin(T0 ), 0
For 0, X (0) 2T0
T0
lim sin(T0 ) 2T0 X ( j ) sin(T0 ) 2T0sinc(
)
0
0,
sin(T0 ) 0
sin(T0 )
X ( j ) 2
, arg{ X ( j )}
, 2 sin(T ) 0
0
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Prob. 3.14 (a)
X ( j ) x(t )e
(2 j ) t
jt
dt e 2t u( t )e jt dt
1
1
(2 j ) t 0
dt
e

2 j
j 2
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.26 Inverse FT of a rectangular spectrum
1, W W
X ( j )
0, W
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Find x(t )
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
1
x(t )
2
1
X
(
j
)
e
d
2
W
For t 0, x(0)
jt
jt
1
W e d 2 j t e
jt
1
W
1
W
Wt
lim sin(Wt ) x(t ) sin(Wt ) sinc( )
t 0 t
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W
W
1
sin(Wt ), t 0
t
Figure 3.42 (p. 246)
Example 3.26. (a) Rectangular spectrum in the frequency domain.
(b) Inverse FT in the time domain.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.27 FT of the unit impulse
Find the FT of x(t)=d(t)
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
X ( j ) x(t )e
jt
dt d (t )e jt dt 1
FT
d (t )
1
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.28 Inverse FT of an impulse spectrum
Find the inverse FT of X(j)=2d()
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
1
1
jt
x(t )
X ( j )e d
2
2
FT
1
2d ( )
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2d ( )e jt d 1
Prob. 3.15(d)
2 j
0
j
1
1
jt
2 jt
2 jt
e d )
e
d
e
e
(
d
e
)
j
(
X
x (t )
0
2 2
2
2
0
1
1
2 ( j 2 1d ( j ) 0 1d ) 2 (2 j 2 j ) 0, t 0
cos(2t )
1
j 2t
j 2t
,t 0
((1 e ) ( e 1))
t
2 t
j, e
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Ex. 3.29 Characteristics of digital communication
signals
Ar , t T0 / 2
A rectangular pulse: xr (t )
0, t T0
2 t
Ac
(1
cos(
), t T0 / 2
2
T0
A raisedcosine pulse: xc (t )
0, t T
0
Choose constants Ar and Ac such that both BPSK signals have unit power.
Figure 3.44 (p. 249)
Pulse shapes used in BPSK communications. (a)
Rectangular pulse. (b) Raised cosine pulse.
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Figure 3.45 (p. 249)
BPSK signals constructed by using
(a) rectangular pulse shapes and
(b) raisedcosine pulse shapes.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Suppose that the frequency band assigned to each user is 20 kHz.
To prevent interference with adjacent channels, we assume that
the peak value of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal
outside the 20kHz band is required to be 30dB below the peak
inband magnitude spectrum.
Use the FT to determine the maximum number of bits per second
that can be transmitted when the rectangular and raisecosine pulse
shapes are utilized.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Sol :
Although BPSK signal is not periodic, its magnitude squared is T0 periodic
Thus, its respective power is calculated as
Pr
1
T0
1
Pc
T0
T0
2
Ar2 dt Ar2
T0
2
T0
2
Ac
2 t 2
1
(
(1
cos(
))
dt
T 2
T0
T0
0
2
c
A
4T0
2
T0
2
[1 2 cos(
T0
2
T0
2
Ac2
2 t 2
(1 cos(
)) dt
4
T0
2 t 1 1
4 t
3
) cos(
)]dt Ac2
T0
2 2
T0
8
Let Pr Pc 1, Ar 1, Ac
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T0
2
153
8
3
Figure 3.46 (p. 250)
Spectrum of rectangular pulse in dB, normalized by T0.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
Using the result of Ex. 3.25, the FT of xr (t ) is given by
X r ( j )
2sin(T0 / 2)
= 2
2sin(2 fT0 / 2) sin( fT0 )
X r' ( jf )
2 f
f
The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by 20log10{
X r' ( jf )
T0
From Fig. 3.46, it implies that we must choose T0 so that the 10th zero crossing is at 10kHz
The kth zero crossing occurs when f k / T0 . So we require 10000=10/T0 or T0 10 3
It implies a data transmission rate of 1000 bits/sec.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
The FT of xc (t ) is given by
1 8
X c ( j )
2 3
2
2
3
T0
2
2 t jt
T (1 cos( T0 ))e dt
0
T0
2
2
jt
T e dt 3
0
T0
2
T0
2
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e jt dt
T0
2
T0
2
1 2
2 3
156
2 t
2 t
j
1 j T0
(e
e T0 )e jt dt
2
T0
2
T0
2
2
j ( ) t
T0
dt
1 2
2 3
T0
2
T0
2
j (
2
)t
T0
dt
Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
T0
2
e j t dt 2
sin( T0 / 2)
T0
2
X c ( j )
2
X c' ( jf )
2
3
T0
2
e jt dt
T0
2
1 2
2 3
T0
2
2
j ( ) t
T0
T0
2
dt
1 2
2 3
T0
2
j (
2
)t
T0
dt
T0
2
2 sin(T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)
3
2 / T0
3
2 / T0
2 sin( fT0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
0.5
0.5
3
f
3
( f 1/ T0 )
3
( f 1/ T0 )
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Figure 3.47 (p. 252)
The spectrum of the raisedcosine
pulse consists of a sum of three
frequencyshifted sinc functions.
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Figure 3.48 (p. 252)
Spectrum of the raisedcosine pulse in dB, normalized by T0.
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Continuoustime nonperiodic signals: FT
The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by
20log10 {
X c' ( jf )
T0
From Fig. 3.48, we require 10000=2/T0 or T0 2 104 s
It implies a data transmission rate of 5000 bits/sec.
the use of the raisecosine pulse shape increases the data
transmission rate by a factor of five relative to the rectangular
pulse shape in this application.
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Properties of Fourier representations
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Properties of Fourier representations
Periodic signals
have a series representation
Signal is represented as a weighted sum of complex sinusoids
These complex sinusoids has the same period as the signal
A discrete set of frequencies ( e jk 0 n , e jk0t ) is involved in the
series
Frequency domain representation involves a discrete set of
weights or coefficients (X[k])
Nonperiodic signals
Signal is represented as a weighted integral of complex
sinusoids over a continuum of frequencies
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Properties of Fourier representations
Discretetime signals have periodic frequencydomain
representation because the discretetime complex
sinusoids are 2p periodic
Continuoustime signals have nonperiodic frequencydomain representation because continuoustime
sinusoids with distinct frequencies are always distinct.
Representations that are discrete (continuous) in one
domain are periodic (nonperiodic) in the other domain
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Properties of Fourier representations
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Linearity and symmetry properties
Linearity property:
Used to find Fourier representations of signals that are
constructed as sums of signals whose representations are
already known
In FS & DTFS, the signals are assumed to have the same
fundamental period
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Linearity and symmetry properties
Ex. 3.30 Linearity in the FS
3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2
Find the FS coefficient Z [k ]
z (t )
Prob. 3.16
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z(t)=(3/2)x(t)+(1/2)y(t)
Figure 3.49 (p. 255)
Representation of the periodic signal z(t) as
a weighted sum of periodic square waves:
z(t) = (3/2)x(t) + 1/2y(t).
(a) z(t). (b) x(t). (c) y(t).
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Linearity and symmetry properties
Sol.
z (t )
3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2
1
kp
sin( )
kp
4
1
kp
FS ;2p
y (t )
Y [k ]
sin( )
kp
2
3
1
3
kp
1
kp
FS ;2p
z (t )
Z [k ] X [k ] Y [k ]
sin( )
sin( )
2
2
2 kp
4
2 kp
2
FS ;2p
x(t )
X [k ]
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Prob. 3.16(b)
(b)
1
u[n], 1
,
j
1e
n
DTFT
1, W
1
DTFT
j
sin(Wn), 0 W p X (e )
pn
0, W p
1
pn
4
1
DTFT
4 u[n]
sin( )
1
pn
4
2
1 e j
2
n
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1,
0, p p
4
Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
*
X ( j ) x(t )e dt x* (t )e jt dt (3.37)
Suppose x(t ) is real, then x(t ) x* (t )
jt
X ( j ) x(t )e j ( )t dt X ( j ) X ( j ) is complexconjugate symmetric
*
Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}
X * ( j ) X ( j )
Im{X ( j )}= Im{X * ( j )}
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Re{X ( j )} real part is even
X * ( j ) X ( j )
170
Im{X ( j )} imaginary part is odd
Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
If x(t) is real valued, then
The real part of the transform is an even function
of frequency
The imaginary part of the transform is an odd
function of frequency
Magnitude spectrum is even
Phase spectrum is odd
In DTFS, the conjugate symmetry property is
X*[k]=X[Nk] because the DTFS coefficients are N
periodic and thus X[k]=X[Nk]
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171
If x(t) is real valued, prove that
Magnitude spectrum is even
Phase spectrum is odd
Suppose x(t ) is real, then x(t ) x* (t ),
X ( j ) x(t )e j ( ) t dt X ( j )
*
X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} ;
X ( j ) X ( j ) e
*
j arg{ X ( j )} *
X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )}
X * ( j ) X ( j ),
X ( j ) X ( j ) magnitude spectrum is even
arg{ X ( j )} j arg{ X ( j )} phase spectrum is odd
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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
The complexconjugate symmetry property in FT leads
to a simple characterization of the O/P of an LTI system
A j (t ) A j (t )
e
e
2
2
y (t ) H ( j )e jt , H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}
x(t ) A cos(t )
Eq. (3.2): x(t ) e jt
A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
y (t ) H ( j ) e
H ( j ) e
2
2
H ( j ) H ( j ) , arg{H ( j )} arg{H ( j )}
A j (t arg{ H ( j )}) j (t arg{ H ( j )})
(e
e
)
2
H ( j ) A cos(t arg{H ( j )})
y (t ) H ( j )
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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
The system modifies the amplitude of the I/P sinusoid by
H(j) and phase by arg{H(j)}
the frequency response of a system with a realvalued impulse
response is easily measured using a sinusoid oscillator & an
oscillscope
Figure 3.50 (p. 257)
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A sinusoidal input to an LTI system results in a sinusoidal output of the same frequency,
with the amplitude and phase modified by the systems frequency response.
Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
Similarly, for discretetime LTI system
x[n] A cos(n )
A j ( n ) A j ( n )
e
e
2
2
x[n] e jn y[n] H (e j )e jn , and H (e j ) H (e j ) e j arg{H ( e
A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
j
H (e ) e
y[n] H (e ) e
2
2
H (e j ) H (e j ) , arg{H (e j )} arg{H (e j )}
j
A j ( n arg{H ( e j )}) j ( n arg{ H ( e j )})
)
e
y[t ] H (e ) (e
2
H (e j ) A cos(n arg{H (e j )})
j
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)}
Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals
Now, suppose that x(t) is purely imaginary
x* (t ) x(t )
From (3.37),
*
jt
*
jt
X ( j ) x(t )e dt x (t )e dt = x(t )e j ( ) t dt
= X ( j )
*
Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}= Re{X ( j )}
Im{X ( j )}= Im{X * ( j )}= Im{X ( j )}
Real part of FT is odd, imaginary part is even
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Symmetry properties: Even and odd signals
Suppose that x(t) is real & even
x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )
X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x* (t )e jt dt = x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Im{ X ( j )} 0
Suppose that x(t) is real & odd
x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )
X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Re{ X ( j )} 0
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Symmetry properties: Even and odd signals
Identical symmetry relationship hold for all four Fourier
representations.
Time signal is real and even,
the frequencydomain representation is real
Time signal is real and odd,
the frequencydomain representation is imaginary
Real and even timedomain signals have
real and even frequencydomain representation
Real and odd timedomain signals have
imaginary and odd frequencydomain representation
Prob. 3.17
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Prob. 3.17
Prob. 3.17 Determine the timedomain
signal correspond to the following
frequency domain representation are
real or complex valued and even or odd:
(a)
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Discussion
How to determine whether f(x) is real or complex?
A: real if f(x)=f*(x); imaginary if f(x)=f*(x)
How to determine whether f(x) is even or odd?
A: even if f(x)=f(x); odd if f(x)=f(x)
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Prob. 3.17(a)
: arg{X ( j)}
X ( j ) X ( j )
arg{ X ( j )} arg{ X ( j )}
X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X * ( j )
p
j ( )
2
, 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j ) e
X ( j )
p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0
p
j( )
2
X ( j ) e , 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j )
X ( j )
p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0
Prob. 3.17(a)
X * ( j) X ( j), X ( j) X ( j)
1
x (t )
2p
*
1
X ( j )e d 2p
1
v
2p
1
x(t )
2p
jt
1
j ( t )
X
(
j
)
e
d
2p
X ( j )e
*
1
jvt
X ( jv)e d (v)
2p
2p
v
jt
1
d
2p
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X ( jv)e jvt dv x(t ), x(t ) is real
j ( ) t
(
X
(
))
e
d
X ( jv)e jvt dv x(t ), x(t ) is odd
X ( j )e j ( )t d
Convolution property
The most important property of Fourier
representation is the convolution property.
With the convolution property, we may analyze the
I/PO/P behavior of a linear system in the frequency
domain by multiplying transforms instead of
convolving time signals.
The convolution property is a consequence of
complex sinusoids being eigenfunctions of LTI
systems.
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Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Two nonperiodic continuoustime signals x(t) & h(t)
y (t ) h(t ) * x(t ) h( ) x(t )d , x(t )
1
2
X ( j )e j (t ) d
y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( ) X ( j )e j (t ) d d
1
j
X ( j )e jt d
h
(
)
e
d
2
1
jt
H
(
j
)
X
(
j
)
e
d
2
FT
y (t ) h(t ) * x(t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )
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Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Ex. 3.31 Solving a convolution problem in the
frequency domain
sin( t )
sin(2 t )
, h(t )
t
t
Find y (t ) h(t )* x(t )
Let x(t )
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Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Sol.
1, W
1
FT
From Ex. 3.26,
sin(Wt ) X ( j )
t
0, W
1,
sin( t ) FT
x (t )
X ( j )
,
t
0,
1, 2
sin(2 t )
FT
h (t )
, H ( j )
,
t
0, 2
FT
Since y (t ) h(t ) * x (t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )
1,
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )
X ( j ),
0,
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y (t ) x (t )
sin( t )
t
Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Ex. 3.32 Finding inverse FTs by means of the
convolution property
Use the convolution property to find x(t), where
x(t ) X ( j )
FT
Prob. 3.18, 3.19, 3.20
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2
sin
( )
2
Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Sol.
We may write X ( j ) as the product Z ( j ) Z ( j ), where Z ( j )
The convolution property states that
FT
z (t ) * z (t )
Z ( j ) Z ( j ), so x(t ) z (t ) * z (t )
Using the result of Ex. 3.25, we have
t 2, 2 t 0
1, t 1 FT
z (t )
Z ( j ), x(t ) z (t ) * z (t ) 2 t , 0 t 2
0, t 1
0, otherwise
Figure 3.52 (p. 261)
Signals for Example 3.32. (a)
Rectangular pulse z(t). (b) Convolution
of z(t) with itself gives x(t).
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sin( )
Prob. 3.18(a)
(a)
1
e u (t )
,
j a
at
FT
3
2
y (t ) x(t ) * h(t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ) H ( j )
j 1 j 2
FT
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Convolution of nonperiodic signals
Two nonperiodic discretetime signals x & h
DTFT
DTFT
x[n]
X (e j ), h[n]
H (e j ),
DTFT
y[n] h[n]* x[n]
Y (e j ) H (e j ) X (e j )
Proof of this result is left as an exercise
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Filtering
The multiplication that occurs in the frequencydomain representation give rise to the notation of
filtering
A system performs filtering on the I/P signal by
presenting a different response to components of the
I/P that are at different frequencies.
Filtering implies that some frequency components of
the I/P are eliminated while others are passed by the
system unchanged.
Lowpass, highpass, bandpass
Passband, stopband, transition band
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Filtering
Figure 3.53 (p. 263)
Frequency response of ideal continuous (left panel)
and discretetime (right panel) filters. (a) Lowpass
characteristic. (b) Highpass characteristic. (c) Bandpass characteristic.
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Filtering
The magnitude response of a filter is commonly
described in units of decibels (dB), defined as
20 logH(j) or 20 logH(ej)
Unit gain corresponds to 0 dB
The edge of the passband is usually defined by the
frequencies for which the response is 3dB,
corresponding to a magnitude response of ( 1/ 2 )
Y(j)2= H(j)2 X(j)2
The 3dB points are usually termed the cutoff frequencies of
the filter
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Filtering
Ex. 3.33 RC circuit: Filtering
From Ex. 1.21
1 t /( RC )
hC (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Since yR (t ) x(t ) yC (t ),
Figure 3.54 (p. 264)
RC
xt
y
y t
1 t /( RC )
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Plot the magnitude responses of both systems on a linear scale and in dB
and characterize the filtering properties of the systems.
circuit with input ( ) and outputs
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c(t)
and
R(
).
Filtering
Sol.
1 t /( RC )
1
FT
e
u (t )
H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1
1 t /( RC )
j RC
FT
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t ) H R ( j ) 1 H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1
hC (t )
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Figure 3.55 a&c (p. 265)
RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.
(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.
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Figure 3.55 b&d (p. 265)
RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.
(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.
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Filtering
The convolution property implies that the frequency
response of a system may be expressed as the ratio
of the FT or DTFT of the O/P to that of the I/P.
Y ( j )
For continuoustime system: H ( j )
X ( j )
j
Y
(
e
)
j
For discretetime system: H (e )
X (e j )
If the I/P spectrum is nonzero at all frequencies, the
frequencies of a system may be determined from knowledge
of the I/P and O/P spectra.
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Filtering
Ex. 3.34 Identifying a system, given its I/P and O/P
Given x(t ) e2t u (t ), y (t ) e t u (t ).
Find the frequency response and the impulse response
of this syetm.
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Filtering
Sol.
1
x(t ) e u (t ) X ( j )
j 2
1
FT
t
y (t ) e u (t ) Y ( j )
j 1
Y ( j ) j 2
1
H ( j )
1
X ( j ) j 1
j 1
2 t
FT
h(t ) (t ) e t u (t )
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Filtering
We can recover the I/P of the system from O/P as
For continuoustime system: X ( j ) H inv ( j )Y ( j )
For discretetime system: X (e j ) H inv (e j )Y (e j )
An inverse system is also known as an equalizer
The process of recovering the I/P form O/P is know as
equalization
In practice, causality restriction makes it difficult to
build an inverse system.
Approximated inverse is used.
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Filtering
Ex. 3.35 Multipath communication channel:
Equalization
Given y[n] x[n] ax[n 1], a 1.
Use the convolution property to find the impulse response
of an inverse syetm.
Prob. 3.21
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Filtering
Sol.
1, n 0
In Ex. 2.13, y[n] h[ n]* x[ n], where h[ n] a, n 1
0, otherwise
hinv [n]* h[n] [n], take the DTFT of both side,
H inv (e j ) H (e j ) 1 H inv (e j )
1
H (e j )
DTFT
h[n] [n] a [n 1]
H (e j ) 1 ae j
H inv (e j )
1
1
H (e j ) 1 ae j
hinv [n] (a ) n u[n]
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(Ref. p.774, Appendix C.3)
Prob. 3.21(a)
Find x(t) if
(a)
FT
e at u (t )
1
,
j a
1
1
1
H ( j )
, Y ( j )
j 4
j 3 j 4
1
1
Y ( j )
1
j 3 j 4 j 4
X ( j )
1
1
H ( j )
j 3
j 3
j 4
x(t ) e 3t u (t )
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Convolution of periodic signals
For reference only
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Differentiation and integration properties
Differentiation and integration are operators
that applies to continuous functions
Continuoustime signals: x(t)
Continuousfrequency: FT X(jw) and DTFT X(ejW)
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207
Differentiation in time
Consider a nonperiodic signal x(t)
1
jwt
x(t )
X
(
j
w
)
e
dw
2
d
d 1
1
jwt
x(t ) X ( jw )e d w
dt
dt 2
2
d
FT
x(t )
jw X ( jw )
dt
[ X ( jw ) jw ]e jwt d w
Differentiation a signal in the time domain corresponds to
multiplying its FT by jw
Differentiation accentuates the highfrequency components
of the signal
Differentiation destroys an DC component of x(t)
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208
Differentiation in time
Ex. 3.37 Verifying the differentiation property
d at
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
dt
a jw
Prob. 3.22,3.23
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209
Differentiation in time
Sol.
d at
(e u (t )) ae at u (t ) e at (t ) ae at u (t ) (t )
dt
d at
a
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
1
dt
a jw
a jw
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210
Prob. 3.22(a)
Find FT if
(a)
1
d
FT
e u (t )
, x(t )
jw X ( jw )
a jw dt
at
z (t ) e
2 t
FT
e 2t u (t ) e 2( t )u (t )
1
1
4
Z ( jw )
Appendix C.4
2
2 jw 2 jw 4 w
d
4 jw
FT
x(t ) z (t ) X ( jw ) jw Z ( jw )
dt
4 w2
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211
Differentiation in time
The differentiation property may be used to find the
frequency response of a continuoustime system
described by the differential equation
M
N
M
dk
dk
k
k
a
y
(
t
)
b
x
(
t
)
a
(
j
w
)
Y
(
j
w
)
b
(
j
w
)
X ( jw )
k
k
k
k
k
k
dt
dt
k 0
k 0
k 0
k 0
N
Y ( jw )
H ( jw )
X ( jw )
k
b
(
j
w
)
k
k 0
N
k
a
(
j
w
)
k
k 0
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212
Differentiation in time
The frequency response of a system described by a
linear constantcoefficient differential equation is a
ratio of two polynomials in the jw
The frequency response is the systems steadystate
response to a sinusoid.
It cannot represent initial conditions
It can only describe a system that is in a steadystate
condition
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213
Differentiation in time
Consider a periodic signal x(t)
x(t )
X [k ]e
jkw0t
d
d
jkw0t
jkw0t
x(t ) X [k ]e
X
[
k
]
jk
w
e
dt
dt k
k
d
FS ;w0
x(t )
jkw0 X [k ]
dt
Differentiation forces the timeaveraged value of
the differentiated signal to be zero; hence, the FS
coefficient for k=0 is zero
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214
Differentiation in time
Ex. 3.39 Find the FS representation of the
triangular wave depicted in Fig. 3.59(a)
Figure 3.59 (p. 274)
Signals for Example 3.39. (a) Triangular wave y(t).
(b) The derivative of y(t) is the square wave z(t).
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215
Differentiation in time
Sol.
T 1
d
y (t ), as shown in Fig. 3.59(b). z (t ) 4 x (t ) 2, x(t ) could be obtained from Ex. 3.13 with 0 =
dt
T 4
(p. 221)
0, k 0
FS
z (t ) 4 x(t ) 2
Z [k ] 4 X [k ] 2 [ k ] 4sin( k )
2 ,k 0
k
d
Z [k ]
FS ;w0
z (t ) y (t )
Z [k ] jkw0Y [k ] Y [k ]
,k 0
dt
jkw0
Define z (t )
Y [0] is the average value of y (t ) and is determined by inspection of Fig. 3.59(a). Y [0]
T
2 ,k 0
2
Z [k ]
Z [k ]
Z [k ]
w0
Y [k ]
T Y [k ]
k
2
T
sin(
)
T
jkw0 jk 2
j 2 k
2 ,k 0
T
2 2
jk
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T
2
Differentiation in frequency
Consider the FT X(jw)
X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt
d
d
jwt
jwt
X ( jw )
x
(
t
)
e
dt
x
(
t
)(
jt
)
e
dt
dw
dw
d
FT
jtx(t )
X ( jw )
dw
Differentiation of a FT in the frequency domain
corresponds to multiplication of the signal by jt in
the time domain
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217
Differentiation in Frequency
Ex. 3.40 FT of a Gaussian pulse
Determine the FT of the Gaussian pulse, defined by
g (t )
1
e
2
t2
2
, as depicted in Fig. 3.60
Prob. 3.25,3.26,3.27,3.28
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218
Figure 3.60 (p. 275)
Gaussian pulse g(t).
Differentiation in Frequency
d
d 1 t2
t t2
Sol.
g (t )
e
e tg (t )
(1)
dt
dt 2
2
d
FT
FT
g (t )
jwG ( jw ) tg (t )
jwG ( jw )
dt
d
1 d
FT
FT
jtg (t )
G ( jw ) tg (t )
G ( jw )
dw
j dw
1 d
d
jwG ( jw )
G ( jw ) wG ( jw )
G ( jw )
(2)
j dw
dw
2
(2) is equivalent to (1), G ( jw ) ce
c G ( j 0),
w2
2
, c is determined by (see Appendix A4)
t2
2
1
1
e dt 1 c 1,
e
2
2
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219
t2
2
FT
w2
2
Differentiation in Frequency
Consider the DTFT X(ejW)
jW
X (e )
x[n]e jWn
d
d
j Wn
j Wn
X (e j W )
x
[
n
]
e
x
[
n
](
jn
)
e
dW
d W n
n
d
DTFT
jnx[n]
X (e j W )
dW
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220
x(t ) te at u (t ) tz (t ), z (t ) e at u (t )
d
d
FT
FT
jtz (t )
Z ( jw ), tz (t ) j
Z ( jw )
dw
dw
1
d 1
FT
Z ( jw )
, X ( jw ) j
jw a
dw jw a
j
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221
1 j
jw a )
jw a )
d
d
3t
2 t
y (t ) {te u (t ) * e u (t )} {x(t ) * z (t )}
dt
dt
1
FT
3t
x(t ) te u (t ) X ( jw )
2
jw 3)
1
z (t ) e u (t ) Z ( jw )
jw 2
2 t
FT
Y ( jw ) jw ( X ( jw ) Z ( jw )}
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222
jw
jw 3) jw 2
2
Integration
Integration applies only to continuous dependent
variables.
Time: FT and FS
Frequency: FT and DTFT
We limit our consideration here to integrating
nonperiodic signals with respect to time
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223
Integration
d
1
Let y (t ) x( )d x(t ) y (t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ), 0
dt
j
The value at 0 is modified by adding a term c ( ), where c depends on
the average value of x(t ). Th correct result is obtained by setting c X ( j 0)
t
1
FT
x( )d j X ( j ) X ( j 0) ( )
t
Integration
Integration may be viewed as an averaging operation,
It tends to smooth signals in time
Deemphasizing the highfrequency components of the signal
Prob. 3.29
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224
1
z ( )d j Z ( j ) Z ( j0) ( )
1
1
1
X ( j )
( ), Z ( j )
, Z ( j 0) 1
j j 1
j 1
t
FT
x(t ) z ( )d e u ( )d e d
1 e t , if t 0
1 et u (t )
0, otherwise
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225
FT of the unit step
t
u (t ) ( )d ,
FT
(t )
1
FT
u (t )
U ( j )
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1
( )
j
226
Figure 3.61 (p. 279)
Representation of a step function as the
sum of a constant and a signum function.
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227
FT of the unit step
1, t 0
1 1
u (t ) sgn(t ), where sgn(t ) 0, t 0
2 2
1, t 0
1 FT
1
FT
( ), let sgn(t )
S ( j ) U ( j ) ( ) S ( j )
2
2
d
FT
sgn(t ) 2 (t ) j S ( j ) 2 ( (t )
1);
dt
2
, 0
S ( j 0) 0 because sgn(t) is odd S ( j ) j
0, 0
2
, with the understanding that S ( j 0) 0
j
1
1
U ( j ) ( ) S ( j ) ( )
2
j
It is common to write S ( j )
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Integration
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Timeshift property
Let z (t ) x(t t0 ), find the FT of z (t )
Z ( j ) z (t )e
jt0
jt
dt x(t t0 )e
jt
dt x( )e j ( t0 ) d
x( )e j d e jt0 X ( j )
Z ( j ) X ( j ) , arg{Z ( j )} arg{ X ( j )} t0
Timeshifting the signal x(t) by t0 is to multiply the FT X(j) by
e jt0
A shift in time introduce the phase shift
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Ex. 3.41 Finding an FT using the timeshift
property
Use the FT of the rectangular pulse x(t) depicted in
Fig. 3.62(a) to determine the FT of the timeshifted
rectangular pulse z(t) depicted in Fig. 3.62(b)
Figure 3.62 (p. 281)
Application of the timeshift
property for Example 3.41.
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Sol.
z (t ) x(t T1 ),
Z ( j ) e
jT1
X ( j ) e
jT1
sin(T0 )
Prob. 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33
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Prob. 3.31(a)
x(t ) e 2t u (t 3)
Let y (t ) x(t 3) e
Y ( j ) e
2( t 3)
6 2 t
u (t ) e e u (t )
1
j 2
x(t ) y (t 3), X ( j ) e
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j 3
Y ( j ) e
234
j 3 6
1
j 2
Time and Frequencyshift properties
The timeshifting property may be used to find the
frequency response of a system described by the
difference equation
N
a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0
k 0
z[n k ] e
DTFT
jk
Z (e ) a k (e
j
k 0
H (e j )
Y (e )
j
X (e )
b (e
k 0
N
a (e
k 0
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j k
j k
235
) Y (e ) bk (e j ) k X (e j )
j k
k 0
j 2
1 2e
H (e )
j
j 3
3 2e 3e
a0 3, a1 2, a3 3, b0 1, b2 2
j
a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0
k 0
3 y[n] 2 y[n 1] 3 y[n 3] x[n] 2 x[n 2]
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Frequencyshift property
FT
x(t )
X ( j )
The problem is to express the inverse FT of Z ( j ) X ( j ( ))
1
1
jt
jt
z (t )
Z
(
j
)
e
d
X
(
j
(
))
e
d
2
2
1
j ( ) t
j t 1
j t
j t
X
(
j
)
e
d
e
X
(
j
)
e
d
e
x(t )
2
2
A frequency shift corresponds to multiplication in
the time domain by a complex sinusoid whose
frequency is equal to the shift
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Ex. 3.42 Finding an FT using the frequencyshift property
Determine the FT of z(t), where
j10 t
e
, t
z (t )
0, t
Prob. 3.34
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Sol.
1, t
x(t )
0, t
FT
x(t )
X ( j )
sin( )
FT
z (t ) e j10t x(t )
X ( j ( 10))
FT
z (t )
X ( j ( 10))
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2
sin(( 10) )
10
240
Prob. 3.34(a)
Z (e )
1 e
j ( /4)
, 1,
1
x[n ] u[n ] X ( e )
j
1 e
DTFT
j n
j ( )
e x[n ] X (e
)
n
Z (e ) X (e
z[ n ] e
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n
4
DTFT
j ( /4)
),
x[n ] e
n
4
nu[n ]
241
Time and Frequencyshift properties
Ex. 3.43 Using multiple properties to find an
FT
Determine the FT of x(t), where
d
x(t ) {(e3t u (t ))*(et u (t 2))}
dt
Prob. 3.35
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Time and Frequencyshift properties
Sol.
d
d
{(e 3t u (t )) *(e t u (t 2))} {w(t ) * v(t )}
dt
dt
Applying the convolution and differentiation properties from Table 3.5,
x(t )
X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )}
1
1
FT
3t
e u (t )
w(t ) e u (t ) W ( j )
a j
3 j
at
( t 2)
FT
u (t 2) e
FT
j 2
v(t ) e u (t 2) e {e
1
e j 2
1
FT
t
(i.e. e u (t )
)
1 j 1 j
1 j
( t 2)
e j 2
u (t 2)} e
1 j
FT
j e j 2
X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )} e
(3 j )(1 j )
2
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Finding the inverse Fourier transforms by
using partialfraction expansions
The frequency response of a system described by a
linear constantcoefficient differential/difference
equation is given by a ratio of two polynomials in
j/ej.
The partialfraction expansion can be used to find the
inverse transforms for ratios of polynomials.
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Inverse Fourier Transform
Suppose X ( j ) is expressed as a ratio of ploynomials in j
bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B( j )
X ( j )
N
N 1
( j ) aN 1 ( j ) a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Assume that M N , If M N , we may express X ( j ) as
X ( j )
M N
k 0
f k ( j ) k
B( j )
A( j )
FT
(t )
1 and the differentiation property can be used to
M N
find the inverse FT of
k 0
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f k ( j ) k
245
Inverse Fourier Transform
bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B ( j )
X ( j )
( j ) N aN 1 ( j ) N 1 a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Let the roots of A( j ) be d k 1, 2,
, N . These roots are found
by determining the roots of v N aN 1v N 1
a1v a0 0.
X ( j )
b ( j )
k
k 1
N
( j d
k 1
FT
e dt u (t )
k
assuming d k are different N
k 1
Ck
j d k
1
, for d 0
j d
N
x(t ) Ck e u (t ) X ( j )
dk t
k 1
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FT
k 1
Ck
j d k
246
Prob. 3.36
j
1
2
(a) X ( j )
2
( j ) 3 j 2 j 1 j 2
N
x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) e t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t )
k 1
5 j 12
2
3
(b) X ( j )
2
( j ) 5 j 6 j 2 j 3
N
x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t ) 3e 3t u (t )
k 1
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Multiplication property
Multiplication property
defines the Fourier representation of a product of timedomain signals y(t)=x(t)z(t), x(t) & z(t) are nonperiodic
1
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
2
1
(2 ) 2
1
X
(
j
)
e
d
j t
X ( j ) Z ( j )e
j ( ) t
Z ( j )e jt d
1
d d
2
1
2
jt
X
(
j
)
Z
(
j
(
)
d
e d
1
1
jt
jt
X
(
j
)
*
Z
(
j
)
e
d
Y
(
j
)
e
d
2
2
1
FT
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
Y ( j )
X ( j ) * Z ( j )
2
1
Multiplication in time domain corresponds to convolution
their FT in frequency domain and multiply by 1/(2)
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Multiplication property
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Multiplication property
The multiplication property enables us to study the effect of
truncating a timedomain signal on its frequencydomain
representation.
The process of truncating a signal is also known as windowing
1
y (t ) x(t ) w(t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ) *W ( j ),
2
where
FT
1, t T0 FT
2
w(t )
W ( j ) sin(T0 )
0, t T0
Prob. 3.39, 3.40(b)
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Figure 3.65a (p. 293)
(b) Convolution of the signal and window FTs resulting
from truncation in time.
The effect of windowing.
(a) Truncating a signal in time by using a window function w(t).
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Prob. 3.39
x(t )
4
2
2
sin
(2
t
)
z
(t )
2 2
t
2, 2
2
FT
z (t ) sin(2t ) Z ( j )
t
0, otherwise
X ( j )
1
Z ( j ) * Z ( j )
2
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2
252
Prob. 3.40(b)
FT
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t )
X ( j ) Y ( j ) * Z ( j )
1, t 1 FT 2sin( )
1, t 2 FT 2sin(2 )
w(t )
, w(t / 2)
0, t 1
0, t 2
FT
w(t t0 )
e jt0W ( j )
2sin( 2)
F 1
Let Y ( j )
, y (t ) e j 2 t [u(t 1) u(t 1)]
2
e j 2 sin(2 )
Let Z( j )
1
[ u ( t 2) u ( t 2)],t t 2
1
t
2
1
F
2
z (t ) w(
)
[u(t ) u(t 4)]
2
2
2
1
j 2t
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t ) 2 e [u(t 1) u(t 1)] [u(t ) u(t 4)]
2
e j 2 t [u(t ) u(t 1)]
1
253
Scaling property
z (t ) x(at )
Z ( j )
z (t )e
jt
dt
x(at )e jt dt
j
1
x( )e a d , a 0
at a
1
1 x( )e j a d , a 0 a
a
FT
Z ( j )
z (t ) x(at )
x( )e
j
a
j
1
X( )
a
a
Scaling in timedomain introduces inverse scaling in
frequencydomain and an amplitude change
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Figure 3.70 (p. 300)
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The FT scaling property. The
figure assumes that 0 < a < 1.
255
Scaling property
Ex. 3.48 Scaling a rectangular pulse
1, t 1
1, t 2
Use the FT of x(t )
to find the FT of y(t )
.
0, t 1
0, t 2
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Scaling property
Sol.
1, t 1
2
FT
x(t )
, x(t ) X ( j ) sin( )
0, t 1
2
2
FT
y (t ) x(t / 2)
Y ( j ) 2 X ( j 2 ) 2
sin(2 ) sin(2 )
2
Figure 3.71 (p. 301)
Application of the FT scaling property in
Example 3.48. (a) Original time signal. (b)
Original FT. (c) Scaled time signal y(t) =
x(t/2). (d) Scaled FT Y(j) = 2X(j2).
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Scaling property
Ex. 3.49 Using multiple properties to find an
inverse FT
d
e j 2
Find x(t ) if X ( j ) j
{
}
d 1 j ( )
3
Prob. 3.41, 3.42
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Scaling property
Sol.
1
s (t ) e u (t ) S ( j )
1 j
t
FT
d
e j 2
d
1
d
j
X ( j ) j
{
} j
{e j 2
} j
{e j 2 S ( )}
d 1 j ( )
d
d
3
1 j( )
3
3
j
Let Y ( j ) S ( ) y (t ) 3s(3t ) 3e 3t u (3t ) 3e 3t u (t )
3
j
j 2
Define W ( j ) e S ( ) e j 2Y ( j ) w(t ) y (t 2) 3e 3(t 2)u (t 2)
3
d
Since X ( j ) j
W ( j ) x(t ) tw(t ) 3te 3( t 2)u (t 2)
d
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Scaling property
Consider the periodic signal x(t ) with fundamental period T ,
then z (t ) x(at ) is also periodic with fundamental period T / a.
For convenience, assume a 0.
Z [k ]
T
a
T
a
a
a
jka0t
jka0t
dt
e
)
at
(
x
dt
e
)
t
(
z
T 0
T 0
FS ;a0
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0
z (t ) x(at )
The FS coefficients of x(t ) and z (t ) are identical.
Scaling operation changes the harmonic spacing from 0 to a0 .
The scaling of discretetime signals is further addressed in Prob. 3.80
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FT
x(t )
X ( j ) e j e
1
z (t ) x(at ) Z ( j ) X ( j / a)
a
FT
y (t ) x(2t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ( )), a 2
2
2
FT
1
Y ( j ) e
2
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j ( )
2
1 j 2
e
e
2
2
261
FS ;
x(t )
X [k ] e
jk / 2
ke
2 k
, 0
FS ;a0
z (t ) x(at )
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0
y (t ) x(3t ), Y [k ] X [k ] e
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jk / 2
262
ke
2 k
, 0 3
Parseval relationships
The Parsavel relationships state that the energy or
power in the timedomain representation of a signal is
equal to the energy or power in the frequencydomain
representation.
Energy and power are conserved in the Fourier
representation
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Parseval relationships
The energy in a continuoustime nonperiodic signal is
1
*
*
jt
Wx x(t ) dt x(t ) x (t )dt x(t )
X ( j )e d dt
1
1
*
jt
*
X
(
j
)
x
(
t
)
e
dt
d
X
( j ) X ( j )d
2
2
X ( j ) d
2
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Parseval relationships
The energy in timedomain representation of the
signal is equal to the energy in the frequencydomain
representation, normalized by 2
X(j)2 is the energy spectrum of the signal.
The power or energy spectrum of a signal is defined as the
square of the magnitude spectrum.
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Parseval relationships
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Parseval relationships
Ex. 3.50 Calculating the energy in a signal
sin(Wn)
,
n
use the Parseval's theorem to evaluate
Let x[n]
n=
sin 2 (Wn)
x[n]
2 n2
n=
2
Prob. 3.43
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Parseval relationships
Sol.
1, W
sin(Wn) DTFT
j
x[n]
X (e )
n
0, W
= x[n]
n=
1
2
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X (e j ) d
1
2
268
1d
Prob. 3.43(a)
1
d
2
2
j 2
4
j 2
1
2
d
2
X ( j ) d
2
2
X ( j )
x(t ) 2 e 2t u (t )
j 2
1
1
2
X ( j ) d
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x 2 (t )dt 2 e 2t dt 4 e 4t dt
0
269
Timebandwidth product
Compressing a signal in time leads to expansion in
the frequency domain and vice versa
The bandwidth of a signal is the extent of the signals
significant frequency component.
Low pass & mainlobe is centered on the origin
Band pass & mainlobe is centered on wc
the width of the mainlobe/2
the width of the mainlobe
Rootmeansquare measures of the effective duration and
bandwidth
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Timebandwidth product
Figure 3.72 (p. 305)
Rectangular pulse illustrating the
inverse relationship between the time
and frequency extent of a signal.
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Timebandwidth product
Assume x(t ) is centered about the origion and is low pass.
The effective duration is defined by
1
2
t 2 x(t ) 2 dt
Td
2
x
(
t
)
dt
and the effective bandwidth is defined by
w 2 X ( jw ) 2 d w
Bw
2
X
(
j
w
)
d
w
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1
2
272
Timebandwidth product
It can be shown that the timebandwidth product for any signal is
lower bounded according to the relationship
1
Td Bw
(3.65)
2
This bound indicates that we cannot simultaneously decrease the
duration and bandwidth of a signal.
Eq. (3.65) is also known as the uncertainty principle after its application
to modern physics, which exact position and exact momentum of an
electron cannot be determined simultaneously.
Gaussian pulses are the only signals that satisfy this relationship with
equality.
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Timebandwidth product
Ex. 3.51 Bounding the bandwidth of a rectangular
pulse
1, t T0
x(t )
, find a lower bound of Bw
0, t T0
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Timebandwidth product
Sol.
1, t T0
x(t )
,
0, t T0
t 2 x(t ) dt
Td
2
x
(
t
)
dt
1
2
1
2
T0
2
t
dt
T
1
1
T
3
0
T00
t
3
2T0 3 T0
dt
T0
T0
1
1
3
Td Bw Bw
2
2Td 2T0
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Duality
Figure 3.73 (p. 307)
Duality of rectangular pulses and sinc functions.
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Duality
We observed
Consistent symmetry between the time and frequencydomain representation of signals
Symmetries in Fourier representation properties
Convolution in one domain corresponds to multiplication in the
other domain
Differentiation in in one domain corresponds to multiplication by
the independent variable in the other domain
Etc.
The symmetries are a consequence of the symmetry
in the definition of time and frequencydomain
representation.
We can interchange time and frequency. The
interchangeability property is termed duality
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Duality
The duality property of the FT
1
jwt
dw
e
)
w
j
(
X
)
t
(
x
2
(3.66)
d
e
)
(
z
(
y
let
,
2
X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt
1
FT
(3.67)
z (w )
z (w )e jwt dt y (t )
If t , w , y (t )
2
1
FT
jwt
2 y (w ) (3.68)
)
t
(
z
dt
e
)
t
(
z
If w , t , y (w )
2
(3.67) & (3.68) imply symmetry between time and frequency.
FT
F ( jw ),
Given the FT pair: f (t )
FT
2 f (w )
we can have the new FT pair: F ( jt )
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Duality
Figure 3.74 (p. 309)
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The FT duality property.
279
Duality
Ex. 3.52 Applying duality
Find the FT of x(t )
1
1 jt
Prob. 3.44, 3.45,
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Duality
Sol.
1
FT
f (t ) e u (t ) F ( jw )
& F ( jt )
2 f ( w )
1 jw
1
FT
F ( jt )
2 f (w ) 2 ew u ( w )
1 jt
t
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FT
281
Duality
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Duality
Ex. 3.53 FSDTFT duality
Determine the inverse DTFT of Fig. 3.75(a)
Figure 3.75 (p. 311)
Example 3.53. (a) Triangular
spectrum. (b) Inverse DTFT.
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Duality
Sol.
DTFT
FS
Duality property of FSDTFT: x[n]
X (e j ), X (e jt )
x[k ]
FS
Let z (t ) X (e jt ), if z (t )
Z [k ] then x[n] Z [n]
z (t ) is a timeshifted version of the triangular wave y (t ) in Ex. 3.39 (p. 274)
Assuming T 2 , specifically, z (t ) y (t ).Using the timesift property, we have
2
, k 0
jk / 2
Z [k ] e
Y [k ] = 4 j k 1 sin( k )
2 ,k 0
k
, n 0
x[n] Z [n] 4 j ( n 1) sin( n ) 4( j ) n 1 sin( n )
2
2 ,k 0
( n) 2
n2
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X ( jw ) u (w )
FT
x(t )
X ( jw )
1
F ( jt ) u (t ) f (w )
(w ) 2 x(w )
jw
1 1
1
j
x(t )
(t )
(t )
(t )
2 j (t )
2 jt
2 t
FT
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Exploring concepts with MATLAB
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Summary
We develop techniques for representing signals as
weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
The weights are a function of the complex sinusoidal
frequencies and provide a frequencydomain
description of the signal.
Four representations
DTFS, FS, DTFT, FT
Fourier representation properties relate the effect of
an action on a signal in the timedomain to a
corresponding change in the frequencydomain
representation
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