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CIGRE 2014

Phase Shifting Transformer on Power Control

A.L.N. Vita1, G.M. Bastos2, Dr. J.C. Mendes3, F.C. Neto2
Furnas Centrais Eltricas, Rio de Janeiro,Brazil
Furnas Centrais Eltricas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ABB, So Paulo, Brazil

Installed to improve the voltage control under normal operation, to reduce the electric losses
on transmission lines and create a new connection point to ensure the security of energy
supply to the Rio de Janeiro State, Furnas designed a solution that consists in a 500/138 kV
transformer in series with a 138/138 kV - 400 MVA phase-shifting transformer. Located at a
very important station in 1999 that supplies huge industries and the auxiliary services of
Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants, this phase-shifting transformer was the first
installed in South America.
In order to achieve the goal of preventing abnormal loadings due to local constraints and the
increasing load, regularly planning studies are carried out to define specific procedures. The
ability of setting the flux through the phase-shifting transformer under normal and abnormal
conditions allows exploiting the maximum transmission capacity by the lines connected to the
station. For example, previous settings already defined are used when occurs some
contingencies or nearby transmission lines or transformers maintenances are necessary.
As the phase-shifting varies from -21.6 to 21.6 degrees, the system operator is able to
maintain the flux equal a zero or direct the power flow into two directions: injecting or
removing it from the 500 kV or 138 kV transmission systems. Setting the flux equal a zero
improves the voltage control strategy at the minimum load periods, forcing the drop voltage at
the main grid. The disadvantage of this proceeding as an additional resource for voltage
control is that maintenance works are necessary in advance whenever this procedure is
adopted daily.
The use of this phase-shifting transformer improved the reliability and voltage quality in the
south of Rio de Janeiro. It increased in 120 MW the transmission line limit for Rio de Janeiro
and reduces in 10 MW the 500 kV, 345 kV and 138 kV transmission lines losses.

The localization of this phase-shifting transformer is of key importance for loading control at
others essentials substations. Because of an upgrade at the internal control system, another
benefit obtained with this equipment was the possibility of increasing the flux under normal
operation since an especial protection system verifies the local topology and reduces
automatically the flux through the equipment.
In this article it will be presented the technical reasons that led Furnas to choose this solution
for the Angra dos Reis substation. Additionally, the performance of the 138 kV phase-shifting
transformer controlling the power flow at the interconnection point of two power utilities and
how the protection and control systems of this phase-shifting transformer works to allow the
variation between the input and output voltage phase angle obtaining the performance of it.
The final design concept will be showed with special consideration to electrical design,
including final windings and internal connection arrangements, used criteria for on-load tap
changer selection and overall constructive details. A general view of the factory electrical
tests and performance data will be also presented along with the Monitoring System that
follows its life operation online through the INTRANET.
Describing the final design concept, the manufacturing process and the type and routine tests
performed, all the process will be covered from conceptual development to final installation at
site. The transformer operation results will prove the effectiveness of this solution in the load
flow control and that the equipment complied with the specification.

. Phase-shifting Transformer
. Power Control
. Power Systems


System motivation for installation of PST at Angra dos Reis Substation.

In July 2001 a 500/138 kV transformer and 138 kV phase-shifting transformer, 400 MVA, was
installed at Angra dos Reis Substation, interconnecting this substation with 138 kV Itaorna Substation,
belonging to the local distribution utility.
Before 2001, the Substation Angra dos Reis, 500 kV which receives the power generated by the two
nuclear power plants installed in Rio de Janeiro State, with about 1900 MW of installed power, was
connected to the transmission system of 500 kV responsible to supply energy to the southeast region
of Brazil and in particular the so-called "Area Rio." - Rio de Janeiro State and North of So Paulo
The energy demand of the west and south areas of Rio de Janeiro State, and in particular to Angra dos
Reis county is supplied by the local distribution utility, through the 138kV Itaorna substation. This
substation was fed by transmission lines coming from the Jacarepagua substation which in turn was
connected to the system through the 500 kV substation Adrianopolis.
At that time the system configuration was as shown in the figure below.

Figure 1 - Area System before installation o PST

Until 2001 there was no direct connection between the substations of Angra dos Reis 500 kV and
Itaorna 138 kV. Thus, the energy generated in nuclear power plants Angra goes a long way to be
consumed locally, compromising the quality of this energy, associated with a low level of shortcircuit. A conventional transformer between the two substations would greatly increase the flow
between the two substations, requiring a complete overhaul of the 138 kV system.
In addition, the substation Itaorna 138 kV was connected to low level short circuit transmission
system, compared with the 500 kV substation which had a high level short circuit so that the direct
interconnection of two substation through a conventional transformer, will result in unacceptable
increase short circuit level in 138 kV side.
Thus, the installation of a conventional transformer of 500/138 kV transformer in series with a phaseshifting of 138/138 kV would regulate the flow between the systems 500 and 138 kV, and would
improve the quality of power supply in Itaorna 138 kV substation without any need to make major
changes in this system.

Based on planning studies that defined the characteristics of the equipment to meet the system
requirements, Furnas developed a functional specification for the conventional transformer and the
phase-shifting of Angra.
Different system conditions were analyzed and backgrounds so that they define the maximum and
minimum angles required for regulating the power flow between the systems 500 and 138 kV. Another
major concern was the maximum angle / drop allowed for each position change did not cause
significant disturbances in the interconnected system.
The main components of the phase-shifting specification are shown below.
Rated Voltage (kVef,)
Maximum Voltage (kVef)
Nominal Power (MVA)
Angular Variation
On Load Tap Change
BIL (kV)
Short-circuit Current (kA)
Simultaneous load condition

Table 1 PST Main Characteristics

+ 21,66
+25 (400 MVA)


1550 / 1780
550 / 638
0,8 inductive and/or capacitive (400 MVA)


The phase-shifting transformer of Angra dos Reis substation was supplied by ABB Brazil Guarulhos (SP) to
Furnas in 2001and incorporates the regulatory system voltage in magnitude and phase of Angra dos Reis
substation system.
This system consists of a bank of three (3) autotransformers 133,33 MVA, 525/138 + 8 x 1,25% -13,8 kV
(control module voltage) and a three phase phase-shifting transformer 400 MVA, 138/138kV, + 21,66
(regulating voltage phase). Figure 2 shows a photo of the PST outline and installation.

Figure 2 PST of Angra dos Reis View

The voltage regulation system starts its operation in March 2001. Figure 3 shows the general scheme
of the of the Angra dos Reis substation system voltage.

Figure 3 PST winding connections

The conception was a dual core designed for this PST as show in the figure 4 and it works with a total
of six OLTC, three on the source side and three on the load side to compose the + 21,66 of angle
variation .

Figure 4 PST winding connections

Due to the need to acquire adequate knowledge to specify the first phase-shifting transformer of the
Brazilian electric system, Furnas sought prior technical knowledge and the world experience, but to
check the project and design need to strengthen the practice of design review.
On figure 5 could be seen the interconnection and the physical position of all PST coil.

Figure 5 PST architecture and connections between the coils



The FURNAS PST is installed at Angra dos Reis substation, one of the 500 kV facilities that supplies
the Rio de Janeiro State and where the Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants are connected.
Located at the south region, that concentrates huge amount of industries, this equipment has improved,
the short-circuit rate, the voltage level under normal and abnormal conditions and the reliability of the
auxiliary services of these nuclear power plants.
This new solution became one more source to the Rio de Janeiro City and the main supplying
substations to the capital are Jacarepagu 345/138 kV, Graja 500/138 kV and Angra dos Reis
500/138 kV, as depicted at Figure 1.

Figure 6 Rio de Janeiro city main supplying sources

The grid where the PST is connected is represented at Figure 3. Although its specification is
400 MVA, the load setting since 2000 until 2012 was up to 270 MW under normal conditions due to
transmission lines constraints. In 2012, in order to reduce the loading of the Jacarepagu transformers
in both normal and emergency conditions, FURNAS designed a Special Protection Scheme that
allowed increase the load setting up to 310 MW. The reasons for these procedures will be shown

Figure 3 Connection point of the Brazilian PST


FURNAS PST is equipped with an on-load tap changer to enable the load flow control. As the phaseshifting varies from -21.6 to 21.6 degrees, the system operator is able to maintain the load flow in both
directions. However the normal operation is only from the 500 kV to the 138 kV transmission system.
The ability of setting the flux through the PST in real time operation allows exploit the maximum
transmission capacity by the lines connected to the station under normal and abnormal conditions.

In order to achieve the goal of preventing abnormal loadings due to local constraints, regularly
planning studies are carried out to define specific procedures in the case of:

single line contingencies;

nearby transmission lines maintenance;
unavailability of one 345/138 kV 225 MVA autotransformer banc of Jacarepagu substation;
unavailability of one 500/138 kV 600 MVA autotransformer banc of Graja substation;
overloading at Jacarepagu substation due to huge amount of thermic generation at specific
6. increase of load without a new supplying source.

Under normal conditions the load setting was defined at 270 MW. This value had the guarantee that
contingencies wouldnt provoke overloading at the remaining transmission lines. In the case of
transformers outage, huge thermic generation or transformers overloading under normal operational it
was established that the operator in real time could raise the PST load setting up to the lines capacity.
In some cases, the amount achieved was 330 MW.
When nearby transmission lines maintenances are necessary, the load setting needs to be reduced, as
depicted at Table 2, in order to prevent overloading in case of contingencies during the programmed
outage. The same values may be used when forced outages occurs, because there is no interconnection
between Angra dos Reis and Santa Cruz with another part of the grid.
Table 2 Load setting under unavailability

TL Santa Cruz Angra

TL Angra Jacuacanga
TL Angra dos Reis Angra
TL Jacuacanga Brisamar
TL Angra Muriqui
TL Muriqui Brisamar
TL Santa Cruz Brisamar #1
TL Santa Cruz Brisamar #2


150 MW
160 MW
150 MW
160 MW
160 MW
170 MW
210 MW
260 MW

Another advantage obtained with the PST is the possibility to use it as an additional resource for the
voltage control strategy at the minimum load periods. This benefit is obtained setting the flux equal a
zero, forcing the drop voltage by the 500 kV grid. Nevertheless this proceeding has a disadvantage:
maintenance works are necessary in advance if adopted frequently.
Figure 3 shows with green arrows how the energy flows through the main grid if the setting flux is
adjusted at 0 MW.

Figure 3 Load flow if the load setting is equal a 0 MW



While the local load increases gradually, environmental issues difficult the implementation of
reinforcements at the 138 kV transmission system connected to the Angra dos Reis substation and this
limitation do not permit the usage of the full capacity of the PST. At the same time, postpones of new
planning solutions yields in high loading at Jacarepagu transformers under normal conditions mainly
in the summer period.
Looking for a provisory solution for this problem, FURNAS designed a Special Protection Scheme
through the upgrade of the internal control system that enabled to increase the loading under normal
operation over 270 MW. When a contingency occurs and if a overloading exists, the scheme
automatically reduces the load setting to 210 MW to ensure that the violation will be extinguished. If
this first stage does not operate, a second stage will open the breakers B1, B2 and B3 of the three lines
at the Angra dos Reis substation, as indicated at the Figure F3. This procedure does not provoke
This scheme works verifying the local topology and measuring the current at each transmission line
connected to this substation and actually the load setting is adjusted at 310 MW under normal



The connection point of the PST is of key importance because it permits control the load flow and
avoids local grid violations. This PST improves the reliability, the short-circuit rate, the voltage
quality in the south region of Rio de Janeiro and reduces the Jacarepagu and Graja transformers
loading, the most important substations of the Rio do Janeiro City. It also increases the energy transfer
to the Rio de Janeiro State and reduces transmission lines losses.
The transformer outages were the most serious condition that FURNAS faced out, seriously affected
by the summer period. In these cases, the Angra dos Reis PST was essential to control transformers

This paper presented the regular studies performed to define the load setting used for normal operation
and programmed or forced outages. Additionally, detailed the Special Protection Scheme designed to
overcome overloading in real time operation and its action under contingencies.


Working Group SC 88-12 CIGRE. The title of the working group (Publication name, number,
issue, pages 77 - 88)
Forecast Study ordered by and done by (Publication name, number, issue, pages 77 - 88)
And others and more (Publication name, number, issue, pages 77 - 88)