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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or

forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before

it is able to survive on its own.
An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage.
It can also be purposely caused in which case it is known as an induced abortion.
The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human
pregnancy. The similar procedure after the fetus may be able to survive on its own
is medically known as a "late termination of pregnancy".
Abortion in the developed world has a long history of being among the safest
procedures in medicine when allowed by local law. Uncomplicated abortions do
not cause either long term mental health or physical problems.
In some contexts, abortion is legal based on specific conditions, such as incest,
rape, problems with the fetus, socioeconomic factors or the risk to a mother's
health. In many parts of the world there is prominent public controversy over the
moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion.
In philosophical, theological, or moral discussions, corruption is spiritual or
moral impurity or deviation from an ideal. Corruption may include many
activities including bribery andembezzlement. Government, or 'political',
corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts
in an official capacity for personal gain.
The word corrupt when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken". The
word was first used by Aristotle and later by Cicero who added the terms bribe and
abandonment of good habits. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that corruption
is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist I.
Senior defines corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service
to a third party (c) so that he or she can influence certain actions which (d) benefit
the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority.
Corruption can occur on different scales. There is corruption that occurs as small
favors between a small number of people (petty corruption), corruption that affects
the government on a large scale (grand corruption), and corruption that is so
prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as
one of the symptoms of organized crime (systemic corruption).

Poverty is general scarcity or dearth, or the

state of one who lacks a certain amount of
material possessions or money.

It is a multifaceted concept, which includes social, economic political elements.

Poverty seems to be chronic or temporary, and most of the time it is closely related
to inequality. As a dynamic concept, poverty is changing and adapting according to
consumption patterns, social dynamics and technological change.
Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs,
which commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and
education. Relative poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the
location or society in which people live.
The word poverty comes from old French povert (Modern French: pauvret), from
Latin pauperts from pauper (poor). The English word "poverty" via AngloNorman povert. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context
of the situation it is placed in, and the views of the person giving the definition.

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging

in sexual relations in exchange for payment or some
other benefit. Prostitution is sometimes described
as commercial sex.
A person who works in this field is called a prostitute, and is a kind of sex worker.
Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of
prostitution varies from country to country, ranging from being permissible but
unregulated, to an enforced or unenforced crime, or a regulated profession.
Prostitution is sometimes also referred to as "the world's oldest profession".
Prostitution occurs in a variety of forms. Brothels are establishments specifically
dedicated to prostitution. In escort prostitution, the act may take place at the client's
residence or hotel room (referred to as out-call), or at the escort's residence or a
hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort (in-call).
Another form is street prostitution. Although the majority of prostitutes are female
with male clients, there are also gay male prostitutes, lesbian prostitutes, and
heterosexual male prostitutes. Sex tourism refers to traveling to engage in sexual
relations with prostitutes. Some rich clients may pay for long-term contracts that
may last for years.
The World Health Organization defines violence as "the intentional use of
physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person,
or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high
likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment,
or deprivation", but acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in
its definition expands on the conventional meaning of the word.

Violence in many forms is preventable. Evidence shows strong relationships

between levels of violence and potentially modifiable factors such as concentrated
poverty, income and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, and the absence
of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Scientific
research shows that strategies addressing the underlying causes of violence can be
effective in preventing violence.

Drug addiction, also called substance use

disorder, is a dependence on a legal or illegal
drug or medication.
Keep in mind that alcohol and nicotine are legal substances, but are also considered
When you're addicted, you're not able to control your drug use and you may
continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an
intense craving for the drug. You may want to quit, but most people find they can't
do it on their own.
Drug addiction can cause serious, long-term consequences, including problems
with physical and mental health, relationships, employment, and the law.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that
develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon
cessation of drug use. A drug addiction, a distinct concept from substance
dependence, is defined as compulsive, out-of-control drug use, despite negative
An addictive drug is a drug which is both rewarding and reinforcing. FosB,
a gene transcription factor, is now known to be a critical component and common
factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral addiction and drug
addictions, but not dependence.

Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is

forcing undesired sexual behavior by one
person upon another.
The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or (often pejoratively) molester. The
term also covers any behavior by any adult towards a child to stimulate either the
adult or child sexually.

Spousal sexual abuse is a form of domestic violence. When the abuse involves
forced sex, it may constitute rape upon the other spouse, depending on the
jurisdiction, and may also constitute an assault.
Sexual misconduct can occur where one person uses a position of authority to
compel another person to engage in an otherwise unwanted sexual activity.
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which a child is abused for the
sexual gratification of an adult or older adolescent. It includes direct sexual contact,
the adult or otherwise older person engaging indecent exposure to a child with
intent to gratify their own sexual desires or to intimidate or groom the child, asking
or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities, displaying pornography to a
child, or using a child to produce child pornography.

Pornography (often abbreviated as "porn" or

"porno" in informal usage) is the portrayal
of sexual subject matter for the purpose of
sexual arousal.
The XXX symbol used to designate pornographic material in the U.S. and other
regions around the world.
Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines,
postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound
recording, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act
rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex
shows and striptease.
Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual
nature immoral and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have
them suppressed under obscenity and other laws, with varying degrees of success.
Such works have also often been subject to censorship and other legal restraints to
publication, display or possession. Such grounds and even the definition of
pornography have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts.
Irrespective of the legal or social view of pornography, it has been used in a number
of contexts. There is also some evidence that pornography can be used to

Homicide is the act of a human being killing

another human being.

Criminal homicide takes many forms including accidental or purposeful murder.

The crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the mental state of
the committing person and the extent of the crime. Murder, for example, is usually
an intentional crime. In many cases, homicide may in fact lead to life in prison or
even capital punishment, but if the defendant in a capital case is sufficiently
mentally disabled in the United States he or she cannot be executed. Instead, the
individual is placed under the category of "insane".
Criminal homicides also include voluntary and involuntary manslaughter. An
example of voluntary manslaughter is hitting someone with intent to kill them,
whereas involuntary manslaughter is unintentionally killing someone. The
perpetrator does not receive the same legal action against them as a person
convicted of murder.
Although suicide is not considered to be homicide, anyone that assists an individual
in the moment of suicide may be convicted of homicide, as codified, for instance,
in California Penal Code Sec. 401.
Homicides may also be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state.
The most obvious examples are capital punishment, in which the state determines
that a person should die. Homicides committed in action during war are usually not
subject to criminal prosecution either.

Polygamy (from Late Greek, polygamia, "state of

marriage to many spouses" or "frequent marriage") is a
marriage that includes more than two partners.
When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, the relationship is
called polygyny; and when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time,
it is called polyandry.
If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be
called polyamory, group or conjoint marriage. The term is used in related ways
in social anthropology, sociology, as well as in popular speech. In
contrast,monogamy is a marriage consisting of only two parties.
Like monogamy, the term polygamy is often used in ade facto sense, applied
regardless of whether the relationship is recognized by the state.
In sociobiologyand zoology, polygamy is used in a broad sense to mean any form
of multiple mating.
In countries that do not permit polygamy, a person who marries a second person
while still being lawfully married is committing the crime of bigamy.

Polygamy exists in three specific forms: polygyny - wherein a man has multiple
simultaneous wives; polyandry - wherein a woman has multiple simultaneous
husbands; or group marriage - wherein the family unit consists of multiple
husbands and multiple wives.
Anthropologists treat serial monogamy, in which divorce and remarriage occur, as a
form of polygamy as it also establishes a series of households that continue to be
tied by shared paternity and shared income. Ambiguity may arise when the broad
term "polygamy" is used with reference to a specific form of polygamy.
Additionally, different countries may or may not include all forms in their laws on

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of

material value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with
an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning
additional money and/or material goods.
Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, chance and
prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice or
a spin of a roulette wheel, but longer time frames are also common, allowing
wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.
The term gaming in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity
has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive;
a "gaming" company offers (legal) "gambling" activities to the public and may be
regulated by one of many gaming control boards.
The word gaming is used more frequently since the rise of computer games to
describe activities that do not necessarily involve wagering, especially online
gaming, with the new usage still not having displaced the old usage as the primary
definition in common dictionaries.

Fornication is generally consensual sexual

intercourse between two people not married to
each other.
For many people, the term carries an overtone of moral or religious disapproval,
but the significance of sexual acts to which the term is applied varies between
religions, societies and cultures. The definition is often disputed. In modern usage,
the term is often replaced with a more judgment-neutral term like extramarital sex.

The word derives from Latin, fornix meaning "arch", supposedly as a euphemism
for "brothel". The first recorded use in English is in the Cursor Mundi, c. 1300;
the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) records a figurative use as well: "The
forsaking of God for idols".
Fornicated as an adjective is still used in botany, meaning "arched" or "bending
over" (as in a leaf). In architecture, the term refers to vault; this usage, by way of
prostitutes in Rome who supposedly "frequented the vaulted arcades surrounding
the Colosseum", has given rise to its current meaning.
In the English translations of the Bible the Greek term (porneia) has given
rise to some dispute. The traditional translation of the term into English has
been fornication, but has also been translated as whoredom.
According to the New Testament Greek Lexicon, it is defined "illicit sexual
intercourse", which is then further defined as "adultery, fornication, homosexuality,
lesbianism, intercourse with animals etc.", "sexual intercourse with close relatives",
"sexual intercourse with a divorced man or woman" and "metaph. the worship of