You are on page 1of 20

Maurice Ravel: Concerto for Piano and Orchestra in G major

Movement III (Presto) overall comment


Labelled PRESTO, this movement revisits the tempo and high jinks of the first movement. Some
connections with Ravels own LEnfant et les Sortilges have been identified e.g. musical ideas connected
with the rage of the Child, and the out-of-control clock; S1a resembles the point when the Child pricks the
Squirrel with his pen, and both the second subject and ideas at the end of the development section have
been likened to the compound time celesta accompaniment to the Chinese Cup theme. The opening drum
roll and chords have also been said to recall the circus atmosphere of Stravinskys Petrushka and Saties
Parade. The jazzy touches demonstrating the time Ravel spent in America are also still in evidence.
Generally, the writing is quite typical of Ravel - and in its own way, original and individual - despite some
criticism:
the finale of the G major concerto falls below Ravels
best standards.
Laurence Davies (Ravel Orchestral Music)

STRUCTURE: Vlado Perlemuter (1904 2002) was a French pianist who was one of the leading
exponents of Ravels piano music. In fact, in 1927 he studied all of Ravel's solo works for piano for a period
of six months with the composer himself! Perlemuter often said that one of the reasons why Ravels piano
music kept its place in the modern repertoire was because of its formal strength. Roy Howat, in his
musical essay Ravel and the Piano presents some interesting observations regarding the finale of the G
major piano concerto:
the finales dimensions can be measured directly against the preceding Adagio by a tempo equivalence of quaver
= 72 in the Adagio to bar = 72-6 in the finale (taking Perlemuters suggested tempo). Six bars of the finale thus
correspond to one of the Adagio a suggestive figure since the finales total of 306 bars is conveniently a multiple of
six. If the total length of the finale is mirrored backwards from the end of the Adagio by counting back 306 quavers or
51 bars, it takes us back to the main turningpoint of the Adagio at bar 58 (Fig.4). Whether this was planned or

fortuitous, it can do performers no harm to be aware of such a large-scale rhythm.)


Roy Howat
An interesting observation, even if a little complex analytically speaking! Some modern musicologists have
acknowledged that Ravel and his music is rather a complex subject: says Roger Nichols Ravelis a more
baffling, problematic and deep composer than he has so far been given credit for.
Roy Howat actually describes the movement as having a binary outline which incorporates an entirely
restructured second half. As you know, a piece in binary form is characterized by two complementary,
related sections of roughly equal duration. Occasionally, the B section will end with a "return" of the
opening material from the A section (known as rounded binary form) and in this movement, the
development leads into what is a much abbreviated reprise of the opening material.
This movement therefore corresponds to a larger conventional structure SONATA FORM - but loosely! It is
possible to clearly identify an Exposition, Development and Recapitulation Section. The key structure is not
conventional, though it starts and ends in the same key.
An analysis has been completed according to the following outline:

153 bars

153 bars

EXPOSITION

DEVELOPMEN RECAPITULATION
T

Starts bar 1 (153 bars long)

Starts Fig. 20 (93 bars)

Starts Fig. 14 (60


bars)
First Subject

Transition

Second
Subject

Development

First
Subject

Second
Subject

Introductory
material (16
bars)

Fig.5 (22
bars)

S2: Fig.7 (36


bars)

Fig. 14

S1a: Fig. 20
(16 bars)

Fig. 22: (23


bars)

CODA
Starts Fig.26 (12
bars)

Concluding
material (12 bars)

S1a: Fig. 1 (36


bars)
S1b: Fig.3 (20
bars)

CODETTA:
Fig. 11 (39
bars)

S1b: Fig .21


(16 bars)

CODETTA
material:
Fig. 24
(26 bars)

THEMES: It is possible to identify three distinct themes in the Exposition section. After an introductory
passage, the first main idea is heard a piercing, Gershwinlike clarinet theme (S1a). The second idea is
more folk-like, modal and syncopated and actually ends in a surprise cadence to E major; Fig 5 Fig 7
includes travelling material and feels like a link/ transitional passage; the third is a contrasting theme,
and march-like, with fanfare type patterns (S2). The development section is set in perpetual motion, with
touches of earlier themes (mainly S1b and S2) and the recapitulation section is much reduced and
differently scored, presenting the themes in rapid succession.
MOOD: High-spirited and impetuous.
TONALITY: G major.
HARMONY: The writing includes some repetitive passages with quite static harmony, parallel chord ideas
which are often used for timbral effect, bitonality and tritonally opposed ideas, higher discords, dissonant
and chromatic arrangements, and even clusters.
WRITING FOR PIANO: The piano part is almost totally percussive, again utilising rushing motor rhythms.
Sometimes the finger work is challenging in that it can go in rather unexpected directions. Lots of
acrobatic writing for keyboard is in evidence, with repetitive sounding patterns in the high register that can
sound static and, at times, a little lacking in invention.
WRITING FOR ORCHESTRA: Ravel presents a cacophony of sound which includes percussion, woodwind
shrieks, glissandi and chromatic patterns in brass it really is a journey that grows theatrically in waves of

sound. There are fiendishly difficult sections for bassoons as they imitate double scale passages on the
piano, and some tricky sequences for trumpet in which there is too much figuration.

MOVEMENT III: Presto


Structure: Sonata Form
SECTIO
N

BARS

THEMES

COMMENTS

EXPOSITION: Bar 1 - Fig 14


First
Subject
Section

1
Fig.
5

Introductory material

STRUCTURE: 4+12+12+4+4

Figure f = opening four


fanfare-type chords:

TEXTURE: The snare drum roll, bass drum bang and opening four
chords (i.e. fig f) set the circus atmosphere and introduce the solo
pianos quiet entry, heard above detached pizzicato chords in the
strings. Note the percussive and mechanical nature of the piano
accompaniment throughout this section. From Fig.1, one prominent
melody dominates the texture, building up to a repeat of the opening
four chords in strings, brass, bassoon and percussion.

q q
q
S1a=

RHYTHM: Fast, simple duple time. Fig f consists of crotchet chords


punctuated by rests for the opening and closing four bars of this
section, and there are quirky rhythmic features such as sextuplets,
triplets, acciaccaturas and rests in the melody against racing

At concert pitch, this sounds:

semiquaver patterns in the piano part.


THEMES: The piano solo begins the first perpetuum mobile idea.
Note the slight reference to figure z from the previous movements,
disguised in the inner parts, but identified in the beaming:

This marks out exactly what the violin


has to play at the start of the recapitulation section. Note that fig z is
even subtly hidden at the end of bar 16 (i.e. A-B-D):

The first theme, S1a, is a short yet very distinctive 6 bar phrase,
reduced to just 4 bars when repeated in the piccolo at Fig. 2. It
starts with a Gershwin-like, piercing squeal which is answered by a
trombone glissando at 2Fig. 2. Note the extremes of pitch here, and
the use of the diminished 8ve, both at the outset of the theme and
between the acciaccatura B up to B (as written in the score), bar
20. This was an interval favoured by Ravel, identified as being a part
of his style (see background notes). Following the theme in the
piccolo, short upward chromatic interjections are heard in brass.
These contribute to the build up in the atmosphere.
HARMONY: The opening ff chords are dissonant. The bassoon, violas
and cellos establish the tonic in 6/4 position, but the brass
superimpose alternative colourings, which suggest the chord is
dominant of V over the dominant pedal. Whether its resolved in the
traditional manner is another matter! At least the dominant is quite
affirmatively resolved by the single bass G in bar 4. The piano

accompaniment mainly utilises perfect 5ths, but also has 4ths and
tritones in its make-up; but the interest here is horizontal not vertical,
and timbral rather than functional. The left hand part emphasizes the
tonic chord in some shape or form on the first semiquaver beat of
each bar until Fig.1, while other beats and the right hand are more
peripatetic, though keeping the same intervallic style. The strings
support with sparse pizzicato chords, maintaining the tonic of G. Note
that the G major is coloured with F# from the outset (Ravel
sometimes favoured the flattened 7th), but also note the sharpened
subdominant degree #4 i.e. C#s. (This could also be an allusion to
the first movements bitonal opening).
At Fig. 1, it is interesting to note that S1a in the clarinet is notated in
G major against the G major of the orchestra. (Remember that this is
a transposing clarinet in E). This is carried on into Fig. 2, where the
key signature for the piccolo is similarly at odds with the piano and
orchestra. Harmony at Fig. 2 has shifted to the chord of the
subdominant, which in the last four bars leads to a repeat of the
terse chords of the opening. Again, the G flat could be the
enharmonic of F# (again for notational convenience since the
clarinet is in E and notation in D# major would be unnecessarily
complicated). This is the key this material is in, with mostly (tonic)
arpeggios. This would underline further the link between the outer
movements i.e., G against F# (semitone away). Interestingly, when
the accompanying chord changes to C major, the piccolos
answering phrase is in this keys dominant (C#), with the arpeggio
outlining a dominant 9th chord. Again, note that the two chords/keys
are a semitone apart. This has to be more than pure coincidence.
S1b

Fig.
3Fig.
5

S1b =

[FUNCTION: This emerges as the second identifiable theme in the


exposition. However, as the music moves away from the tonic key,
this section has by some been recognised as the beginning of the
transition section. In that case, the transition section would seem
rather long. As the material is clearly thematic, and it features quite
prominently in the development section, it is identified here as the
second idea within a first subject group.]

STRUCTURE: 20 bars (9+11).


TEXTURE: Figs.3 + 4 - Homophonic (and homorhythmic in parts).
THEMES: S1b is heard initially in the piano, then in the strings at
Fig. 14, and woodwind and solo trumpet at bar 51. The theme is folklike and syncopated, based on parallel triadic movement, recalling
the 3-2-1 motif from the first movement.
HARMONY: The key signature has been cancelled on the score: if
this is to be linked to C, then we begin on the chord of the
subdominant, but the feeling soon becomes modal. The chords are
predominantly consonant. Note that the harmonic support in the bass
at Fig. 4 takes us through a simple cadential figure from D G C,
while the piano outlines the chords of Dm, Emin7, and Cmaj7 in
repeated semiquavers, using the chromatic appoggiaturas to lift off
at each step of the arpeggio. But perhaps its more correct to think a
little more vertically in this instance. The As and Ds in bar 46 (and
471) are part of the underlying Dm(7) chord, the F, A, D and B (bars
47-8) are part of the underlying G(9) chord, the G, E, C (bars 49-50)
are part of the underlying C(6) chord, and the G, B, E (bars 51-4) are
part of the underlying Em(7) chord. The G#, C# etc. are
appoggiaturas, but they again outline chords a semitone away from
those mentioned above. With F#s creeping in, E minor tonality is
reached by bar 52, still with the modal flavour as we note the 7, i.e.
the D, in the theme. The passage concludes with a perfect cadence
onto an E major chord. (The alternation between minor/major here
was another distinctive part of Ravels harmonic style).
Transiti
on

Fig.
5Fig.
7

Semiquaver patterns;

STRUCTURE: 19 + 3 bars. This passage functions as a link.

Reminders of the opening


motor rhythms.

TEXTURE: From Fig.5, there is some evidence of textural interaction


between woodwind and soloist, before high piano semiquaver
patterns are resumed against chords in the violins.

THEMES: Semiquaver scalic patterns in woodwind are answered by


one bar interjections in the piano part which remind us of the opening
motor rhythms from bar 5. From Fig.6 the piano dominates by taking
on the woodwind patterns, highly pitched, which increasingly
includes the intervals linked with figure z from the previous
movements:

HARMONY: At Fig.5, a return to E min (with a #6) is repeated a tone


lower, in sequence, at bar 62. There is a G9 chord in bar 66, which
resolves to a C major chord, which then becomes C7. With a
chromatic shift to F#s in bar 74, the section ends again with fig f, this
time modelled around B major, dominant preparation for the next
section S2, which has the new key signature of E.
Second
Subject
Section

Fig.
7Fig.
10

S2a =

S2b =

S2a1 =

STRUCTURE/THEMES: The second subject is another energetic


theme in the style of a march, which charges off following a ff whip
crack from the percussion section which is just like a starting pistol
for the race to follow! There is a hint of octatonicism again in bars 7983 and bars 95-99. Apart from C#, which is easily explained as a
passing note, all the notes in these bars belong to the semitone-tone
octatonic scale on B i.e., B-C-D-D#-F-F#-G#-A(B). (The famous
passage involving octatonic fanfares a tritone apart in RimskyKorsakovs Scheherazade (which is also octatonic in other places) has
been said to have influenced a passage in Stravinskys Petrushka.
Ravel, too, was influenced a little by the Russian nationalists, and
perhaps this is a case in point.)
The section falls into two passages, the second of which is based on
the first. A number of motifs have been identified to assist with the
understanding of the structure.

S2c =

S2d =

Fig.
7:
Fig.
7:
Bars
Fig.
9:

Also fig f.
[The above quotes are as
written in the score, not
at concert pitch. It would
be good transposing
experience for the
students to re-write these
as they would sound].

Fig.
9:
Bars

11 bars - S2
S2a

S2b

5 bars jazzy contrast


S2a1

79818381
83
85
14 bars S2

S2c

S2d+
a1

3+2

85287

87290

Fig. 8

S2a

S2b

S2a1

S2c

S2
d

S2c1

S2d

9597

9799

99101

1012103

10
3210
5

10521062

1062
Fig.
10

S2a
11
Fig.
10

6
bars
jazz
y
4+2
Fig.1
01

The second subject is supported by a reminder of fig f (the four-chord


idea from the opening of this movement) as lower strings are echoed
by upper strings below the motifs identified above which are heard in
woodwind and brass. Also note a two-note idea in woodwind at bars
85/6 which is somewhat reminiscent of fig y (from movement I). At
Fig. 8, a trombone glissando is heard, followed by the first of two
jazz links which includes a short, chromatic descending motif in
clarinet, S1a in first violins on the chord of E, and piano arpeggios
above the note of B, retained from the previous chord, but now heard
in the bass (bars 93/4). From Fig. 9, S2 is repeated with different
scoring now the piano is leading the march! The second jazzy
phrase from Fig.102
TEXTURE: In the first passage (from Fig. 7), the texture is
dominated by the brass march, where the horns and trumpet answer
each other in dialogue. From Fig. 9 the piano dominates, supported
by the orchestra. Melody dominated homophony.

RHYTHM: This section is in 6/8 time, punctuated by the snare drum


which actively supports the march-like idea. One interesting rhythmic
feature is the way that Ravel introduces 2/4 against the compound
rhythms e.g. the horns at Fig. 9. Also note the writing for piano in
bars 101 Fig. 10, where the right hand is in 6/8 and the left hand in
2/4.
HARMONY: S2 begins above a B major/minor chord with an added
minor 7th., with figure f in the strings becoming increasingly
dissonant. As we examine the harmonic basis, it is possible to
appreciate the complexity. Some information has been given in the
accompanying notes about the fact that Ravel was sometimes drawn
to bitonality but here the themes are tri-tonal! The issue of
transposing instruments is always a difficult practice to fathom, but
check out the opposing key signatures. As a number of these
instruments are transposing instruments, despite the different
looking key signatures, they are actually in E major except the
horns in F. The trumpets are in C in this work (Tromba in Do), so
sound as written. (Ask your teacher to explain if you do not
understand!!). At Fig. 8, the first of the jazzy phrases involves
falling chromatic motifs above an E major chord in strings. At Fig. 84,
the dominant note of B is heard in the bass, taking over from the
previous dominant pedal in the 2nd violins. The held B in the bass in
bar 93 supports the piano; harmony here could be construed as a
dominant 9th on B with the E# as a chromatic appoggiatura that
resolves in bar 95. Or, as theres no 3rd, maybe seen just as a poplike A/B chord (in jazz terms a Bsus chord) (with chromatic
appoggiatura).
From Fig. 9, the dominant is established for the repeat of S2a again
the answering motifs shift away from this tonal centre, and include
added dissonance. However, the section ends with repeated chords
on the subdominant (A6). The 6 bar jazzy repeat at the end of this
section is more tonal (C#m) and makes use of slower descending
chromatic melodic movement, again so much in the style of
Gershwin. Bars 109-115 include a jazzy vi-VofV-V-I progression in E

major(minor) i.e., C#m (bars 109-10) - F#9 (bars 111-12)


B13(minus the 3rd) (or Amaj9 (or F#min11!)/B cf. above, bars 93-4)
E m/maj7 (bars 115-).
Codett
a

Fig.
11

Non-thematic passagework

STRUCTURE: (1+12 + 12 + (12+2) = 39 bars of non-thematic


passage work to conclude the exposition section.
Fig. 11-12: Repeated, detached quaver chords in the
woodwind provide a backdrop for a descending double scalic
passage in the piano part followed by ascending arpeggio
figuration from left hand through to right hand. The double
scalic movement then transfers through the strings, while the
soloist punctuates the texture with a strong reminder of figure
f. Bar 127 gives one bars brief respite before the piano and
timps hit a defining crotchet beat on the note E, before
continuing. This passage contains chromatic movement and a
plethora of higher dominant discords, (e.g. bar 124 in the piano
part), but is centred in the tonality of E.
Fig. 12-13: Based on the previous passage, but note the
difference in the piano figuration and harmonic content, which
is dissonant and includes diminished intervals and chords. This
finally arrives on a 6/4 position G# minor chord at bar 136, the
first in another statement of figure f which cuts through the
double scalic movement again in strings.
Fig. 13-14:
The violins provides sketchy support in occasional pizzicato
chords as the piano left hand part outlines what is close to a
cycle of 5ths in its basic oom-pah style:
Fig.13
Fig.133
Fig.134
Fig.135
Fig.137

G# half-diminished = ii7 of F#m.


C#maj7
F#m
B(B half diminished)
[These three chords are a sequence of those above
again, a series of ii7-V7-I progressions.]
E7

Fig.138
Fig.139

Amin
Dim7 built on D#

Two bars before Fig. 14, passage-work concludes on the chord


of E (2 bars).
The right hand of the piano part is dissonant against these chords,
and the movement is often at odds with the harmonic support. [A#
minor arpeggios (almost) against the G# chord, D# major
arpeggios against the C#7 chord, and F major arpeggios (almost)
against the F#m chord. The same goes for the sequence. (Bitonal
again here?). Interestingly, the first movements more out and out
bitonal passages (e.g., bars 142-49) also occurred over a circle of
fifths bass line.] The thematic substance of the movement in these
upper regions is also questionable!

DEVELOPMENT: Fig. 14 Fig. 20. This section emerges as an extended crescendo which
builds up by repeating the main ideas, almost in an ostinato-like way. It is also interest to
note, that structurally, this point is exactly half way through the movement.
It will be useful for students to understand the harmonic scheme of bars 152-213: first inversion chords of E flat, C and
A major i.e., a key scheme of descending minor 3rds, (this is, probably coincidentally, typically octatonic, since the
notes of these three chords use up all the notes of an octatonic scale - e.g., semitone-tone scale on C); the C# (3rd of
A), occasionally transformed into its enharmonic of D flat, probably again for notational reasons, then becomes a pedal
for the remainder of the development, supporting B flat minor, F# minor, E flat major and E minor chords or, as is
mentioned below, a C# chord, which acts as an incomplete dominant 9th (or vii7) of D i.e., dominant preparation for
Gs dominant.]
Process Fig.
1
14

Fig z (cf. movement I and


II)
S1b
S2a

STRUCTURE: 16 bars (4+4+8)


4 bars intro,
4 bars continuing the semiquavers (and including fig z),
8 bars, presenting the transition theme added as further layers,
plus a single statement of S2a in the 2nd horn.
TEXTURE: Begins quite darkly in the lower strings, p. (Sometimes

Ravel enjoyed opening pieces with dark timbres!). Note the variety of
techniques: cello 1 arco, cello 2 pizzicato; divisi and unison
playing in lower strings; arco to begin, but changes to pizzicato at bar
162. The bassoons certainly have their work cut out in delivering the
continued semiquavers; the phrases are divided between the two
bassoons probably for technical reasons. This is fiendishly difficult for
bassoons, so this arrangement would help facilitate their breathing. It
feels as if the bassoons are attempting to emulate the high piano
lines of the previous section but they are handicapped by not being
able to play them as fast. The timbres throughout this passage are
low.
THEMES: Introductory semiquavers in cello 1 re-introduce figure z in
the bassoons:
e.g. bar 162 -

and bar 165/6 -

which clearly harks back to the


opening perpetuum-mobile ideas in the piano that were initially
recognised as harbouring figure z in the mid-pattern.
RHYTHM: Semiquaver passage-work in strings and then bassoons
accompany the steady, simple movement of S1b. Note the short
intrusion of S2a in its original 6/8 time in bars 167/8.
HARMONY: The tonal centre is E and the harmony is fairly static as
its supports the non-functional movement of the layered motifs. The
passage ends on [a] tonic E first inversion chord (i.e. tonic 6/3
inversion).

Process Fig.
2
15

Fig z
S1b
S2a1

STRUCTURE: 12 bars (4+ 8) based on ideas presented in process


1.
TEXTURE: Extended figuration in bassoons, alongside the
semiquavers in the piano; pizzicato strings and harp form the next
layer, plus horns (as before) to conclude the passage.
THEMES: The bassoons now utilise more expansive arpeggio work,
both ascending and descending. S2a1 is heard in horns a bar longer
than the previous interjection.
HARMONY: Based on the chord of C in bassoons, but against this, A
minor touches in strings and piano with the sharpened subdominant
(i.e. F#) as an additional colouring in piano.

Process Fig.
3
16

Fig z
S1b
S2a1 + S2a

STRUCTURE: 8 bars. A shorter passage based on the same material.


TEXTURE: A lighter feel, as the bassoons take a well deserved
breather, and the semiquaver figuration continues in lower strings.
Note the arpeggios in cello for 2 bars (187/8).
THEMES: Violas and cellos now have the continuous semiquavers
incorporating figure z, while the piano material is non-thematic with a
cross-over hands technique implemented to deliver the chords. The
material of S1b is telescoped into 5 bars in clarinet and viola, while
the horns present an extended 3 bar version of S2a1.
RHYTHM: Note the mix of duplets against triplets in the horn parts,
as 2/4 is pitted directly against the 6/8 pattern.
HARMONY: Change of key signature here, as the tonal centre shifts
to A major. (Again note 6/3 positioning).

Process Fig.
4
17

Fig z
S2c + S2d

STRUCTURE: 8 bars.

S1b
Fig a1
S2a

TEXTURE: The texture continues to build as more layers of sound are


added i.e. trumpet and trombone (bars 196/7). The dynamic reaches
f by the end of this process. Note the use of muted trumpet (sordini)
in bars 196/7, and the chromatic glissandi in the trombone (bar 197).
RHYTHM: The trumpet and horns are in 6/8 against the rest of the
orchestra in 2/4. The rhythmic conflict is not in the main beats, but in
the division of the beats, i.e. the three quavers against the four
semiquavers.
THEMES: The accompaniment figures continue in lower strings and
piano, and the inclusion of S1b is delayed as S2c + d are heard in the
trumpet. When it does enter in clarinet and harp (bar 193), it is
shortened by a further one bar (now 4 bars in length). The brass
fanfare figures of S2 from bar 194 continue to build up the volume
and density.
HARMONY: Another change of key signature as the tonal centre
shifts to B minor. Note that Ravel again uses the 3rd of the chord in
the bass. Also, the discrepancy in key between the upper brass and
the remainder of the orchestra continues.

Process Fig.1
5
8

Fig z
S2c + S2d
a1 (descending, as at
Fig.18)
S1b
S2b

STRUCTURE: 8 bars.
TEXTURE: The overall dynamic is louder. Thematic material
continues in the same style, but orchestrated differently as the
woodwind now lead[s] the way.
THEMES: At Fig. 18, the viola begins with four chords reminiscent
of figure f, but then continues with the semiquavers occasionally
extending the intervals as before (bars 194/5).Themes S2c + d + a1
are now heard in E clarinet, and S1b is heard in the upper register ff
in harp, and mf, staccato in piccolo in bar 202. Note that, for the first
time in this development section, this theme enters on the first beat
of the bar (and has again been shortened by just a beat!). S2b is

added in the trumpet part at bar 203, to be followed a bar later by


the clarinet [in A] reminding us of S1a (appearing for the first time in
this development section).
HARMONY: Begins again with a change of key signature, this time to
F# minor for the piano and most of the orchestra. The material is
based over a tonic 6/4 position chord in that key. The upper brass
instruments are again in different keys, as they were originally in the
second subject section, and this passage becomes increasingly
dissonant as it increases in tension.
Process Fig.1
6
9

Fig z
S1b
S2b
S2a1

STRUCTURE: 8 bars (4 + 4).


TEXTURE: Layered and increasingly thicker as more instruments
play, with snippets of imitation.
RHYTHM: Note clarinets are in 6/8 against the 2/4 at the start of the
passage; however, at Fig.220 they resort to 2/4 and the 6/8 patterns
move to the upper register of the woodwind in flute and piccolo.
THEMES: S1b builds up in brass (with snippets of echoing in cor
anglais and first violins) moves into the final fanfare of S2a1 (with a
little bit of imitation in the trumpet, bar 213). Thematic material is
also heard in piccolo and flute.
HARMONY: There is a pedal note of D in the double bass. This
morphs into a C# at Fig. 195, and the key signature and harmonies
above change to one # in preparation for the reprise. The chord
suggested at bar 210 is a C# half diminished chord (C#).
Clarinets work their way chromatically upwards towards the home
key of G.

RECAPITULATION: Fig 20 - end. The reprise of the opening section is much abbreviated.
The recapitulation section reflects the exposition, but there are differences. The corresponding sections will therefore
be given and some main changes highlighted.

First
subject
section

Fig.
20

S1a

Fig. 20 Fig. 21 is based on material from Fig 1 Fig.3.


Some differences:
This section is 16 bars long - 20 bars shorter than in the
exposition section.
Figure f, the chordal fanfare, and the opening piano figuration
have been omitted though the mid pattern including fig z
continues in the violins.
Theme S1a is heard in the piano, not the clarinet.
This section is scored for piano and strings only no woodwind,
brass or percussion.
Note that the piano part is extremely dissonant and in a
different key, as was the clarinet in the exposition. However, in
the exposition the clarinet was in G, and the orchestra in G.
Here, the strings are in G as we would expect, but the piano
part is in F# major which of course is the same thing, but
written enharmonically! Probably because of technical ease for
the performer.
The violins continue with the continuous semiquavers, but
these are the patterns from the development section which
use[s] fig z, not the semiquaver ideas from the exposition.
The second key change for the soloist is after just 4 bars, not 6
bars as in the exposition.
The fact that the theme is given by piano means that it is
adapted for that instrument; note the 4ths, 2nds and note
clusters.
At bar 224, the key signature for the piano is brought into line
with the rest of the orchestra, though the piano continues on its
dissonant path; starting on a triad of G# minor, the parallel
chords from then on continue upwards chromatically until Fig.
21.

Fig.
21

S1b.

Fig. 21 Fig. 22 is based on material from Fig 3 Fig.5.


Some differences:
This time heard f
16 bars long, not 20 bars as before.

Second
subject
section

Fig.
22

S2
S1b

A change of orchestration, with the theme now in the woodwind


+ horns, decorated in semiquavers in piano. Strings and
flute/piccolo enter in bar 237.
The theme is pitched a 3rd higher to begin with, but the key
alters at the end of this sentence to conclude with a stream of
parallel chords in the piano. This culminates on a perfect
cadence in G major for the soloist and whole orchestra.

The material from Fig. 5 Fig. 7 has been omitted.


Fig.22 Fig.23 is based on material from Fig 7 Fig 75
Some differences:
This is based just on S2a and S2b.
S2b in bar 248 uses an interval of a 3rd throughout, and feels
like an inverted form of S2a.
Different orchestration here as the piano leads, again answered
by the trumpet.
Dynamic is ff, not mf.
The structure here is 10 bars (4+4+2), not 11 bars as in the
Exposition.
String accompaniment is more lilting and rhythmic in style
(notice pizzicato!).
The sentence finishes with a shortened blast of S2b in the
woodwind, alongside S1a in strings.
Fig.23 Fig.24 is based on material from Fig 8 Fig 9.
Some differences:
This begins with 3 bars of new passage work (though the idea
could be a derivative of a1).
The corresponding section in the exposition was just 5 bars
long. This is 13 bars in length, (6+6+1).
Surprise change to the chord of E at the beginning of this
phrase. This is reminiscent of the change to E at the end of the
Exposition section.
In bar 259, the short 4 note descending chromatic figure
recalling the jazzy link from S2 dominates the phrase, this

time based on the chord of C9. This arrives on an F# minor


chord in bar 262 (note interval of a tritone in the bass, i.e. CF#).
The material is then heard in sequence a minor 3rd higher, with
slightly different scoring in the woodwind. The music builds up
to an ff chord of A minor, and a semiquaver ascending scale in
flute, oboe and clarinets lead upwards into Fig. 24.

Fig.24 Fig.26 is based on material from Fig 13 Fig 214.


Some differences:
The codetta in the exposition was 39 bars long; this is shorter
at 26 bars.
The first 25 bars are omitted, and the repeat of material is
taken more directly from Fig. 13 onwards.
The ascending chromatic scale in the right hand of the piano
(bars 150 -151 in the exposition) is now extended from 2 to 6
bars in this section, as the piano winds its way even further
upwards.
The passage work is interrupted by 3 bars of S1b, heard ff at
bar 285.
The conclusion at Fig. 25 kick-starts another ascending
chromatic scale, this time in bassoons note the extended and
difficult figuration for the piano here which includes extended
play on 9ths.
The section in woodwind and piano moves upwards to finish on
the tonic note of high G in violins, piano, flute and piccolo.
Coda

Fig.
26

Free material
Figure f

STRUCTURE: 12 bars (8+4).


TEXTURE: Immediately the dynamic sinks back to p, as the piano
begins 4 bars solo work before the upper/mid woodwind enter in
imitation at bar 2992. Violins and violas join at bar 301 and the full
orchestra plays (figure f) for the final four bars. Simple imitation the
pattern builds up the textures from p to a stronger homophonic ff
conclusion, enhanced further by the percussion (snare and bass

drum).
RHYTHM: Semiquavers and linked repetitive patterns make their
way to the four final chords which recall the opening four chords of
this movement.
HARMONY: Note the interplay between the E minor/G major triads in
the piano part from Fig. 26, decorated by their appoggiatura
neighbours. This light-hearted continuous pattern finally brings the
four final chords. Here the 9th acts as a normal dissonant chord tone,
resolving finally to a root of the tonic in 6/4 position. The root of the
tonic chord finally sounds in the bass parts on the last beat of the
movement. Note the percussive 9ths in the right hand piano part,
and also that the pianos final bass note is an A because the
required G is out of the pianos range.