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Fourier Representations of Signals and

Linear Time-Invariant Systems


Chapter 3

Outline

Introduction
Complex sinusoids and frequency response of LTI
systems
Fourier representations for four classes of signals
Discrete-time periodic signals: Discrete-time Fourier
series
Continuous-time periodic signals: Fourier series
Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: Discrete-time
Fourier transform
Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: Fourier transform
Properties of Fourier representation
Linearity and symmetric properties
Convolution property

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Outline

Differentiation and Integration properties


Time- and Frequency-shift properties
Finding inverse Fourier transforms by using partialfraction expansions
Multiplication property
Scaling property
Parseval relationships
Time-bandwidth product
Duality
Exploring Concepts with MATLAB
Summary

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Introduction

Represents signals in terms of complex


sinusoids, we can

Obtain an alternative expression for the I/P-O/P


behavior of an LTI system

Represents an I/P signal as a weighted superposition of


complex sinusoids
The O/P of an LTI system is a weighted superposition of
the system response to each complex sinusoids

Provide an insightful characterization of signals


and systems

The weight associated with a sinusoid of a given


frequency represents the contribution of that sinusoid to
the overall signal

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Introduction

Fourier analysis

Study of signals and systems using sinusoidal


representations

Four distinct Fourier representation

Discrete-time Fourier series (DTFS)


Fourier series (FS)
Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)
Fourier transform (FT)

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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems

Frequency response of a system

Response of an LTI system to a sinusoidal I/P


The representation is obtained by using
convolution and a complex sinusoidal I/P signal

Figure 3.1 (p. 196)


The output of a complex sinusoidal
input to an LTI system is a complex
sinusoid of the same frequency as
the input, multiplied by the
frequency response of the system.

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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
Consider a discrete-time LTI system with impulse response h[n]
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x[n] e jn , the O/P is
y[n]

h[k ]x[n k ]

h[k ]e j ( n k ) e jn

k
j

where H (e )

h[k ]e jk H (e j )e jn

h[k ]e jk is the frequency-response of a discrete-time

system. It is a function of frequency but not a function of time n

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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
Consider a continuous-time LTI system with impulse response h(t )
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x(t ) e jt , the O/P is

y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( )e

j ( t )

d e

jt

h( )e j d

H ( j )e jt
where H ( j )

h( )e j d is the frequency-response of a

continuous-time system.
H ( j ) is a function of frequency but not a function of time t
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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
Polar form:
b
c a jb c c e
, where c a b , arg{c} arctan{ }
a
H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )} , where
j arg{c}

H ( j ) : magnitude response
arg{H ( j )}: phase response
y (t ) H ( j )e jt H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}e jt H ( j ) e j (t arg{ H ( j )})
the system modifies the amplitude of the I/P by H ( j )
and the phase by arg{H ( j )}
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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
Ex. 3.1 RC circuit: Frequency response

t
RC

1
I/P: x(t ), O/P: y (t ), Impulse response: h(t )
e u (t )
RC
Find an expression for the frequency response and plot the
magnitude and phase response

Figure 3.2 (p. 197)


RC circuit for Example 3.1.

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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems

)
( j
1
1
j
j
RC
RC
Sol. H ( j ) h( )e d [
e u ( )]e d
e
d

RC
0
RC
1
( j
)
1
1
1
1
1

RC

e
|0
(0 1)
1
1
RC ( j
RC ( j
( j RC 1)
)
)
RC
RC
1 j RC

( RC ) 2 1

1
RC
1
2
2
H ( j ) (
) (
)
,
2
2
2
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
arg{H ( j )} arctan{ RC}
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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems

Figure 3.3 (p. 198)


Frequency response of the RC circuit in Fig. 3.2. (a) Magnitude response. (b) Phase response.

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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
If ek is an eigenvector of a matrix A with eigenvalue k , then Aek k e k
We say that the complex sinusoid (t ) e jt is an eigenfunction of the
LTI system H associated with the eigenvalue H ( j ),
because satisfies H {e jt } H ( j )e jt H { (t )} (t )
i.e. H { .} and H ( . ) are different!!
H

Figure 3.4 (p. 198)

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[ n]

h[n]

x[n] x[n]* [n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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(t )

h(t )

x(t ) x(t ) * (t )

x( ) (t )d

y (t )

x( )h(t )d x(t )* h(t )

e jt

H ( j )e jt

x(t ) ak e jk t

y (t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k

Q: What is the value of k , ak , and the range of k ?


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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems
Consider expressing the I/P to an LTI system as the weighted sum of
M

M complex sinusoids, x(t ) ak e jk t


k 1

If e jk t is an eigenfunction of the system with eigenvalue of H ( jk ),


then each term in the I/P,ak e jk t , produces an O/P term ak H ( jk )e jk t
Hence, we can express the O/P of the system as
M

y(t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k 1

the operation of convolution, h(t ) * x(t ), becomes multiplication,


ak H ( jk ), because is expressed x(t ) as a sum of eigenfunctions
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Complex sinusoids and frequency


response of LTI systems

This property is a powerful motivation for


representing signals as weighted superposition of
complex sinusoids
Rather than describing the signals behavior as a
function of time, the weights describe it as a function
of frequency

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Fourier representations for four classes of


signals

Fourier series (FS)

Discrete-time Fourier series (DTFS)

Discrete-time, periodic signal

Fourier transform (FT)

Continuous-time, periodic signal

Continuous-time, nonperiodic signal

Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)

Discrete-time, nonperiodic signal

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[ n]

h[n]

x[n] x[n]* [n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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Fourier representations for four classes


of signals

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Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations

Consider representing a periodic signal as a


weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
Since the weighted superposition must have the
same period as the signal, each sinusoid in the
superposition must have the same period as the
signal
It implies that the frequency of each sinusoid must be
an integer multiple of the signals fundamental
frequency
0=2p/N, N=2p/0
0k0
NN/k

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Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations
A sinusoid whose frequency is an integer multiple of a
fundamental frequency is said to be a harmonic of the
sinusoid at the fundamental frequency.
Thus, e jk0t is the k -th harmonic of e j0t .

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Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations
If is x[n] a discrete-time signal with fundamental period N , then
we seek to represent x[n] by the DTFS,
x[ n] A[ k ]e jk 0 n ,

(3.4)

where
2p
0
is the fundamental frequency of x[n];
N
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k -th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. DTFS is not assumed to be existed yet)
The frequency of the k -th sinusoid in the superposition is k 0 .
Each of these sinusoids has a common period N .
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Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations
If is x(t ) a continuous-time signal with fundamental period T , we seek to
represents x(t ) by the FS,
x (t ) A[ k ]e jk0t ,

(3.5)

2p
is the fundamental frequency of x(t )
T
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k -th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. FS is not assumed to be existed yet)
where 0

The frequency of the k -th sinusoid in the superposition is k0 .


Each of these sinusoids has a common period T
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f[n]= ejk0n(i.e., f[n]=f[n+N]),N=2p/0

f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0n=ejk0nejN0n=ejk0nej2pn=ejk0n=f[k]

f(t)= ejk0t(i.e., f(t)=f(t+T)),T=2p/0

f[n+N]=ejk0(n+N)=ejk0nejk0N=ejk0nej2pk=ejk0n=f[n]

f[k]=ejk0n (i.e., f[k]=f[k+N]),N=2p/0

f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x, N are integer


f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T

f(t+T)=ejk0(t+T)=ejk0tejk0T=ejk0tej2pk=ejk0t=f(t)

f[k]=ejk0t(i.e., f[k]!=f[k+N])

f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0t=ejk0tejN0t!=ejk0t=f[k], tejN0t!=1

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Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations
Consider the complex sinusoids
e j ( N k ) 0 n e jN 0 n e jk 0 n e j 2p n e jk 0 n e jk 0 n
e jk 0 n are N -periodic in the frequency index k , there are only N distinct
complex sinusoids of the form e jk 0 n
N 1

Hence, Eq.(3.4) can be rewritten as x[n] A[k ]e jk 0 n


k 0

In contrast, continuous-time complex sinusoids e jk0t with distinct


frequencies k0 are always distinct (+)0 = 0 0 0
Hence, Eq.(3.5) can be expressed as x (t )

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A[k ]e jk0t

Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations

For periodic signal x[n]

k
2p
jk
n
2p
jk 0 n
N
0
, e
e
e
N

Fundamental period of

ak e jk n with period N (i.e.,x[n] x[n N ])

2p
n
N
( )
k

jk 0 n
a
e
k
kZ

Let k k 0 , x[n]
e

jk 0 n

j ( k mN ) 0 n

ae

N
k
N
is least common multiple (LCM) of
(i.e., N )
k

, the fundamental period of e jk 0 n is

jk 0 n

,
N 1

, m Z , x[n] A[k ]e jk 0 n , where


k 0

A[k ] ... ak N ak ak N ...


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k mN

Periodic signals: Fourier series


representations
Goal : Find the A[k ] such that x[n] and x (t ) are good
approximations to x[n] and x(t ), respectively
Mean-square-error (MSE):
1
Discrete-time case: MSE
N

N 1

x[n] x[n]

n 0

2
1 T
Continuous-time case: MSE x(t ) x (t ) dt
T 0

i.e. the DTFS and FS coefficients minimize the MSEs.


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Nonperiodic signals: Fourier-transform


representations

There is no restriction on the period of the sinusoids


used to represent a non-periodic signal. Hence, the
Fourier transform representations employ complex
sinusoids having a continuum of frequencies.
The signal is represented as a weighted integral of
complex sinusoids where the variable of integration is
the sinusoids frequency.

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f[n]= ejn(i.e., f[n]!=f[n+N])

f(T)=ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn=f(), if T=2p

f(t)= ejt(i.e., f(t)!=f(t+T))

f[n+N]=ej(n+N)=ejnejN!=ejn=f[n], , ejN!=1

f()=ejn (i.e., f()=f(T)),=2p

f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x Z, N is positive integer


f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T, x R, T is positive real

f(t+T)=ej(t+T)=ejtejT!=ejkt=f(t), , ejT!=1

f()=ejt(i.e., f()!=f(+T))

f(T)=ej(+T)t=ejtejTt!=ejt=f(), t, ejTt!=1

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Nonperiodic signals: Fourier-transform


representations
Continuous-time sinusoids are used to represent continuous signal in the FT.
(+) = , 2

Continuous-time sinusoids with distinct frequencies are distinct, so the FT


involves frequencies from - to , as shown by the equation
1
jt
x (t )
X
(
j

)
e
d,

2p
X ( j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency in the FT representation.

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Nonperiodic signals: Fourier-transform


representations
Discrete-time sinusoids are used to represent discrete signal in the DTFT.
ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn, if T=2p

Discrete-time sinusoids are unique only over a 2p interval of frequencies,


since discrete-time sinusoids with frequencies separated by an integer
multiple of 2p are identical.
The DTFT involves frequencies from -p to p , as shown by the equation
1 p
j
j n
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d ,

p
2p
X (e j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency n in the DTFT representation.
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[ n]

h[n]

x[n] x[n]* [n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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DTFS, FS

DTFS & FS()


k0k0()

f(k)=ejk0n(i.e., f(k)=f(k+N))DTFS
N
N 1

x[n] A[k ]e jk 0n
k 0

f(k)=ejk0tFS
(i.e., k )

x (t )

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A[k ]e jk0t

DTFT,FT

DTFT & FT
()()

f()=ejn(i.e., f()=f(+2p))
DTFT2p

1
x[n]
2p

p
-

X (e j )e jn d

f()=ejtFT-

1
x (t )
2p
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X ( j )e jt d,

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

The DTFS representation of a periodic signal x[n]


with fundamental period N and fundamental
frequency 0=2p/N is given by
N 1

x[n] X [k ]e jk 0 n ,

(3.10)

k 0

1
X [k ]
N

N 1

jk 0 n
x
[
n
]
e
arethe DTFS coefficients of the signal x[n].

n 0

We say that x[n] and X [k ] are a DTFS pair and is denoted by


x[n]

DTFS ; 0

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X [k ]
36

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Either x[n] or X[k] provides complete description of


the signal.
The DTFS coefficients X[k] are termed a frequencydomain representation for x[n], because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of
a different frequency.
k determines the frequency of the sinusoid
associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.
DTFS is the only Fourier representation that can be
numerically evaluated and manipulated in a
computer

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[ n]
x[n]

h[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

x[n] X [k ]e

N 1

y[n] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )e jk 0n

jk 0 n

k 0

k 0

1
X [k ]
N

x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

N 1

N 1

x[n]e

N 1

Y [k ]e jk 0 n

jk 0 n

k 0

n 0

Y [k ] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )
N 1

y[n] Y [k ]e jk 0n
k 0

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.2 Determining DTFS coefficients


Find the frequency-domain representation of the
following signal

Prob. 3.2

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Figure 3.5 (p. 203)


Time-domain signal for Example 3.2.

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


Sol.
The signal has period N =5, so 0 2p / 5.
Also, the signal has odd symmetry. So we sum over n 2 to n 2
1 2
X [k ] x[n]e jk 2p n / 5
5 n 2
1
{x[ 2]e jk 4p / 5 x[ 1]e jk 2p / 5 x[0]e j 0 x[1]e jk 2p / 5 x[2]e jk 4p / 5 }
5
1
1
1
1
{1 e jk 2p / 5 e jk 2p / 5 } {1 j sin(2kp / 5)}
5
2
2
5
4p
1
X [2] j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531;
5
5
1
2p
1
X [1] j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ; X [0] 0.2e j 0 ;
5
5
5
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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


1
2p
X [1] j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ;
5
5
1
4p
X [2] j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531.
5
5
Now, suppose we calculate X [k ] using n 0 to n 4
1
X [k ] {x[0]e j 0 x[1]e j 2 kp / 5 x[2]e j 4 kp / 5 x[3]e j 6 kp / 5 x[4]e j 8 kp / 5 }
5
1
1
1
{1 e j 2 kp / 5 0 e j 4 kp / 5 0 e j 6 kp / 5 e j 8 kp / 5 }
5
2
2
1
1 j 2 kp / 5 1 j 2 kp / 5
1
2 kp
{1 e
e
} {1 j sin(
)}
5
2
2
5
5
Note that e j 8 kp / 5 e j 2 kp e j 2 kp / 5 e j 2 kp / 5
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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

|X[k]| is the magnitude spectrum of x[n]


arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x[n]

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Figure 3.6 (p. 204)

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Magnitude and phase of the DTFS coefficients for the signal in Fig. 3.5.

43

Prob. 3.2

Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.


p
p
p
jk ( 1)
jk 0
jk 1
1 2
1
X [k ] x[n]e jk 0 n (2e 3
1e 3 2e 3 )
N n 3
6
1
kp
2
kp
1
(2 2 cos( ) 1) cos( )
6
3
3
3
6

1 2
x[n] X [k ] cos(kp / 3)
6 3
DTFS ;p /3

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.3 Computing DTFS coefficients by inspection


Find the DTFS coefficients of x[n]=cos(pn/3+f)

Prob. 3.3

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.

x[n+6]=cos(pn/3+2p+f)=x[n]

We expend the cosine by Euler's Eq.


x[n] cos(
x[ n]

pn
3

f)

X [k ]e

j(

pn
3

f )

e
2

j(

pn
3

f )

1 jf j p3n 1 jf j p3n
e e
e e
2
2

jkp n / 3

k 2

X [2]e j 2p n / 3 X [1]e jp n / 3 X [0] X [1]e jp n / 3 X [2]e j 2p n / 3 X [3]e jp n


1 jf

e , k 1

1 jf

X [k ]
e ,k 1
2

0, otherwise on - 2 k 3

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Prob. 3.3 (a) x[n] 1 sin(np /12 3p / 8)


Sol. The signal has period 0 p /12, so N =24.
x[n] 1
x[n]

j(

p
12

12

3p
)
8

X [k ]e

e
2j

jk 0 n

n 11

j(

p
12

3p
)
8

12

X [k ]e

jk

p
12

n 11
j

3p
8

7p
8

e
e
X [0] 1, X [1]
, X [1]
2j
2j

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3p
8

e
2j

p
12

3p
8

e
2j

p
12

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.4 DTFS representation of an impulse train


Find the DTFS coefficients of the N-periodic impulse
train
x[n]

[n lN ]

Figure 3.9 (p. 207)


A discrete-time impulse train with period N.

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


Sol.
1 N 1
1 N 1
1
jk 0 n
jkn 2p / N
X [k ] x[n]e
[n]e

N n 0
N n 0
N

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.5 The inverse DTFS


Find x[n] from the
DTFS coefficients
in Fig. 3.10

Prob. 3.4, 3.5

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Figure 3.10 (p. 208)


Magnitude and phase of
DTFS coefficients for Example
3.5.

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Sol.
2p
The DTFS has period 9, so 0
9
x[n]

X [k ]e

jk 2p n / 9

k 4

0 e j 8p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 0 e j 2p n / 9 1e jp e j 0p
0 e j 2p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 0 e j 8p n / 9
2 cos(6p n / 9 2p / 3) 4 cos(4p n / 9 p / 3) 1
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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.6 DTFS representation of a square wave


Find the DTFS coefficient of x[n]
1, M n M
x[n]
, where N 2M 1
0, M n N M

Figure 3.11 (p. 209)


Square wave for Example 3.6.

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


Sol.
2p
The period is N , so 0
N
1 N M 1
1 M jk 0 n
jk 0 n
X [k ]
x[n]e

e
, let m n M ,

N n M
N n M
1 2 M jk 0 ( m M ) 1 jk 0 M 2 M jk 0 m
e
e
e
,

N m 0
N
m 0
For k 0, N , 2 N ,
1
X [k ]
N

2M

m 0

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, e jk 0 e jk 0 1,

2M 1
, k 0, N , 2 N ,
N

53

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


For k 0, N , 2 N ,

1 jk 0 M 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1)
X [k ] e

jk 0
N
(1 e
)
N e jk 0 / 2 1 e jk 0
1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 sin(k 0 (2 M 1) / 2)

,

jk 0 / 2
jk 0 / 2
N
e
e
sin(k 0 / 2)
N
Substituting 0

2p
, we have
N

2M 1
N , k 0, N , 2 N ,
X [k ]
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) , k 0, N , 2 N ,
sin(kp / N )
N
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54

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


Using L'Hopital's rule by treating k as a real number, it is easy
to show that
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) 2 M 1
lim

k 0, N , 2 N , N
sin(kp / N )
N
Hence, X [k ] is commonly written as
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N )
X [k ]
N
sin(kp / N )

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Figure 3.12 (p. 211)


The DTFS coefficients for the square
wave shown in Fig. 3.11, assuming a
period N = 50: (a) M = 4. (b) M = 12.

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Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Note that in this example, X[k] is real;

hence, the magnitude spectrum is the absolute value of X[k]


the phase spectrum is

0 for X[k] > 0


p for X[k] < 0 (-1=ejp)

Prob. 3.6

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57

Prob. 3.6(a) Find the DTFS


2p p l n k l 1
,
(a ) N 10, 0
1
10 5 n k
1
X [k ]
N

x[n]e

n 5

jk n
5

5 jk 5
1
5 jk 5 n 1

e
10 n 2 4
10 n 2 4

5 jk 5
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e

e
e
2p
jk

4
4
4
8
1

5
e

p
p
125
10
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e
1 e
4
4
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-5

Prob. 3.6(b)
2p p l n k l 1
(b) N 10, 0
,
10 5 n k
1

4p
p
p
5p
jk
jk 0
jk
jk

jk n
jk n
jk n
1
1
1
e 5 e 5
e 5 e 5
5
5
5
X [k ] x[n]e
(1) e
1 e

(1)
p
p

jk
jk
N n 5
10 n 4
10
n 1

1 e 5
1 e 5

4p
4p
jk
jk

2
k
p
2 kp
4p
4p
10
10
jk
jk

e
sin
e
sin
4p
k
p
4
p
k
p

jk
j
jk
j
1
1 e 5
1 e 5 1
5
5
5
5
5
5

( e
)
(e
)
( e
)
(e
)

p
p
p
p

jk

jk

jk

jk
10
10
kp
kp
5
5
10
10
1

e
1

e
e
sin
e
sin

10
10

2 kp
2 kp
kp

sin
sin

j
sin(
)
5 kp
5 kp
1
5 (e j 10 e j 10 )
5
2

kp
10 sin kp
5

sin
10
10

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59

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Examining Ex. 3.6, the DTFS coefficients


have even symmetry (i.e. X[k]=X[-k]) .
We may rewrite Eq. (3.10) as a series
involving harmonically related cosines.
Assume that N is even, then N/2 is an
integer, let k range from N/2+1 to N/2, we
have
N
2

x[n]

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X [k ]e jk 0n

N
1
2

60

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


x[n]

N
2

X [k ]e jk 0 n

N
1
2

N
1
2

N
j 0 n
N
X [k ]e jk 0 n X [ ]e 2
2
N
k ( 1)
2

N n

N
1
2

N j 20
X [0] X [ ]e
( X [ m]e jm0 n X [ m]e jm0 n )
2
m 1
X [m] X [m], and N 0 2p
N
1
2

N jp n
e jm0 n e jm0 n
x[n] X [0] X [ ]e 2 X [m](
)
2
2
m 1
N
1
2

N
X [0] X [ ]cos(p n) 2 X [ m]cos( m0 n)
2
m 1
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61

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS


N
1
2

N 0
N
x[n] X [0] 2 X [ m]cos( m0 n) X [ ]cos(
n)
2
2
m 1
X [k ], k 0, N / 2
Define B[k ]
,
2 X [k ], k 1, 2, , N / 2 1
N
2

we can have x[n] B[k ]cos(k 0 n)


k 0

A similar expression may be derived for odd N


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(3.17)

Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Ex. 3.7 Building a square wave from DTFS coefficients


The contribution of each term to the square wave may
be illustrated by defining the partial-sum approximation
to x[n] in Eq. (3.17) as
J

xJ [n] B[k ]cos(k 0 n), where J


k 0

N
2

This approximation contains the first 2J+1 terms


centered on k=0 in Eq. (3.10) (p.202). Assume a square
wave has period N=50 and M=12. Find the cases that
J=1,3,5,23, and 25.
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63

Figure 3.14a (p. 213)


Individual terms in the DTFS expansion of
a square wave (left panel) and the
corresponding partial-sum approximations
J[n] (right panel). The J = 0 term is 0[n]
= and is not shown. (a) J = 1. (b) J = 3.

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Figure 3.14b (p. 213)


(c) J = 5. (d) J = 23. (e) J = 25.

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

The FS representation of a periodic signal x(t) with


fundamental period T and fundamental frequency
0=2p/T is given by
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

(3.19)

1 T
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
(3.20)
0
T
X [k ] are the FS coefficients of the signal x(t ).
We say that x(t ) and X [k ] are an FS pair and is denoted by
FS ;

x(t )

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X [k ]
66

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Either x(t) or X[k] provides complete description of


the signal.

The FS coefficients X[k] are known as a frequencydomain representation for x(t) because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of a
different frequency.

k determines the frequency of the sinusoid


associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.

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67

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

The infinite series in Eq. (3.19) is not guaranteed to


converge for all possible signals

Define

x (t )

X [k ]e jk0t

and choose X[k] according to Eq. (3.20)

1 T
2
If x(t ) dt , then the MSE between x(t ) and x (t ) is zero.
T 0
1 T
2
Or, mathematically, x(t ) x (t ) dt 0
T 0

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68

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Note that, in contrast to discrete-time case, an MSE of


zero does not imply that x(t) and x (t ) are equal
pointwise, or x(t ) x (t ) at all value of t. It only implies
that there is zero power in their difference

Pointwise convergence of x (t ) to x(t) is guaranteed at


all value of t except those corresponding to
discontinuities if the Dirichlet conditions are satisfied:

x(t) is bounded

x(t) has a finite number of maximum and minimum in one period

x(t) has a finite number of discontinuities in one period

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69

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

If x(t) satisfies the Dirichlet conditions and is not


continuous, then x (t ) converges to the midpoint of the
left and right limits of x(t) at each discontinuity.

The following three examples illustrate how the FS


representation is determined.

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70

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.9 Direct calculation of FS coefficients


Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) depicted in Fig.
3.16

Figure 3.16 (p. 216)


Time-domain signal for Example 3.9.

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71

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :
T 2, 0 2p / 2 p
1 T
X [k ]= x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0
1
1 2 (2 jkp )t
1 2 2t jkp t
e (2 jkp ) t |02
dt
dt e
e e
2(2 jkp )
2 0
2 0
1 e4
1
4 jk 2p
)
(1 e e

4 jk 2p
4 jk 2p

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72

Figure 3.17 (p. 217)


Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.9.

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73

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

|X[k]| is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)


arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x(t)
Since x(t) is periodic, the interval of integration in Eq.
(3.20) may be chosen as any interval one period in
length.
Choosing the appropriate interval of integration often
simplifies the problem

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74

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.10 FS coefficients for an impulse train


Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal

x(t )

(t 4l )

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75

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :
T 4, 0 2p / 4 p / 2,
x(t ) is even symmetry it is easilier to evaluate X [k ] over - 2 t 2
p
jk t
1 T
1 2
1
jk0t
X [k ]= x(t )e
dt (t )e 2 dt
T 0
4 2
4
in this case, the magnitude spectrum is constant and the phase spectrum is zero.

Note that we cannot evaluate the infinite sum in Eq. (3.19) in this case and that
x(t) does not satisfy the Dirichlet condition. However, the FS expension of an
impulse train is useful in spite of convergence difficulties.

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Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.11 Calculation of FS coefficients by inspection


Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal

x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4)

Prob. 3.7,3.8

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77

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :
T 4, 0 2 / 4 / 2, x(t )

X [ k ]e jk t / 2

Using Euler's formula to expend the cosine yields


e j ( t / 2 / 4) e j ( t / 2 / 4) 3 j / 4 j t / 2 3 j / 4 j t / 2
x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4) 3
e e
e
e
2
2
2
3 j / 4
, k 1
2 e

3
X [k ] e j / 4 , k 1
2
0, otherwise

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78

Figure 3.18 (p. 219)


Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.11.

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79

Prob. 3.7

Find FS for x(t ) 2sin(2 t 3) sin(6 t )

T 1, 0 2
e j (2 t 3) e j (2 t 3) e j 6 t e j 6 t e 3 j j 2 t e3 j j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
x(t ) 2

2j
2j
j
j
2j
2j
j
j
je 3 j e j 2 t je3 j e j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
2
2
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]e

j
2 , k 3
3j
je , k 1

X [k ] je 3 j , k 1

j
,k 3
2
0, otherwise
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j 2 kt

Prob. 3.8
T 1, 0 2
1 j t j t
(e e )
2

x(t ) cos( t )
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]e

j 2 k t

1
1 T
1 T2
jk0t
jk0t
X [k ] x(t )e
dt T x(t )e
dt 21 cos( t )e j 2 k t dt

T 0
T 2
2
1
2
1

e j t e j t j 2 k t
1 12 j (1 2 k ) t
e j (1 2 k ) t
j (1 2 k ) t
(
)e
dt 1 e
e
dt

2
2 2
2 j (1 2k )

j (1 2 k )

1
2

j (1 2 k )

e
2 j (1 2k )

1
2

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j (1 2 k )

1
2

j (1 2 k )

e
2 j (1 2k )
81

1
2

1
2

1
2

e j (1 2 k ) t

2 j (1 2k )

1 2k
1 2k
sin(
) sin(
)
2
2

(1 2k )
(1 2k )

1
2

1
2

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.12 Inverse FS


Find the time-domain signal x(t) corresponding to the
FS coefficients
1 k jk / 20
X [k ] ( ) e
2

Assume that the fundamental period T=2

Prob. 3.9

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82

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol : T 2, 0 2 / 2 ,
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

1
1 k jk / 20 jk t
1 k jk / 20 jk t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
( ) e
e ( ) e
e ( ) e
e
k 2
k 2
k 0 2

1 l jl / 20 jl t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
1
1
= ( ) e
e
( ) e
e
1
1
1
l 1 2
k 0 2
1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20)
2
2
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 j ( k t / 20)
e
e
1 e
1 e

1
2
2
2

1
1
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20) 1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e
1 e

2
2
2

1 j ( k t / 20) 1 1 j ( k t / 20)
3
e
1 e

3
2
4 2

1 1
5
1 e j ( k t / 20) e j ( k t / 20)
cos( t / 20) 5 4 cos( t / 20)
4 2
4
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83

Prob. 3.9 (a)


(a) X [k ] j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3], 0
x(t )

X [k ]e jk0t

( j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3])e jk t

je j 2 t je j 2 t 2e j 3 t 2e j 3 t
j (e j 2 t e j 2 t ) 2(e j 3 t e j 3 t )
j 2 j sin(2 t ) 2 2 cos(3 t ) 2sin(2 t ) 4 cos(3 t )
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84

Prob. 3.9 (b)


x (t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

j 2 ( t 1)
e
e

k 4

e j 2 ( t 1) (1 e

k
2

jk t
2

k 4

j 4 ( t 1)
2

1 e

j 9 ( t 1)
2

j ( t 1)
2

j ( t 1)
2

e j 2 ( t 1)e

9
( t 1)
4

1 e
9 (t 1)
sin(
)
4

(t 1)
sin(
)
4

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j 5 ( t 1)
2

85

j ( t 1)
4

(e

(e

9
( t 1)
4

j ( t 1)
4

9
( t 1)
4

j ( t 1)
4

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.13 FS for a square wave


Determine the FS representation of the square wave
in Fig. 3.21

Figure 3.21 (p. 221)


Square wave for Example 3.13.

Prob. 3.10

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86

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :

0 2 / T ,

x(t) is even symmetry integrating over the range

T
T
t
2
2

1 T2
1 T0 jk0t
1 jk0t T0
jk0t
For k 0, X [k ] T x(t )e
dt e
dt
e
|T0

0
T 2
T
Tjk0
2sin(k0T0 )
2 e jk0T0 e jk0T0

(
)
Tk0
2j
Tk0
2T
1 T2
1 T2
1 T0
j 00t
For k 0, X [0] T x(t )e
dt T x(t )dt dt 0
T 2
T 2
T T0
T
2sin(k0T0 ) 2T0

k 0
Tk0
T

By means of L'Hopital's
rule, it is straightforward to show that lim
Hence, we write X [k ]
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2sin(k0T0 ) 2sin(k 2 T0 / T ) 2T0


2T

sinc(k 0 )
Tk0
k 2
T
T
87

Figure 3.22a&b (p. 222)


The FS coefficients, X[k], 50 k
50, for three square waves. (see Fig.
3.21.) (a) Ts/T = 1/4 . (b) Ts/T =
1/16. (c) Ts/T = 1/64.

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Figure 3.22c (p. 222)

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Sinc function
sin( u )
sinc(u )
u

sinc(u) occurs sufficiently often in the Fourier


analysis

i.e.

The maximum of this function is unity at u=0


The zero crossing occurs at integer values of u
mainlobe & sidelobes

2sin(k 2 T0 / T ) 2sin(k 2 T0 / T )
2T sin( k 2T0 / T ) 2T0
2T

(T0 / T ) 0

sinc(k 0 )
k 2
k 2 (T0 / T )
T ( k 2T0 / T )
T
T

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90

Figure 3.23 (p. 223)

Sinc function sinc(u) = sin(u)/(u)

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91

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

The form of FS described by Eqs. (3.19) and (3.20)


is termed the exponential FS

The trigonometric FS is often useful for real-valued


signals and is expressed as

x(t ) B[0] ( B[k ]cos(k0t ) A[k ]sin(k0t )),

(3.25)

k 1

1 T
B[0] x(t )dt
T 0
2 T
B[k ] x(t ) cos(k0t )dt
T 0
2 T
A[k ] x(t ) sin(k0t )dt
T 0
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92

(3.26)

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

B[0]=X[0] is the time-averaged value of the


signal

Using Eulers formula to expend cosine and


sine functions in Eq. (3.26), we have

B[k]=X[k]+X[-k]

A[k]=j(X[k]-X[-k])

Prob. 3.10

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(3.27)

93

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

The trigonometric FS coefficients of the


square wave in Ex. 3.13 are obtained from
(3.28)

B[0]=2T0/T

B[k]=2sin(k2T0/T)/(k)

A[k]=0 (i.e. it is because that x(t) is even)

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94

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.14 Square-wave partial sum approximation


Let the partial-sum approximation to the FS in (3.29)
be given by
J

J
xJ (t ) B[k ]cos(k0t ), xJ (t )
x(t )
k 0

Consider a square wave with T=1 and T0=1/4. Depict


one period of the J-th term in this sum and find x J (t )
for J=1,3,7,29, and 99

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95

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :
1
2 ,k 0

k 1
2
B[k ] (1) 2 , k is odd
k
0,k is even

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96

Figure 3.25a (p. 225)


Individual terms (left panel) in the FS expansion of a square wave and the corresponding partial-sum approximations
wave has period T = 1 and Ts/T = . The J = 0 term is 0(t) = and is not shown. (a) J = 1.

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J(t)

(right panel). The square

Figure 3.25b-3 (p. 226)


(b) J = 3. (c) J = 7. (d) J = 29.

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98

Figure 3.25e (p. 226)


(e) J = 99.

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99

H
y(t ) h(t )* x(t )

x(t )

x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

y (t )

X [k ]H ( jk )e
0

Let Y [k ] X [k ]H ( jk0 )

1
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0

y (t )

Y [k ]e

100

jk0t

jk0t

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Ex. 3.15 RC Circuit: Calculation the O/P by means of


FS
Find the FS representation of the O/P y(t) of the RC
circuit depicted in Fig. 3.2 in response to the squarewave I/P in Fig. 3.21, assuming that T0/T=1/4, T=1,
and RC=0.1s

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101

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Sol :

x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

y (t ) H {x(t )}

y (t )

Y [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]H {e

FS ;0
, y (t )
Y [k ] H ( jk0 ) X [k ]

From Ex. 3.1 H ( j )

1/ RC
j 1/ RC

10
jk 2 10
2sin(k0T0 ) sin(k / 2)
From Ex. 3.13, X [k ]

Tk0
k

0 2 , RC 0.1s H ( jk0 )

Y [k ]

10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k

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102

jk0t

H ( jk ) X [k ]e

jk0t

Continuous-time periodic signals: FS


Y [k ]

10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k

k
Y [k ]
0, we can approximate y (t ) by

y (t )

100

Y [k ]e jk0t

k 100

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103

Figure 3.26 (p. 228)

The FS coefficients Y[k], 25


k 25, for the RC circuit output
in response to a square-wave
input. (a) Magnitude spectrum.
(b) Phase spectrum. c) One
period of the input signal x(t)
dashed line) and output signal
y(t) (solid line). The output
signal y(t) is computed from
the partial-sum approximation
given in Eq. 3.30).

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104

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

The DTFT representation of a nonperiodic signal


x[n] is given by
1
x[n]
2
j

X (e )

X (e j )e jn d

x[n]e

jn

(3.31)
(3.32)

X (e j ) are the DTFT coefficients of the signal x[n].


We say that x[n] and X (e j ) are an DTFT pair and is denoted by
x[n]

DTFT

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X (e j )

105

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

X (e j ) is the frequency-domain representation of


x[n] as a function of a sinusoidal frequency

Eq. (3.31) is usually termed the inverse DTFT, since


it maps the frequency-domain representation back
into time-domain

DTFT is used primarily to analyze the action of


discrete-time system on discrete-time signals

The infinite sum in Eq. (3.32) converges if x[n] has


finite duration and is finite values.

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106

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

If x[n] is of infinite duration, the the sum


converges only for certain classes of signals

If

x[n] (i.e. x[n] is absolute summable)

then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges uniformly to


a continuous function of

If x[n] is not absolute summable, but x[n] (i.e. x[n]


n

has finite energy), then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges in a


mean-square error sense,but does not converge pointwise.
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107

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.17 DTFT of an exponential sequence

Find the DTFT of the sequence x[n]=anu[n]

Prob. 3.11

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108

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
Using Eq. (3.32), we have
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

u[n]e

jn

a n e jn
n 0

The sum diverges for a 1, for a 1, we have

1
, for a 1
j
1ae
n 0
n 0
1
1
1 a cos ja sin
If a is real valued, X (e j )

1 a e j 1 a cos ja sin (1 a cos ) 2 (a sin ) 2


1
1
j
X (e )

1
1
2
2 2
2
(1 a cos ) (a sin )
(a 1 2a cos ) 2
X (e ) a e
j

n j n

(a e j ) n

a sin
arg{ X (e j )} arctan(
)
1 a cos
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109

Figure 3.29 (p.232)

The DTFT of an exponential signal x[n] =


(a)nu[n]. (a) Magnitude spectrum for a =
0.5. (b) Phase spectrum for a = 0.5. (c)
Magnitude spectrum for a = 0.9. (d) Phase
spectrum for a = 0.9.

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110

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

|X(ej)| is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)


arg{X(ej)} is the phase spectrum of x(t)

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111

Prob. 3.11
X (e j )

Find DTFT for x[n] 2(3)n u[n]

x[n]e jn

2(3) u[n]e
n

jn

2 (3e j ) n
n

1 j m
2

2 ( e )
1 j
m0 3
1 e
3
m n

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112

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.18 DTFT of a rectangular pulse


1, n M
x[n]
0, n M

Figure 3.30 (p. 233)


Example 3.18. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b)
DTFT in the frequency domain.

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113

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

1 e jn , let m n M n m M

n M

j (2 M 1)

e
j

M
2M
2M
, 0, 2 , 4 ,
e
j
j ( m M )
jM
j
X (e ) e
e (e j ) m
1 e
m 0
m 0
2 M 1,
0, 2 , 4 ,

j (2 M 1)
j (2 M 1) / 2
(e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 )
jM 1 e
jM e
e
e
j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )

e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 sin((2M 1) / 2)

j / 2
j / 2
e
e
sin( / 2)

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114

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


lim

0, 2 , 4 ,

X (e ) e

sin((2M 1) / 2)
2M 1
sin( / 2)
jM

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1 e j (2 M 1) sin((2M 1) / 2)

j
1 e
sin( / 2)

115

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.19 Inverse DTFT of a rectangular spectrum

1, W
X (e )

0, W
j

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116

Figure 3.31 (p. 234)


Example 3.19. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the frequency domain. (b)
Inverse DTFT in the time domain.

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
W
1
1
jn
e

sin(Wn), n 0

W
1
1
2 nj
n
j
jn
j n
W
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d

e
d

2
2 W
W
, n 0
1
W
1
W
Wn
lim
sin(Wn) x[n]
sin(Wn) sinc( )
n 0 n

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117

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.20 DTFT of the unit impulse

x[n] [n]

Prob. 3.12, 3.13

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118

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

jn

[
n
]
e
1

DTFT
Hence, [n]
1

Figure 3.32 (p. 235)


Example 3.20. (a) Unit impulse in the time domain.
(b) DTFT of unit impulse in the frequency domain.

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119

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.21 Inverse DTFT of a unit impulse spectrum


X (e j ) (),

Figure 3.33 (p. 236)


Example 3.21. (a) Unit impulse in
the frequency domain. (b) Inverse
DTFT in the time domain.

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120

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
1
1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n]
X (e )e d
( )e d

2
2
2
1
DTFT
Hence,

(),
2
In this example, we have defined only one period of X (e j ).
alternatively, we can defind X (e j ) as
j

X (e )

( 2 k )

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121

Prob. 3.12(d)
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

(1)e

n 7

jn

(1)e jn
n 1

e j 7 1 e j e j 8 1 e j 7 e j (1 e j 7 )

j
j
1 e
1 e
1 e j
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j 7
j

e
(
e

e
)
e
(
e

e
)
(1 e
)(1 e )

j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )
e j 7 / 2

2 j sin( )2 cos( )
2
2

2 j sin( )
2

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122

Prob. 3.13(a)

X (e ) 2cos(2)

1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n ]
X
(
e
)
e
d

cos(2

)
e
d

1 j 2
1 j ( n 2)
j 2
jn
j ( n 2)

(
e

e
)
e
d

(
e
d

e
d )

2
2
1
2 1, for n 2,
2
0, otherwise ( e jk - e jk 0)

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123

Prob. 3.13(c)
1
j
jn
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d

j
1 0 j 2 jn

[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2

j
1 0 j 2 jn

[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2

j 0 (1 jn )
j 1 e e j n e e j n 1
(1 jn )

[ e
d e
d ]
[

0
2
2
1 jn
1 jn
e j n e j n cos( n )

1
1
j
2 jn
(1 e cos( n))[

]
(1 e cos( n))
2
1 jn 1 jn 2
1 n2
j

[1

e
cos( n)]
2
(1 n )
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cos( n ) ( 1) n

124

n(1 e (1) n )
(1 n 2 )

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.22 Moving-average systems: Frequency


response
1

y
[
n
]

( x[n] x[n 1])


1
2
Consider two systems:
y [n] 1 ( x[n] x[n 1])
2
2
1

h
[
n
]

( [n] [n 1])
1
2
the impulse responses of the two systems are
h [n] 1 ( [n] [n 1])
2
2
Find the frequency response and plot the magnitude response of each system

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125

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


Sol :
H1 (e j )
j

H 2 (e )

h1[n]e jn

h2 [n]e

jn

1 1
e j e
2 2

j
2

j
1 1 j
e
e je 2
2 2

e
2

e
2j

je

cos( )
2

sin( )
2

H1 (e j ) cos( ) , arg{H1 (e j )}
2
2

, 0

2 2
H 2 (e j ) sin( ) , arg{H 2 (e j )}
2
, 0
2 2
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2 2

Figure 3.36 (p. 239)


The magnitude responses of two simple discrete-time systems. (a) A
system that averages successive inputs tends to attenuate high
frequencies. (b) A system that forms the difference of successive
inputs tends to attenuate low frequencies.

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127

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Ex. 3.23 Multipath communication channel:


Frequency response
y[n] x[n] ax[n 1]
In Ex. 2.12, we have h[n] [n] a [n 1]
and hinv [n] (a) n u[n], a 1
j

Compare the magnitude response of both systems for a 0.5e 3 , a 0.9e

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128

2
3

Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT


j

Sol : H (e )

h[n]e

jn

1 ae j (express a in polar form yields)

=1 a e j ( arg{a}) 1 a cos( arg{a}) j a sin( arg{a})


j

1
2 2

H (e ) ((1 a cos( arg{a})) ( a sin( arg{a})) )


2

1
2

(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a})) , a 1
2

the frequency response of the inverse system is the inverse of the frequency
response of the origional system.
H inv (e j )

1
1
1

H (e j ) 1 a e j ( arg{a}) 1 a cos( arg{a}) j a sin( arg{a})

H inv (e j )

j
H (e )

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1
(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a}))
2

129

1
2

Figure 3.37 (p. 241)


Magnitude response of the system in
Example 3.23 describing multipath
propagation. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a =
0.9ej2/3.

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130

Figure 3.38 (p. 241)


Magnitude response of the inverse
system for multipath propagation in
Example 3.23. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a = 0.9ej/3

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131

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

The FT representation of a nonperiodic signal x(t) is


given by
1
x(t )
2

X ( j )e jt d

X ( j ) x(t )e jt dt
-

(3.35)
(3.36)

X ( j ) are the FT coefficients of the signal x(t ).


We say that x(t ) and X ( j ) are an FT pair and is denoted by
x(t )

FT

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X ( j )
132

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

X ( j ) is the frequency-domain representation of x(t)


as a function of a sinusoidal frequency

Eq. (3.35) is usually termed the inverse FT, since it


maps the frequency-domain representation back
into time-domain

FT is used primarily to analyze the action of


continuous-time system on continuous-time signals

The integral in Eq. (3.35), (3.36) may not converge


for all x(t) and X ( j )

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133

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

1
jt
Define x (t )
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
It can be shown that the square error between x(t ) and x (t )
(i.e.error energy)

x(t ) x (t ) dt is zero if
2

x(t ) dt

Zero squared error does not imply pointwise convergence.

It implies that there is zero energy in the difference of terms.

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134

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Pointwise convergence is guaranteed at all values of t
except to those corresponding to discontinuities if x(t )
satisfies the Dirichlet condition for nonperiodic signals:
x(t ) is absolutely integrable:

x(t ) dt

x(t ) has finite number of maximum, minimum, and


discontinuities in any finite interval.
The size of each discontinuity is finite.

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135

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Almost all physical signals encountered in


engineering practice satisfy the second and the third
conditions.

Many idealized signals, such as the unit step, are


neither absolutely or square integrable.

We still use FT as a problem-solving tool, even through, in a

strict sense, the FT does not converge for such signals

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136

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.24 FT of a real


decaying exponential
Find FT of x(t)=e-atu(t)
in Fig. 3.39(a)
Figure 3.39 (p. 243)
Example 3.24. (a) Real time-domain exponential signal.
(b) Magnitude spectrum.
(c) Phase spectrum.

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137

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :
the FT does not converge for a 0 since x(t) is not
absolutely integrable, that is

e u (t )dt e dt for a 0
at

at

For a 0,

X ( j ) e u (t )e
at

X ( j )

dt e
0

( a j ) t

1 ( a j ) t
dt
e
a j

1
1
2 2

(a 2 )
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jt

, arg{ X ( j )} arctan( )
a
138

a j

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.25 FT of a rectangular pulse

1, T0 t T0
x(t )

0, t T0

Figure 3.40 (p. 244)

Prob. 3.14

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Find the FT of x(t )


Example 3.25. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b) FT in
the frequency domain.

139

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :

X ( j ) x(t )e

jt

T0

dt e
T0

jt

1 jt
dt
e
j

T0
T0

sin(T0 ), 0

For 0, X (0) 2T0

T0
lim sin(T0 ) 2T0 X ( j ) sin(T0 ) 2T0sinc(
)
0

0,
sin(T0 ) 0

sin(T0 )

X ( j ) 2
, arg{ X ( j )}

, 2 sin(T ) 0
0

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140

Prob. 3.14 (a)

X ( j ) x(t )e

(2 j ) t

jt

dt e 2t u( t )e jt dt

1
1
(2 j ) t 0
dt
e
|
2 j
j 2

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141

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.26 Inverse FT of a rectangular spectrum

1, W W
X ( j )

0, W

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142

Find x(t )

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :
1
x(t )
2

1
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
W
For t 0, x(0)
jt

jt
1
W e d 2 j t e

jt

1
W
1
W
Wt
lim sin(Wt ) x(t ) sin(Wt ) sinc( )
t 0 t

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143

W
W

1
sin(Wt ), t 0
t

Figure 3.42 (p. 246)


Example 3.26. (a) Rectangular spectrum in the frequency domain.
(b) Inverse FT in the time domain.

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144

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.27 FT of the unit impulse


Find the FT of x(t)=d(t)

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145

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :

X ( j ) x(t )e

jt

dt d (t )e jt dt 1

FT
d (t )
1

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146

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.28 Inverse FT of an impulse spectrum


Find the inverse FT of X(j)=2d()

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147

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :
1
1
jt
x(t )
X ( j )e d

2
2
FT
1
2d ( )

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148

2d ( )e jt d 1

Prob. 3.15(d)

2 j
0
j
1
1
jt
2 jt
2 jt
e d )
e

d
e
e
(

d
e
)

j
(
X
x (t )

0
2 2
2
2
0
1
1
2 ( j 2 1d ( j ) 0 1d ) 2 (2 j 2 j ) 0, t 0

cos(2t )
1
j 2t
j 2t

,t 0
((1 e ) ( e 1))

t
2 t

j, e

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149

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Ex. 3.29 Characteristics of digital communication


signals

Ar , t T0 / 2
A rectangular pulse: xr (t )
0, t T0
2 t
Ac
(1

cos(
), t T0 / 2
2
T0
A raised-cosine pulse: xc (t )
0, t T
0

Choose constants Ar and Ac such that both BPSK signals have unit power.

Figure 3.44 (p. 249)


Pulse shapes used in BPSK communications. (a)
Rectangular pulse. (b) Raised cosine pulse.

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150

Figure 3.45 (p. 249)


BPSK signals constructed by using
(a) rectangular pulse shapes and
(b) raised-cosine pulse shapes.

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151

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Suppose that the frequency band assigned to each user is 20 kHz.
To prevent interference with adjacent channels, we assume that
the peak value of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal
outside the 20kHz band is required to be -30dB below the peak
in-band magnitude spectrum.
Use the FT to determine the maximum number of bits per second
that can be transmitted when the rectangular and raise-cosine pulse
shapes are utilized.
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152

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Sol :
Although BPSK signal is not periodic, its magnitude squared is T0 periodic
Thus, its respective power is calculated as
Pr

1
T0

1
Pc
T0

T0
2

Ar2 dt Ar2

T0
2

T0
2

Ac
2 t 2
1
(
(1

cos(
))
dt

T 2
T0
T0
0

2
c

A
4T0

2
T0
2

[1 2 cos(

T0
2

T0
2

Ac2
2 t 2
(1 cos(
)) dt
4
T0

2 t 1 1
4 t
3
) cos(
)]dt Ac2
T0
2 2
T0
8

Let Pr Pc 1, Ar 1, Ac
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T0
2

153

8
3

Figure 3.46 (p. 250)

Spectrum of rectangular pulse in dB, normalized by T0.

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154

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


Using the result of Ex. 3.25, the FT of xr (t ) is given by
X r ( j )

2sin(T0 / 2)

= 2

2sin(2 fT0 / 2) sin( fT0 )


X r' ( jf )

2 f
f

The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by 20log10{

X r' ( jf )
T0

From Fig. 3.46, it implies that we must choose T0 so that the 10th zero crossing is at 10kHz
The kth zero crossing occurs when f k / T0 . So we require 10000=10/T0 or T0 10 3
It implies a data transmission rate of 1000 bits/sec.

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155

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


The FT of xc (t ) is given by
1 8
X c ( j )
2 3
2

2
3

T0
2

2 t jt
T (1 cos( T0 ))e dt
0

T0
2

2
jt
T e dt 3
0

T0
2

T0
2

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e jt dt

T0
2

T0
2

1 2
2 3

156

2 t

2 t

j
1 j T0
(e
e T0 )e jt dt
2
T0
2

T0
2

2
j ( ) t
T0

dt

1 2
2 3

T0
2

T0
2

j (

2
)t
T0

dt

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


T0
2

e j t dt 2

sin( T0 / 2)

T0
2

X c ( j )

2
X c' ( jf )

2
3

T0
2

e jt dt

T0
2

1 2
2 3

T0
2

2
j ( ) t
T0

T0
2

dt

1 2
2 3

T0
2

j (

2
)t
T0

dt

T0
2

2 sin(T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)

3
2 / T0
3
2 / T0
2 sin( fT0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
0.5
0.5
3
f
3
( f 1/ T0 )
3
( f 1/ T0 )

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Figure 3.47 (p. 252)


The spectrum of the raised-cosine
pulse consists of a sum of three
frequency-shifted sinc functions.

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158

Figure 3.48 (p. 252)

Spectrum of the raised-cosine pulse in dB, normalized by T0.

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159

Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT


The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by
20log10 {

X c' ( jf )
T0

From Fig. 3.48, we require 10000=2/T0 or T0 2 104 s


It implies a data transmission rate of 5000 bits/sec.
the use of the raise-cosine pulse shape increases the data
transmission rate by a factor of five relative to the rectangular
pulse shape in this application.

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Properties of Fourier representations

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161

Properties of Fourier representations

Periodic signals

have a series representation

Signal is represented as a weighted sum of complex sinusoids

These complex sinusoids has the same period as the signal

A discrete set of frequencies ( e jk 0 n , e jk0t ) is involved in the


series
Frequency domain representation involves a discrete set of
weights or coefficients (X[k])

Non-periodic signals

Signal is represented as a weighted integral of complex


sinusoids over a continuum of frequencies

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162

Properties of Fourier representations

Discrete-time signals have periodic frequency-domain


representation because the discrete-time complex
sinusoids are 2p periodic

Continuous-time signals have non-periodic frequencydomain representation because continuous-time


sinusoids with distinct frequencies are always distinct.

Representations that are discrete (continuous) in one


domain are periodic (non-periodic) in the other domain

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Properties of Fourier representations

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164

Linearity and symmetry properties

Linearity property:

Used to find Fourier representations of signals that are


constructed as sums of signals whose representations are
already known

In FS & DTFS, the signals are assumed to have the same


fundamental period

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165

Linearity and symmetry properties

Ex. 3.30 Linearity in the FS


3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2
Find the FS coefficient Z [k ]
z (t )

Prob. 3.16

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z(t)=(3/2)x(t)+(1/2)y(t)

Figure 3.49 (p. 255)

Representation of the periodic signal z(t) as


a weighted sum of periodic square waves:
z(t) = (3/2)x(t) + 1/2y(t).
(a) z(t). (b) x(t). (c) y(t).

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Linearity and symmetry properties


Sol.
z (t )

3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2

1
kp
sin( )
kp
4
1
kp
FS ;2p
y (t )
Y [k ]
sin( )
kp
2
3
1
3
kp
1
kp
FS ;2p
z (t )
Z [k ] X [k ] Y [k ]
sin( )
sin( )
2
2
2 kp
4
2 kp
2

FS ;2p
x(t )
X [k ]

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168

Prob. 3.16(b)
(b)

1
u[n], 1
,
j
1e
n

DTFT

1, W
1
DTFT
j
sin(Wn), 0 W p X (e )
pn
0, W p
1
pn
4
1
DTFT
4 u[n]
sin( )
1
pn
4
2
1 e j
2
n

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169

1,

0, p p
4

Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals


*

X ( j ) x(t )e dt x* (t )e jt dt (3.37)

Suppose x(t ) is real, then x(t ) x* (t )

jt

X ( j ) x(t )e j ( )t dt X ( j ) X ( j ) is complex-conjugate symmetric


*

Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}

X * ( j ) X ( j )

Im{X ( j )}= Im{X * ( j )}

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Re{X ( j )} real part is even

X * ( j ) X ( j )

170

Im{X ( j )} imaginary part is odd

Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

If x(t) is real valued, then

The real part of the transform is an even function


of frequency
The imaginary part of the transform is an odd
function of frequency
Magnitude spectrum is even
Phase spectrum is odd

In DTFS, the conjugate symmetry property is

X*[k]=X[N-k] because the DTFS coefficients are N


periodic and thus X[-k]=X[N-k]

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171

If x(t) is real valued, prove that

Magnitude spectrum is even


Phase spectrum is odd

Suppose x(t ) is real, then x(t ) x* (t ),

X ( j ) x(t )e j ( ) t dt X ( j )
*

X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} ;
X ( j ) X ( j ) e
*

j arg{ X ( j )} *

X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )}

X * ( j ) X ( j ),
X ( j ) X ( j ) magnitude spectrum is even
arg{ X ( j )} j arg{ X ( j )} phase spectrum is odd

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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

The complex-conjugate symmetry property in FT leads


to a simple characterization of the O/P of an LTI system
A j (t ) A j (t )
e
e
2
2
y (t ) H ( j )e jt , H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}

x(t ) A cos(t )
Eq. (3.2): x(t ) e jt

A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
y (t ) H ( j ) e
H ( j ) e
2
2
H ( j ) H ( j ) , arg{H ( j )} arg{H ( j )}
A j (t arg{ H ( j )}) j (t arg{ H ( j )})
(e
e
)
2
H ( j ) A cos(t arg{H ( j )})

y (t ) H ( j )

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Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

The system modifies the amplitude of the I/P sinusoid by


|H(j)| and phase by arg{H(j)}

the frequency response of a system with a real-valued impulse


response is easily measured using a sinusoid oscillator & an
oscillscope

Figure 3.50 (p. 257)

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A sinusoidal input to an LTI system results in a sinusoidal output of the same frequency,
with the amplitude and phase modified by the systems frequency response.

Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

Similarly, for discrete-time LTI system


x[n] A cos(n )

A j ( n ) A j ( n )
e
e
2
2

x[n] e jn y[n] H (e j )e jn , and H (e j ) H (e j ) e j arg{H ( e


A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
j
H (e ) e
y[n] H (e ) e
2
2
H (e j ) H (e j ) , arg{H (e j )} arg{H (e j )}
j

A j ( n arg{H ( e j )}) j ( n arg{ H ( e j )})


)
e
y[t ] H (e ) (e
2
H (e j ) A cos(n arg{H (e j )})
j

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)}

Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

Now, suppose that x(t) is purely imaginary


x* (t ) x(t )
From (3.37),
*

jt
*
jt

X ( j ) x(t )e dt x (t )e dt = x(t )e j ( ) t dt

= X ( j )
*

Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}= Re{X ( j )}


Im{X ( j )}= Im{X * ( j )}= Im{X ( j )}

Real part of FT is odd, imaginary part is even

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Symmetry properties: Even and odd signals

Suppose that x(t) is real & even

x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )

X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x* (t )e jt dt = x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Im{ X ( j )} 0

Suppose that x(t) is real & odd


x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )

X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Re{ X ( j )} 0

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Symmetry properties: Even and odd signals

Identical symmetry relationship hold for all four Fourier


representations.

Time signal is real and even,


the frequency-domain representation is real
Time signal is real and odd,
the frequency-domain representation is imaginary
Real and even time-domain signals have
real and even frequency-domain representation
Real and odd time-domain signals have
imaginary and odd frequency-domain representation

Prob. 3.17

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Prob. 3.17

Prob. 3.17 Determine the time-domain


signal correspond to the following
frequency domain representation are
real or complex valued and even or odd:
(a)

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Discussion

How to determine whether f(x) is real or complex?


A: real if f(x)=f*(x); imaginary if f(x)=-f*(x)
How to determine whether f(x) is even or odd?
A: even if f(x)=f(-x); odd if f(x)=-f(-x)

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Prob. 3.17(a)

: arg{X ( j)}

X ( j ) X ( j )
arg{ X ( j )} arg{ X ( j )}

X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X * ( j )
p
j ( )

2
, 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j ) e
X ( j )

p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0

p
j( )

2
X ( j ) e , 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j )

X ( j )
p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0

Prob. 3.17(a)

X * ( j) X ( j), X ( j) X ( j)

1
x (t )
2p
*

1
X ( j )e d 2p

1
v

2p
1
x(t )
2p

jt

1
j ( t )
X
(
j

)
e
d

2p

X ( j )e
*

1
jvt
X ( jv)e d (v)
2p

2p
v

jt

1
d
2p

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X ( jv)e jvt dv x(t ), x(t ) is real

j ( ) t
(

X
(

))
e
d

X ( jv)e jvt dv x(t ), x(t ) is odd

X ( j )e j ( )t d

Convolution property

The most important property of Fourier


representation is the convolution property.

With the convolution property, we may analyze the


I/P-O/P behavior of a linear system in the frequency
domain by multiplying transforms instead of
convolving time signals.

The convolution property is a consequence of


complex sinusoids being eigenfunctions of LTI
systems.

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Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Two nonperiodic continuous-time signals x(t) & h(t)

y (t ) h(t ) * x(t ) h( ) x(t )d , x(t )

1
2

X ( j )e j (t ) d

y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( ) X ( j )e j (t ) d d

1
j
X ( j )e jt d

h
(

)
e
d

2
1
jt

H
(
j

)
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
FT
y (t ) h(t ) * x(t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )

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Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Ex. 3.31 Solving a convolution problem in the


frequency domain
sin( t )
sin(2 t )
, h(t )
t
t
Find y (t ) h(t )* x(t )

Let x(t )

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Convolution of nonperiodic signals


Sol.
1, W
1
FT
From Ex. 3.26,
sin(Wt ) X ( j )
t
0, W
1,
sin( t ) FT
x (t )
X ( j )
,
t
0,
1, 2
sin(2 t )
FT
h (t )
, H ( j )
,
t
0, 2
FT
Since y (t ) h(t ) * x (t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )

1,
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )
X ( j ),
0,
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y (t ) x (t )

sin( t )
t

Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Ex. 3.32 Finding inverse FTs by means of the


convolution property

Use the convolution property to find x(t), where

x(t ) X ( j )

FT

Prob. 3.18, 3.19, 3.20

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2
sin
( )
2

Convolution of nonperiodic signals


Sol.
We may write X ( j ) as the product Z ( j ) Z ( j ), where Z ( j )
The convolution property states that
FT
z (t ) * z (t )
Z ( j ) Z ( j ), so x(t ) z (t ) * z (t )

Using the result of Ex. 3.25, we have


t 2, 2 t 0
1, t 1 FT

z (t )
Z ( j ), x(t ) z (t ) * z (t ) 2 t , 0 t 2
0, t 1
0, otherwise

Figure 3.52 (p. 261)


Signals for Example 3.32. (a)
Rectangular pulse z(t). (b) Convolution
of z(t) with itself gives x(t).

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sin( )

Prob. 3.18(a)

(a)

1
e u (t )
,
j a
at

FT

3
2
y (t ) x(t ) * h(t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ) H ( j )
j 1 j 2
FT

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Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Two nonperiodic discrete-time signals x & h


DTFT
DTFT
x[n]
X (e j ), h[n]
H (e j ),
DTFT
y[n] h[n]* x[n]
Y (e j ) H (e j ) X (e j )

Proof of this result is left as an exercise

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Filtering

The multiplication that occurs in the frequencydomain representation give rise to the notation of
filtering
A system performs filtering on the I/P signal by
presenting a different response to components of the
I/P that are at different frequencies.
Filtering implies that some frequency components of
the I/P are eliminated while others are passed by the
system unchanged.

Low-pass, high-pass, band-pass


Passband, stopband, transition band

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Filtering
Figure 3.53 (p. 263)
Frequency response of ideal continuous- (left panel)
and discrete-time (right panel) filters. (a) Low-pass
characteristic. (b) High-pass characteristic. (c) Bandpass characteristic.

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Filtering

The magnitude response of a filter is commonly


described in units of decibels (dB), defined as

20 log|H(j)| or 20 log|H(ej)|

Unit gain corresponds to 0 dB

The edge of the passband is usually defined by the


frequencies for which the response is -3dB,
corresponding to a magnitude response of ( 1/ 2 )

|Y(j)|2= |H(j)|2 |X(j)|2


The -3dB points are usually termed the cutoff frequencies of
the filter

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Filtering

Ex. 3.33 RC circuit: Filtering

From Ex. 1.21


1 t /( RC )
hC (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Since yR (t ) x(t ) yC (t ),
Figure 3.54 (p. 264)

RC
xt
y
y t
1 t /( RC )
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Plot the magnitude responses of both systems on a linear scale and in dB
and characterize the filtering properties of the systems.
circuit with input ( ) and outputs

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c(t)

and

R(

).

Filtering
Sol.
1 t /( RC )
1
FT
e
u (t )
H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1
1 t /( RC )
j RC
FT
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t ) H R ( j ) 1 H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1

hC (t )

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Figure 3.55 a&c (p. 265)

RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.


(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.

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Figure 3.55 b&d (p. 265)

RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.


(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.

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Filtering

The convolution property implies that the frequency


response of a system may be expressed as the ratio
of the FT or DTFT of the O/P to that of the I/P.
Y ( j )
For continuous-time system: H ( j )
X ( j )
j
Y
(
e
)
j
For discrete-time system: H (e )
X (e j )

If the I/P spectrum is nonzero at all frequencies, the


frequencies of a system may be determined from knowledge
of the I/P and O/P spectra.

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Filtering

Ex. 3.34 Identifying a system, given its I/P and O/P

Given x(t ) e2t u (t ), y (t ) e t u (t ).


Find the frequency response and the impulse response
of this syetm.

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Filtering
Sol.
1
x(t ) e u (t ) X ( j )
j 2
1
FT
t
y (t ) e u (t ) Y ( j )
j 1
Y ( j ) j 2
1
H ( j )

1
X ( j ) j 1
j 1
2 t

FT

h(t ) (t ) e t u (t )

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Filtering

We can recover the I/P of the system from O/P as

For continuous-time system: X ( j ) H inv ( j )Y ( j )


For discrete-time system: X (e j ) H inv (e j )Y (e j )

An inverse system is also known as an equalizer


The process of recovering the I/P form O/P is know as
equalization

In practice, causality restriction makes it difficult to


build an inverse system.

Approximated inverse is used.

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Filtering

Ex. 3.35 Multipath communication channel:


Equalization
Given y[n] x[n] ax[n 1], a 1.
Use the convolution property to find the impulse response
of an inverse syetm.

Prob. 3.21

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Filtering
Sol.
1, n 0

In Ex. 2.13, y[n] h[ n]* x[ n], where h[ n] a, n 1


0, otherwise

hinv [n]* h[n] [n], take the DTFT of both side,


H inv (e j ) H (e j ) 1 H inv (e j )

1
H (e j )

DTFT
h[n] [n] a [n 1]
H (e j ) 1 ae j

H inv (e j )

1
1

H (e j ) 1 ae j

hinv [n] (a ) n u[n]


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(Ref. p.774, Appendix C.3)

Prob. 3.21(a)

Find x(t) if

(a)

FT
e at u (t )

1
,
j a

1
1
1
H ( j )
, Y ( j )

j 4
j 3 j 4
1
1

Y ( j )
1
j 3 j 4 j 4
X ( j )

1
1
H ( j )
j 3
j 3
j 4
x(t ) e 3t u (t )
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Convolution of periodic signals

For reference only

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Differentiation and integration properties

Differentiation and integration are operators


that applies to continuous functions

Continuous-time signals: x(t)


Continuous-frequency: FT X(jw) and DTFT X(ejW)

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207

Differentiation in time

Consider a nonperiodic signal x(t)


1
jwt
x(t )
X
(
j
w
)
e
dw

2
d
d 1
1
jwt
x(t ) X ( jw )e d w
dt
dt 2
2
d
FT
x(t )
jw X ( jw )
dt

[ X ( jw ) jw ]e jwt d w

Differentiation a signal in the time domain corresponds to


multiplying its FT by jw
Differentiation accentuates the high-frequency components
of the signal
Differentiation destroys an DC component of x(t)

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208

Differentiation in time

Ex. 3.37 Verifying the differentiation property

d at
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
dt
a jw

Prob. 3.22,3.23

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209

Differentiation in time
Sol.
d at
(e u (t )) ae at u (t ) e at (t ) ae at u (t ) (t )
dt
d at
a
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
1
dt
a jw
a jw

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210

Prob. 3.22(a)

Find FT if
(a)

1
d
FT
e u (t )
, x(t )
jw X ( jw )
a jw dt
at

z (t ) e

2 t

FT

e 2t u (t ) e 2( t )u (t )

1
1
4
Z ( jw )

Appendix C.4
2
2 jw 2 jw 4 w
d
4 jw
FT
x(t ) z (t ) X ( jw ) jw Z ( jw )
dt
4 w2

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211

Differentiation in time

The differentiation property may be used to find the


frequency response of a continuous-time system
described by the differential equation
M
N
M
dk
dk
k
k
a
y
(
t
)

b
x
(
t
)

a
(
j
w
)
Y
(
j
w
)

b
(
j
w
)
X ( jw )

k
k
k
k
k
k
dt
dt
k 0
k 0
k 0
k 0
N

Y ( jw )
H ( jw )

X ( jw )

k
b
(
j
w
)
k
k 0
N

k
a
(
j
w
)
k
k 0

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212

Differentiation in time

The frequency response of a system described by a


linear constant-coefficient differential equation is a
ratio of two polynomials in the jw
The frequency response is the systems steady-state
response to a sinusoid.

It cannot represent initial conditions


It can only describe a system that is in a steady-state
condition

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213

Differentiation in time

Consider a periodic signal x(t)


x(t )

X [k ]e

jkw0t

d
d
jkw0t
jkw0t
x(t ) X [k ]e

X
[
k
]
jk
w
e

dt
dt k
k
d
FS ;w0
x(t )
jkw0 X [k ]
dt

Differentiation forces the time-averaged value of


the differentiated signal to be zero; hence, the FS
coefficient for k=0 is zero

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214

Differentiation in time

Ex. 3.39 Find the FS representation of the


triangular wave depicted in Fig. 3.59(a)

Figure 3.59 (p. 274)

Signals for Example 3.39. (a) Triangular wave y(t).


(b) The derivative of y(t) is the square wave z(t).

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215

Differentiation in time
Sol.
T 1
d
y (t ), as shown in Fig. 3.59(b). z (t ) 4 x (t ) 2, x(t ) could be obtained from Ex. 3.13 with 0 =
dt
T 4
(p. 221)
0, k 0

FS
z (t ) 4 x(t ) 2
Z [k ] 4 X [k ] 2 [ k ] 4sin( k )
2 ,k 0

k
d
Z [k ]
FS ;w0
z (t ) y (t )
Z [k ] jkw0Y [k ] Y [k ]
,k 0
dt
jkw0

Define z (t )

Y [0] is the average value of y (t ) and is determined by inspection of Fig. 3.59(a). Y [0]
T
2 ,k 0
2
Z [k ]
Z [k ]
Z [k ]

w0
Y [k ]

T Y [k ]
k
2
T
sin(
)
T
jkw0 jk 2
j 2 k

2 ,k 0
T

2 2
jk

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216

T
2

Differentiation in frequency

Consider the FT X(jw)

X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt

d
d
jwt
jwt

X ( jw )
x
(
t
)
e
dt

x
(
t
)(

jt
)
e
dt

dw
dw
d
FT
jtx(t )
X ( jw )
dw

Differentiation of a FT in the frequency domain


corresponds to multiplication of the signal by jt in
the time domain

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217

Differentiation in Frequency

Ex. 3.40 FT of a Gaussian pulse


Determine the FT of the Gaussian pulse, defined by
g (t )

1
e
2

t2
2

, as depicted in Fig. 3.60

Prob. 3.25,3.26,3.27,3.28

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218

Figure 3.60 (p. 275)


Gaussian pulse g(t).

Differentiation in Frequency
d
d 1 t2
t t2
Sol.
g (t )
e
e tg (t )
(1)
dt
dt 2
2

d
FT
FT
g (t )
jwG ( jw ) tg (t )
jwG ( jw )
dt
d
1 d
FT
FT
jtg (t )
G ( jw ) tg (t )
G ( jw )
dw
j dw
1 d
d
jwG ( jw )
G ( jw ) wG ( jw )
G ( jw )
(2)
j dw
dw
2

(2) is equivalent to (1), G ( jw ) ce


c G ( j 0),

w2
2

, c is determined by (see Appendix A-4)

t2
2

1
1
e dt 1 c 1,
e
2
2

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219

t2
2

FT

w2
2

Differentiation in Frequency

Consider the DTFT X(ejW)


jW

X (e )

x[n]e jWn

d
d

j Wn
j Wn
X (e j W )
x
[
n
]
e

x
[
n
](

jn
)
e


dW
d W n
n
d
DTFT
jnx[n]
X (e j W )
dW

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220

x(t ) te at u (t ) tz (t ), z (t ) e at u (t )
d
d
FT
FT
jtz (t )
Z ( jw ), tz (t ) j
Z ( jw )
dw
dw
1
d 1
FT
Z ( jw )
, X ( jw ) j

jw a
dw jw a
j

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221

1 j

jw a )

jw a )

d
d
3t
2 t
y (t ) {te u (t ) * e u (t )} {x(t ) * z (t )}
dt
dt
1
FT
3t
x(t ) te u (t ) X ( jw )
2
jw 3)
1
z (t ) e u (t ) Z ( jw )
jw 2
2 t

FT

Y ( jw ) jw ( X ( jw ) Z ( jw )}

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222

jw

jw 3) jw 2
2

Integration

Integration applies only to continuous dependent


variables.

Time: FT and FS
Frequency: FT and DTFT

We limit our consideration here to integrating


nonperiodic signals with respect to time

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223

Integration
d
1
Let y (t ) x( )d x(t ) y (t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ), 0

dt
j
The value at 0 is modified by adding a term c ( ), where c depends on
the average value of x(t ). Th correct result is obtained by setting c X ( j 0)
t
1
FT
x( )d j X ( j ) X ( j 0) ( )
t

Integration

Integration may be viewed as an averaging operation,


It tends to smooth signals in time
Deemphasizing the high-frequency components of the signal

Prob. 3.29

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224

1
z ( )d j Z ( j ) Z ( j0) ( )
1
1
1
X ( j )
( ), Z ( j )
, Z ( j 0) 1
j j 1
j 1
t

FT

x(t ) z ( )d e u ( )d e d

1 e t , if t 0

1 et u (t )
0, otherwise

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225

FT of the unit step


t

u (t ) ( )d ,

FT
(t )
1
FT
u (t )
U ( j )

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1
( )
j

226

Figure 3.61 (p. 279)


Representation of a step function as the
sum of a constant and a signum function.

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FT of the unit step


1, t 0
1 1

u (t ) sgn(t ), where sgn(t ) 0, t 0


2 2
1, t 0

1 FT
1
FT
( ), let sgn(t )
S ( j ) U ( j ) ( ) S ( j )
2
2
d
FT
sgn(t ) 2 (t ) j S ( j ) 2 ( (t )
1);
dt
2
, 0
S ( j 0) 0 because sgn(t) is odd S ( j ) j
0, 0

2
, with the understanding that S ( j 0) 0
j
1
1
U ( j ) ( ) S ( j ) ( )
2
j
It is common to write S ( j )

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Integration

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229

Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Time-shift property
Let z (t ) x(t t0 ), find the FT of z (t )

Z ( j ) z (t )e

jt0

jt

dt x(t t0 )e

jt

dt x( )e j ( t0 ) d

x( )e j d e jt0 X ( j )

Z ( j ) X ( j ) , arg{Z ( j )} arg{ X ( j )} t0

Time-shifting the signal x(t) by t0 is to multiply the FT X(j) by

e jt0

A shift in time introduce the phase shift

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Time- and Frequency-shift properties

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231

Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Ex. 3.41 Finding an FT using the time-shift


property
Use the FT of the rectangular pulse x(t) depicted in
Fig. 3.62(a) to determine the FT of the time-shifted
rectangular pulse z(t) depicted in Fig. 3.62(b)

Figure 3.62 (p. 281)


Application of the time-shift
property for Example 3.41.

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232

Time- and Frequency-shift properties


Sol.
z (t ) x(t T1 ),
Z ( j ) e

jT1

X ( j ) e

jT1

sin(T0 )

Prob. 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33


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233

Prob. 3.31(a)

x(t ) e 2t u (t 3)
Let y (t ) x(t 3) e
Y ( j ) e

2( t 3)

6 2 t

u (t ) e e u (t )

1
j 2

x(t ) y (t 3), X ( j ) e

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j 3

Y ( j ) e

234

j 3 6

1
j 2

Time- and Frequency-shift properties

The time-shifting property may be used to find the


frequency response of a system described by the
difference equation
N

a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0

k 0

z[n k ] e
DTFT

jk

Z (e ) a k (e
j

k 0

H (e j )

Y (e )

j
X (e )

b (e
k 0
N

a (e
k 0

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j k

j k

235

) Y (e ) bk (e j ) k X (e j )

j k

k 0

j 2

1 2e
H (e )
j
j 3
3 2e 3e
a0 3, a1 2, a3 3, b0 1, b2 2
j

a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0

k 0

3 y[n] 2 y[n 1] 3 y[n 3] x[n] 2 x[n 2]

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236

Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Frequency-shift property
FT
x(t )
X ( j )

The problem is to express the inverse FT of Z ( j ) X ( j ( ))


1
1
jt
jt
z (t )
Z
(
j

)
e
d

X
(
j
(

))
e
d

2
2

1
j ( ) t
j t 1
j t
j t

X
(
j

)
e
d

e
X
(
j

)
e
d

e
x(t )
2
2

A frequency shift corresponds to multiplication in


the time domain by a complex sinusoid whose
frequency is equal to the shift

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Time- and Frequency-shift properties

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Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Ex. 3.42 Finding an FT using the frequencyshift property


Determine the FT of z(t), where
j10 t

e
, t

z (t )

0, t

Prob. 3.34

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239

Time- and Frequency-shift properties


Sol.
1, t
x(t )
0, t
FT
x(t )
X ( j )

sin( )

FT
z (t ) e j10t x(t )
X ( j ( 10))
FT
z (t )
X ( j ( 10))

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2
sin(( 10) )
10

240

Prob. 3.34(a)

Z (e )

1 e

j ( /4)

, 1,

1
x[n ] u[n ] X ( e )
j
1 e
DTFT
j n
j ( )
e x[n ] X (e
)
n

Z (e ) X (e
z[ n ] e

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n
4

DTFT

j ( /4)

),

x[n ] e

n
4

nu[n ]

241

Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Ex. 3.43 Using multiple properties to find an


FT
Determine the FT of x(t), where
d
x(t ) {(e3t u (t ))*(et u (t 2))}
dt

Prob. 3.35

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242

Time- and Frequency-shift properties


Sol.
d
d
{(e 3t u (t )) *(e t u (t 2))} {w(t ) * v(t )}
dt
dt
Applying the convolution and differentiation properties from Table 3.5,
x(t )

X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )}
1
1
FT
3t
e u (t )
w(t ) e u (t ) W ( j )
a j
3 j
at

( t 2)

FT

u (t 2) e
FT

j 2

v(t ) e u (t 2) e {e

1
e j 2
1
FT
t

(i.e. e u (t )
)
1 j 1 j
1 j

( t 2)

e j 2
u (t 2)} e
1 j
FT

j e j 2
X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )} e
(3 j )(1 j )
2

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243

Finding the inverse Fourier transforms by


using partial-fraction expansions

The frequency response of a system described by a


linear constant-coefficient differential/difference
equation is given by a ratio of two polynomials in
j/ej.
The partial-fraction expansion can be used to find the
inverse transforms for ratios of polynomials.

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Inverse Fourier Transform


Suppose X ( j ) is expressed as a ratio of ploynomials in j
bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B( j )
X ( j )

N
N 1
( j ) aN 1 ( j ) a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Assume that M N , If M N , we may express X ( j ) as
X ( j )

M N

k 0

f k ( j ) k

B( j )
A( j )

FT
(t )
1 and the differentiation property can be used to
M N

find the inverse FT of

k 0

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f k ( j ) k

245

Inverse Fourier Transform


bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B ( j )

X ( j )
( j ) N aN 1 ( j ) N 1 a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Let the roots of A( j ) be d k 1, 2,

, N . These roots are found

by determining the roots of v N aN 1v N 1

a1v a0 0.

X ( j )

b ( j )
k

k 1
N

( j d
k 1

FT
e dt u (t )

k
assuming d k are different N

k 1

Ck
j d k

1
, for d 0
j d
N

x(t ) Ck e u (t ) X ( j )
dk t

k 1

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FT

k 1

Ck
j d k

246

Prob. 3.36

j
1
2
(a) X ( j )

2
( j ) 3 j 2 j 1 j 2
N

x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) e t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t )
k 1

5 j 12
2
3
(b) X ( j )

2
( j ) 5 j 6 j 2 j 3
N

x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t ) 3e 3t u (t )
k 1

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247

Multiplication property

Multiplication property
defines the Fourier representation of a product of timedomain signals y(t)=x(t)z(t), x(t) & z(t) are nonperiodic

1
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
2

1
(2 ) 2

1
X
(
j

)
e
d

j t

X ( j ) Z ( j )e

j ( ) t

Z ( j )e jt d

1
d d
2

1
2

jt
X
(
j

)
Z
(
j
(

)
d

e d

1
1
jt
jt
X
(
j

)
*
Z
(
j

)
e
d

Y
(
j

)
e
d
2

2
1
FT
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
Y ( j )
X ( j ) * Z ( j )
2
1

Multiplication in time domain corresponds to convolution


their FT in frequency domain and multiply by 1/(2)

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Multiplication property

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249

Multiplication property

The multiplication property enables us to study the effect of


truncating a time-domain signal on its frequency-domain
representation.

The process of truncating a signal is also known as windowing

1
y (t ) x(t ) w(t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ) *W ( j ),
2
where
FT

1, t T0 FT
2
w(t )
W ( j ) sin(T0 )

0, t T0

Prob. 3.39, 3.40(b)

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Figure 3.65a (p. 293)

(b) Convolution of the signal and window FTs resulting


from truncation in time.

The effect of windowing.


(a) Truncating a signal in time by using a window function w(t).

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Prob. 3.39

x(t )

4
2
2
sin
(2
t
)

z
(t )
2 2
t

2, 2
2
FT
z (t ) sin(2t ) Z ( j )
t
0, otherwise
X ( j )

1
Z ( j ) * Z ( j )
2

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1
2

252

Prob. 3.40(b)

FT
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t )
X ( j ) Y ( j ) * Z ( j )

1, t 1 FT 2sin( )
1, t 2 FT 2sin(2 )
w(t )

, w(t / 2)

0, t 1
0, t 2
FT
w(t t0 )
e jt0W ( j )
2sin( 2)
F 1
Let Y ( j )
, y (t ) e j 2 t [u(t 1) u(t 1)]
2
e j 2 sin(2 )
Let Z( j )

1
[ u ( t 2) u ( t 2)],t t 2
1
t

2
1
F
2
z (t ) w(
)
[u(t ) u(t 4)]
2
2
2
1

j 2t
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t ) 2 e [u(t 1) u(t 1)] [u(t ) u(t 4)]
2

e j 2 t [u(t ) u(t 1)]


1

253

Scaling property
z (t ) x(at )
Z ( j )

z (t )e

jt

dt

x(at )e jt dt

j
1
x( )e a d , a 0

at a
1

1 x( )e j a d , a 0 a
a

FT
Z ( j )
z (t ) x(at )

x( )e

j
a

j
1
X( )
a
a

Scaling in time-domain introduces inverse scaling in


frequency-domain and an amplitude change

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Figure 3.70 (p. 300)

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The FT scaling property. The


figure assumes that 0 < a < 1.

255

Scaling property

Ex. 3.48 Scaling a rectangular pulse

1, t 1
1, t 2
Use the FT of x(t )
to find the FT of y(t )
.

0, t 1
0, t 2

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256

Scaling property
Sol.
1, t 1
2
FT
x(t )
, x(t ) X ( j ) sin( )

0, t 1
2
2
FT
y (t ) x(t / 2)
Y ( j ) 2 X ( j 2 ) 2
sin(2 ) sin(2 )
2

Figure 3.71 (p. 301)


Application of the FT scaling property in
Example 3.48. (a) Original time signal. (b)
Original FT. (c) Scaled time signal y(t) =
x(t/2). (d) Scaled FT Y(j) = 2X(j2).

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257

Scaling property

Ex. 3.49 Using multiple properties to find an


inverse FT
d
e j 2
Find x(t ) if X ( j ) j
{
}
d 1 j ( )
3

Prob. 3.41, 3.42

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258

Scaling property
Sol.
1
s (t ) e u (t ) S ( j )
1 j
t

FT

d
e j 2
d
1
d
j
X ( j ) j
{
} j
{e j 2
} j
{e j 2 S ( )}

d 1 j ( )
d
d
3
1 j( )
3
3
j
Let Y ( j ) S ( ) y (t ) 3s(3t ) 3e 3t u (3t ) 3e 3t u (t )
3
j
j 2
Define W ( j ) e S ( ) e j 2Y ( j ) w(t ) y (t 2) 3e 3(t 2)u (t 2)
3
d
Since X ( j ) j
W ( j ) x(t ) tw(t ) 3te 3( t 2)u (t 2)
d
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259

Scaling property
Consider the periodic signal x(t ) with fundamental period T ,
then z (t ) x(at ) is also periodic with fundamental period T / a.
For convenience, assume a 0.
Z [k ]

T
a

T
a

a
a
jka0t
jka0t
dt
e
)
at
(
x

dt
e
)
t
(
z

T 0
T 0

FS ;a0
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0
z (t ) x(at )

The FS coefficients of x(t ) and z (t ) are identical.


Scaling operation changes the harmonic spacing from 0 to a0 .
The scaling of discrete-time signals is further addressed in Prob. 3.80
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FT
x(t )
X ( j ) e j e

1
z (t ) x(at ) Z ( j ) X ( j / a)
a
FT

y (t ) x(2t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ( )), a 2
2
2
FT

1
Y ( j ) e
2

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j ( )
2

1 j 2
e
e
2
2

261

FS ;

x(t )
X [k ] e

jk / 2

ke

2 k

, 0

FS ;a0
z (t ) x(at )
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0

y (t ) x(3t ), Y [k ] X [k ] e

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jk / 2

262

ke

2 k

, 0 3

Parseval relationships

The Parsavel relationships state that the energy or


power in the time-domain representation of a signal is
equal to the energy or power in the frequency-domain
representation.
Energy and power are conserved in the Fourier
representation

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263

Parseval relationships
The energy in a continuous-time nonperiodic signal is

1
*
*
jt
Wx x(t ) dt x(t ) x (t )dt x(t )
X ( j )e d dt

1
1
*
jt
*

X
(
j

)
x
(
t
)
e
dt
d

X
( j ) X ( j )d

2
2

X ( j ) d
2

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Parseval relationships

The energy in time-domain representation of the


signal is equal to the energy in the frequency-domain
representation, normalized by 2
|X(j)|2 is the energy spectrum of the signal.

The power or energy spectrum of a signal is defined as the


square of the magnitude spectrum.

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Parseval relationships

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Parseval relationships

Ex. 3.50 Calculating the energy in a signal


sin(Wn)
,
n
use the Parseval's theorem to evaluate

Let x[n]

n=-

sin 2 (Wn)
x[n]
2 n2
n=-
2

Prob. 3.43

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267

Parseval relationships
Sol.
1, W
sin(Wn) DTFT
j
x[n]
X (e )
n
0, W

= x[n]
n=-

1
2

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X (e j ) d

1
2

268

1d

Prob. 3.43(a)

1
d
2
2
j 2

4
j 2

1
2

d
2

X ( j ) d
2

2
X ( j )
x(t ) 2 e 2t u (t )
j 2
1
1
2

X ( j ) d

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x 2 (t )dt 2 e 2t dt 4 e 4t dt
0

269

Time-bandwidth product

Compressing a signal in time leads to expansion in


the frequency domain and vice versa
The bandwidth of a signal is the extent of the signals
significant frequency component.

Low pass & mainlobe is centered on the origin

Band pass & mainlobe is centered on wc

the width of the mainlobe/2


the width of the mainlobe

Root-mean-square measures of the effective duration and


bandwidth

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Time-bandwidth product

Figure 3.72 (p. 305)


Rectangular pulse illustrating the
inverse relationship between the time
and frequency extent of a signal.

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Time-bandwidth product
Assume x(t ) is centered about the origion and is low pass.
The effective duration is defined by
1
2

t 2 x(t ) 2 dt

Td
2

x
(
t
)
dt

and the effective bandwidth is defined by

w 2 X ( jw ) 2 d w

Bw
2

X
(
j
w
)
d
w

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1
2

272

Time-bandwidth product
It can be shown that the time-bandwidth product for any signal is
lower bounded according to the relationship
1
Td Bw
(3.65)
2
This bound indicates that we cannot simultaneously decrease the
duration and bandwidth of a signal.
Eq. (3.65) is also known as the uncertainty principle after its application
to modern physics, which exact position and exact momentum of an
electron cannot be determined simultaneously.
Gaussian pulses are the only signals that satisfy this relationship with
equality.
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Time-bandwidth product

Ex. 3.51 Bounding the bandwidth of a rectangular


pulse

1, t T0
x(t )
, find a lower bound of Bw

0, t T0

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Time-bandwidth product
Sol.
1, t T0
x(t )
,
0, t T0
t 2 x(t ) dt

Td
2

x
(
t
)
dt

1
2

1
2

T0
2
t
dt

T
1
1
T

3
0
T00
t

3
2T0 3 T0
dt
T0

T0

1
1
3
Td Bw Bw

2
2Td 2T0

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Duality

Figure 3.73 (p. 307)


Duality of rectangular pulses and sinc functions.

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Duality

We observed

Consistent symmetry between the time- and frequencydomain representation of signals


Symmetries in Fourier representation properties

Convolution in one domain corresponds to multiplication in the


other domain
Differentiation in in one domain corresponds to multiplication by
the independent variable in the other domain
Etc.

The symmetries are a consequence of the symmetry


in the definition of time- and frequency-domain
representation.
We can interchange time and frequency. The
interchangeability property is termed duality

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Duality

The duality property of the FT


1

jwt
dw
e
)
w
j
(
X

)
t
(
x

2
(3.66)
d
e
)

(
z

(
y
let
,

2
X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt

1
FT
(3.67)
z (w )
z (w )e jwt dt y (t )
If t , w , y (t )

2
1
FT
jwt
2 y (w ) (3.68)

)
t
(
z

dt
e
)
t
(
z
If w , t , y (w )

2
(3.67) & (3.68) imply symmetry between time and frequency.
FT
F ( jw ),
Given the FT pair: f (t )
FT
2 f (w )
we can have the new FT pair: F ( jt )

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Duality

Figure 3.74 (p. 309)

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The FT duality property.

279

Duality

Ex. 3.52 Applying duality


Find the FT of x(t )

1
1 jt

Prob. 3.44, 3.45,

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280

Duality
Sol.
1
FT
f (t ) e u (t ) F ( jw )
& F ( jt )
2 f ( w )
1 jw
1
FT
F ( jt )

2 f (w ) 2 ew u ( w )
1 jt
t

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FT

281

Duality

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Duality

Ex. 3.53 FS-DTFT duality


Determine the inverse DTFT of Fig. 3.75(a)

Figure 3.75 (p. 311)


Example 3.53. (a) Triangular
spectrum. (b) Inverse DTFT.

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Duality
Sol.
DTFT
FS
Duality property of FS-DTFT: x[n]
X (e j ), X (e jt )
x[k ]
FS
Let z (t ) X (e jt ), if z (t )
Z [k ] then x[n] Z [-n]

z (t ) is a time-shifted version of the triangular wave y (t ) in Ex. 3.39 (p. 274)

Assuming T 2 , specifically, z (t ) y (t ).Using the time-sift property, we have


2
, k 0

jk / 2
Z [k ] e
Y [k ] = 4 j k -1 sin( k )
2 ,k 0

k
, n 0

x[n] Z [n] 4 j ( n 1) sin( n ) 4( j ) n 1 sin( n )


2
2 ,k 0

( n) 2
n2

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X ( jw ) u (w )
FT
x(t )
X ( jw )

1
F ( jt ) u (t ) f (w )
(w ) 2 x(w )
jw
1 1
1
j
x(t )
(t )
(t )
(t )
2 j (t )
2 jt
2 t
FT

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Exploring concepts with MATLAB

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Summary

We develop techniques for representing signals as


weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
The weights are a function of the complex sinusoidal
frequencies and provide a frequency-domain
description of the signal.
Four representations

DTFS, FS, DTFT, FT

Fourier representation properties relate the effect of


an action on a signal in the time-domain to a
corresponding change in the frequency-domain
representation

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