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# Fourier Representations of Signals and

## Linear Time-Invariant Systems

Chapter 3

Outline

Introduction
Complex sinusoids and frequency response of LTI
systems
Fourier representations for four classes of signals
Discrete-time periodic signals: Discrete-time Fourier
series
Continuous-time periodic signals: Fourier series
Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: Discrete-time
Fourier transform
Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: Fourier transform
Properties of Fourier representation
Linearity and symmetric properties
Convolution property

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Outline

## Differentiation and Integration properties

Time- and Frequency-shift properties
Finding inverse Fourier transforms by using partialfraction expansions
Multiplication property
Scaling property
Parseval relationships
Time-bandwidth product
Duality
Exploring Concepts with MATLAB
Summary

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Introduction

## Represents signals in terms of complex

sinusoids, we can

## Obtain an alternative expression for the I/P-O/P

behavior of an LTI system

## Represents an I/P signal as a weighted superposition of

complex sinusoids
The O/P of an LTI system is a weighted superposition of
the system response to each complex sinusoids

and systems

## The weight associated with a sinusoid of a given

frequency represents the contribution of that sinusoid to
the overall signal

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Introduction

Fourier analysis

representations

## Discrete-time Fourier series (DTFS)

Fourier series (FS)
Discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT)
Fourier transform (FT)

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems

## Response of an LTI system to a sinusoidal I/P

The representation is obtained by using
convolution and a complex sinusoidal I/P signal

## Figure 3.1 (p. 196)

The output of a complex sinusoidal
input to an LTI system is a complex
sinusoid of the same frequency as
the input, multiplied by the
frequency response of the system.

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
Consider a discrete-time LTI system with impulse response h[n]
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x[n] e jn , the O/P is
y[n]

h[k ]x[n k ]

h[k ]e j ( n k ) e jn

k
j

where H (e )

h[k ]e jk H (e j )e jn

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
Consider a continuous-time LTI system with impulse response h(t )
and unit amplitude complex sinusoidal I/P x(t ) e jt , the O/P is

y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( )e

j ( t )

d e

jt

h( )e j d

H ( j )e jt
where H ( j )

h( )e j d is the frequency-response of a

continuous-time system.
H ( j ) is a function of frequency but not a function of time t
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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
Polar form:
b
c a jb c c e
, where c a b , arg{c} arctan{ }
a
H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )} , where
j arg{c}

H ( j ) : magnitude response
arg{H ( j )}: phase response
y (t ) H ( j )e jt H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}e jt H ( j ) e j (t arg{ H ( j )})
the system modifies the amplitude of the I/P by H ( j )
and the phase by arg{H ( j )}
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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
Ex. 3.1 RC circuit: Frequency response

t
RC

1
I/P: x(t ), O/P: y (t ), Impulse response: h(t )
e u (t )
RC
Find an expression for the frequency response and plot the
magnitude and phase response

## Figure 3.2 (p. 197)

RC circuit for Example 3.1.

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems

)
( j
1
1
j
j
RC
RC
Sol. H ( j ) h( )e d [
e u ( )]e d
e
d

RC
0
RC
1
( j
)
1
1
1
1
1

RC

e
|0
(0 1)
1
1
RC ( j
RC ( j
( j RC 1)
)
)
RC
RC
1 j RC

( RC ) 2 1

1
RC
1
2
2
H ( j ) (
) (
)
,
2
2
2
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
( RC ) 1
arg{H ( j )} arctan{ RC}
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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems

## Figure 3.3 (p. 198)

Frequency response of the RC circuit in Fig. 3.2. (a) Magnitude response. (b) Phase response.

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
If ek is an eigenvector of a matrix A with eigenvalue k , then Aek k e k
We say that the complex sinusoid (t ) e jt is an eigenfunction of the
LTI system H associated with the eigenvalue H ( j ),
because satisfies H {e jt } H ( j )e jt H { (t )} (t )
i.e. H { .} and H ( . ) are different!!
H

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[ n]

h[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

## x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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(t )

h(t )

x(t ) x(t ) * (t )

x( ) (t )d

y (t )

## x( )h(t )d x(t )* h(t )

e jt

H ( j )e jt

x(t ) ak e jk t

y (t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k

## Q: What is the value of k , ak , and the range of k ?

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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems
Consider expressing the I/P to an LTI system as the weighted sum of
M

k 1

## If e jk t is an eigenfunction of the system with eigenvalue of H ( jk ),

then each term in the I/P,ak e jk t , produces an O/P term ak H ( jk )e jk t
Hence, we can express the O/P of the system as
M

y(t ) ak H ( jk )e jk t
k 1

## the operation of convolution, h(t ) * x(t ), becomes multiplication,

ak H ( jk ), because is expressed x(t ) as a sum of eigenfunctions
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## Complex sinusoids and frequency

response of LTI systems

## This property is a powerful motivation for

representing signals as weighted superposition of
complex sinusoids
Rather than describing the signals behavior as a
function of time, the weights describe it as a function
of frequency

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signals

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[ n]

h[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

## x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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of signals

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representations

## Consider representing a periodic signal as a

weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
Since the weighted superposition must have the
same period as the signal, each sinusoid in the
superposition must have the same period as the
signal
It implies that the frequency of each sinusoid must be
an integer multiple of the signals fundamental
frequency
0=2p/N, N=2p/0
0k0
NN/k

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## Periodic signals: Fourier series

representations
A sinusoid whose frequency is an integer multiple of a
fundamental frequency is said to be a harmonic of the
sinusoid at the fundamental frequency.
Thus, e jk0t is the k -th harmonic of e j0t .

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## Periodic signals: Fourier series

representations
If is x[n] a discrete-time signal with fundamental period N , then
we seek to represent x[n] by the DTFS,
x[ n] A[ k ]e jk 0 n ,

(3.4)

where
2p
0
is the fundamental frequency of x[n];
N
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k -th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. DTFS is not assumed to be existed yet)
The frequency of the k -th sinusoid in the superposition is k 0 .
Each of these sinusoids has a common period N .
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## Periodic signals: Fourier series

representations
If is x(t ) a continuous-time signal with fundamental period T , we seek to
represents x(t ) by the FS,
x (t ) A[ k ]e jk0t ,

(3.5)

2p
is the fundamental frequency of x(t )
T
A[k ] is the weight applied to the k -th harmonic;
() denotes approximate value. (i.e. FS is not assumed to be existed yet)
where 0

## The frequency of the k -th sinusoid in the superposition is k0 .

Each of these sinusoids has a common period T
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## f[n]= ejk0n(i.e., f[n]=f[n+N]),N=2p/0

f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0n=ejk0nejN0n=ejk0nej2pn=ejk0n=f[k]

## f(t)= ejk0t(i.e., f(t)=f(t+T)),T=2p/0

f[n+N]=ejk0(n+N)=ejk0nejk0N=ejk0nej2pk=ejk0n=f[n]

## f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x, N are integer

f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T

f(t+T)=ejk0(t+T)=ejk0tejk0T=ejk0tej2pk=ejk0t=f(t)

f[k]=ejk0t(i.e., f[k]!=f[k+N])

f[k+N]=ej(k+N)0t=ejk0tejN0t!=ejk0t=f[k], tejN0t!=1

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## Periodic signals: Fourier series

representations
Consider the complex sinusoids
e j ( N k ) 0 n e jN 0 n e jk 0 n e j 2p n e jk 0 n e jk 0 n
e jk 0 n are N -periodic in the frequency index k , there are only N distinct
complex sinusoids of the form e jk 0 n
N 1

k 0

## In contrast, continuous-time complex sinusoids e jk0t with distinct

frequencies k0 are always distinct (+)0 = 0 0 0
Hence, Eq.(3.5) can be expressed as x (t )

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A[k ]e jk0t

representations

## For periodic signal x[n]

k
2p
jk
n
2p
jk 0 n
N
0
, e
e
e
N

Fundamental period of

## ak e jk n with period N (i.e.,x[n] x[n N ])

2p
n
N
( )
k

jk 0 n
a
e
k
kZ

Let k k 0 , x[n]
e

jk 0 n

j ( k mN ) 0 n

ae

N
k
N
is least common multiple (LCM) of
(i.e., N )
k

jk 0 n

,
N 1

k 0

## A[k ] ... ak N ak ak N ...

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k mN

## Periodic signals: Fourier series

representations
Goal : Find the A[k ] such that x[n] and x (t ) are good
approximations to x[n] and x(t ), respectively
Mean-square-error (MSE):
1
Discrete-time case: MSE
N

N 1

x[n] x[n]

n 0

2
1 T
Continuous-time case: MSE x(t ) x (t ) dt
T 0

## i.e. the DTFS and FS coefficients minimize the MSEs.

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representations

## There is no restriction on the period of the sinusoids

used to represent a non-periodic signal. Hence, the
Fourier transform representations employ complex
sinusoids having a continuum of frequencies.
The signal is represented as a weighted integral of
complex sinusoids where the variable of integration is
the sinusoids frequency.

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## f[n]= ejn(i.e., f[n]!=f[n+N])

f(T)=ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn=f(), if T=2p

## f(t)= ejt(i.e., f(t)!=f(t+T))

f[n+N]=ej(n+N)=ejnejN!=ejn=f[n], , ejN!=1

## f[x]=f[x+N], is a function of x with period N; x Z, N is positive integer

f(x)=f(x+T), is a function of x with period T, x R, T is positive real

f(t+T)=ej(t+T)=ejtejT!=ejkt=f(t), , ejT!=1

f()=ejt(i.e., f()!=f(+T))

f(T)=ej(+T)t=ejtejTt!=ejt=f(), t, ejTt!=1

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## Nonperiodic signals: Fourier-transform

representations
Continuous-time sinusoids are used to represent continuous signal in the FT.
(+) = , 2

## Continuous-time sinusoids with distinct frequencies are distinct, so the FT

involves frequencies from - to , as shown by the equation
1
jt
x (t )
X
(
j

)
e
d,

2p
X ( j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency in the FT representation.

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## Nonperiodic signals: Fourier-transform

representations
Discrete-time sinusoids are used to represent discrete signal in the DTFT.
ej(+T)n=ejnejTn=ejn, if T=2p

## Discrete-time sinusoids are unique only over a 2p interval of frequencies,

since discrete-time sinusoids with frequencies separated by an integer
multiple of 2p are identical.
The DTFT involves frequencies from -p to p , as shown by the equation
1 p
j
j n
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d ,

p
2p
X (e j )
Hence,
represents the "weight" or coefficient applied to a sinusoid
2p
of frequency n in the DTFT representation.
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[ n]

h[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

## x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

x[n] ak e jk n

y[n] ak H (e jk )e jk n

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DTFS, FS

## DTFS & FS()

k0k0()

f(k)=ejk0n(i.e., f(k)=f(k+N))DTFS
N
N 1

x[n] A[k ]e jk 0n
k 0

f(k)=ejk0tFS
(i.e., k )

x (t )

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A[k ]e jk0t

DTFT,FT

DTFT & FT
()()

f()=ejn(i.e., f()=f(+2p))
DTFT2p

1
x[n]
2p

p
-

X (e j )e jn d

f()=ejtFT-

1
x (t )
2p
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X ( j )e jt d,

## The DTFS representation of a periodic signal x[n]

with fundamental period N and fundamental
frequency 0=2p/N is given by
N 1

x[n] X [k ]e jk 0 n ,

(3.10)

k 0

1
X [k ]
N

N 1

jk 0 n
x
[
n
]
e
arethe DTFS coefficients of the signal x[n].

n 0

x[n]

DTFS ; 0

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X [k ]
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## Either x[n] or X[k] provides complete description of

the signal.
The DTFS coefficients X[k] are termed a frequencydomain representation for x[n], because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of
a different frequency.
k determines the frequency of the sinusoid
associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.
DTFS is the only Fourier representation that can be
numerically evaluated and manipulated in a
computer

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[ n]
x[n]

h[n]

x[k ] [n k ]

y[n]

x[n] X [k ]e

N 1

y[n] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )e jk 0n

jk 0 n

k 0

k 0

1
X [k ]
N

## x[k ]h[n k ] x[n]* h[n]

N 1

N 1

x[n]e

N 1

Y [k ]e jk 0 n

jk 0 n

k 0

n 0

Y [k ] X [k ]H (e jk 0 )
N 1

y[n] Y [k ]e jk 0n
k 0

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## Ex. 3.2 Determining DTFS coefficients

Find the frequency-domain representation of the
following signal

Prob. 3.2

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## Figure 3.5 (p. 203)

Time-domain signal for Example 3.2.

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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Sol.
The signal has period N =5, so 0 2p / 5.
Also, the signal has odd symmetry. So we sum over n 2 to n 2
1 2
X [k ] x[n]e jk 2p n / 5
5 n 2
1
{x[ 2]e jk 4p / 5 x[ 1]e jk 2p / 5 xe j 0 xe jk 2p / 5 xe jk 4p / 5 }
5
1
1
1
1
{1 e jk 2p / 5 e jk 2p / 5 } {1 j sin(2kp / 5)}
5
2
2
5
4p
1
X  j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531;
5
5
1
2p
1
X  j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ; X  0.2e j 0 ;
5
5
5
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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

1
2p
X  j sin( ) / 5 0.276e j 0.760 ;
5
5
1
4p
X  j sin( ) / 5 0.232e j 0.531.
5
5
Now, suppose we calculate X [k ] using n 0 to n 4
1
X [k ] {xe j 0 xe j 2 kp / 5 xe j 4 kp / 5 xe j 6 kp / 5 xe j 8 kp / 5 }
5
1
1
1
{1 e j 2 kp / 5 0 e j 4 kp / 5 0 e j 6 kp / 5 e j 8 kp / 5 }
5
2
2
1
1 j 2 kp / 5 1 j 2 kp / 5
1
2 kp
{1 e
e
} {1 j sin(
)}
5
2
2
5
5
Note that e j 8 kp / 5 e j 2 kp e j 2 kp / 5 e j 2 kp / 5
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## |X[k]| is the magnitude spectrum of x[n]

arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x[n]

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Magnitude and phase of the DTFS coefficients for the signal in Fig. 3.5.

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Prob. 3.2

## Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.

p
p
p
jk ( 1)
jk 0
jk 1
1 2
1
X [k ] x[n]e jk 0 n (2e 3
1e 3 2e 3 )
N n 3
6
1
kp
2
kp
1
(2 2 cos( ) 1) cos( )
6
3
3
3
6

1 2
x[n] X [k ] cos(kp / 3)
6 3
DTFS ;p /3

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## Ex. 3.3 Computing DTFS coefficients by inspection

Find the DTFS coefficients of x[n]=cos(pn/3+f)

Prob. 3.3

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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Sol. The signal has period N =6, so 0 2p / 6 p / 3.

x[n+6]=cos(pn/3+2p+f)=x[n]

## We expend the cosine by Euler's Eq.

x[n] cos(
x[ n]

pn
3

f)

X [k ]e

j(

pn
3

f )

e
2

j(

pn
3

f )

1 jf j p3n 1 jf j p3n
e e
e e
2
2

jkp n / 3

k 2

## X e j 2p n / 3 X e jp n / 3 X  X e jp n / 3 X e j 2p n / 3 X e jp n

1 jf

e , k 1

1 jf

X [k ]
e ,k 1
2

0, otherwise on - 2 k 3

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## Prob. 3.3 (a) x[n] 1 sin(np /12 3p / 8)

Sol. The signal has period 0 p /12, so N =24.
x[n] 1
x[n]

j(

p
12

12

3p
)
8

X [k ]e

e
2j

jk 0 n

n 11

j(

p
12

3p
)
8

12

X [k ]e

jk

p
12

n 11
j

3p
8

7p
8

e
e
X  1, X 
, X 
2j
2j

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3p
8

e
2j

p
12

3p
8

e
2j

p
12

## Ex. 3.4 DTFS representation of an impulse train

Find the DTFS coefficients of the N-periodic impulse
train
x[n]

[n lN ]

## Figure 3.9 (p. 207)

A discrete-time impulse train with period N.

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Sol.
1 N 1
1 N 1
1
jk 0 n
jkn 2p / N
X [k ] x[n]e
[n]e

N n 0
N n 0
N

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## Ex. 3.5 The inverse DTFS

Find x[n] from the
DTFS coefficients
in Fig. 3.10

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## Figure 3.10 (p. 208)

Magnitude and phase of
DTFS coefficients for Example
3.5.

## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Sol.
2p
The DTFS has period 9, so 0
9
x[n]

X [k ]e

jk 2p n / 9

k 4

0 e j 8p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 0 e j 2p n / 9 1e jp e j 0p
0 e j 2p n / 9 2e jp / 3e j 4p n / 9 e j 2p / 3e j 6p n / 9 0 e j 8p n / 9
2 cos(6p n / 9 2p / 3) 4 cos(4p n / 9 p / 3) 1
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## Ex. 3.6 DTFS representation of a square wave

Find the DTFS coefficient of x[n]
1, M n M
x[n]
, where N 2M 1
0, M n N M

## Figure 3.11 (p. 209)

Square wave for Example 3.6.

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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Sol.
2p
The period is N , so 0
N
1 N M 1
1 M jk 0 n
jk 0 n
X [k ]
x[n]e

e
, let m n M ,

N n M
N n M
1 2 M jk 0 ( m M ) 1 jk 0 M 2 M jk 0 m
e
e
e
,

N m 0
N
m 0
For k 0, N , 2 N ,
1
X [k ]
N

2M

m 0

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, e jk 0 e jk 0 1,

2M 1
, k 0, N , 2 N ,
N

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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

For k 0, N , 2 N ,

1 jk 0 M 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 e jk 0 (2 M 1)
X [k ] e

jk 0
N
(1 e
)
N e jk 0 / 2 1 e jk 0
1 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 e jk 0 (2 M 1) / 2 1 sin(k 0 (2 M 1) / 2)

,

jk 0 / 2
jk 0 / 2
N
e
e
sin(k 0 / 2)
N
Substituting 0

2p
, we have
N

2M 1
N , k 0, N , 2 N ,
X [k ]
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) , k 0, N , 2 N ,
sin(kp / N )
N
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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

Using L'Hopital's rule by treating k as a real number, it is easy
to show that
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N ) 2 M 1
lim

k 0, N , 2 N , N
sin(kp / N )
N
Hence, X [k ] is commonly written as
1 sin(kp (2 M 1) / N )
X [k ]
N
sin(kp / N )

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## Figure 3.12 (p. 211)

The DTFS coefficients for the square
wave shown in Fig. 3.11, assuming a
period N = 50: (a) M = 4. (b) M = 12.

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## hence, the magnitude spectrum is the absolute value of X[k]

the phase spectrum is

## 0 for X[k] > 0

p for X[k] < 0 (-1=ejp)

Prob. 3.6

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## Prob. 3.6(a) Find the DTFS

2p p l n k l 1
,
(a ) N 10, 0
1
10 5 n k
1
X [k ]
N

x[n]e

n 5

jk n
5

5 jk 5
1
5 jk 5 n 1

e
10 n 2 4
10 n 2 4

5 jk 5
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e

e
e
2p
jk

4
4
4
8
1

5
e

p
p
125
10
5 jk 5
5 jk 5
1 e
1 e
4
4
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-5

Prob. 3.6(b)
2p p l n k l 1
(b) N 10, 0
,
10 5 n k
1

4p
p
p
5p
jk
jk 0
jk
jk

jk n
jk n
jk n
1
1
1
e 5 e 5
e 5 e 5
5
5
5
X [k ] x[n]e
(1) e
1 e

(1)
p
p

jk
jk
N n 5
10 n 4
10
n 1

1 e 5
1 e 5

4p
4p
jk
jk

2
k
p
2 kp
4p
4p
10
10
jk
jk

e
sin
e
sin
4p
k
p
4
p
k
p

jk
j
jk
j
1
1 e 5
1 e 5 1
5
5
5
5
5
5

( e
)
(e
)
( e
)
(e
)

p
p
p
p

jk

jk

jk

jk
10
10
kp
kp
5
5
10
10
1

e
1

e
e
sin
e
sin

10
10

2 kp
2 kp
kp

sin
sin

j
sin(
)
5 kp
5 kp
1
5 (e j 10 e j 10 )
5
2

kp
10 sin kp
5

sin
10
10

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## Examining Ex. 3.6, the DTFS coefficients

have even symmetry (i.e. X[k]=X[-k]) .
We may rewrite Eq. (3.10) as a series
involving harmonically related cosines.
Assume that N is even, then N/2 is an
integer, let k range from N/2+1 to N/2, we
have
N
2

x[n]

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X [k ]e jk 0n

N
1
2

60

## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

x[n]

N
2

X [k ]e jk 0 n

N
1
2

N
1
2

N
j 0 n
N
X [k ]e jk 0 n X [ ]e 2
2
N
k ( 1)
2

N n

N
1
2

N j 20
X  X [ ]e
( X [ m]e jm0 n X [ m]e jm0 n )
2
m 1
X [m] X [m], and N 0 2p
N
1
2

N jp n
e jm0 n e jm0 n
x[n] X  X [ ]e 2 X [m](
)
2
2
m 1
N
1
2

N
X  X [ ]cos(p n) 2 X [ m]cos( m0 n)
2
m 1
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## Discrete-time periodic signals: DTFS

N
1
2

N 0
N
x[n] X  2 X [ m]cos( m0 n) X [ ]cos(
n)
2
2
m 1
X [k ], k 0, N / 2
Define B[k ]
,
2 X [k ], k 1, 2, , N / 2 1
N
2

k 0

## A similar expression may be derived for odd N

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(3.17)

## Ex. 3.7 Building a square wave from DTFS coefficients

The contribution of each term to the square wave may
be illustrated by defining the partial-sum approximation
to x[n] in Eq. (3.17) as
J

k 0

N
2

## This approximation contains the first 2J+1 terms

centered on k=0 in Eq. (3.10) (p.202). Assume a square
wave has period N=50 and M=12. Find the cases that
J=1,3,5,23, and 25.
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## Figure 3.14a (p. 213)

Individual terms in the DTFS expansion of
a square wave (left panel) and the
corresponding partial-sum approximations
J[n] (right panel). The J = 0 term is 0[n]
= and is not shown. (a) J = 1. (b) J = 3.

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## Figure 3.14b (p. 213)

(c) J = 5. (d) J = 23. (e) J = 25.

## The FS representation of a periodic signal x(t) with

fundamental period T and fundamental frequency
0=2p/T is given by
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

(3.19)

1 T
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
(3.20)
0
T
X [k ] are the FS coefficients of the signal x(t ).
We say that x(t ) and X [k ] are an FS pair and is denoted by
FS ;

x(t )

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X [k ]
66

## Either x(t) or X[k] provides complete description of

the signal.

The FS coefficients X[k] are known as a frequencydomain representation for x(t) because each
coefficient is associated with a complex sinusoid of a
different frequency.

## k determines the frequency of the sinusoid

associated with X[k], so we may say that X[k] is a
function of frequency.

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## The infinite series in Eq. (3.19) is not guaranteed to

converge for all possible signals

Define

x (t )

X [k ]e jk0t

## and choose X[k] according to Eq. (3.20)

1 T
2
If x(t ) dt , then the MSE between x(t ) and x (t ) is zero.
T 0
1 T
2
Or, mathematically, x(t ) x (t ) dt 0
T 0

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## Note that, in contrast to discrete-time case, an MSE of

zero does not imply that x(t) and x (t ) are equal
pointwise, or x(t ) x (t ) at all value of t. It only implies
that there is zero power in their difference

## Pointwise convergence of x (t ) to x(t) is guaranteed at

all value of t except those corresponding to
discontinuities if the Dirichlet conditions are satisfied:

x(t) is bounded

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## If x(t) satisfies the Dirichlet conditions and is not

continuous, then x (t ) converges to the midpoint of the
left and right limits of x(t) at each discontinuity.

## The following three examples illustrate how the FS

representation is determined.

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## Ex. 3.9 Direct calculation of FS coefficients

Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) depicted in Fig.
3.16

## Figure 3.16 (p. 216)

Time-domain signal for Example 3.9.

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol :
T 2, 0 2p / 2 p
1 T
X [k ]= x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0
1
1 2 (2 jkp )t
1 2 2t jkp t
e (2 jkp ) t |02
dt
dt e
e e
2(2 jkp )
2 0
2 0
1 e4
1
4 jk 2p
)
(1 e e

4 jk 2p
4 jk 2p

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## Figure 3.17 (p. 217)

Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.9.

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## |X[k]| is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)

arg{X[k]} is the phase spectrum of x(t)
Since x(t) is periodic, the interval of integration in Eq.
(3.20) may be chosen as any interval one period in
length.
Choosing the appropriate interval of integration often
simplifies the problem

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## Ex. 3.10 FS coefficients for an impulse train

Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal

x(t )

(t 4l )

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol :
T 4, 0 2p / 4 p / 2,
x(t ) is even symmetry it is easilier to evaluate X [k ] over - 2 t 2
p
jk t
1 T
1 2
1
jk0t
X [k ]= x(t )e
dt (t )e 2 dt
T 0
4 2
4
in this case, the magnitude spectrum is constant and the phase spectrum is zero.

Note that we cannot evaluate the infinite sum in Eq. (3.19) in this case and that
x(t) does not satisfy the Dirichlet condition. However, the FS expension of an
impulse train is useful in spite of convergence difficulties.

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## Ex. 3.11 Calculation of FS coefficients by inspection

Determine the FS coefficient of x(t) for the signal

x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4)

Prob. 3.7,3.8

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol :
T 4, 0 2 / 4 / 2, x(t )

X [ k ]e jk t / 2

## Using Euler's formula to expend the cosine yields

e j ( t / 2 / 4) e j ( t / 2 / 4) 3 j / 4 j t / 2 3 j / 4 j t / 2
x(t ) 3cos( t / 2 / 4) 3
e e
e
e
2
2
2
3 j / 4
, k 1
2 e

3
X [k ] e j / 4 , k 1
2
0, otherwise

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## Figure 3.18 (p. 219)

Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.11.

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Prob. 3.7

## Find FS for x(t ) 2sin(2 t 3) sin(6 t )

T 1, 0 2
e j (2 t 3) e j (2 t 3) e j 6 t e j 6 t e 3 j j 2 t e3 j j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
x(t ) 2

2j
2j
j
j
2j
2j
j
j
je 3 j e j 2 t je3 j e j 2 t e j 6 t e j 6 t
2
2
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]e

j
2 , k 3
3j
je , k 1

X [k ] je 3 j , k 1

j
,k 3
2
0, otherwise
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j 2 kt

Prob. 3.8
T 1, 0 2
1 j t j t
(e e )
2

x(t ) cos( t )
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]e

j 2 k t

1
1 T
1 T2
jk0t
jk0t
X [k ] x(t )e
dt T x(t )e
dt 21 cos( t )e j 2 k t dt

T 0
T 2
2
1
2
1

e j t e j t j 2 k t
1 12 j (1 2 k ) t
e j (1 2 k ) t
j (1 2 k ) t
(
)e
dt 1 e
e
dt

2
2 2
2 j (1 2k )

j (1 2 k )

1
2

j (1 2 k )

e
2 j (1 2k )

1
2

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j (1 2 k )

1
2

j (1 2 k )

e
2 j (1 2k )
81

1
2

1
2

1
2

e j (1 2 k ) t

2 j (1 2k )

1 2k
1 2k
sin(
) sin(
)
2
2

(1 2k )
(1 2k )

1
2

1
2

## Ex. 3.12 Inverse FS

Find the time-domain signal x(t) corresponding to the
FS coefficients
1 k jk / 20
X [k ] ( ) e
2

Prob. 3.9

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol : T 2, 0 2 / 2 ,
x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

1
1 k jk / 20 jk t
1 k jk / 20 jk t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
( ) e
e ( ) e
e ( ) e
e
k 2
k 2
k 0 2

1 l jl / 20 jl t 1 k jk / 20 jk t
1
1
= ( ) e
e
( ) e
e
1
1
1
l 1 2
k 0 2
1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20)
2
2
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 j ( k t / 20)
e
e
1 e
1 e

1
2
2
2

1
1
1 j ( k t / 20) 1 j ( k t / 20)
1 e j ( k t / 20) 1 e j ( k t / 20)
1 e
1 e

2
2
2

1 j ( k t / 20) 1 1 j ( k t / 20)
3
e
1 e

3
2
4 2

1 1
5
1 e j ( k t / 20) e j ( k t / 20)
cos( t / 20) 5 4 cos( t / 20)
4 2
4
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## Prob. 3.9 (a)

(a) X [k ] j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3], 0
x(t )

X [k ]e jk0t

( j [k 2] j [k 2] 2 [k 3] 2 [k 3])e jk t

je j 2 t je j 2 t 2e j 3 t 2e j 3 t
j (e j 2 t e j 2 t ) 2(e j 3 t e j 3 t )
j 2 j sin(2 t ) 2 2 cos(3 t ) 2sin(2 t ) 4 cos(3 t )
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## Prob. 3.9 (b)

x (t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

j 2 ( t 1)
e
e

k 4

e j 2 ( t 1) (1 e

k
2

jk t
2

k 4

j 4 ( t 1)
2

1 e

j 9 ( t 1)
2

j ( t 1)
2

j ( t 1)
2

e j 2 ( t 1)e

9
( t 1)
4

1 e
9 (t 1)
sin(
)
4

(t 1)
sin(
)
4

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j 5 ( t 1)
2

85

j ( t 1)
4

(e

(e

9
( t 1)
4

j ( t 1)
4

9
( t 1)
4

j ( t 1)
4

## Ex. 3.13 FS for a square wave

Determine the FS representation of the square wave
in Fig. 3.21

## Figure 3.21 (p. 221)

Square wave for Example 3.13.

Prob. 3.10

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Sol :

0 2 / T ,

## x(t) is even symmetry integrating over the range

T
T
t
2
2

1 T2
1 T0 jk0t
1 jk0t T0
jk0t
For k 0, X [k ] T x(t )e
dt e
dt
e
|T0

0
T 2
T
Tjk0
2sin(k0T0 )
2 e jk0T0 e jk0T0

(
)
Tk0
2j
Tk0
2T
1 T2
1 T2
1 T0
j 00t
For k 0, X  T x(t )e
dt T x(t )dt dt 0
T 2
T 2
T T0
T
2sin(k0T0 ) 2T0

k 0
Tk0
T

By means of L'Hopital's
rule, it is straightforward to show that lim
Hence, we write X [k ]
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2T

sinc(k 0 )
Tk0
k 2
T
T
87

## Figure 3.22a&b (p. 222)

The FS coefficients, X[k], 50 k
50, for three square waves. (see Fig.
3.21.) (a) Ts/T = 1/4 . (b) Ts/T =
1/16. (c) Ts/T = 1/64.

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Sinc function
sin( u )
sinc(u )
u

analysis

i.e.

## The maximum of this function is unity at u=0

The zero crossing occurs at integer values of u
mainlobe & sidelobes

2sin(k 2 T0 / T ) 2sin(k 2 T0 / T )
2T sin( k 2T0 / T ) 2T0
2T

(T0 / T ) 0

sinc(k 0 )
k 2
k 2 (T0 / T )
T ( k 2T0 / T )
T
T

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## The form of FS described by Eqs. (3.19) and (3.20)

is termed the exponential FS

## The trigonometric FS is often useful for real-valued

signals and is expressed as

## x(t ) B ( B[k ]cos(k0t ) A[k ]sin(k0t )),

(3.25)

k 1

1 T
B x(t )dt
T 0
2 T
B[k ] x(t ) cos(k0t )dt
T 0
2 T
A[k ] x(t ) sin(k0t )dt
T 0
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(3.26)

signal

## Using Eulers formula to expend cosine and

sine functions in Eq. (3.26), we have

B[k]=X[k]+X[-k]

A[k]=j(X[k]-X[-k])

Prob. 3.10

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(3.27)

93

## The trigonometric FS coefficients of the

square wave in Ex. 3.13 are obtained from
(3.28)

B=2T0/T

B[k]=2sin(k2T0/T)/(k)

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## Ex. 3.14 Square-wave partial sum approximation

Let the partial-sum approximation to the FS in (3.29)
be given by
J

J
xJ (t ) B[k ]cos(k0t ), xJ (t )
x(t )
k 0

## Consider a square wave with T=1 and T0=1/4. Depict

one period of the J-th term in this sum and find x J (t )
for J=1,3,7,29, and 99

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol :
1
2 ,k 0

k 1
2
B[k ] (1) 2 , k is odd
k
0,k is even

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## Figure 3.25a (p. 225)

Individual terms (left panel) in the FS expansion of a square wave and the corresponding partial-sum approximations
wave has period T = 1 and Ts/T = . The J = 0 term is 0(t) = and is not shown. (a) J = 1.

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J(t)

## Figure 3.25b-3 (p. 226)

(b) J = 3. (c) J = 7. (d) J = 29.

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(e) J = 99.

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H
y(t ) h(t )* x(t )

x(t )

x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

y (t )

X [k ]H ( jk )e
0

Let Y [k ] X [k ]H ( jk0 )

1
X [k ] x(t )e jk0t dt
T 0

y (t )

Y [k ]e

100

jk0t

jk0t

## Ex. 3.15 RC Circuit: Calculation the O/P by means of

FS
Find the FS representation of the O/P y(t) of the RC
circuit depicted in Fig. 3.2 in response to the squarewave I/P in Fig. 3.21, assuming that T0/T=1/4, T=1,
and RC=0.1s

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## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Sol :

x(t )

X [k ]e

jk0t

y (t ) H {x(t )}

y (t )

Y [k ]e

jk0t

X [k ]H {e

FS ;0
, y (t )
Y [k ] H ( jk0 ) X [k ]

## From Ex. 3.1 H ( j )

1/ RC
j 1/ RC

10
jk 2 10
2sin(k0T0 ) sin(k / 2)
From Ex. 3.13, X [k ]

Tk0
k

0 2 , RC 0.1s H ( jk0 )

Y [k ]

10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k

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jk0t

H ( jk ) X [k ]e

jk0t

## Continuous-time periodic signals: FS

Y [k ]

10
sin(k / 2)
jk 2 10
k

k
Y [k ]
0, we can approximate y (t ) by

y (t )

100

Y [k ]e jk0t

k 100

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## The FS coefficients Y[k], 25

k 25, for the RC circuit output
in response to a square-wave
input. (a) Magnitude spectrum.
(b) Phase spectrum. c) One
period of the input signal x(t)
dashed line) and output signal
y(t) (solid line). The output
signal y(t) is computed from
the partial-sum approximation
given in Eq. 3.30).

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x[n] is given by
1
x[n]
2
j

X (e )

X (e j )e jn d

x[n]e

jn

(3.31)
(3.32)

## X (e j ) are the DTFT coefficients of the signal x[n].

We say that x[n] and X (e j ) are an DTFT pair and is denoted by
x[n]

DTFT

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X (e j )

105

## X (e j ) is the frequency-domain representation of

x[n] as a function of a sinusoidal frequency

## Eq. (3.31) is usually termed the inverse DTFT, since

it maps the frequency-domain representation back
into time-domain

## DTFT is used primarily to analyze the action of

discrete-time system on discrete-time signals

## The infinite sum in Eq. (3.32) converges if x[n] has

finite duration and is finite values.

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## If x[n] is of infinite duration, the the sum

converges only for certain classes of signals

If

## then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges uniformly to

a continuous function of

n

## has finite energy), then the sum in Eq. (3.32) converges in a

mean-square error sense,but does not converge pointwise.
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Prob. 3.11

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## Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Sol :
Using Eq. (3.32), we have
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

u[n]e

jn

a n e jn
n 0

## The sum diverges for a 1, for a 1, we have

1
, for a 1
j
1ae
n 0
n 0
1
1
1 a cos ja sin
If a is real valued, X (e j )

## 1 a e j 1 a cos ja sin (1 a cos ) 2 (a sin ) 2

1
1
j
X (e )

1
1
2
2 2
2
(1 a cos ) (a sin )
(a 1 2a cos ) 2
X (e ) a e
j

n j n

(a e j ) n

a sin
arg{ X (e j )} arctan(
)
1 a cos
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## The DTFT of an exponential signal x[n] =

(a)nu[n]. (a) Magnitude spectrum for a =
0.5. (b) Phase spectrum for a = 0.5. (c)
Magnitude spectrum for a = 0.9. (d) Phase
spectrum for a = 0.9.

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## |X(ej)| is the magnitude spectrum of x(t)

arg{X(ej)} is the phase spectrum of x(t)

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Prob. 3.11
X (e j )

x[n]e jn

2(3) u[n]e
n

jn

2 (3e j ) n
n

1 j m
2

2 ( e )
1 j
m0 3
1 e
3
m n

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1, n M
x[n]
0, n M

## Figure 3.30 (p. 233)

Example 3.18. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b)
DTFT in the frequency domain.

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## Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Sol :
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

1 e jn , let m n M n m M

n M

j (2 M 1)

e
j

M
2M
2M
, 0, 2 , 4 ,
e
j
j ( m M )
jM
j
X (e ) e
e (e j ) m
1 e
m 0
m 0
2 M 1,
0, 2 , 4 ,

j (2 M 1)
j (2 M 1) / 2
(e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 )
jM 1 e
jM e
e
e
j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )

e j (2 M 1) / 2 e j (2 M 1) / 2 sin((2M 1) / 2)

j / 2
j / 2
e
e
sin( / 2)

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lim

0, 2 , 4 ,

X (e ) e

sin((2M 1) / 2)
2M 1
sin( / 2)
jM

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1 e j (2 M 1) sin((2M 1) / 2)

j
1 e
sin( / 2)

115

1, W
X (e )

0, W
j

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## Figure 3.31 (p. 234)

Example 3.19. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the frequency domain. (b)
Inverse DTFT in the time domain.

Sol :
W
1
1
jn
e

sin(Wn), n 0

W
1
1
2 nj
n
j
jn
j n
W
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d

e
d

2
2 W
W
, n 0
1
W
1
W
Wn
lim
sin(Wn) x[n]
sin(Wn) sinc( )
n 0 n

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x[n] [n]

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118

Sol :
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

jn

[
n
]
e
1

DTFT
Hence, [n]
1

## Figure 3.32 (p. 235)

Example 3.20. (a) Unit impulse in the time domain.
(b) DTFT of unit impulse in the frequency domain.

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119

X (e j ) (),

## Figure 3.33 (p. 236)

Example 3.21. (a) Unit impulse in
the frequency domain. (b) Inverse
DTFT in the time domain.

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## Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Sol :
1
1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n]
X (e )e d
( )e d

2
2
2
1
DTFT
Hence,

(),
2
In this example, we have defined only one period of X (e j ).
alternatively, we can defind X (e j ) as
j

X (e )

( 2 k )

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121

Prob. 3.12(d)
j

X (e )

x[n]e

jn

(1)e

n 7

jn

(1)e jn
n 1

e j 7 1 e j e j 8 1 e j 7 e j (1 e j 7 )

j
j
1 e
1 e
1 e j
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j 7 / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j / 2
j 7
j

e
(
e

e
)
e
(
e

e
)
(1 e
)(1 e )

j
1 e
e j / 2 (e j / 2 e j / 2 )
e j 7 / 2

2 j sin( )2 cos( )
2
2

2 j sin( )
2

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122

Prob. 3.13(a)

X (e ) 2cos(2)

1
1
j
jn
jn
x[n ]
X
(
e
)
e
d

cos(2

)
e
d

1 j 2
1 j ( n 2)
j 2
jn
j ( n 2)

(
e

e
)
e
d

(
e
d

e
d )

2
2
1
2 1, for n 2,
2
0, otherwise ( e jk - e jk 0)

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123

Prob. 3.13(c)
1
j
jn
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d

j
1 0 j 2 jn

[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2

j
1 0 j 2 jn

[ e e e d e e 2 e jn d ]
0
2

j 0 (1 jn )
j 1 e e j n e e j n 1
(1 jn )

[ e
d e
d ]
[

0
2
2
1 jn
1 jn
e j n e j n cos( n )

1
1
j
2 jn
(1 e cos( n))[

]
(1 e cos( n))
2
1 jn 1 jn 2
1 n2
j

[1

e
cos( n)]
2
(1 n )
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cos( n ) ( 1) n

124

n(1 e (1) n )
(1 n 2 )

response
1

y
[
n
]

## ( x[n] x[n 1])

1
2
Consider two systems:
y [n] 1 ( x[n] x[n 1])
2
2
1

h
[
n
]

( [n] [n 1])
1
2
the impulse responses of the two systems are
h [n] 1 ( [n] [n 1])
2
2
Find the frequency response and plot the magnitude response of each system

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## Discrete-time nonperiodic signals: DTFT

Sol :
H1 (e j )
j

H 2 (e )

h1[n]e jn

h2 [n]e

jn

1 1
e j e
2 2

j
2

j
1 1 j
e
e je 2
2 2

e
2

e
2j

je

cos( )
2

sin( )
2

H1 (e j ) cos( ) , arg{H1 (e j )}
2
2

, 0

2 2
H 2 (e j ) sin( ) , arg{H 2 (e j )}
2
, 0
2 2
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126

2 2

## Figure 3.36 (p. 239)

The magnitude responses of two simple discrete-time systems. (a) A
system that averages successive inputs tends to attenuate high
frequencies. (b) A system that forms the difference of successive
inputs tends to attenuate low frequencies.

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## Ex. 3.23 Multipath communication channel:

Frequency response
y[n] x[n] ax[n 1]
In Ex. 2.12, we have h[n] [n] a [n 1]
and hinv [n] (a) n u[n], a 1
j

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128

2
3

j

Sol : H (e )

h[n]e

jn

j

1
2 2

## H (e ) ((1 a cos( arg{a})) ( a sin( arg{a})) )

2

1
2

(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a})) , a 1
2

the frequency response of the inverse system is the inverse of the frequency
response of the origional system.
H inv (e j )

1
1
1

H inv (e j )

j
H (e )

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1
(1 a 2 a cos( arg{a}))
2

129

1
2

## Figure 3.37 (p. 241)

Magnitude response of the system in
Example 3.23 describing multipath
propagation. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a =
0.9ej2/3.

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## Figure 3.38 (p. 241)

Magnitude response of the inverse
system for multipath propagation in
Example 3.23. (a) Echo coefficient a =
0.5ej/3. (b) Echo coefficient a = 0.9ej/3

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131

## The FT representation of a nonperiodic signal x(t) is

given by
1
x(t )
2

X ( j )e jt d

X ( j ) x(t )e jt dt
-

(3.35)
(3.36)

## X ( j ) are the FT coefficients of the signal x(t ).

We say that x(t ) and X ( j ) are an FT pair and is denoted by
x(t )

FT

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X ( j )
132

## X ( j ) is the frequency-domain representation of x(t)

as a function of a sinusoidal frequency

## Eq. (3.35) is usually termed the inverse FT, since it

maps the frequency-domain representation back
into time-domain

## FT is used primarily to analyze the action of

continuous-time system on continuous-time signals

## The integral in Eq. (3.35), (3.36) may not converge

for all x(t) and X ( j )

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133

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

1
jt
Define x (t )
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
It can be shown that the square error between x(t ) and x (t )
(i.e.error energy)

x(t ) x (t ) dt is zero if
2

x(t ) dt

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134

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Pointwise convergence is guaranteed at all values of t
except to those corresponding to discontinuities if x(t )
satisfies the Dirichlet condition for nonperiodic signals:
x(t ) is absolutely integrable:

x(t ) dt

## x(t ) has finite number of maximum, minimum, and

discontinuities in any finite interval.
The size of each discontinuity is finite.

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## Almost all physical signals encountered in

engineering practice satisfy the second and the third
conditions.

## Many idealized signals, such as the unit step, are

neither absolutely or square integrable.

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136

## Ex. 3.24 FT of a real

decaying exponential
Find FT of x(t)=e-atu(t)
in Fig. 3.39(a)
Figure 3.39 (p. 243)
Example 3.24. (a) Real time-domain exponential signal.
(b) Magnitude spectrum.
(c) Phase spectrum.

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137

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Sol :
the FT does not converge for a 0 since x(t) is not
absolutely integrable, that is

e u (t )dt e dt for a 0
at

at

For a 0,

X ( j ) e u (t )e
at

X ( j )

dt e
0

( a j ) t

1 ( a j ) t
dt
e
a j

1
1
2 2

(a 2 )
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jt

, arg{ X ( j )} arctan( )
a
138

a j

1, T0 t T0
x(t )

0, t T0

Prob. 3.14

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## Find the FT of x(t )

Example 3.25. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the time domain. (b) FT in
the frequency domain.

139

Sol :

X ( j ) x(t )e

jt

T0

dt e
T0

jt

1 jt
dt
e
j

T0
T0

sin(T0 ), 0

## For 0, X (0) 2T0

T0
lim sin(T0 ) 2T0 X ( j ) sin(T0 ) 2T0sinc(
)
0

0,
sin(T0 ) 0

sin(T0 )

X ( j ) 2
, arg{ X ( j )}

, 2 sin(T ) 0
0

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140

## Prob. 3.14 (a)

X ( j ) x(t )e

(2 j ) t

jt

dt e 2t u( t )e jt dt

1
1
(2 j ) t 0
dt
e
|
2 j
j 2

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141

1, W W
X ( j )

0, W

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142

Find x(t )

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Sol :
1
x(t )
2

1
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
W
For t 0, x(0)
jt

jt
1
W e d 2 j t e

jt

1
W
1
W
Wt
lim sin(Wt ) x(t ) sin(Wt ) sinc( )
t 0 t

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W
W

1
sin(Wt ), t 0
t

## Figure 3.42 (p. 246)

Example 3.26. (a) Rectangular spectrum in the frequency domain.
(b) Inverse FT in the time domain.

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144

## Ex. 3.27 FT of the unit impulse

Find the FT of x(t)=d(t)

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145

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Sol :

X ( j ) x(t )e

jt

dt d (t )e jt dt 1

FT
d (t )
1

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146

## Ex. 3.28 Inverse FT of an impulse spectrum

Find the inverse FT of X(j)=2d()

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147

Sol :
1
1
jt
x(t )
X ( j )e d

2
2
FT
1
2d ( )

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148

2d ( )e jt d 1

Prob. 3.15(d)

2 j
0
j
1
1
jt
2 jt
2 jt
e d )
e

d
e
e
(

d
e
)

j
(
X
x (t )

0
2 2
2
2
0
1
1
2 ( j 2 1d ( j ) 0 1d ) 2 (2 j 2 j ) 0, t 0

cos(2t )
1
j 2t
j 2t

,t 0
((1 e ) ( e 1))

t
2 t

j, e

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149

## Ex. 3.29 Characteristics of digital communication

signals

Ar , t T0 / 2
A rectangular pulse: xr (t )
0, t T0
2 t
Ac
(1

cos(
), t T0 / 2
2
T0
A raised-cosine pulse: xc (t )
0, t T
0

Choose constants Ar and Ac such that both BPSK signals have unit power.

## Figure 3.44 (p. 249)

Pulse shapes used in BPSK communications. (a)
Rectangular pulse. (b) Raised cosine pulse.

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150

## Figure 3.45 (p. 249)

BPSK signals constructed by using
(a) rectangular pulse shapes and
(b) raised-cosine pulse shapes.

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151

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Suppose that the frequency band assigned to each user is 20 kHz.
To prevent interference with adjacent channels, we assume that
the peak value of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal
outside the 20kHz band is required to be -30dB below the peak
in-band magnitude spectrum.
Use the FT to determine the maximum number of bits per second
that can be transmitted when the rectangular and raise-cosine pulse
shapes are utilized.
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152

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Sol :
Although BPSK signal is not periodic, its magnitude squared is T0 periodic
Thus, its respective power is calculated as
Pr

1
T0

1
Pc
T0

T0
2

Ar2 dt Ar2

T0
2

T0
2

Ac
2 t 2
1
(
(1

cos(
))
dt

T 2
T0
T0
0

2
c

A
4T0

2
T0
2

[1 2 cos(

T0
2

T0
2

Ac2
2 t 2
(1 cos(
)) dt
4
T0

2 t 1 1
4 t
3
) cos(
)]dt Ac2
T0
2 2
T0
8

Let Pr Pc 1, Ar 1, Ac
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T0
2

153

8
3

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154

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

Using the result of Ex. 3.25, the FT of xr (t ) is given by
X r ( j )

2sin(T0 / 2)

= 2

X r' ( jf )

2 f
f

## The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by 20log10{

X r' ( jf )
T0

From Fig. 3.46, it implies that we must choose T0 so that the 10th zero crossing is at 10kHz
The kth zero crossing occurs when f k / T0 . So we require 10000=10/T0 or T0 10 3
It implies a data transmission rate of 1000 bits/sec.

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## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

The FT of xc (t ) is given by
1 8
X c ( j )
2 3
2

2
3

T0
2

2 t jt
T (1 cos( T0 ))e dt
0

T0
2

2
jt
T e dt 3
0

T0
2

T0
2

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e jt dt

T0
2

T0
2

1 2
2 3

156

2 t

2 t

j
1 j T0
(e
e T0 )e jt dt
2
T0
2

T0
2

2
j ( ) t
T0

dt

1 2
2 3

T0
2

T0
2

j (

2
)t
T0

dt

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

T0
2

e j t dt 2

sin( T0 / 2)

T0
2

X c ( j )

2
X c' ( jf )

2
3

T0
2

e jt dt

T0
2

1 2
2 3

T0
2

2
j ( ) t
T0

T0
2

dt

1 2
2 3

T0
2

j (

2
)t
T0

dt

T0
2

2 sin(T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)
2 sin(( 2 / T0 )T0 / 2)

3
2 / T0
3
2 / T0
2 sin( fT0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
2 sin( ( f 1/ T0 )T0 )
0.5
0.5
3
f
3
( f 1/ T0 )
3
( f 1/ T0 )

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157

## Figure 3.47 (p. 252)

The spectrum of the raised-cosine
pulse consists of a sum of three
frequency-shifted sinc functions.

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159

## Continuous-time nonperiodic signals: FT

The normalized spectrum of the signal in dB is given by
20log10 {

X c' ( jf )
T0

## From Fig. 3.48, we require 10000=2/T0 or T0 2 104 s

It implies a data transmission rate of 5000 bits/sec.
the use of the raise-cosine pulse shape increases the data
transmission rate by a factor of five relative to the rectangular
pulse shape in this application.

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161

Periodic signals

## A discrete set of frequencies ( e jk 0 n , e jk0t ) is involved in the

series
Frequency domain representation involves a discrete set of
weights or coefficients (X[k])

Non-periodic signals

## Signal is represented as a weighted integral of complex

sinusoids over a continuum of frequencies

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## Discrete-time signals have periodic frequency-domain

representation because the discrete-time complex
sinusoids are 2p periodic

## Continuous-time signals have non-periodic frequencydomain representation because continuous-time

sinusoids with distinct frequencies are always distinct.

## Representations that are discrete (continuous) in one

domain are periodic (non-periodic) in the other domain

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## Linearity and symmetry properties

Linearity property:

## Used to find Fourier representations of signals that are

constructed as sums of signals whose representations are
already known

## In FS & DTFS, the signals are assumed to have the same

fundamental period

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## Ex. 3.30 Linearity in the FS

3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2
Find the FS coefficient Z [k ]
z (t )

Prob. 3.16

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166

z(t)=(3/2)x(t)+(1/2)y(t)

## Representation of the periodic signal z(t) as

a weighted sum of periodic square waves:
z(t) = (3/2)x(t) + 1/2y(t).
(a) z(t). (b) x(t). (c) y(t).

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## Linearity and symmetry properties

Sol.
z (t )

3
1
x(t ) y (t )
2
2

1
kp
sin( )
kp
4
1
kp
FS ;2p
y (t )
Y [k ]
sin( )
kp
2
3
1
3
kp
1
kp
FS ;2p
z (t )
Z [k ] X [k ] Y [k ]
sin( )
sin( )
2
2
2 kp
4
2 kp
2

FS ;2p
x(t )
X [k ]

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Prob. 3.16(b)
(b)

1
u[n], 1
,
j
1e
n

DTFT

1, W
1
DTFT
j
sin(Wn), 0 W p X (e )
pn
0, W p
1
pn
4
1
DTFT
4 u[n]
sin( )
1
pn
4
2
1 e j
2
n

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1,

0, p p
4

## Symmetry properties: Real and imaginary signals

*

X ( j ) x(t )e dt x* (t )e jt dt (3.37)

jt

## X ( j ) x(t )e j ( )t dt X ( j ) X ( j ) is complex-conjugate symmetric

*

Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}

X * ( j ) X ( j )

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## Re{X ( j )} real part is even

X * ( j ) X ( j )

170

## The real part of the transform is an even function

of frequency
The imaginary part of the transform is an odd
function of frequency
Magnitude spectrum is even
Phase spectrum is odd

## X*[k]=X[N-k] because the DTFS coefficients are N

periodic and thus X[-k]=X[N-k]

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## Magnitude spectrum is even

Phase spectrum is odd

## Suppose x(t ) is real, then x(t ) x* (t ),

X ( j ) x(t )e j ( ) t dt X ( j )
*

X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} ;
X ( j ) X ( j ) e
*

j arg{ X ( j )} *

X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )}

X * ( j ) X ( j ),
X ( j ) X ( j ) magnitude spectrum is even
arg{ X ( j )} j arg{ X ( j )} phase spectrum is odd

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## The complex-conjugate symmetry property in FT leads

to a simple characterization of the O/P of an LTI system
A j (t ) A j (t )
e
e
2
2
y (t ) H ( j )e jt , H ( j ) H ( j ) e j arg{H ( j )}

x(t ) A cos(t )
Eq. (3.2): x(t ) e jt

A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
A j (t arg{ H ( j )})
y (t ) H ( j ) e
H ( j ) e
2
2
H ( j ) H ( j ) , arg{H ( j )} arg{H ( j )}
A j (t arg{ H ( j )}) j (t arg{ H ( j )})
(e
e
)
2
H ( j ) A cos(t arg{H ( j )})

y (t ) H ( j )

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## The system modifies the amplitude of the I/P sinusoid by

|H(j)| and phase by arg{H(j)}

## the frequency response of a system with a real-valued impulse

response is easily measured using a sinusoid oscillator & an
oscillscope

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A sinusoidal input to an LTI system results in a sinusoidal output of the same frequency,
with the amplitude and phase modified by the systems frequency response.

## Similarly, for discrete-time LTI system

x[n] A cos(n )

A j ( n ) A j ( n )
e
e
2
2

## x[n] e jn y[n] H (e j )e jn , and H (e j ) H (e j ) e j arg{H ( e

A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
A j ( n arg{H ( e j )})
j
H (e ) e
y[n] H (e ) e
2
2
H (e j ) H (e j ) , arg{H (e j )} arg{H (e j )}
j

## A j ( n arg{H ( e j )}) j ( n arg{ H ( e j )})

)
e
y[t ] H (e ) (e
2
H (e j ) A cos(n arg{H (e j )})
j

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)}

## Now, suppose that x(t) is purely imaginary

x* (t ) x(t )
From (3.37),
*

jt
*
jt

X ( j ) x(t )e dt x (t )e dt = x(t )e j ( ) t dt

= X ( j )
*

## Re{X ( j )}=Re{X * ( j )}= Re{X ( j )}

Im{X ( j )}= Im{X * ( j )}= Im{X ( j )}

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## x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )

X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x* (t )e jt dt = x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Im{ X ( j )} 0

## Suppose that x(t) is real & odd

x* (t ) x(t ), x(t ) x(t ) x* (t ) x(t )

X * ( j ) [ x(t )e jt dt ]* x(t )e j ( t ) dt x( )e j d X ( j )
X * ( j ) X ( j ) Re{ X ( j )} 0

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representations.

## Time signal is real and even,

the frequency-domain representation is real
Time signal is real and odd,
the frequency-domain representation is imaginary
Real and even time-domain signals have
real and even frequency-domain representation
Real and odd time-domain signals have
imaginary and odd frequency-domain representation

Prob. 3.17

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Prob. 3.17

## Prob. 3.17 Determine the time-domain

signal correspond to the following
frequency domain representation are
real or complex valued and even or odd:
(a)

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Discussion

## How to determine whether f(x) is real or complex?

A: real if f(x)=f*(x); imaginary if f(x)=-f*(x)
How to determine whether f(x) is even or odd?
A: even if f(x)=f(-x); odd if f(x)=-f(-x)

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Prob. 3.17(a)

: arg{X ( j)}

X ( j ) X ( j )
arg{ X ( j )} arg{ X ( j )}

X ( j ) X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X ( j ) e j arg{ X ( j )} X * ( j )
p
j ( )

2
, 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j ) e
X ( j )

p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0

p
j( )

2
X ( j ) e , 0 1 j X ( j ) , 0 1
X ( j )

X ( j )
p
X ( j ) e j 2 , 1 0 j X ( j ) , 1 0

Prob. 3.17(a)

X * ( j) X ( j), X ( j) X ( j)

1
x (t )
2p
*

1
X ( j )e d 2p

1
v

2p
1
x(t )
2p

jt

1
j ( t )
X
(
j

)
e
d

2p

X ( j )e
*

1
jvt
X ( jv)e d (v)
2p

2p
v

jt

1
d
2p

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j ( ) t
(

X
(

))
e
d

## X ( jv)e jvt dv x(t ), x(t ) is odd

X ( j )e j ( )t d

Convolution property

## The most important property of Fourier

representation is the convolution property.

## With the convolution property, we may analyze the

I/P-O/P behavior of a linear system in the frequency
domain by multiplying transforms instead of
convolving time signals.

## The convolution property is a consequence of

complex sinusoids being eigenfunctions of LTI
systems.

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## y (t ) h(t ) * x(t ) h( ) x(t )d , x(t )

1
2

X ( j )e j (t ) d

y (t ) h( ) x(t )d h( ) X ( j )e j (t ) d d

1
j
X ( j )e jt d

h
(

)
e
d

2
1
jt

H
(
j

)
X
(
j

)
e
d

2
FT
y (t ) h(t ) * x(t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )

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## Ex. 3.31 Solving a convolution problem in the

frequency domain
sin( t )
sin(2 t )
, h(t )
t
t
Find y (t ) h(t )* x(t )

Let x(t )

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## Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Sol.
1, W
1
FT
From Ex. 3.26,
sin(Wt ) X ( j )
t
0, W
1,
sin( t ) FT
x (t )
X ( j )
,
t
0,
1, 2
sin(2 t )
FT
h (t )
, H ( j )
,
t
0, 2
FT
Since y (t ) h(t ) * x (t )
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )

1,
Y ( j ) H ( j ) X ( j )
X ( j ),
0,
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y (t ) x (t )

sin( t )
t

## Ex. 3.32 Finding inverse FTs by means of the

convolution property

x(t ) X ( j )

FT

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2
sin
( )
2

## Convolution of nonperiodic signals

Sol.
We may write X ( j ) as the product Z ( j ) Z ( j ), where Z ( j )
The convolution property states that
FT
z (t ) * z (t )
Z ( j ) Z ( j ), so x(t ) z (t ) * z (t )

## Using the result of Ex. 3.25, we have

t 2, 2 t 0
1, t 1 FT

z (t )
Z ( j ), x(t ) z (t ) * z (t ) 2 t , 0 t 2
0, t 1
0, otherwise

## Figure 3.52 (p. 261)

Signals for Example 3.32. (a)
Rectangular pulse z(t). (b) Convolution
of z(t) with itself gives x(t).

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sin( )

Prob. 3.18(a)

(a)

1
e u (t )
,
j a
at

FT

3
2
y (t ) x(t ) * h(t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ) H ( j )
j 1 j 2
FT

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## Two nonperiodic discrete-time signals x & h

DTFT
DTFT
x[n]
X (e j ), h[n]
H (e j ),
DTFT
y[n] h[n]* x[n]
Y (e j ) H (e j ) X (e j )

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Filtering

The multiplication that occurs in the frequencydomain representation give rise to the notation of
filtering
A system performs filtering on the I/P signal by
presenting a different response to components of the
I/P that are at different frequencies.
Filtering implies that some frequency components of
the I/P are eliminated while others are passed by the
system unchanged.

## Low-pass, high-pass, band-pass

Passband, stopband, transition band

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Filtering
Figure 3.53 (p. 263)
Frequency response of ideal continuous- (left panel)
and discrete-time (right panel) filters. (a) Low-pass
characteristic. (b) High-pass characteristic. (c) Bandpass characteristic.

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Filtering

## The magnitude response of a filter is commonly

described in units of decibels (dB), defined as

20 log|H(j)| or 20 log|H(ej)|

## The edge of the passband is usually defined by the

frequencies for which the response is -3dB,
corresponding to a magnitude response of ( 1/ 2 )

## |Y(j)|2= |H(j)|2 |X(j)|2

The -3dB points are usually termed the cutoff frequencies of
the filter

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Filtering

## From Ex. 1.21

1 t /( RC )
hC (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Since yR (t ) x(t ) yC (t ),
Figure 3.54 (p. 264)

RC
xt
y
y t
1 t /( RC )
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t )
RC
Plot the magnitude responses of both systems on a linear scale and in dB
and characterize the filtering properties of the systems.
circuit with input ( ) and outputs

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c(t)

and

R(

).

Filtering
Sol.
1 t /( RC )
1
FT
e
u (t )
H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1
1 t /( RC )
j RC
FT
hR (t ) (t )
e
u (t ) H R ( j ) 1 H C ( j )
RC
j RC 1

hC (t )

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## RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.

(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.

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## RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency RC.

(a) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), linear scale.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yC(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to yR(t), dB scale,
shown on the range from 0 dB to 25 dB.

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Filtering

## The convolution property implies that the frequency

response of a system may be expressed as the ratio
of the FT or DTFT of the O/P to that of the I/P.
Y ( j )
For continuous-time system: H ( j )
X ( j )
j
Y
(
e
)
j
For discrete-time system: H (e )
X (e j )

## If the I/P spectrum is nonzero at all frequencies, the

frequencies of a system may be determined from knowledge
of the I/P and O/P spectra.

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Filtering

## Given x(t ) e2t u (t ), y (t ) e t u (t ).

Find the frequency response and the impulse response
of this syetm.

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Filtering
Sol.
1
x(t ) e u (t ) X ( j )
j 2
1
FT
t
y (t ) e u (t ) Y ( j )
j 1
Y ( j ) j 2
1
H ( j )

1
X ( j ) j 1
j 1
2 t

FT

h(t ) (t ) e t u (t )

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Filtering

## For continuous-time system: X ( j ) H inv ( j )Y ( j )

For discrete-time system: X (e j ) H inv (e j )Y (e j )

## An inverse system is also known as an equalizer

The process of recovering the I/P form O/P is know as
equalization

## In practice, causality restriction makes it difficult to

build an inverse system.

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Filtering

## Ex. 3.35 Multipath communication channel:

Equalization
Given y[n] x[n] ax[n 1], a 1.
Use the convolution property to find the impulse response
of an inverse syetm.

Prob. 3.21

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Filtering
Sol.
1, n 0

0, otherwise

## hinv [n]* h[n] [n], take the DTFT of both side,

H inv (e j ) H (e j ) 1 H inv (e j )

1
H (e j )

DTFT
h[n] [n] a [n 1]
H (e j ) 1 ae j

H inv (e j )

1
1

H (e j ) 1 ae j

## hinv [n] (a ) n u[n]

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## (Ref. p.774, Appendix C.3)

Prob. 3.21(a)

Find x(t) if

(a)

FT
e at u (t )

1
,
j a

1
1
1
H ( j )
, Y ( j )

j 4
j 3 j 4
1
1

Y ( j )
1
j 3 j 4 j 4
X ( j )

1
1
H ( j )
j 3
j 3
j 4
x(t ) e 3t u (t )
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## Differentiation and integration are operators

that applies to continuous functions

## Continuous-time signals: x(t)

Continuous-frequency: FT X(jw) and DTFT X(ejW)

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207

Differentiation in time

## Consider a nonperiodic signal x(t)

1
jwt
x(t )
X
(
j
w
)
e
dw

2
d
d 1
1
jwt
x(t ) X ( jw )e d w
dt
dt 2
2
d
FT
x(t )
jw X ( jw )
dt

[ X ( jw ) jw ]e jwt d w

## Differentiation a signal in the time domain corresponds to

multiplying its FT by jw
Differentiation accentuates the high-frequency components
of the signal
Differentiation destroys an DC component of x(t)

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208

Differentiation in time

d at
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
dt
a jw

Prob. 3.22,3.23

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209

Differentiation in time
Sol.
d at
(e u (t )) ae at u (t ) e at (t ) ae at u (t ) (t )
dt
d at
a
jw
FT
(e u (t ))
1
dt
a jw
a jw

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210

Prob. 3.22(a)

Find FT if
(a)

1
d
FT
e u (t )
, x(t )
jw X ( jw )
a jw dt
at

z (t ) e

2 t

FT

e 2t u (t ) e 2( t )u (t )

1
1
4
Z ( jw )

Appendix C.4
2
2 jw 2 jw 4 w
d
4 jw
FT
x(t ) z (t ) X ( jw ) jw Z ( jw )
dt
4 w2

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211

Differentiation in time

## The differentiation property may be used to find the

frequency response of a continuous-time system
described by the differential equation
M
N
M
dk
dk
k
k
a
y
(
t
)

b
x
(
t
)

a
(
j
w
)
Y
(
j
w
)

b
(
j
w
)
X ( jw )

k
k
k
k
k
k
dt
dt
k 0
k 0
k 0
k 0
N

Y ( jw )
H ( jw )

X ( jw )

k
b
(
j
w
)
k
k 0
N

k
a
(
j
w
)
k
k 0

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212

Differentiation in time

## The frequency response of a system described by a

linear constant-coefficient differential equation is a
ratio of two polynomials in the jw
The frequency response is the systems steady-state
response to a sinusoid.

## It cannot represent initial conditions

It can only describe a system that is in a steady-state
condition

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213

Differentiation in time

x(t )

X [k ]e

jkw0t

d
d
jkw0t
jkw0t
x(t ) X [k ]e

X
[
k
]
jk
w
e

dt
dt k
k
d
FS ;w0
x(t )
jkw0 X [k ]
dt

## Differentiation forces the time-averaged value of

the differentiated signal to be zero; hence, the FS
coefficient for k=0 is zero

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214

Differentiation in time

## Ex. 3.39 Find the FS representation of the

triangular wave depicted in Fig. 3.59(a)

## Signals for Example 3.39. (a) Triangular wave y(t).

(b) The derivative of y(t) is the square wave z(t).

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215

Differentiation in time
Sol.
T 1
d
y (t ), as shown in Fig. 3.59(b). z (t ) 4 x (t ) 2, x(t ) could be obtained from Ex. 3.13 with 0 =
dt
T 4
(p. 221)
0, k 0

FS
z (t ) 4 x(t ) 2
Z [k ] 4 X [k ] 2 [ k ] 4sin( k )
2 ,k 0

k
d
Z [k ]
FS ;w0
z (t ) y (t )
Z [k ] jkw0Y [k ] Y [k ]
,k 0
dt
jkw0

Define z (t )

Y  is the average value of y (t ) and is determined by inspection of Fig. 3.59(a). Y 
T
2 ,k 0
2
Z [k ]
Z [k ]
Z [k ]

w0
Y [k ]

T Y [k ]
k
2
T
sin(
)
T
jkw0 jk 2
j 2 k

2 ,k 0
T

2 2
jk

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216

T
2

Differentiation in frequency

## Consider the FT X(jw)

X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt

d
d
jwt
jwt

X ( jw )
x
(
t
)
e
dt

x
(
t
)(

jt
)
e
dt

dw
dw
d
FT
jtx(t )
X ( jw )
dw

## Differentiation of a FT in the frequency domain

corresponds to multiplication of the signal by jt in
the time domain

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217

Differentiation in Frequency

## Ex. 3.40 FT of a Gaussian pulse

Determine the FT of the Gaussian pulse, defined by
g (t )

1
e
2

t2
2

## , as depicted in Fig. 3.60

Prob. 3.25,3.26,3.27,3.28

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218

## Figure 3.60 (p. 275)

Gaussian pulse g(t).

Differentiation in Frequency
d
d 1 t2
t t2
Sol.
g (t )
e
e tg (t )
(1)
dt
dt 2
2

d
FT
FT
g (t )
jwG ( jw ) tg (t )
jwG ( jw )
dt
d
1 d
FT
FT
jtg (t )
G ( jw ) tg (t )
G ( jw )
dw
j dw
1 d
d
jwG ( jw )
G ( jw ) wG ( jw )
G ( jw )
(2)
j dw
dw
2

c G ( j 0),

w2
2

t2
2

1
1
e dt 1 c 1,
e
2
2

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219

t2
2

FT

w2
2

Differentiation in Frequency

jW

X (e )

x[n]e jWn

d
d

j Wn
j Wn
X (e j W )
x
[
n
]
e

x
[
n
](

jn
)
e

dW
d W n
n
d
DTFT
jnx[n]
X (e j W )
dW

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220

x(t ) te at u (t ) tz (t ), z (t ) e at u (t )
d
d
FT
FT
jtz (t )
Z ( jw ), tz (t ) j
Z ( jw )
dw
dw
1
d 1
FT
Z ( jw )
, X ( jw ) j

jw a
dw jw a
j

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221

1 j

jw a )

jw a )

d
d
3t
2 t
y (t ) {te u (t ) * e u (t )} {x(t ) * z (t )}
dt
dt
1
FT
3t
x(t ) te u (t ) X ( jw )
2
jw 3)
1
z (t ) e u (t ) Z ( jw )
jw 2
2 t

FT

Y ( jw ) jw ( X ( jw ) Z ( jw )}

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222

jw

jw 3) jw 2
2

Integration

## Integration applies only to continuous dependent

variables.

Time: FT and FS
Frequency: FT and DTFT

## We limit our consideration here to integrating

nonperiodic signals with respect to time

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223

Integration
d
1
Let y (t ) x( )d x(t ) y (t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ), 0

dt
j
The value at 0 is modified by adding a term c ( ), where c depends on
the average value of x(t ). Th correct result is obtained by setting c X ( j 0)
t
1
FT
x( )d j X ( j ) X ( j 0) ( )
t

Integration

## Integration may be viewed as an averaging operation,

It tends to smooth signals in time
Deemphasizing the high-frequency components of the signal

Prob. 3.29

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224

1
z ( )d j Z ( j ) Z ( j0) ( )
1
1
1
X ( j )
( ), Z ( j )
, Z ( j 0) 1
j j 1
j 1
t

FT

x(t ) z ( )d e u ( )d e d

1 e t , if t 0

1 et u (t )
0, otherwise

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225

t

u (t ) ( )d ,

FT
(t )
1
FT
u (t )
U ( j )

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1
( )
j

226

## Figure 3.61 (p. 279)

Representation of a step function as the
sum of a constant and a signum function.

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227

1, t 0
1 1

## u (t ) sgn(t ), where sgn(t ) 0, t 0

2 2
1, t 0

1 FT
1
FT
( ), let sgn(t )
S ( j ) U ( j ) ( ) S ( j )
2
2
d
FT
sgn(t ) 2 (t ) j S ( j ) 2 ( (t )
1);
dt
2
, 0
S ( j 0) 0 because sgn(t) is odd S ( j ) j
0, 0

2
, with the understanding that S ( j 0) 0
j
1
1
U ( j ) ( ) S ( j ) ( )
2
j
It is common to write S ( j )

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228

Integration

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## Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Time-shift property
Let z (t ) x(t t0 ), find the FT of z (t )

Z ( j ) z (t )e

jt0

jt

dt x(t t0 )e

jt

dt x( )e j ( t0 ) d

x( )e j d e jt0 X ( j )

Z ( j ) X ( j ) , arg{Z ( j )} arg{ X ( j )} t0

e jt0

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## Ex. 3.41 Finding an FT using the time-shift

property
Use the FT of the rectangular pulse x(t) depicted in
Fig. 3.62(a) to determine the FT of the time-shifted
rectangular pulse z(t) depicted in Fig. 3.62(b)

## Figure 3.62 (p. 281)

Application of the time-shift
property for Example 3.41.

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232

Sol.
z (t ) x(t T1 ),
Z ( j ) e

jT1

X ( j ) e

jT1

sin(T0 )

## Prob. 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33

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233

Prob. 3.31(a)

x(t ) e 2t u (t 3)
Let y (t ) x(t 3) e
Y ( j ) e

2( t 3)

6 2 t

u (t ) e e u (t )

1
j 2

x(t ) y (t 3), X ( j ) e

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j 3

Y ( j ) e

234

j 3 6

1
j 2

## The time-shifting property may be used to find the

frequency response of a system described by the
difference equation
N

a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0

k 0

z[n k ] e
DTFT

jk

Z (e ) a k (e
j

k 0

H (e j )

Y (e )

j
X (e )

b (e
k 0
N

a (e
k 0

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j k

j k

235

) Y (e ) bk (e j ) k X (e j )

j k

k 0

j 2

1 2e
H (e )
j
j 3
3 2e 3e
a0 3, a1 2, a3 3, b0 1, b2 2
j

a y[n k ] b x[n k ]
k 0

k 0

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## Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Frequency-shift property
FT
x(t )
X ( j )

1
1
jt
jt
z (t )
Z
(
j

)
e
d

X
(
j
(

))
e
d

2
2

1
j ( ) t
j t 1
j t
j t

X
(
j

)
e
d

e
X
(
j

)
e
d

e
x(t )
2
2

## A frequency shift corresponds to multiplication in

the time domain by a complex sinusoid whose
frequency is equal to the shift

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## Ex. 3.42 Finding an FT using the frequencyshift property

Determine the FT of z(t), where
j10 t

e
, t

z (t )

0, t

Prob. 3.34

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## Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Sol.
1, t
x(t )
0, t
FT
x(t )
X ( j )

sin( )

FT
z (t ) e j10t x(t )
X ( j ( 10))
FT
z (t )
X ( j ( 10))

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2
sin(( 10) )
10

240

Prob. 3.34(a)

Z (e )

1 e

j ( /4)

, 1,

1
x[n ] u[n ] X ( e )
j
1 e
DTFT
j n
j ( )
e x[n ] X (e
)
n

Z (e ) X (e
z[ n ] e

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n
4

DTFT

j ( /4)

),

x[n ] e

n
4

nu[n ]

241

## Ex. 3.43 Using multiple properties to find an

FT
Determine the FT of x(t), where
d
x(t ) {(e3t u (t ))*(et u (t 2))}
dt

Prob. 3.35

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242

## Time- and Frequency-shift properties

Sol.
d
d
{(e 3t u (t )) *(e t u (t 2))} {w(t ) * v(t )}
dt
dt
Applying the convolution and differentiation properties from Table 3.5,
x(t )

X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )}
1
1
FT
3t
e u (t )
w(t ) e u (t ) W ( j )
a j
3 j
at

( t 2)

FT

u (t 2) e
FT

j 2

v(t ) e u (t 2) e {e

1
e j 2
1
FT
t

(i.e. e u (t )
)
1 j 1 j
1 j

( t 2)

e j 2
u (t 2)} e
1 j
FT

j e j 2
X ( j ) j{W ( j )V ( j )} e
(3 j )(1 j )
2

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## Finding the inverse Fourier transforms by

using partial-fraction expansions

## The frequency response of a system described by a

linear constant-coefficient differential/difference
equation is given by a ratio of two polynomials in
j/ej.
The partial-fraction expansion can be used to find the
inverse transforms for ratios of polynomials.

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## Inverse Fourier Transform

Suppose X ( j ) is expressed as a ratio of ploynomials in j
bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B( j )
X ( j )

N
N 1
( j ) aN 1 ( j ) a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Assume that M N , If M N , we may express X ( j ) as
X ( j )

M N

k 0

f k ( j ) k

B( j )
A( j )

FT
(t )
1 and the differentiation property can be used to
M N

k 0

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f k ( j ) k

245

## Inverse Fourier Transform

bM ( j ) M b1 ( j ) b0
B ( j )

X ( j )
( j ) N aN 1 ( j ) N 1 a1 ( j ) a0 A( j )
Let the roots of A( j ) be d k 1, 2,

## by determining the roots of v N aN 1v N 1

a1v a0 0.

X ( j )

b ( j )
k

k 1
N

( j d
k 1

FT
e dt u (t )

k
assuming d k are different N

k 1

Ck
j d k

1
, for d 0
j d
N

x(t ) Ck e u (t ) X ( j )
dk t

k 1

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FT

k 1

Ck
j d k

246

Prob. 3.36

j
1
2
(a) X ( j )

2
( j ) 3 j 2 j 1 j 2
N

x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) e t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t )
k 1

5 j 12
2
3
(b) X ( j )

2
( j ) 5 j 6 j 2 j 3
N

x(t ) Ck e dk t u (t ) 2e 2t u (t ) 3e 3t u (t )
k 1

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Multiplication property

Multiplication property
defines the Fourier representation of a product of timedomain signals y(t)=x(t)z(t), x(t) & z(t) are nonperiodic

1
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
2

1
(2 ) 2

1
X
(
j

)
e
d

j t

X ( j ) Z ( j )e

j ( ) t

Z ( j )e jt d

1
d d
2

1
2

jt
X
(
j

)
Z
(
j
(

)
d

e d

1
1
jt
jt
X
(
j

)
*
Z
(
j

)
e
d

Y
(
j

)
e
d
2

2
1
FT
y (t ) x(t ) z (t )
Y ( j )
X ( j ) * Z ( j )
2
1

## Multiplication in time domain corresponds to convolution

their FT in frequency domain and multiply by 1/(2)

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Multiplication property

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Multiplication property

## The multiplication property enables us to study the effect of

truncating a time-domain signal on its frequency-domain
representation.

## The process of truncating a signal is also known as windowing

1
y (t ) x(t ) w(t ) Y ( j )
X ( j ) *W ( j ),
2
where
FT

1, t T0 FT
2
w(t )
W ( j ) sin(T0 )

0, t T0

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## (b) Convolution of the signal and window FTs resulting

from truncation in time.

## The effect of windowing.

(a) Truncating a signal in time by using a window function w(t).

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Prob. 3.39

x(t )

4
2
2
sin
(2
t
)

z
(t )
2 2
t

2, 2
2
FT
z (t ) sin(2t ) Z ( j )
t
0, otherwise
X ( j )

1
Z ( j ) * Z ( j )
2

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2

252

Prob. 3.40(b)

FT
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t )
X ( j ) Y ( j ) * Z ( j )

1, t 1 FT 2sin( )
1, t 2 FT 2sin(2 )
w(t )

, w(t / 2)

0, t 1
0, t 2
FT
w(t t0 )
e jt0W ( j )
2sin( 2)
F 1
Let Y ( j )
, y (t ) e j 2 t [u(t 1) u(t 1)]
2
e j 2 sin(2 )
Let Z( j )

1
[ u ( t 2) u ( t 2)],t t 2
1
t

2
1
F
2
z (t ) w(
)
[u(t ) u(t 4)]
2
2
2
1

j 2t
x (t ) 2 y (t ) z (t ) 2 e [u(t 1) u(t 1)] [u(t ) u(t 4)]
2

## e j 2 t [u(t ) u(t 1)]

1

253

Scaling property
z (t ) x(at )
Z ( j )

z (t )e

jt

dt

x(at )e jt dt

j
1
x( )e a d , a 0

at a
1

1 x( )e j a d , a 0 a
a

FT
Z ( j )
z (t ) x(at )

x( )e

j
a

j
1
X( )
a
a

## Scaling in time-domain introduces inverse scaling in

frequency-domain and an amplitude change

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## The FT scaling property. The

figure assumes that 0 < a < 1.

255

Scaling property

## Ex. 3.48 Scaling a rectangular pulse

1, t 1
1, t 2
Use the FT of x(t )
to find the FT of y(t )
.

0, t 1
0, t 2

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Scaling property
Sol.
1, t 1
2
FT
x(t )
, x(t ) X ( j ) sin( )

0, t 1
2
2
FT
y (t ) x(t / 2)
Y ( j ) 2 X ( j 2 ) 2
sin(2 ) sin(2 )
2

## Figure 3.71 (p. 301)

Application of the FT scaling property in
Example 3.48. (a) Original time signal. (b)
Original FT. (c) Scaled time signal y(t) =
x(t/2). (d) Scaled FT Y(j) = 2X(j2).

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Scaling property

## Ex. 3.49 Using multiple properties to find an

inverse FT
d
e j 2
Find x(t ) if X ( j ) j
{
}
d 1 j ( )
3

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Scaling property
Sol.
1
s (t ) e u (t ) S ( j )
1 j
t

FT

d
e j 2
d
1
d
j
X ( j ) j
{
} j
{e j 2
} j
{e j 2 S ( )}

d 1 j ( )
d
d
3
1 j( )
3
3
j
Let Y ( j ) S ( ) y (t ) 3s(3t ) 3e 3t u (3t ) 3e 3t u (t )
3
j
j 2
Define W ( j ) e S ( ) e j 2Y ( j ) w(t ) y (t 2) 3e 3(t 2)u (t 2)
3
d
Since X ( j ) j
W ( j ) x(t ) tw(t ) 3te 3( t 2)u (t 2)
d
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Scaling property
Consider the periodic signal x(t ) with fundamental period T ,
then z (t ) x(at ) is also periodic with fundamental period T / a.
For convenience, assume a 0.
Z [k ]

T
a

T
a

a
a
jka0t
jka0t
dt
e
)
at
(
x

dt
e
)
t
(
z

T 0
T 0

FS ;a0
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0
z (t ) x(at )

## The FS coefficients of x(t ) and z (t ) are identical.

Scaling operation changes the harmonic spacing from 0 to a0 .
The scaling of discrete-time signals is further addressed in Prob. 3.80
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FT
x(t )
X ( j ) e j e

1
z (t ) x(at ) Z ( j ) X ( j / a)
a
FT

y (t ) x(2t ) Y ( j ) X ( j ( )), a 2
2
2
FT

1
Y ( j ) e
2

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2

1 j 2
e
e
2
2

261

FS ;

x(t )
X [k ] e

jk / 2

ke

2 k

, 0

FS ;a0
z (t ) x(at )
Z [k ] X [k ], a 0

y (t ) x(3t ), Y [k ] X [k ] e

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jk / 2

262

ke

2 k

, 0 3

Parseval relationships

## The Parsavel relationships state that the energy or

power in the time-domain representation of a signal is
equal to the energy or power in the frequency-domain
representation.
Energy and power are conserved in the Fourier
representation

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Parseval relationships
The energy in a continuous-time nonperiodic signal is

1
*
*
jt
Wx x(t ) dt x(t ) x (t )dt x(t )
X ( j )e d dt

1
1
*
jt
*

X
(
j

)
x
(
t
)
e
dt
d

X
( j ) X ( j )d

2
2

X ( j ) d
2

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Parseval relationships

## The energy in time-domain representation of the

signal is equal to the energy in the frequency-domain
representation, normalized by 2
|X(j)|2 is the energy spectrum of the signal.

## The power or energy spectrum of a signal is defined as the

square of the magnitude spectrum.

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Parseval relationships

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Parseval relationships

## Ex. 3.50 Calculating the energy in a signal

sin(Wn)
,
n
use the Parseval's theorem to evaluate

Let x[n]

n=-

sin 2 (Wn)
x[n]
2 n2
n=-
2

Prob. 3.43

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Parseval relationships
Sol.
1, W
sin(Wn) DTFT
j
x[n]
X (e )
n
0, W

= x[n]
n=-

1
2

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X (e j ) d

1
2

268

1d

Prob. 3.43(a)

1
d
2
2
j 2

4
j 2

1
2

d
2

X ( j ) d
2

2
X ( j )
x(t ) 2 e 2t u (t )
j 2
1
1
2

X ( j ) d

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x 2 (t )dt 2 e 2t dt 4 e 4t dt
0

269

Time-bandwidth product

## Compressing a signal in time leads to expansion in

the frequency domain and vice versa
The bandwidth of a signal is the extent of the signals
significant frequency component.

## the width of the mainlobe/2

the width of the mainlobe

bandwidth

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Time-bandwidth product

## Figure 3.72 (p. 305)

Rectangular pulse illustrating the
inverse relationship between the time
and frequency extent of a signal.

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Time-bandwidth product
Assume x(t ) is centered about the origion and is low pass.
The effective duration is defined by
1
2

t 2 x(t ) 2 dt

Td
2

x
(
t
)
dt

## and the effective bandwidth is defined by

w 2 X ( jw ) 2 d w

Bw
2

X
(
j
w
)
d
w

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2

272

Time-bandwidth product
It can be shown that the time-bandwidth product for any signal is
lower bounded according to the relationship
1
Td Bw
(3.65)
2
This bound indicates that we cannot simultaneously decrease the
duration and bandwidth of a signal.
Eq. (3.65) is also known as the uncertainty principle after its application
to modern physics, which exact position and exact momentum of an
electron cannot be determined simultaneously.
Gaussian pulses are the only signals that satisfy this relationship with
equality.
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Time-bandwidth product

## Ex. 3.51 Bounding the bandwidth of a rectangular

pulse

1, t T0
x(t )
, find a lower bound of Bw

0, t T0

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Time-bandwidth product
Sol.
1, t T0
x(t )
,
0, t T0
t 2 x(t ) dt

Td
2

x
(
t
)
dt

1
2

1
2

T0
2
t
dt

T
1
1
T

3
0
T00
t

3
2T0 3 T0
dt
T0

T0

1
1
3
Td Bw Bw

2
2Td 2T0

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Duality

## Figure 3.73 (p. 307)

Duality of rectangular pulses and sinc functions.

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Duality

We observed

## Consistent symmetry between the time- and frequencydomain representation of signals

Symmetries in Fourier representation properties

## Convolution in one domain corresponds to multiplication in the

other domain
Differentiation in in one domain corresponds to multiplication by
the independent variable in the other domain
Etc.

## The symmetries are a consequence of the symmetry

in the definition of time- and frequency-domain
representation.
We can interchange time and frequency. The
interchangeability property is termed duality

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Duality

## The duality property of the FT

1

jwt
dw
e
)
w
j
(
X

)
t
(
x

2
(3.66)
d
e
)

(
z

(
y
let
,

2
X ( jw ) x(t )e jwt dt

1
FT
(3.67)
z (w )
z (w )e jwt dt y (t )
If t , w , y (t )

2
1
FT
jwt
2 y (w ) (3.68)

)
t
(
z

dt
e
)
t
(
z
If w , t , y (w )

2
(3.67) & (3.68) imply symmetry between time and frequency.
FT
F ( jw ),
Given the FT pair: f (t )
FT
2 f (w )
we can have the new FT pair: F ( jt )

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Duality

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Duality

## Ex. 3.52 Applying duality

Find the FT of x(t )

1
1 jt

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Duality
Sol.
1
FT
f (t ) e u (t ) F ( jw )
& F ( jt )
2 f ( w )
1 jw
1
FT
F ( jt )

2 f (w ) 2 ew u ( w )
1 jt
t

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FT

281

Duality

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Duality

## Ex. 3.53 FS-DTFT duality

Determine the inverse DTFT of Fig. 3.75(a)

## Figure 3.75 (p. 311)

Example 3.53. (a) Triangular
spectrum. (b) Inverse DTFT.

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Duality
Sol.
DTFT
FS
Duality property of FS-DTFT: x[n]
X (e j ), X (e jt )
x[k ]
FS
Let z (t ) X (e jt ), if z (t )
Z [k ] then x[n] Z [-n]

## Assuming T 2 , specifically, z (t ) y (t ).Using the time-sift property, we have

2
, k 0

jk / 2
Z [k ] e
Y [k ] = 4 j k -1 sin( k )
2 ,k 0

k
, n 0

2
2 ,k 0

( n) 2
n2

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X ( jw ) u (w )
FT
x(t )
X ( jw )

1
F ( jt ) u (t ) f (w )
(w ) 2 x(w )
jw
1 1
1
j
x(t )
(t )
(t )
(t )
2 j (t )
2 jt
2 t
FT

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Skip

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Summary

## We develop techniques for representing signals as

weighted superposition of complex sinusoids
The weights are a function of the complex sinusoidal
frequencies and provide a frequency-domain
description of the signal.
Four representations

## Fourier representation properties relate the effect of

an action on a signal in the time-domain to a
corresponding change in the frequency-domain
representation

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