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VOLUME NO. 1 (2014), ISSUE N O.

01 (AUGUST )

ISSN

-2349-7742

DESIGN & SIMULATION OF PYRAMIDAL HORN ANTENNA FOR NAVIGATION AND
SURVEILLANCE APPLICATIONS
Anushruti Jaiswal, Bhavna Vyas, Prof. K.Shambavi
SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING,
VIT UNIVERSITY, VELLORE-632014,
TAMILNADU, INDIA
ANUSHRUTI88JAISWAL@GMAIL.COM

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and simulation of Pyramidal horn antenna operating in X band for Navigation and Surveillance applications. The directivity of the
proposed antenna ranges from 15.18dBi to 18.55dBi and beamwidth ranges from 30.0deg to 20.9deg. The parametric characteristics of the antenna are almost
consistent in the operating band. The performance characteristics for this pyramidal horn antenna have been studied using CST software.

KEYWORDS
Surveillance, Pyramidal horn antenna, CST.

1. INTRODUCTION

P

yramidal horn antenna plays a vital role in navigation and surveillance applications. Surveillance systems are used as threat emitter systems, such as TES960 and TES-1210. The former consists of four pyramidal horn antennas and provides 4 bands of frequency coverage over a range of 900MHz to 9000MHz
and the latter consists of three log periodic antenna and one pyramidal horn antenna. Both systems are basically used in military where they are used in
OD green, desert tan and white. Surveillance system is also used in air traffic control (ATC), that not only detects and measures the position of aircraft i.e.
range and bearing, but also requests additional information from the aircraft itself such as its identity and altitude. Some other applications for pyramidal horn
antennas include terrestrial communication in satellite links, where they are used in line of sight (LOS) communication / transmission applications. Pyramidal
horns antennas vary widely in size, gain & have the capability of being designed & developed within wide range of frequencies ranging from MHz to THz.
Pyramidal horn basically constitutes of rectangular waveguide with pyramidal aperture. Pyramidal horns are combination of E-plane & H-plane sectoral horns as
aperture dimensions are greater than the waveguide dimensions. In pyramidal horn, the waveguide is flared along both the directions. Pyramidal feed horns
work by selecting the polarity of the waves to be received, which helps to attenuate unwanted signals from adjacent channels and transponders, and from other
communications satellites at nearby orbital positions. They are also used as feed in large radio astronomy, dish antennas & also used in satellite communication
& tracking. There are various advantages of using pyramidal horn antennas over other types of antennas such as they are lightweight as compared to many
other antennas providing similar gain.

2. DESIGN OF PYRAMIDAL HORN

Figure1 Geometry of pyramidal horn
Pyramidal Horn has been designed & simulated for frequency range of X-band which includes the range of navigation and surveillance antennas. Its design
consideration includes loft, waveguide and aperture dimensions.
Waveguide dimensions are a and b where
a= larger dimension of rectangular waveguide=22.86mm
b= smaller dimension of rectangular waveguide=10.16mm
Aperture dimensions are a1,b1 where
a1= dimension of rectangular aperture parallel to a=78.5mm
b1= dimension of rectangular aperture parallel to b=59.4mm.
The parameters which are calculated for construction of horn are R1, R2, Re,Rh and flare angle. When Pe and Ph are equal then the pyramidal antenna physically
exist.
R1=distance from apex to aperture of horn in E-plane horn=134.66mm
R2= distance from apex to aperture of horn in H-plane horn=157.50mm
Re=slant edge from apex to aperture in E-plane=√
Rh=slant edge from apex to aperture in H-plane==√

+
+

=137.837mm
)] =162.317mm

Pe=distance from mouth of waveguide to aperture in E-plane=
(b1-b)*√[

- ] =111.576mm

Ph=distance from mouth of waveguide to aperture in H-plane=
(a1-a)*√[
Flare angle=

- ] =111.576mm
=24.88°.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CORE RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Publihsed by Bal Krishan Bansal, Coordinator, # 1319, Sector-68 Mohali - 160 062, INDIA
A Bi-Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed (Refereed/Juried) Open Access International e-Journal – to be Included in the International Serial Directories

www.ijcrce.org

1

1 (2014). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CORE RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Publihsed by Bal Krishan Bansal. It has transient solver for efficient calculation for loss-free and lossy structures. hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. It can also calculate gain. 1. the return loss characteristics are shown from 7 to 13GHz. the frequency domain solver also contains two solvers being specialized on strongly resonant structures (hexahedral meshes only). The first of these solvers does only calculate S-parameters whereas the second one also calculates fields which require some additional calculation time. The general purpose solver supports both. Cut-off frequency of waveguide in dominant mode is Fc= Modelling of X-Band Pyramidal Horn antenna feed has been performed using advanced simulation software CST.562GHz and it allows frequencies above the cut-off frequency. The solver does a broadband calculation of S-parameters from one single calculation run by applying DFT’s to time signals. 3 SIMULATION RESULTS 3. ISSUE N O. 01 (AUGUST ) ISSN -2349-7742 Directivity for pyramidal horn is given by DP= Where DP= Directivity of Pyramidal Horn DE= Directivity of E-Plane Sectoral Horn DH= Directivity of H-Plane Sectoral Horn a= larger dimension of rectangular waveguide b= dimension of rectangular waveguide. Radiation pattern The designed pyramidal horn antenna is radiating consistently in X-band above the cut-off frequency of waveguide.ijcrce.2.160 062. Frequency domain solver with adaptive sampling. Coordinator. angular beam width and more. The structure can be viewed either as a 3D model or as a schematic.VOLUME NO. Besides the general purpose solver. There are no sudden changes in the radiation pattern. The following plot shows the S-parameters as a function of frequency.org 2 . # 1319. Figure2 S parameter as a function of frequency 3. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO is a specialized tool for the fast and accurate 3D EM simulation of high frequency problems. Hence. INDIA A Bi-Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed (Refereed/Juried) Open Access International e-Journal – to be Included in the International Serial Directories www. Sector-68 Mohali .The cut-off frequency of the waveguide in dominant mode is 6. S-ParameterS11 measurements by transient solver shows that antenna possess consistent performance over the frequency band of 7-13GHz.

Figure5 Current Distribution for X-band Table1 Parameters of pyramidal horn s.VOLUME NO.89 Beamwidth(degree) 37.14 16. INDIA A Bi-Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed (Refereed/Juried) Open Access International e-Journal – to be Included in the International Serial Directories www.8 21.0 From the above table we infer that the directivity of the pyramidal horn antenna is increasing and beamwidth is decreasing with increase in frequency.9 20.0 29.00405 A/m to 4. 1 (2014). Radiation pattern The surface current ranges from 6. 3.07 15. 4.90 17.org 3 .55 18. 01 (AUGUST ) ISSN -2349-7742 Figure3 Radiation pattern for X-band Figure4 Structure of pyramidal horn with radiation pattern 3.0 25.160 062.18 16.8 20. 2. ISSUE N O. Sector-68 Mohali . Frequency(GHz) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Directivity(dBi) 14.48096 A/m in range of X-band. 5.2. # 1319.5 30.79 18.no 1. 7.ijcrce. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CORE RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Publihsed by Bal Krishan Bansal. 6. Coordinator.

com CST help/Instruction manual. 6. 5.There are no abrupt changes in the performance parameters of pyramidal horn antenna and it reflects almost similar performance in the range of X-band. Development & Testing of Wideband High Performance Pyramidal Horn Feed for Terrestrial Microwave (LOS) Communication in Mobile & Wireless Applications. Balanis(2005).55dBi and beamwidth ranges from 30. Sector-68 Mohali .Calculation of the Half-Power Beamwidths of Pyramidal Horns With Arbitrary Gain and Typical Aperture Phase Error TES-960 and TES-1210 from htpp://www. Jull(1970). 2. Syed Azhar Hasan. 4. 3rd ed.0deg to 20. Simulation.160 062.9deg.18dBi to 18. 3. Thus. Antenna shows consistent performance over X-band in which directivity ranges from 15. REFERENCES 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CORE RESEARCH IN COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Publihsed by Bal Krishan Bansal..John Wiley & Sons.Design. Finite-range gain of sectoral and Pyramidal horn Konstantinos B. 01 (AUGUST ) ISSN -2349-7742 4 CONCLUSION Design and simulation of pyramidal horn antenna in X-band for navigation and surveillance applications was studied. # 1319. 1 (2014).VOLUME NO. Coordinator. Baltzis. Constantine A. the designed antenna can be used for Navigation and Surveillance applications. Antenna Theory Analysis & Design. CST Software.org 4 . E.ijcrce. V.ara-inc. ISSUE N O.(2010). INDIA A Bi-Monthly Double-Blind Peer Reviewed (Refereed/Juried) Open Access International e-Journal – to be Included in the International Serial Directories www. ANALYSIS TOOL USED 1.