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Cairo University

Faculty of Engineering
Aerospace Engineering

First Term 2014/2015
Second Year
Sheet No. (3)

Mechanics of Structures (A)
Structural Instability
Problem No. (1) :
The system shown in Figure 1 consists of
two bars AB and BC, each of bending
stiffness EI elastically hinged together at B
by a spring of stiffness K (i.e. bending
moment applied by spring = K * change in
slope across B).
Regarding A and C as simple pin-joints,
obtain an equation for the first buckling load
of the system. What are the lowest buckling
(a) K 
(b) EI .
Note that B is free to move vertically.

Stiffness K

A

P

l

B

C P
l

Figure 1. Problem No. (1)

[Ans. 2K/tan l]

Problem No. (2) :
A pin-ended column of length l and constant
flexural stiffness EI is reinforced to give a
flexural stiffness 4EI over its central half as
shown in Figure 2.
Considering symmetric modes of
buckling only, construct the characteristic
equation and solve for the lowest buckling
[Ans. tan l/8=1/ 2 , P=2.456 π2EI/L2]

P

EI

4EI

EI

l/4

l/2

l/4

P

Figure 2. Problem No. (2)

Problem No. (3) :
Obtain an approximate value of the critical load for the column given in Problem (2)
using Rayleigh-Ritz method.
[Ans. P=2.589 π2EI/L2]

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Problem No. Problem No. (4) : The uniform column shown in Figure 3 is of length l and bending stiffness EI is built-in at one end and free at the other and has been designed so that its lowest flexural buckling load is P. Subsequently it has to carry an increased load. (6)  2  P EI Page 2 of 5 . (4) Problem No. (5) : Resolve problem (4) using Rayleigh-Ritz method. Problem No.Structural Instability Problem No. It has an initial curvature such that the lateral displacement at any point between the column and the straight line joining its ends is given by 4 ax l  x  l 2 Show that the maximum bending moment due to a compressive end load P is given by : M max 8aP  l   sec  1  2   l   2  where x Figure 4. of length l and bending stiffness EI . Determine the necessary spring stiffness k so that the buckling load becomes 4P. k=4P /(l-tan l)] EI EI P 4P k l l Figure 3. [Ans. and for this it is provided with a lateral spring at the free end. (6) : The uniform column shown in Figure 4 is pin-ended .

P=PE] W P l P a Figure 6. Show that then   e  w P 2 tan 2 l / 4 where  2  P / EI Deduce the end moment which will give the optimum condition when P tends to zero. The longitudinal compressive force P has Figure 5 . [Ans. Problem No. Problem No. (8) : Construct formulas for deflection and bending moment distributions along the span of the pinned-pinned beam column shown in Figure 6 and hence determine the value of the critical load. A uniform straight bar of length a and flexural stiffness EI is built-in at the end A and hinged at B to a link BC. (9) Figure 7 illustrates an idealized representation of a part of an aircraft control system. The end attachments do not P P l restrict rotation of the column ends. of length b. for given values of P and w. It is subjected to a uniform lateral loading e e w/unit length. (8) Problem No. whose other end C is pinned so that it is free to slide Page 3 of 5 . Problem No. [Ans. (7) : Figure 5 shows a straight uniform column w / unit length of length l and bending stiffness EI. The eccentricity e can be varied and is to be adjusted to the value which. wl2/16] Problem No. will result in the least maximum bending moment on the column. (9) : C B A a P P b Figure 7. (7) eccentricity e from the centroids of the end sections and is placed so as to oppose the bending effect of the lateral loading as shown.Structural Instability Problem No.

of the type illustrated in figure occurs when P has such a value that : tan(  a )    a  b  where  2  P EI Problem No. Page 4 of 5 . Derive formulas for the lateral deflection and bending moment along the column axis. by setting up and solving the differential equation for flexure of AB. Problem No. c. The column has initial curvature such that the lateral displacement at any point between the column and the straight line joining its ends is given by : vo  e sin x y e vo=e sin x/l x P P l Figure 9. A. that buckling of the system. The longitudinal compressive force P has an eccentricity e from the centroids of the end sections. (10) : A straight uniform column of length l and buckling stiffness EI. Derive formulas for the lateral deflection and bending moment along the column axis. Determine the value of the critical load of the column. For a value of P=Pcr/4 . c. (11) : A uniform. Problem No. determine the locations and values of the uppermost positive and negative bending moments and plot the bending moment distribution along the column axis. (11) l The end attachments do not restrict rotation of the column ends. Determine the value of the critical load of the column. The end attachments do not restrict rotation of the column ends. B and C are initially on a straight line and the system carries a compression force P.Structural Instability along the line ABC between smooth rigid guides. b. b. The longitudinal compressive force P has opposite eccentricities from the centroids of the end sections and are of the same value e as shown. It is required to : a. as shown. Problem No. Assuming that the link BC has a sufficiently high flexural stiffness to prevent its buckling as a pin-ended strut. It is required to : P e l P Figure 8 . pin-ended column of length l and buckling stiffness EI. (10) a. e/l is assumed small so that (2e/l)2 can be neglected with respect to one. show. plot the bending moment distribution along the column axis. For a value of P=Pcr/2 .

Derive formulas for the lateral deflection and bending moment along the column axis. The longitudinal compressive force P has an eccentricity e from the centroids of the end sections. it has to carry an increased load and for this one of its halves has to be reinforced as shown to give a flexural stiffness 2EI.419 π2EI/L2. For a value of P=0. (12) : A uniform. Problem No. The column has initial curvature such that the lateral displacement at any point between the column and the straight line joining its ends is given by : v  vo sin x l y e P v  vo sin  x / l P x l Figure 10 . Subsequently. Problem No.A. (13) Problem No. (13) : A uniform column of length l and bending stiffness EI is clamped at one end and free at the other one as shown in Figure 11. (12) The end attachments do not restrict rotation of the column ends. __________________________________________________________________________ E. the root half is reinforced b.64 Pcr . (14) : Use Rayleigh-Ritz method to compare between the buckling loads of the column given in Problem (13) for the cases when : a. the tip half is reinforced.Structural Instability Problem No. 2EI EI l/2 l/2 P Figure 11. It is required to : a. c. determine the value of vo / e which result in the least maximum bending moment on the column and for this value plot the bending moment distribution along the column axis. Obtain an improved solution for case a and hence comment on the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. pin-ended column of length l and buckling stiffness EI is shown in Figure 10 . b. Determine the value of the critical load of the column.S. Problem No. Show that then Pcr=0. Page 5 of 5 .