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Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was an Indian artist and a pioneer in the production of silent Indian movies

and talkies.[32] Starting from 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema's history, like
travelling to different regions in Asia, to promote film work. He was the first to build and own cinema halls
in Madras
Actor of the time, Chittor V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor, singer, music composer,
producer and director's in India. He was known as the Paul Muni of India in the media.[39][40]
In 1933, East India Film Company has produced its first Indian film Savitri Shot in Calcutta on a budget
of 75 thousand, based on a noted stage play by Mylavaram Bala Bharathi Samajam, the film was
directed by C. Pullaiah casting stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam as Yama and
Savithri, respectively.[41] The blockbuster film has received an honorary diploma at Venice Film Festival.
The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya
in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.[43]
Vishwa Mohini, is the first Indian film, depicting the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V.
Rao and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi.[45]
Sant Tukaram, a 1936 film based on the life of Tukaram(160850), a Varkari Sant and spiritual poet, was
screened at the 1937 edition of Venice Film Festival and thus became the first Indian film to be screened
at an international film festival. The film was subsequently adjudged as one of the three best films of the
year in the World.[47]
In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, has co-produced and directed the social problem film, Raithu Bidda,
which was banned by the British administration in the region, for depicting the uprise of the peasantry
among the Zamindar's during the British raj.[48][49]
The Indian Masala filma slang used for commercial films with song, dance, romance etc.came up
following the second world war.[44]South Indian cinema gained prominence throughout India with the
release of S.S. Vasan's Chandralekha.[44] During the 1940s cinema inSouth India accounted for nearly half
of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival. [44] Thepartition
of India following its independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios went to the newly
formed Pakistan.[44]The strife of partition would become an enduring subject for film making during the
decades that followed.[44]
Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of The Apu Trilogy (19551959) by Satyajit Ray, marked his entry in
Indian cinema.[70] The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and led to
the 'Parallel Cinema' movement being firmly established in Indian cinema. Its influence on world
cinema can also be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the midfifties" which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy". [71]
The cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with Satyajit Ray's The Apu Trilogy, also had an
important influence on cinematography across the world. One of his most important techniques
was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while
filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of The Apu Trilogy.[72] Some of the experimental techniques
which Satyajit Ray pioneered include photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray digressions while
filming Pratidwandi (1972).[73] Ray's 1967 script for a film to be called The Alien, which was eventually
cancelled, is also widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielberg's E.T. (1982).[74][75]
Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak went on to direct many more critically acclaimed 'art films', and they
were followed by other acclaimed Indian independent filmmakers such as Mrinal Sen, Mani Kaul, Adoor
Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan and Buddhadeb Dasgupta.[64] During the1960s, Indira Gandhi's

intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India further led to
production of off-beat cinematic expression being supported by the official Film Finance Corporation. [51]
Commercial Hindi cinema also began thriving, with examples of acclaimed films at the time include
the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951)
and Shree 420 (1955). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life
in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality
of city life.[64] Some epic films were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan's Mother
India (1957), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film,[77] and K.
Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960).[78] V. Shantaram's Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957) is believed to have
inspired the Hollywood film The Dirty Dozen (1967).[79] Madhumati (1958), directed by Bimal Roy and
written by Ritwik Ghatak, popularised the theme ofreincarnation in Western popular culture.[80] Other
mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi and Vijay Bhatt.
In 2002, the Guinness Book of Records named Vijaya Nirmala as the female director with most number of
films; she made 47 films. In a career spanning approximately two decades, she acted in over 200 films
with 25 each in Malayalam and Tamil. She also produced 15 films. [217] Telugu actor Brahmanandam holds
the Guinness World Record for acting in the most number of films in a single language. [28][213][218][219] Movie
producer D.Rama Naidu holds the Guinness World Record as the most prolific producer with 130 films.[220]
S. V. Ranga Rao is one of the first Indian actors of the time to receive international award at Indonesian
Film Festival, held in Jakarta forNarthanasala in 1963.[221] N. T. Rama Rao was one of the most
commercially successful Telugu actors of his time.[222] B. Narsing Rao, K. N. T. Sastry and Pattabhirama
Reddy have garnered international recognition for their pioneering work in Parallel Cinema.[223][224] Adurthi
Subba Rao, has garnered ten National Film Awards, the highest individual awards in Telugu cinema, for
his pioneering work as a director.[225]
S. V. Ranga Rao, N. T. Rama Rao, Kanta Rao, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Savitri, Gummadi and Sobhan
Babu are the actors who received the erstwhile Rashtrapati Award for best performance in a leading role.
Sharada, Archana, Vijayashanti, Rohini, Nagarjuna Akkineni, and P. L. Narayana are the actors to
receive the National Film Award for best performance in acting from this industry. Chiranjeevi, was listed
among "The men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema" by IBN-live India.

Pathala Bhairavi among other cult films like Raja Harishchandra (1913), Bhakta Prahlada (1932), Mala
Pilla, Devadasu (1953) and Lava Kusa (1963) during a speech on the role of Telugu cinema in the
hundred years of Indian cinema.[35] On the centenary of Indian cinema in April 2013, CNN-IBN
included Pathala Bhairavi in its list, "The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". [26]
Pathala Bhairavi was the only South Indian film to be screened at the first International Film Festival of
India held at Mumbai on 24 January 1952.[3][8][23]
Malliswari is a 1951 Telugu musical film directed by B. N. Reddi and produced by Vauhini Studios, with
songs penned byDevulapalli Krishnasastri. This film is based on Buchi Babus radio play Rayala
Karunakrutyam.[1] The film is considered as a timeless Indian film classic[2] It is the first Telugu film to be
screened at International film festivals like Asia Pacific Film Festival. The film had a public re-release with
thirteen prints and Chinese subtitles, in Beijing, on 14, March 1953,[3]
B. N. Reddy recalls: "When I went to Hampi to shoot my first film Vande Mataram in 1939, I was deeply
attracted to Sri Krishna Devarayalu. I wanted to make a film on Sri Krishna Devaraya. Years passed by.
But I could not get the right story. Fortunately,Malliswari happened. I think it is the best movie I have
directed."[4] The film is listed among CNN-IBN's list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time". [5]
Nartanasala also written as Nartanashala (Telugu: English:The Dance Hall) was a
1963, Indian epic mythological, Telugu film written by Samudrala Raghavacharya and directed
by Kamalakara Kameshwara Rao. It was produced by Rajyam Pictures in Black and White. The film was
a blockbuster.[1] The film received awards for best production design and best actor to S. V. Ranga Rao,

at the Indonesian Film Festival.[2] The film is cited among CNN-IBN's list of hundred greatest Indian films
of all time.[3] The film won the National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film in 1963 at the 11th
National Film Awards, and has secured the Filmfare Award for Best Telugu Film.[1]

Nartanasala has been screened in Jakarta International Film Festival. S.V. Ranga Rao won the
best actor award and T.V.S. Sharma the best art director award.[4]
The film won All India Certificate of Merit for the Second Best Feature Film in 1963 at 11th
National Film Awards.[1]

Sankarabharanam (English: The Jewel of Shankara) is a 1980 Telugu musical drama

film directed by K. Viswanath and produced by Poornodaya Movie Creations. The soundtrack was
composed by K. V. Mahadevan, and remained a chartbuster. The film is listed among CNN-IBN's
list of hundred greatest Indian films of all time.[1]

The blockbuster film has received four National Film Awards including the National Film Award for
Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment, and five state Nandi Awards. [2] The film
was premiered at the 8th International Film Festival of India,[3][4] the Tashkent Film Festival, and
the Moscow International Film Festival held in May 1980.[5] The film has also won the Prize of the
Public at the Besancon Film Festival of France in the year 1981.[6]

Sagara Sangamam (English: Confluence with Ocean) is a 1983 Telugu musical dance
film directed by K. Viswanath and produced by Edida Nageswara Rao, starring Kamal
Haasan, Jayaprada, Geetha, Sarath Babu, S. P. Sailaja and Chakri Toleti.[1] Upon release, the film
received positive reviews and became a box office hit. The film has received two National Film
Awards, and threeFilmfare Awards South. The film is listed among CNN-IBN's list of hundred
greatest Indian films of all time.[2]

The film was dubbed into Tamil as Salangai Oli. It was dubbed later into Malayalam. Kamal
Hassan had lent his voice for all three versions. The film was premiered at the International Film
Festival of India.[3] The film got critical acclaim at the Asia Pacific Film Festival.[4]

Siva (Telugu: ) is a 1989 Telugu action film, written and directed by Ram Gopal Varma in his
debut. The film was produced byAkkineni Venkat, and deals with student politics in a mafia
backdrop. Starring Akkineni Nagarjuna, Amala Akkineni played the lead roles and music
composed by Ilaiyaraaja. Upon release, the film received very positive reviews and remained a
cult classic blockbuster. [1]

The film was premiered at the 13th International Film Festival of India on January 19, 1990 at the
Empire Theater in Kolkata.[2] The film has garnered state Nandi Awards for Best direction, Best
First Film of a director and Best dialogue writer. The film has also garnered the Filmfare Award for
Best Film Telugu. The film is listed among CNN-IBN's 100 greatest Indian films of all time.[3]

Maa Bhoomi (Telugu: , English: Our land) is a 1980 Telugu drama film written and produced
by B. Narsing Rao based on a play by Krishan Chander on the Telengana Rebellion in Hyderabad State.
The film depicts a typical life of villagers under feudalistic society in Telangana region. It was the first
feature film of director Goutam Ghose. The film was premiered at theInternational Film Festival of India,
1980,[1] India's official entry at the Karlovy Vary Film Festival of July 1980, [2] the Cairo and Sidney Film
Festivals.[3][4] The film is listed among CNN-IBN's list of hundred greatest Indian films of all time. [5]

Mayabazar (English: Market of Illusions) is a 1957 Indian bilingual mythological epic film directed
by Kadiri Venkata Reddy and produced by B. Nagi Reddy and Aluri Chakrapani for their production
banner, Vijaya Vauhini Studios. An adaptation of the folktaleSasirekha Parinayam (in turn based on

the Mahabharata), the film was shot in Telugu and Tamil with the same title and a slightly-different cast.
The Telugu version features N. T. Rama Rao, Savitri, Akkineni Nageswara Rao and S. V. Ranga Rao in
lead roles, with Gummadi Venkateswara Rao, Mukkamala, Ramana Reddy and Relangi Venkata
Ramaiah in supporting roles. Gemini Ganesan, D. Balasubramaniam, R. Balasubramaniam and V. M.
Ezhumalai replace Nageswara Rao, Venkateswara Rao, Mukkamala and Venkata Ramaiah, respectively,
in the Tamil version. The film revolves around the roles of Krishna andGhatotkacha in the marriage
of Balarama's daughter (Sasirekha) to Arjuna's son, Abhimanyu.
The film's Telugu version was released on 27 March 1957; the Tamil version was released nearly a month
later, on 12 April. Both were critically and commercially successful, with a theatrical run of 100 days in 24
theatres, and it became a silver-jubilee film.Mayabazar was also dubbed into Kannada. The film was a
landmark of Telugu and Tamil cinema, with praise for the lead cast and its technical aspects (despite the
technology available at the time). Mayabazar received the Filmfare Award for Best Film in Telugu, and
was featured at the 1957 International Film Festival of India and the Indonesian Film Festival. The film
was screened at thePublic Gardens in Hyderabad for its 50th anniversary on 7 April 2007, and a May
2013 CNN-IBN poll listed Mayabazar as the greatest Indian film of all time.
Devadasu is regarded as one of the most successful films in both Tamil and Telugu cinema. [11] Upon
release, the dialogue "Thaagithe maruva galanu, thaaganivvaru, marichipothe thaagagalanu,
maruvanivvaru" (English: If I drink, I can forget, but they dont let me drink; if I forget, I can drink, but they
dont let me forget) became famous.[12]The film proved to be a major breakthrough in Nageswara Rao's
career. The success of the film made him known as "Tragedy King" and also lead him in getting
typecasted in similar roles.[a] Nageswara Rao in order to get rid of the tragic-romantic hero image took up
the comic role in Missamma (1955).[13]
In July 2007, S. R. Ashok Kumar asked eight Tamil directors to list ten of their favourite films. Balu
Mahendra named Devadasu as one of the top ten Tamil films. Mahendra added that the film had "superb
lighting by B.S.Ranga, excellent performance by A. Nageswara Rao and Savithri and haunting music by
C.R.Subbaraman".[14] CNN-IBN included the film in its list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time ".