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Probabilityisthetheoryofquantifyingthechanceofaneventoccurring(ornotoccurring).

Whilethetheoryisvastinitself,forthepurposeofexam,veryelementaryquestionsare

askedandhencewewillsticktojustthebasics.Allthequestionsofprobabilitythatareasked

inentranceexamsarebasedondiscreteeventsandinthecaseofdiscreteevents,probability

isdefinedas:

Probabilityofaneventoccurring=

Bytheformulaitshouldbeevidentthatprobabilitycanneverbemorethan1becausethe

numberoffavourableoutcomescanneverbemorethanthetotalnumberofoutcomes.

Examples:

Inacaseofacoinbeingtossed,thetotalnumberofoutcomesisjusttwoviz.headsortails

1

turningup.Ifwewanttofindtheprobabilityofheadsturninguponatoss,itissimply .

2

Whenaregulardiceisrolled,thetotalnumberofoutcomesis6andthustheprobabilitythat

4

aprimenumberisrolledwillbegreaterthan2willbe sincethefavourablenumberofcases

6

arerollingof3or4or5or6.

Whentwocardsaredrawnoutofapackofcards,thetotalnumberofoutcomespossibleis

52

C2 .Ifwewanttofindtheprobabilityofboththecardsbeingfacecard,thetwocardsdrawn

mustbefromthe12facecardsandthiscanhappenin 12 C2 ways.Thustherequired

12

probabilityis

52

C2

C2

Tossingacoin,rollingadiceanddrawingcardsfromapackofcardsarethemostcommon

scenariosinquestionsonprobability.

E.g.1:Whatistheprobabilitythatthesumofnumbersturned,whentwo

dicearerolled,is10?

Whentwodiceisrolled,thereatotalof36outcomesasshownbelow:

(1,1) (1,2)

(1,3) (1,4)

(1,5)

(1,6)

(2,1) (2,2)

(2,3) (2,4)

(2,5)

(2,6)

(3,1) (3,2)

(3,3) (3,4)

(3,5)

(3,6)

(4,1) (4,2)

(4,3) (4,4)

(4,5)

(4,6)

(5,1) (5,2)

(5,3) (5,4)

(5,5)

(5,6)

(6,1) (6,2)

(6,3) (6,4)

(6,5)

(6,6)

Pleasenotethatfirstdiceturning1andsecondturning2isdifferentfrom

firstdiceturning2andsecondturning1.

Requirednumberofcaseswherethesumis10is(6,4),(5,5),(4,6).

www.alphanumeric.in

Thustherequiredprobabilityis

3

.

36

E.g.2:Onecardisdrawnoutfromapackofcards.Whatistheprobability

thatthecarddrawnoutisaKingoraRedcard?

Onecardcanbedrawnoutin52ways.

Whilethereare26Redcardsand4Kings,thenumberofwaysofdrawinga

Kingoraredcardisnot26+4i.e.40.Thisisbecause2oftheKingsare

alreadycountedintheRedcard.Thusthenumberofcardsfromwhicha

cardfavourabletotheoutcomecanbedrawnis28.Sotherequired

28 7

probability=

= .

52 13

IndependentEvents

Twoeventsaresaidtobeindependentwhentheoutcomeofoneoftheeventdoesnotaffect

theoutcomeoftheotherevent.

Fortwoindependentevents,AandB,theprobabilitythateventAandBoccursistheproduct

oftheprobabilitiesofeventAandofeventBi.e.

p(AandB)=p(A)p(B)

Forexamplesifacoinistossed5times.Theoutcomeonthesecondtossisnotdependenton

theoutcomeofthefirsttoss.Forthatmattertheoutcomeonanyparticulartossisnot

dependentontheoutcomeoftheprevioustosses.Thuseachtossisanindependentevent.To

findtheprobabilityofallfivetossturningupHeads,wejustneedtomultiplytheprobabilityof

1 1 1 1 1 1

turningaheadineachtossfivetimes,i.e. =

2 2 2 2 2 32

ProbabilityofaUnion(EventAorEventB)

LetssaytheprobabilityofAsolvingaproblemis

problemis

2

andtheprobabilityofBsolvingthe

3

1

.Whatistheprobabilitythattheproblemissolved?

2

Ifwesimplyaddthetwoprobabilities,becausewearefindingtheprobabilitythatAorB

2 1 7

solvestheproblem,ouranswerwillbe + = whichisgreaterthan1andhenceitisnot

3 2 6

possible.

Ouranswerisgreaterthan1becauseAsolvingtheproblemisnotexclusivetoBsolvingthe

problemi.e.whenweconsiderAsolvingtheproblem,wehavemadenomentionofBandit

couldbepossiblethatBhasalsosolvedtheproblem,whichweindependentlyaddagain.So

theanswerisgreaterthan1.

Thewayoutis,

p(AorB)=p(A)+p(B)p(AandB)

Iftheyareindependentevents,wehavealreadylearntthatp(AandB)=p(A)p(B).

Inthiscase,sincethetwoguyssolveproblemsindependently,therequiredprobabilityofthe

problembeingsolvedis:

p(AorBsolving)=p(Asolving)+p(Bsolving)p(Asolving)p(Bsolving)

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2 1 2 1 4+3 2 5

+ =

=

3 2 3 2

6

6

Theabovequestioncouldalsobesolvedbybreakingthecaseoftheproblembeingsolved

intocasesthatareexclusivetoeachotherasfollows:

Problemcouldbesolvedineitherofthefollowingexclusiveways:

AsolvedandBdidnotsolve

AdidnotsolveandBsolved

Bothofthemsolved.

Sincethesecasesareexclusivetheprobabilitiescoulddirectlybeaddedandtheanswercan

2 1 1 1 2 1 2 +1+ 2 5

befoundas + + =

=

3 2 3 2 3 2

6

6

ComplementofanEvent:

IfeventAisafavourableevent,thecomplementofAisdefinedaseventAnotoccurringand

thecomplementisdenotedas A .

Nowitshouldbeobviousthatp(A)+p( A )=1becauseaeventoccurringanditnotoccurring

wouldencompassallthepossibleoutcomes.

Thispropertyoftheprobabilitiesofaneventanditscomplementaddingupto1canbeused

veryeffectivelyincertaincasesasfollows

ThecaseofAtleast1

Whenwearefindingtheprobabilityofatleastoneoftheattemptsturningasuccess,itisbest

solvedbyfindingtheprobabilityofitscomplementandthensubtractingitfrom1tofindthe

answer.Becauseasjustseenp(A)=1p( A ).

Thecomplementofatleastoneattemptbeingasuccessisnoneoftheattemptsbeinga

success

E.g.3:Acoinistossed6times.Whatistheprobabilitythatatleastonetoss

resultsinahead?

Oneshouldimmediatelyrealizethatthisisacaseofatleast1andin

breakingupthiseventintosmallerexclusiveeventswouldbelabouriousas

wecouldhave1heador2heador3headorsoon.

Thebeststrategyistofindtheprobabilityofthecomplement:probability

thatnotossresultsintoahead.Thusalltossshouldresultintotailand

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

p(all6tossresultingintails)= =

2 2 2 2 2 2 64

p(atleastonetossbeinghead)=1p(all6tossresultingintails)=

1 63

1

=

64 64

E.g.4:Inanoilfield,Reliance,CairnsandShellareexploringforoil.The

1

1

probabilitythatReliancestrikesoilis ,thatCairnsstrikesoilis and

3

4

www.alphanumeric.in

1

.Findtheprobabilityoilisfoundintheoilfield.

5

Considereachcompanystrikingoilindependentofeachother.

thatShellstrikesoilis

Oilwillbefoundifanyofthecompanystrikesoili.e.atleastoneofthe

companystrikesoil.Onecansolvethisbyusingsettheoryorby

consideringexclusiveevents.Whilethereisabettermethodtosolvethis,

firstweshallsolvethisbyboththesemethodsjusttoreiteratethe

methods.

Usingsettheory,wewanttofind p ( R C S ) andwecanfindthisby

usingtheformula,

p ( R C S ) = p ( R ) + p (C ) + p ( S ) ( p ( R C ) + p (C S ) + p ( R S )) + p ( R C S )

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= + + + + +

3 4 5 3 4 4 5 3 5 3 4 5

20 + 15 + 12 ( 5 + 3 + 4 ) + 1

3 4 5

36

3

=

3 4 5 5

Aslightlybetterwayistoconsiderexclusiveevents

Anyofthefollowingexclusivewayscouldbepossible

RC S

RC S

R C S

RC S

RC S

RCS

RC S

Andtherequiredprobabilityis

1 3 4 2 1 4 2 3 1 1 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + + + +

3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5

12 + 8 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1

36

3

=

= .

3 4 5

3 4 5 5

Theabovemethodofconsideringexclusivecasesandthenadding

probabilitiesofthemisaveryusefultechnique.

However,forthisquestion,thebestwayistorealizethattherequired

probabilityinvolvesatleast1andthusfindingtheprobabilitythatnone

ofthecompanystrikesoil.Thiscanoccurinonlyonewaythatiswhen

2 3 4 2

noneofthecompanystrikesoil.Thisis = .Andtheprobability

3 4 5 5

2 3

thatatleastonecompanystrikesoilis 1 = .

5 5

Exercise

1.

Inasimultaneousthrowoftwodice,whatistheprobabilityofgettingasumgreaterthan7?

2.

Abagcontains6whiteand4blackhats.Twohatsaredrawnsimultaneouslyatrandom.What

istheprobabilitythatbothareofthesamecolour?

3.

Fromapackof52cards,twocardsaredrawnsimultaneously.Whatistheprobabilitythatthe

cardsareofthesamesuit?

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4.

Inaclassthereare15boysand10girls.Threestudentsareselectedatrandom.Whatisthe

probabilitythat2girlsand1boyisselected?

5.

Aboxcontains20bulbs,12aredefective.Fourbulbsareselectedatrandom.Whatisthe

probabilitythatatleastoneofthefourselectedisdefective?

6.

TheprobabilitythatAsolvestheproblemis

7.

GroupAhas2boysand3girls,groupBhas3boysand4girlsandgroupChas2boysand4

girls.Onestudentisselectedfromeachofthegroup.Findtheprobabilitythatonegirland

twoboysareamongthethreeselected.

8.

2

3

andthatBsolvestheproblemis .Whatis

3

4

theprobabilitythatexactlyoneofthemsolvestheproblem?

2 2 3

TheprobabilityofA,BandCsolvingaproblemis , , .Ifitisknownthatexactlyoneof

3 5 8

themsolvestheproblembutitisnotknownwhosolvesandtheyreceiveaprizemoneyofRs.

600forsolvingtheproblem,inwhatratioshouldtheydividethisamountamongthemselves?

ConditionalProbability

ConditionalProbabilityisasituationwherepartinformationoftheoutcomechangesthe

probabilityofanevent.Considerthemostcommonexampleofconditionalprobability

ThreemachinesA,BandCproduceboltssomeofwhicharefaulty.A,BandCrespectively

produce100,200and700boltsandofwhich10,15and25aredefective.Aqualityinspector

picksaboltatrandom.Findtheprobabilitythat

a.FindtheprobabilitythattheboltpickedupisproducedbymachineA

b.Iftheboltpickedisdefectiveone,findtheprobabilitythattheboltpickedupisproducedby

machineA

Now,thequestionsaskthesameprobabilitythattheboltpickedisproducedbymachineA,

Buttheninpartb,someinformationoftheoutcome,namely,theboltpickedisdefective,is

known.

a.Therequiredprobabilityisastraightforwardone

100

1

= .

1000 10

b.Sincetheboltpickedisadefectiveone,nowthesamplespaceisnotthe1000bolts,butis

nowlimitedtoonlythe50defectiveones.Andthus,weshouldnowbeconcernedonlywith

10 1

thisnarrowsamplespaceof50bolts.Andtherequiredprobabilityis

= .

50 5

Ifitseemstodifficultforyoutodigest,whyshouldaboltbeingdefectiveornotaffectthe

probabilityofitbeingfrommachineA,especiallysincetheeventispickingaboltrandomly,

thinkofthefollowing.

LetssayonlymachineAproduceddefectives.Nowonpickingoneboltandfindingittobe

defective,wouldntyoubeabsolutelysurethatitisfrommachineA.

Thus,knowingpartoftheinformationoftheoutcomereducesthesamplespace.

Consideronemoreexample

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Therearetwourns,onehaving5whitemarblesand6blackmarblesandtheotheronehaving

2whitemarblesand3blackmarbles.Onemarbleispickedfromeachoftheurns.Findthe

probabilitythatbotharewhitemarbles.

Againtheanswershouldbeanobviousone:

5 2 2

= .

11 5 11

Nowwhatisthesamplespaceinthiscase?Welearntthatprobabilitywasaratio,

number of favourable ways

.Intheabovequestion,wheredidthedenominatorgo?

total number of ways

Thesamplespaceinthiscaseisallthefollowingpossibleoutcomes:WW,WB,BWandBB.

Andwhenwefindtheprobabilityofthisentiresamplespace,asexpecteditwillbe1.Check:

5 2 5 3 6 2 6 3 10 + 15 + 12 + 18 55

+ + + =

=

= 1 .

11 5 11 5 11 5 11 5

11 5

55

Thus,wedonotfindorwritethedenominatorinsuchcases.

Now,considerthefollowingproblem,withthesamescenario...

Onemarbleispickedfromeachoftheurns.Ifatleastoneofthemarblesiswhite,whatisthe

probabilitythatboththemarblesarewhite?

Thisbecomesaquestionofconditionalprobabilitybecausepartinformationoftheoutcomeis

available.

Becauseoftheconditionatleastoneofthemarbleiswhite,thesamplespacegetsreduced

toalimitedcase,namelyWW,WBandBW.

Thus,nowtherequiredprobabilitywillbe

5 2

WW

10

10

11 5

.

=

=

=

WW + WB + BW 5 2 + 5 3 + 6 2 10 + 15 + 12 37

11 5 11 5 11 5

Thus,incaseofconditionalprobability,thesamplespacegetsreducedtoasmaller,limited

numberofpossibilities.Onemoreexample

E.g.5:Inanoilfield,Reliance,CairnsandShellareindependentlyexploring

1

foroil.TheprobabilitythatReliancestrikesoilis ,thatCairnsstrikesoilis

3

1

1

andthatShellstrikesoilis .Ifoilisstruckintheoilfield,findthe

4

5

probabilitythattwoofthecompaniesstruckoil.

Thisisalsoaconditionalprobabilityquestionbecauseitstatesthatoilis

struck.Wehavealreadyfoundintheearlierexamplewithsamedatathat

2 3 4 3

theprobabilityofoilbeingstruckis 1 = .Nowthiswillbeour

3 4 5 5

denominatorwhenwefindtheconditionalprobability.

Twocompaniesstrikingoilcouldhappeninanyofthefollowingways:

RC S

RC S

R C S .

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Thus,requiredprobabilityis

1 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1

+ +

3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 = 4 + 3 + 2 = 1 .

3

3 3 4 4

5

BinomialDistribution

Itake5shotsatthedartboard.Theprobabilityofmehittingthebullseyeinanyattemptis

1

.WhatistheprobabilitythatIhitbullseyeonthe1st,3rdand5thtry?

4

3

1 3 1 3 1 1 3

Itshouldnotbeaproblemtofindtheprobabilityas = .

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

IftheprobabilitywasrequiredoftheeventthatIhitthebullseyeononlythefirstthree

attempts?

3

1 1 1 3 3

1 3

Inthiscasetheanswerwouldbe whichisagain .

4 4 4 4 4

4 4

Infacttheprobabilityofmehittingbullseyeonanythreespecifiedattempts,irrespectiveof

3

1 3

whichthreeattemptsarespecifiedis .

4 4

Butwhatwillbetheprobabilityofmehittingbullseyeonanythreeattemptsi.e.thecase

whentheattemptsarenotspecified?

Inthiscase,anyofthefollowingwaysisacceptable

HHHMMorHHMHMorHHMMHorHMHHMorsoon.Nowthetotalnumberofsuchways

wouldbe5C3i.e.anythreepositionsoutof5couldbehitsandothertwowouldbemiss.Now

3

1 3

theprobabilityofalltheseindividualcasewouldbe andthusthetotalrequired

4 4

3

1 3

probabilitywillbeaddingthistermatotalof5C3times,i.e. 5 C3 .

4 4

Anysuchscenariooffindingtheprobabilityofrsuccessinatotalofnattemptsisgivenby

n

Cr p r (1 p )

nr

,wherepistheprobabilityofsuccessinanyoneattempt.

ThenCristofactorinwhichofthenattemptsresultsinrsuccesses.Andtheprobabilityofany

nr

E.g.6:Adiceisrolledatotalof8times.WhatistheprobabilitythatIrolla

numbergreaterthan4onexactly5rolls?

Ifsdenotesasuccessi.e.rollinggreaterthan4andfdenotesafailurei.e.

rolling4orless,thenonepossibleacceptablewaycouldbesssssfff.

Howeverthisisnottheonlyway.The5sscouldpossiblecomeinany5out

ofthe8positions.Thusthetotalnumberofacceptablewaysis8C5.

5

2 4

Andeachoftheseoutcomewouldhaveaprobabilityof .

6 6

www.alphanumeric.in

2 4

Thusrequiredprobabilityis 8 C5 .

6 6

E.g.7:Intheabovequestionswhatwouldbetheprobabilityofrollinga

numbergreaterthan4onatleast5rolls.

Rollinganumbergreaterthan4onatleast5rollscanbeexpandedto

rollinganumbergreaterthan4onexactly5rollsor6rollsor7rollsorall8

rolls.

Andtherequiredprobabilitywouldbetheadditionofallthesecasesi.e.

5

2 4

2 4

2 4

2

C5 + 8C6 + 8C7 + 8C8 .

6 6

6 6

6 6

6

Itshouldbenoticedthatthelasttermoftheaboveboilsdowntojust

8

2

whichisasexpectedbecauserollinganumbergreaterthan4on

6

8

2 2

2 2

eachofthe8rollsisjust ... = .

6 6

6 6

Questionsonbinomialdistributioncouldalsobecoupledwithconditionalprobability

E.g.8:Acoinistossedatotalof8times.Ifheadappearsatleast6times,

whatistheprobabilitythatheadappearsonexactly7tosses?

Usingthefundaofconditionalprobability,therequiredprobabilitycanbe

7 heads

.

thoughtofas

6 heads or 7 heads or 8 heads

Whenacoinistossedtheprobabilityofgettingaheadandofnotgettinga

1

headisthesamei.e. .Thusinalltheterms,thetermequivalentto

2

8

nr

1

r

p (1 p ) wouldbe .

2

Thustherequiredprobabilityis

8

1

C7

8

C7

8

8

2

.

=

=

=

8

8

8

8

8

8

C6 + C7 + C8 28 + 8 + 1 37

1 8

1 8

1

8

C6 + C7 + C8

2

2

2

8

Exercise

1.

2 2 3

TheprobabilityofA,BandCsolvingaproblemis , , .Iftheproblemissolvedwhatisthe

3 5 8

probabilitythatallthreesolvetheproblem?

2.

Twocardsaredrawnatrandomfromawellshuffledpackofcards.Ifthetwocardsareface

cards,findtheprobabilitythatboththecardsareredcards.

3.

Urn1contains5whiteballsand8blackballsandUrn2contains7whiteballsand2black

balls.Oneballispickedfromurn1anddroppedinurn2.Thenoneballispickedfromurn2.If

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thisballturnsouttobewhite,findtheprobabilitythattheballtakenfromurn1anddropped

inurn2isalsowhite.

4.

Thepoliceinspectorfires10shotsattheterrorist.Iftheprobabilitythathehitstheterrorist

1

onanyattemptis ,findtheprobabilitythattheterroristishit.

7

5.

Intheabovequestion,iftheterroristishit,findtheprobabilitythatexactly1shothitthe

terrorist.

6.

1

BothAandBfireatthetargetonce.TheprobabilityofAhittingthetargetis andofB

3

2

hittingthetargetis .Ifonebullethitsthetarget,findtheprobabilitythatAhitsthetarget

3

andBmisses.

NOTE:

Sometimesprobabilityisexpressedintermsofoddsinfavourofandoddsagainst.Toconvertsuchdata

intoprobability,understandthefollowing

Whentheoddsinfavourofaneventisa:b,theprobabilityoftheeventoccurringis

Whentheoddsagainstaneventisa:b,theprobabilityoftheeventoccurringis

a

.

a+b

b

.

a+b

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Questions

Standard Questions

1. The probability that A tells the truth is and the probability that B tells the

truth is 2/5. What is the probability that their answers to a yes/no type of

question contradicts?

1. 3

20

2. 3

10

3. 9

20

4. 9

10

5. None of these

2. Two cards are drawn from a pack of well shuffled cards, one after the other,

without the first card being replaced. What is the probability that one card is a

King and one is a Queen.

1. 4 4 2

52 51

4.

87

52 51

2.

44

52 51

5.

87

52 51 2

3.

44

2 52 51

3. Two cards are drawn from a pack of well shuffled cards, simultaneously. What

is the probability that one card is a King and one is a Queen.

1. 4 4 2

52 51

4.

87

52 51

2.

44

52 51

5.

87

52 51 2

3.

44

2 52 51

respectively. What are the odds in favour of the question being solved?

1. 8

63

2. 12

63

3. 16

105

4. 51

63

5. 133

315

5. In the above question given that the problem is solved, what is the probability

that A alone has solved the problem?

1.

10

2

5

2.

3

7

3.

4

21

4.

8

63

5.

8

51

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6. In question 4, given that the problem is solved by exactly two of A, B and C, what

is the probability that A did not solve the problem?

1.

6

35

2.

4

35

3.

12

49

4.

16

49

5. None of these

7. Urn I has 5 black hats and 8 white hats. Urn II has 3 black hats and 5 white hats.

Urn III has 6 black hats and 4 white hats. One hat is drawn from each of the urn.

What is the probability that all the hats drawn are not of the same color?

1.

2

15

2.

21

120

3.

21

200

4.

143

600

5.

457

600

8. In question 5, given that all the hats drawn are of the same color, what is the

probability that the hats drawn are white in color?

1.

2

15

2.

80

143

3.

21

120

4.

21

200

5.

143

600

9. In a match between India and South Africa, the odd against India winning the

match is 2 : 1. What is the probability that India would win a three match series

against South Africa, if there is no possibility of a draw in a match

1.

7

27

2.

8

27

3.

10

27

4.

20

27

5.

22

27

10. In question 7, what is the probability that a 10 match series of India and South

Africa will end in a draw. There is no possibility of a draw in an individual match.

5

1. 2

310

4.

1 25

5 310

25

310

2.

10

C5

3.

5.

10

C5 10 C5

5 25

310

25

310

11. A coin is tossed 5 times. What is the probability that head appears more number

of times than the tail?

1.

11

1

2

2.

3

5

3.

2

5

4.

1

5

5. None of these

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12. In question 9, if head appears more number of times than tail, what is the

probability that head appears on all five toss?

1.

1

32

2.

1

16

3.

1

8

4.

1

3

5. None of these

Difficult Questions

13. Three critics review a book. Odds in the favor of the book are 5: 2, 4 : 3 and

3 : 4. Find the probability that majority are in favor of the book.

1.

209

343

2.

189

343

3.

149

343

4.

141

343

5. None of these

14. A coin is tossed 10 times. Find the probability of getting exactly six heads. Also

find the probability of getting atmost 8 heads.

1.

4.

3 1023

,

5 1024

C4 1013

,

210 1024

10

2.

3 1013

,

5 1024

3.

10

C4

10

1023

1024

5. None of these

15. There is a 30% chance that it rains on any particular day. What is the

probability that there is at least one rainy day within a period of 7 days?

1.

3

10

2.

10

7

10

10

3. 1

4. 1

5. None of these

16. In the question above, given that there is at least one rainy day in a week, what

is the probability that there are at least two rainy days in a week?

7

10

1. 1 4

7

4. 1

10

12

2. 1

3 7

10 10

3. 7 C1 3 7

10 10

5. None of these

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17. A consignment of 15 radios contains 4 defectives. The radios are taken out one

by one at random and examined. The ones examined are not put back. What is

the probability that the ninth one examined is the last defective?

9

C4

11

4 11

1. 15

C4 15 15

4.

C3

15

C4

C4

4

2. 15

C4 15

3.

C4

15

C4

5. None of these

18. The probability of a man hitting a target in one fire is . How many times at

4

least must he fire at the target in order that his chance of hitting the target at

least once will exceed

1. 2

2

?

3

2. 4

3. 5

4. 6

5. Cannot be determined

1

. Find the probability that the second success takes place on or after the

4

fourth trial.

1.

1

4

2.

3

4

3.

27

64

4.

9

64

5. None of these

20. In a series of five one-day cricket matches between India and Pakistan, the

1

1

probability of India winning or drawing are respectively and . If a win, loss

3

6

or draw gives 2, 0 or 1 point respectively then find the probability that India will

score 5 points in the series.

1.

1

216

2.

11

216

3.

121

66

4.

504

66

5. None of these

21. In multiple-choice questions, there are four alternative answers of which one

or more answers are correct. A candidate gets marks if he ticks all the correct

answers. The candidate, being ignorant about the answers, decides to tick

at random. How many attempts at least should he be allowed so that the

1

probability of his getting marks in the question may exceed ?

5

1. 3

13

2. 4

3. 5

4. 6

5. 7

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22. A man takes a step forward with probability 0.4 and backward with probability

0.6. Find the probability that at the end of eleven steps he is one step away from

the starting point.

1.

11

4.

11

C5

65

510

5

2 3

C5 11 C6

5 5

2.

11

5.

11

2 3

C5

5 5

10

3.

11

3

C5

5

10

6

C5 11 C6

5

23. Two students A and B attempt to solve the same question. Their chances of

1

1

solving the question are and

respectively. If the odds against making the

8

12

same mistake by them be 1000 : 1, find the probability of their results being

correct if they obtain the same result.

1.

96

1001

2.

1

96 1001

4.

96

1096

5.

1001

1096

3.

1001

1097

24. A, B, C and D cut a pack of 52 cards successively in the order given. If the

person who cuts a spade first receives Rs. 350, what is the probability of D

receiving the money?

1.

81

175

1

81

81

81

3.

4 175

2.

4 175

81

5.

4 175

4.

4 175

25. A man parks his car among 7 cars standing in a row, his car not being parked at

the end. On his return he finds that exactly 4 of the 7 cars are still there. What

is the probability that both the cars parked on two sides of his car, have left?

1.

1

35

2.

1

7

3.

2

7

4.

2

35

5. None of these

26. A pair of dice is rolled together till a sum of either 5 or 7 is obtained. Find the

probability that 5 comes before 7.

1.

14

1

5

2.

2

5

3.

1

2

4.

2

3

5. None of these

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27. Two squares are chosen at random from the 64 squares drawn on the

chessboard. What is the chance that the two squares chosen have exactly one

corner in common?

1.

7

288

2.

7

144

3.

1

36

4.

1

9

5. None of these

28. A man is at point A in the grid shown below. He starts moving east-wards and

whenever he reaches a node with two ways out, probability of choosing either

of the two ways is equal. Find the probability that he reaches point B. Consider

that he does not re-trace any path backwards and always moves either eastwards or southwards.

A

B

1.

1

4

2.

1

2

3.

1

3

4.

1

5

5. None of these

29. Two cards are simultaneously drawn randomly from a well shuffled pack of

cards. What is the probability that atleast one of the card drawn is a Red card

and also atleast one of the card drawn is a King?

1.

1176

1326

2.

1177

1326

3.

149

1326

4.

150

1326

5.

151

1326

30. 4 policemen come to a funeral and remove and place their identical looking caps

on a table before entering the room. While going out, each one picks a cap from

the table, randomly. What is the probability that none of the policeman picks the

same cap that he had had kept on the table?

1.

15

23

24

2.

17

24

3.

9

24

4.

6

24

5. None of these

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Answer Key

Assignment

16

1. 3

2. 1

3. 1

4. 4

5. 5

6. 5

7. 5

8. 2

9. 4

10. 2

11. 1

12. 2

13. 1

14. 4

15. 4

16. 1

17. 4

18. 2

19. 3

20. 4

21. 2

22. 1

23. 3

24. 3

25. 2

26. 2

27. 2

28. 4

29. 3

30. 3

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