814
ISBN 0626092701
SABS
0162=2:1993
Code of practice
Published by
THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS
Gr 14
SABS 0 1622:1993
Date
Text affected
SABS 01622:1993
UDC 693.814
: (012) 4287911
: (012) 3441568
: sales@sabs.co.za
: http://www.sabs.co.za
COPYRIGHT RESERVED
Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the
South African Bureau of Standards
Acknowledgement
The South African Bureau of Standards wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance of the South
African Institute of Steel Construction in the preparation of this part of SABS 0162, which is based on
the Canadian Standards Association standard CAN/CSAS136M89, Cold formed steel structural
members.
Notice
This part of SABS 0162 was approved by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards on
25 February 1993.
NOTES
1 In terms of the regulations promulgated under the Standards Act, 1982 (Act 30 of 1982), it is a punishable offence for
any person to falsely claim compliance with the provisions of a code of practice published by the South African Bureau
of Standards.
2 Authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this code of practice into any legislation in the manner intended by
section 33 of the Act should consult the South African Bureau of Standards regarding the implications.
This part of SABS 0162 will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress.
Comment will be welcomed and will be considered when this part of SABS 0162 is revised.
Foreword
The technical committee responsible for this part of SABS 0162 decided that it should be based on
the Canadian standard CAN/CSAS136M89.
This part of SABS 0162 is compatible with section 4 of SABS 0160, The general procedures and
loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.
SABS 0162 consists of the following parts), under the general title The structural use of steel:
 Part 1: Limitstates design of hotrolled steelwork.
 Part 2: Limitstates design of coldformed steelwork.
1) SABS 0162:1984, as amended, has, for practical purposes, been renumbered SABS 01623 but is expected to fall
away sometime in the future.
ISBN 0626092701
ii
Contents
Page
Acknowledgement ...............................................................................................................
II
Notice
............................................................................................................................
ii
Foreword
............................................................................................................................
II
Committee ............................................................................................................................
vii
Scope ..................................................................................................................
Application ..........................................................................................................
1
1
Definitions ..........................................................................................................
Symbols .............................................................................................................
Units ...................................................................................................................
Normative references .........................................................................................
1
4
10
11
1.1
1.2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Materials .........................................................................................................................
3.1
3.2
3.3
Loads .................................................................................................................
Limitstates criterion ..........................................................................................
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
General ..............................................................................................................
5.1
13
Coldwork of forming ..........................................................................................
5.2
13
5.2.1 Application .........................................................................................................
13
5.2.2 Fully effective elements .....................................................................................
14
5.2.3 Elements not fully effective .......... , ....................................................................
14
Maximum effective slenderness ratio for members in compression ................ 15
5.3
Maximum flat width ratios for elements in compression ...................................
5.4
15
Maximum section depths ...................................................................................
5.5
15
Properties of sections .........................................................................................
5.6
16
5.6.1 General ...............................................................................................................
16
5.6.2 Effective design width of elements in compression ...........................................
16
5.6.3 Shear lag effects .................................................................................................
26
5.6.4 Curling of flanges ...............................................................................................
27
iii
SABS 01622:1993
Contents (continued)
Page
6
iv
General .................................................
................................................
Resistance factors for strength analysis ........................ .... ...............................
Members in tension ...........................................................................................
Members in bending .......
.............................................................................
General ................
Laterally supported
Laterally unsupported mem
...............................................
Channels and Zshaped members with unsti
Shear in webs ....................................................
..................................
Combined bending and shear in webs .............................................................
Web crippling ............................
..............................................................
Combined web crippling and be
................
............................
Transverse stiffeners for beam webs ....................................
....................
Bearing stiffeners ..........
...............................................
Intermediate stiffeners ................... .......
Integral stiffeners ...................................
................................................
Members in compression (concentricall
............................
General ................................................
............................
Sections not subject to torsionalflexural
............................
Singlysymmetricsections ............. ................. .............................. ......................
Pointsymmetricsections ....
......
............ ........................... ..................
Circular hollow sections ............................ ..... ........ ............................................
Other sections ....................................................
..................................
Builtup members ..........
............................................................................
Combined axial load and
.....................................................
Doublysymmetricsections (in
r hollow sections) ........ ................
Singlysymmetricsections ..................................................................................
Coefficients of equivalent uniform bending ............... .... .... .................................
Single angles loaded through one leg ......................................
Wall studs ........
.......................................................................................
General ..........
....................................................
Studs in compr
............................................. .......
Studs subject to combined axial load and bending ...........................................
...............................................
28
28
28
28
29
29
30
31
34
35
36
36
39
39
39
40
41
41
41
42
42
44
44
44
44
45
45
46
48
48
49
49
49
53
... .............
54
General ..............................................................................................................
Design ....................................................................
..................................
Connections subject to force reversal ....................
.....................................
Fastening methods ..................................
...............................................
Resistance factor ..___.......
..................... ..
..........................................
Welded connections .....
..........................................
Qualification ..
..............................
..,.....
Arc welds ............................................................................................................
Resistance welds ........................................................................ ...
.....
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
57
Contents (continued)
Page
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7
7.3.8
7.4
7.5
8
Bracing .........................................................................................................................
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
General ..............................................................................................................
Sections that are symmetric relative to the plane of loading ............................
General ..............................................................................................................
Discrete bracing .................................................................................................
Bracing by deck. slab or sheathing ...................................................................
Channel and Zshaped members in bending ...................................................
General ...............................................................................................................
Discrete bracing ..................................................................................................
One flange braced by deck. slab or sheathing ..................................................
Both flanges braced by deck. slab or sheathing ................................................
Testing ..........................................................................................................................
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
General ...............................................................................................................
Types of test ......................................................................................................
Test procedures .................................................................................................
Type A  Virgin steel properties ........................................................................
Type B  Coldformed steel propellties .............................................................
Type C  Performance tests .............................................................................
Type D  Confirmatory tests ..............................................................................
10 Fabrication ....................................................................................................................
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
General ..............................................................................................................
Maximum slenderness ratios ............................................................................
Fastenings .........................................................................................................
Straightening and flattening ...............................................................................
Provision for expansion and contraction ............................................................
Tolerances .........................................................................................................
57
57
60
60
60
60
62
63
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
66
66
66
66
67
67
67
67
68
69
69
69
69
69
70
70
70
SABS 01622~1993
Contents (continued,
Page
11 Erection ............................................................................................................................
11. I
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
12 Cleaning, surface preparation and protective treatment .... .... .... ............................
vi
70
70
70
70
70
70
.... ......
71
71
71
Committee
South African Bureau of Standards ................................................................
VJ Woodlock
(Chairman)
I Jablonski
(Standards writer)
E Coetzee
(Committee clerk)
ED Benard
J Main
AG Ballack
NW Dekker
MG Knoetze
C Lilley
HP Wilson
J Barnard
JL Meyer
D le Voy
N Mann
B Keyter
CH de Bruyn
J Jakobsen
J Duncan
KO Horngren
J Geldenhuys
SFL Visser
WMG Burdzik
SWJ van Rensburg
AR Kemp
S Krige
vii
SABS 01622:1993
Blank
viii
CODE OF PRACTICE
SABS 01622~1993
1.2 Application
Where a structure consists of coldformedsteel structural members, provisionshall be made to ensure
adequate stability of the structure as a whole and adequate lateral, torsional and local stability of all
structural parts individually,so as to ensure resistanceto widespread collapse following a local failure.
Supplementaryprovisions may be requiredfor structures where accidental loads, for example vehicle
impact or explosion, may occur. When members designed in accordancewith this part of SABS 0162
are intended for use in structures where other recognized codes of practice apply, this part of
SABS 0162 shall supplement such codes as applicable. The resistance factors adopted in this part
of SABS 0162 are correlated with the loads and load factors for buildings as specified in SABS 0160.
(See also clause 4.)
Where this part of SABS 0162 does not provide design expressions or dimensional limitationsthat are
directly applicable to a specific situation, a rational design, if based on appropriate theory, analysis,
test results or engineering judgment, may be used.
2.1.I asymmetric section: A section that is not symmetric about either an axis or a point.
SABS 016221
1993
2.1.2 coldforming: The shaping of flat rolled steel at ambient temperature to produce a formed
section or profile.
2.1.3 crosssectional areas
2.1.3.1 effective crosssectional area A,: The crosssectional area calculated using the effective
widths of compressive elements in accordance with 5.6.2. It can be an effective gross crosssectional
area, or an effective net crosssectional area, as applicable.
2.1.3.2 full crosssectional area A: The crosssectional area for which the effective width of
cornpressive elements, determined in accordance with 5.6.2, is equal to or less than the limiting flat
width and which is therefore equal to either the gross or the net crosssectional area, as applicable.
In clause 6, the full crosssectional area is equal to either the gross or the net crosssectional area,
as applicable.
2.1.3.3 gross crosssectional area A,: The crosssectional area without deductions for holes,
openings and other cutouts. Effective widths are not considered.
2.1.3.4 net crosssectionalarea A,: The gross crosssectional area less the area of holes, openings
and other cutouts. Effective widths are not considered.
2.1.4 doublysymmetric section: A section that is symmetric about two orthogonal axes through
its centroid.
2.1.5 effective slenderness ratio KLlr of a compressive member: The ratio of the effective
length KL to the radius of gyration r of the full crosssection.
2.1.6 effective width b: The dimension substituted for the flat width of an element when the flat width
is reduced for design purposes.
NOTE  Effective width is determined in accordance with 5.6.2.
2.1.7 effective width ratio B (= blt) : The ratio of the effective width b to the thickness t of an
element, determined in accordance with 5.6.2.
2.1.8 Engineer: The person responsible for the design and satisfactory completion of a structure in
accordance with the provisions of this part of SABS 0162.
2.1.9 factored resistance: The product of a nominal resistance R and the appropriate resistance
factor di
2.1.10 flange of a section in bending: The flat width, including any intermediate stiffeners plus the
adjoining corners.
2.1 .I1 flat width w: The width of an element, excluding rounded corners.
2.1.I2 flat width ratio W (= wlt): The ratio of the flat width w to the thickness t of the element.
2.1.13 limit states: Those conditions in which a structural member ceases to fulfil the function for
which it was designed. The states concerning safety are called the ultimate limit states and include
exceeding of loadcarrying capacity, overturning, uplift, sliding, fracture and fatigue failure. The states
that restrict the intended use and occupancy of a structure are called serviceability limit states and
include excessive deflection, vibration and permanent deformation.
2.1 . I 9 serviceabilityload: The design load or action effect pertainingto the serviceability limit state
(see 4.4.2 of SABS 0160).
2.1.20 singlysymmetric section: A section that is symmetric about one axis through its centroid.
2.1.21 stiffened element: A flat element both)edges of which parallel to the direction of stress are
supported by stiffeners that comply with 5.6.2.
2.1.22 structural quality steel: Steel produced to a recognized standard or other published
specification that specifies mechanical properties and chemical composition.
2.1.23 subelement of a multiplestiffened element: The portion of a multiplestiffened element
between adjacent intermediate stiffeners, between web and intermediate stiffener, or between edge
and intermediate stiffener.
2.1.26 ultimate load: The design load or action effect pertainingto the ultimate limit state (see 4.4.2
of SABS 0160).
2.1.27 unstiffened element: A flat element with one longitudinal free edge.
2.1.28 virgin steel: Steel in the condition prio8rto cold forming.
2.1.29 wall stud: A vertical steel member supporting the sheathing in drywall construction.
2.1.30 web of a section in bending: The portion that joins two flanges or is joined to only one flange
(provided that it crosses the centroidal axis and transmits shear); taken as the flat length, measured
in the plane of the web, excluding the corners.
SABS 01622:1993
2.2 Symbols
The following symbols are used throughout this part of SABS 0162: (Deviations from them and
additional nomenclature are noted where they appear.)
SABS 01622:1993
c,
c,
c,
cy
Do
diameter of a fastener; outside diameter of a circular hollow section; flat width of a lip
stiffener
de
d,,
di
d,
d,
E,
eccentricity
f
fa
fa"
distance from the centroid of a member to its extreme compressive fibre; permissible
curling displacement
SABS 01622:1993
=
Euler elastic buckling stress about the axis of symmetry for singlysymmetric sections
fSt
ft
tensile strength of virgin steel, determined in accordance with 3.2; tensile strength of
fastener
f"
fY
ffi
average tensile yield stress that incorporates the effects of coldwork of forming
f,, f2
f3
distance from a fastener to flanges that are tending to close in a builtup member; spacing
of rows of fasteners, measured perpendicular to the direction of force
h,
clear distance between flats of flanges, measured in the plane of the web
h,
h,
1,
required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener that allows an adjacent compressive
element to behave as a fully stiffened element (applies to edge and intermediate
stiffeners)
moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area of a stiffener, about its own centroidal
axis parallel to the element to be stiffened; moment of inertia of a pair of attached
intermediate stiffeners or of a single intermediate stiffener, with reference to an axis in the
plane of the web
Is,
1,
moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area about its major centroidal axis
fP
fS
f"
fY '
IS
1Y
= moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area about its centroidal axis parallel to the
web(s)
If1
I' I
If2
limit shear rigidity per unit length of the stud spacing, with sheathing on both sides of the
studs, based on the actual fastener spacing
limit shear rigidity per unit length of the stud spacing, with sheathing on both sides of the
studs, based on a 300 mm fastener spacing
ratio of the inside bend radius to the thickness (= r/t ); the resistance
tested serviceability limit state
tested strength limit state
radius of gyration of the full crosssectional area: inside bend radius
polar radius of gyration of the full crosssectional area about the shear centre
least radius of gyration of the full crosssectional area
radii of gyration of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal principal axes
radius of gyration of the full crosssectional area of an individual section in a builtup
member
spacing between fasteners; spacing between rows of fasteners measured parallel to the
direction of force; distance between transverse stiffeners
factored tensile resistance
base steel thickness; thickness of a/the thinner connected sheet; thickness of a cover
plate or sheet
SABS 01622:1993
= equivalent thickness of replaced intermediate stiffeners (see figure 4)
= thickness of the thickest connected sheet in a simple lap joint; thickness of flange in
closed box members
ws
= flat width ratio of a flange element stiffened by webs with one intermediate stiffener
W*
= ratio of the centreline length of a flange cross section of a member in bending, or of the
entire crosssection of a tensile or compressive member, to the thickness
= flat width
wln
= flat width between webs or from the web to an edge stiffener of a multiplestiffenedflange
element (see figure 4)
ws
= flat width of a stiffened flange element with one intermediate stiffener (see figure 3)
W'
(= WJt)
= width of a flange projection beyond the web for an Ibeam and similar sections; half the
distance between webs for box or Utype sections
SABS 016221
1993
tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net crosssectional
area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis
to the extreme tensile fibre
compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal xaxis
perpendicular to the web, i.e. I, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the
extreme compressive fibre
compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal yaxis
parallel to the web, i.e. Iy divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre
load factor
amplification factors
shear strain in the sheathing of wall studs
limit shear strain in the sheathing of wall studs under ultimate loads
yield strain (= ClE)
angle between the plane of a web and the plane of a bearing surface (degrees); angle
made by the end edge with the direction of load (degrees)
Poisson's ratio (= 0,30)
resistance factor for tension, bending and shear
resistance factor for axial compression
resistance factor for connections
resistance factor for web crippling in beams having other than a single unreinforced web
resistance factor for web crippling in beams having a single unreinforced web
resistance factor for other strength limit states as determined by the tensile strength of the
material
coefficients used to determine the equivalent uniform bending stress
2.3 Units
Equations and expressions used in this part of SABS 0162 are compatible with the following SI
(metric) units:
10
IS0 65714, Hotrolled steel sections  Part 14: Hotfinished structural hollow sections  Dimensions
and sectional properties.
SABS 6571, Steel tubes for nonpressure purposes  Part 1: Steel tubes for scaffolding and for
structural and general engineering purposes.
SABS 1200HI Standardizedspecifications for civil engineering construction  H: Structural steelwork.
SABS 1431, Weldable structural steels.
SABS 044, Welding.
SABS 054, Tensile testing of metallic materials.
SABS 0160, The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.
SABS 0 1621, The structural use of steel  Part 1: Limitstates design of hotrolled steelwork.
11
SABS 01622:1993
3 Materials
3.1 Standard steels
Steel for the manufacture of structural members in accordance with this part of SABS 0162 shall
comply with one of the following standards, except as provided for in 3.2:
SABS 1431
BS 4360
For the steels listed above, fyand fushall have the specified values as given in the relevant standard.
the yield strength for design fy shall not exceed the lesser of 0,75 of the specified yield strength
and 360 MPa, and the tensile strength for design fu shall not exceed 0,75 of the specified
minimum tensile strength, when clauses 5 to 8 of this part of SABS 0162 are being used;
b)
the suitability of such steelsfor the application (including connections) shall be determined by load
tests in accordance with clause 9; and
12
SABS 01622:1993
c)
for applications with established performance, no load testing is required, but loads shall not
exceed those calculated when clauses 5 to 8 together with clause 9 are being used.
: 78 000 MPa
: 0,3
 Mass density
: 7 850 kg/m3
 Coefficient of linear
thermal expansion
: 11,7 x 1O6/oC
13
SABS 01622:1993
a) 6.3: members in tension;
b) 6.4.1, 6.4.2 (except 6.4.2.2) and 6.4.3 (except 6.4.3.5): members in bending;
c) 6.6 (except 6.6.5): members in compression (concentrically loaded);
d) 6.7: combined axial load and bending; and
e) 6.8: wall studs.
where
fy'
is the calculated average tensile yield stress over the full coldformed section of a tensile or
compressive member, or over the full flange of a member in bending;
fy,fu are the specified minimum tensile yield stress and tensile strength, respectively, of the virgin
steel established in accordance with clause 3;
nc is the number of 90" corners in the flange of a member in bending or in the entire crosssection of a compressive or tensile member. If angles other than 90" are used, n, is the sum
of the bend angles divided by 90"; and
W is the ratio of the centreline length of a flange crosssection of a member in bending, or of the
entire crosssection of a tensile or compressive member, to the thickness.
the specified minimum tensile yield stress of the virgin steel established in accordance with
clause 3; and
b)
the tensile yield stress of the flats ffl determined in accordance with 9.3.2.
14
SABS 01622:1993
5.3 Maximum effective slenderness ratio for members in compression
The effective slenderness ratio KUr of members in compression shall not exceed 200. The value of
the effective length factor K to be used in the design of members in compression shall be at least that
given in 9.3 (or in appendix B) of SABS 01621.
for stiffened compressiveelements that have one longitudinaledge connectedto a web or flange
element and the other stiffened by
: 60
1) a simple lip
c)
: 60
NOTES
1 Unstiffenedcompressive elements (see (c) above) that have flat width ratios exceeding approximately 30 and stiffened
compressive elements (see (b) above) that have flat width ratios exceeding approximately 250 are likely to develop
noticeable deformation under nominal load without detriment to the loadcarrying ability.
2 Compressive elements that have flat width ratios exceeding the limits specified above may be used to support loads,
but substantial deformation of such elements under load may occur and may invalidate the design formulae of this part
of SABS 0162.
: 200
: 260
: 300
15
SABS 01622~1993
H being calculated as follows:
H = h,/t
where:
h, is the flat dimension of the web, measured in the plane of the web; and
wim
For strength calculations, ultimate loads are used; for serviceability calculations, serviceability loads
are used.
The effective width ratio B shall be determined as follows:
Case 1:
W z LWlm
B=W
Case 2:
W>
ylm
0,95 m [ 1
W,
0,644 w
m]
f ;
16
SABS 01622:1993
a) for strength determination:
f is the calculated stress in the compressive element (IfJ, using ultimate loads and effective
section properties;
b) for serviceability determination:
f is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using serviceability loads and effective
section properties.
5.6.2.2 Elements under uniform stress stiffened on each edge by a web or flange
5.6.2.2.1 The effective design width b = Bt for strength and serviceability shall be determined in
accordance with 5.6.2.1, with k = 4 and W = w/t . See figure 1.
5.6.2.2.2 For the special case of serviceability determination of stiffened elements of multipleweb
profiles, an alternative method of calculating the effective width is given by the following:
Case 1: W <
Wim
B=W
Case 2: Qim
< W I CO,
0,95 m
f 1,358
44
0 438
W
5 W
[,,,I + 0 , 5 9 m f
0,95 @f
wj5 w
0;9
W,,
0,644 @f
= w/t:
0,256 m
cow =
1,052
fi
f
0,328 w
= 4 ; and
is the calculated stress in the clDmpressive element, using serviceability loads and
effective section properties.
17
SABS 0162211993
f (compression)
SABS 01622
Drg12836ec/0005
5.6.2.3 Elements under uniform stress stiffened on one edge by a web or flange and on the
other by an edge stiffener
The effective widths b, and b, , the reduced effective width d, and the reduced effective area A, for
strength and serviceability shall be determined in accordance with the following (see figure 2):
Case 1: W z
b, = b, = w12
d, = d,
wlm2
b, = I,Bt/2 5 Btl2
b, = Bt
b,
for simple lip stiffener
d, = d, I, 5 d,
I, = Islla
I, = 400f4 WIW,im2
~
400t4(W1W,im2 0,328)
18
SABS 01622~1993
where, for cases 1, 2, and 3,
b, , b,
Wiml
0,644 m
f
with k
0,4.3;
Yim2
0,644 m
f
with k
4;
wlt;
Z, = fd 3sin2/12; and
is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with k for simple lip stiffeners as given in table 1,
while for other stiffener shapes,
k = 3,57(Zr)" + 0,43 5 4;
n = 0,33
for case 3.
19
SABS 01622:1993
Table 1  Buckling coefficients for elements in compression
under uniform stress with a simple lip stiffener
(as shown in figure 2)
2
d,lw 5 0,25
k=4
k = 5,25
k=4
k = 525
5(d,/w)
5(d,IW)
k = 3,57 (Zr)0,33
+ 0,43
1 k = [4,82  5(d,/W)](Z,)O'~~
+ 0,43
f (compression)
5.6.2.4 Elements under uniform stress with one intermediate stiffener and stiffened on each
edge by a web or flange
The effective width b = Bt for strength and serviceability shall be determined in accordance with the
following (see figure 3):
Case 1:
W, 5
qim
(no intermediate stiffener required)
b=w
b = Bt
where B is calculated in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with W = w/t , and k is defined as follows:
20
i, = 50y"WS/W,,,  I ]
Ar = A e J r 5
Case 3:
Aes
W, > 3 4 ,
b = Bt
where
I, = P[128(Ws/W,im) 2851
yi,
0,644
@%
with k
4;
is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using ultimate loads and effective
section propertiesfor strength determination, and serviceability loads and effective section
properties for serviceability determination (see figure 3);
W,
A,,
is the effective crosssectional area of the stiffener, based on the effective width of the
individual plate elements;
A,
i,
is the required moment of inertia for an adequate stiffener that allows the adjacent
compressive element to behave as ia fully stiffened element; and
I,
is the moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area of the stiffener, about its own
centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened.
21
SABS 01622:1993
mmmrIIrr
f (compression)
lmmm
____
SABS 01622
Drg.12835ec/0005
For a flat compressive element to be considered a multiple stiffened element, it shall either be
stiffened between webs with two or more intermediate stiffeners or be stiffened between a web and
an edge stiffener with one or more intermediate stiffeners (see figure 4).
The intermediate stiffener(s) shall be disregarded, unless, for each stiffener,
where
I, = ( 4 W  26)t 2 18t4 ;
I,
is the moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area of the stiffener, about its own
centroidal axis parallel to the element to be stiffened; and
I,
22
SABS 01622:1993
where
B, = B
B, = B  0,l W + 6
4 = A,
when WI
60;
Ar = (Br IWA,
where
wim =
0,644 m
f
with k
4;
is the calculated stress in the compressive element, using ultimate loads and effective section
properties for strength determination, and serviceability loads and effective section properties for
serviceability determination (see figure 4);
= wlt;
A, is the reduced effective area of stiffener to be used in calculating overall effective section
properties; the centroid of the stiffener is considered to be located at the centroid of the full area
of the stiffener, and the moment of inertia of the stiffener about its own centroidal axis is that of the
full section of the stiffener: and
A, is the full crosssectional area of stiffener; and
e) if the intermediate stiffeners are spaced so closely that the flat width ratio Wof all the subelements
between stiffeners does not exceed W,, , all the stiffeners may be considered effective. In the
calculation of the flat width ratio W ,and the effective width ratio B of the entire multiple stiffened
element, such element shall be considered as replaced by an element without intermediate
stiffeners whose width w, is the flat width between webs or from web to edge stiffener, and whose
equivalent thickness t, is determined as follows:
where
I,,
is the moment of inertia of full crosssectional area of the multiple stiffened element,
including intermediate stiffeners, abcrut its own centroidal axis;
is the perimeter length of the multiple stiffened element, between webs or from web to edge
stiffener, as illustrated in figure 4;
w,
is the flat width between webs or from web to edge stiffener, as illustrated in figure 4; and
w,
= WJt,
23
ession)
f
SABS 01622
Org.12837ec/0005
24
SABS 01622:1993
5.6.2.7 Unstiffened elements and edge stiffeners under a stress gradient
The effective width d, = Bt shall be determined by calculating B in accordance with 5.6.2.1, with
k = 0,43 , f = f3 , and W = d/t. For strength determination, f3 is calculated using ultimate loads and
effective section properties; for serviceability determination, f3is calculated using serviceability loads
and effective section properties (see figure 2).
5.6.2.8 Webs and stiffened elements under stress gradient
w,,,,
When W >
, the effective widths b, and b:,for strength and serviceability shall be determined in
accordance with the following:
a) for webs (f, in compression and f, in tension  see figure 6(a)):
k = 6(1 + 9)'
when 1 c q
< 3;
f1 (compression)
f
r
\t' //
I/
Centroidal axis
f2 (t'ens
25
SABS 01622:1993
where, for both cases (a) and (b) above,
b,, b, are the effective widths illustrated in figures 6(a) and 6(b);
= wlt;
f,, f,
In figure 6(a), f, is in compression and fz in tension. In figure 6(b), f, and f, are both in compression,
with f, > fz . For strength determination, f, and f, are calculated using ultimate loads and effective
section properties; for serviceability determination, f, and f, are calculated using serviceability loads
and effective section properties.
fi (compression1
.
zh
f7 (compression)
I/
II
Centroidal axis
II
AJ
I
26
SABS 01622:1993
Table 2  Short wide flanges
(maximum allowable ratio of effective width to actual width)
1
Span L
Ratioblw
2
30w'
1.00
3
25w'
0,96
4
2Ow'
0,91
5
18w'
0,89
6
16w'
0,86
7
14w'
0.82
10
11
12w'
IOW'
6w'
0,78
0,73
8w'
0,67
0,55
NOTES
is the full span for simple beams, or the distance between inflection points for continuous beams, or twice the
length of cantilever beams;
w'
is the width of flange projecting beyond the web for Ibeam and similar sections, or half the distance between
webs for box or Ushaped sections. For flanges of Ibeams and similar sections stiffened by lips at the outer
edges, w' shall be taken as the sum of the flange projection beyond the web plus the depth of the lip;
where
w,
= w'lt ;
W'
is the width of flange projecting beyond the web for Ibeams and similar sections, or half the
distance between webs for box or Utype sections;
h2
fa"
is the average flange stress, which equals the maximumflange stress multiplied by the ratio
of the effective design width to the actual width calculated at nominal loads.
NOTE  The allowable amount of curling will vary witli different kinds of sections and should be established by the
Engineer. An amount of curling displacement in the order of 5 % of the depth of the section is usually not considered
excessive.
27
SABS 01622~1993
6 Member resistance
6.1 General
All factored resistances determined in accordance with this clause shall exceed or be equal to the
effect of the ultimate loads determined in accordance with 4.2.
2)
singly symmetric, pointsymmetric and asymmetric sections; single angles and doubleangle
sections not restrained against torsionalflexural buckling; and bearing stiffeners:
= 0,75;
1)
2)
other webs:
d) for connections:
@s
= 0,80;
a0= 0,67;
aC= 0,67; and
e) for limit states determined by the tensile strength of the material: @, = 0,75.
6.3.2 Except as provided in 6.3.3, the factored tensile resistance T, of eccentricallyloaded tensile
members shall be the lesser of
Try =
@fY
(I/Ag
e/Z,)
and
Tru
@U fu
(I/A,,
e/Z,,,)
where
Z,
28
is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective gross crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre; and
SABS 01622:1993
Ztn is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net
crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre.
6.3.3 The factored tensile resistance Trof single angles with unstiffened legs connected by fasteners
in one leg, and single channels with unstiffenetl flanges connected by fasteners in the web, shall be
the lesser of
a) for angles,
b) for channels,
Tr, =
@Agf,
[Ag ( b + rnd,$
If"
T, = @Agfy
where
M, = @Zxcfc
(applies to 6.4.3.5 only)
where
fc
is the compressive limit stress calculated in accordance with either 6.4.2 or 6.4.3;
Zc
is the compressive section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme compressive fibre;
Z,
is the tensile section modulus based Ion the moment of inertia of the effective gross crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre;
29
SABS 0162211993
Z,,
is the tensile section modulus based on the moment of inertia of the effective net crosssectional area, calculated in accordance with 5.6.2, divided by the distance from the
centroidal axis to the extreme tensile fibre; and
Z,,
is the compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the web 1, divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre.
a) for channels and Zshaped members with unstiffened flanges, see also 6.4.4;
b
fc = fy .
6.4.2.2 Based on inelastic reserve capacity
NOTE This subclause does not apply to cylindrical hollow members (see 6.4.3.5).
6.4.2.2.1 The inelastic reserve capacity may be used when all of the following conditions are met:
3,73R;
e) the shear force due to ultimate loads V, does not exceed 0,64 Awfy; and
f) the bend angle between web and flange is between 70" and 1IO"(inc1usive).
where
Z,
when W
1 , I l a:
cy= 3;
2)
when 1 , l I a c W I 1,28dE'fy :
C,
3)
11,8 W f l
 1,ll;
when W > 1 , 2 8 m
c y =1;
b) for unstiffened compressive elements, coinpressive elements with edge stiffeners, compressive
elements with one intermediate stiffener and multiple stiffened compressive elements,
cy=1.
6.4.2.2.3 Where applicable, effective design widths shall be used in calculating section properties.
M;
f c = f'
(f32
 
I fy
4fb
f ' = 1,11 f y ;
31
SABS 01622:1993
b) when fb I f l 2 :
fc = fb ;
where fb shall be calculated in accordance with 6.4.3.2, 6.4.3.3 or 6.4.3.4, as applicable.
6.4.3.2 Bending about a centroidal axis perpendicular to the web
fb = 0,833 cbfbe ;
b) for singlysymmetric sections such as channels,
fb
,&(;
CbroA
ZXC
fb
Cbr,A
2ZXC
6.4.3.3 Bending about a centroidal axis parallel to the web of singlysymmetric sections, such
as channels
IYC
is the moment of inertia of the compressive portion of the full crosssectional area about the
centroidal axis of the entire section parallel to the web(s);
ZYC
zxc
32
is the compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal yaxis
parallel to the web (Iydivided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre);
is the compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal xaxis
perpendicular to the web (Ix
divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre);
Vw is the bending coefficient and can be taken conservatively as unity; or shall not
exceed 2,5when w is calculated as
w
where M,/M2is the moment ratio of smaller to larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced length,
in the plane of bending.
When the bending moment at any point within ;an unbraced length is larger than that at either end of
this length, the bending coefficient C, shall be taken as unity. Also, for members subject to combined
axial and bending forces (see 6.7),C, shall be taken as unity.
Furthermore,
C, = +I
for bending causing compression on the shearcentre side of the centroid;
C, = 1 for bending causing tension on the shearcentre side of the centroid; and
/,
ro =
where
rxl y'
are the radii of gyration of the full cross section about the centroidal principal axes;
K,, K,, Kt
are the effective length factors for bending about the xaxis and yaxis, and for
twisting;
L,, L,, L,
are the unbraced length of member for bending about the xaxis and yaxis, and for
twisting;
xo
c*
 [,A x3dA
+ Jnxy2dA] t
IX,~.
21,
where
1,
is the moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal axis
parallel to the web(s);
33
SABS 01622:1993
Z,,
J =
is the compressive section modulus of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal axis
perpendicular to the web, i.e. 1,divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre; and
2(ab)2 for closed members.
alt, + d/t2
where
a
t,
t2
For outsidediametertowallthickness ratios dlt not exceeding 0,441 Elf, , the compressive stress fc
on the full crosssectional area shall be calculated as follows:
a) when dlt 5 0,07 Elf,:
fc = 1,25 fy ;
b) when 0,07 Elfy < dlt 5 0,319 Elfy
0,965
"1
E
0,02  fy ; and
dlt
For singlysymmetric Isections and for asymmetric sections whose crosssections do not have any
symmetry, either about an axis or a point, the factored moment resistance shall be determined by
rational analysis. Alternatively, members subject to bending that are composed of such sections may
be tested in accordance with 9.3.3.
4kn2EZ,
12(1 
where
k = 0,43;
34
p2)W2
is the compressivesection modulus based on the moment of inertia of the full cross sectional
area (gross or net), divided by the distance from the centroidal axis to the extreme
compressive fibre; and
vr =
Wwfv
,/q
:
a) when H 5
f, = 0,64 fy
b) when
/w
< H I1,41,/=
f;
fv
0,641
/wi:
n2Ekv
12(1  jL2)H2
where
A,
fv
fy
= h3/f;
h,
is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of web; and
k,
2) for beam webs with transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements of 6.5,
kv = 4 +
k,
5,34
35
SABS 01622~1993
6.4.6 Combined bending and shear in webs
For webs subject to both bending and shear stresses, the member shall be so proportioned that the
following limit is observed:
[ $I2 [
+
+)2
5 1
For beam webs with both bearing and intermediate transverse stiffeners satisfying the requirements
of 6.5, the member may be so proportioned that the following limits are observed:
MU
a)  I1;
Mr
b)
VU5
1; and
vr
Mu
c) 0,6 Mr
vu 5 1,3 when Mu
Vr
Mr
VU > 0,7 ;
0,5 and Vr
where
M,
V,
is the factored shear resistance from 6.4.5 but without the limit of 0,64 fy on fv
In tables 3, 4 and 5, P, represents the load or reaction for one solid web connecting top and bottom
flanges. For webs consisting of two or more such sheets, P, shall be calculated for each individual
sheet and the results added to obtain the limiting load or reaction for the full section.
Oneflange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent
opposite concentrated loads or reactions exceeds 1 3 h, .
Twoflange loading or reaction occurs when the clear distance between the bearing edges of adjacent
opposite concentrated loads or reactions is equal to or less than 1,5 h, .
End loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the
member is equal to or less than 1 3 h, .
Interior loading or reaction occurs when the distance from the edge of the bearing to the end of the
member exceeds 1 3 h, .
36
tI
P,= @,t2fyC2(10+1 2 5
Oneflange
loading or
reaction
0)
Interior
Twoflange
loading or
reaction
C
4
:F
:
0)
fl )
NOTE This table applies to Ibeams made of two channels connected backtoback by a line of connectors near each
flange or to similar sections that provide a high degree of restraint against rotation of the web, such as Isections made
by welding two angles to a channel.
2
End
Oneflange
loading or
reaction
 0,0018H)
 0,0014H)
End
Twoflange
loading or
reaction
*)
**)
When N > 60, the factor (1 + 0,Ol N) may be increased to (0,71 + 0,015 N).
When N > 60, the factor (1 + 0,007 N) may be increased to (0,75 + 0,011 N).
NOTE  The above equations apply when R < 4, N < 200 and I, lh,
5 1.
NOTE This table applies to singleweb sections such as channels and 2shaped sections.
37
SABS 01622:1993
Table 5 Values of P,for deck sections (multiple webs)
1
2
End
P, =
Oneflange
loading or
reaction
Interior
P, =
End
Twoflange
loading or
reaction
Interior
P, =
r
NOTES
1 The above equations apply when R < 10, N 4 200, I , Ih,
exceed 200 mm.
In tables 3, 4 and 5:
P, is the factored web crippling resistance;
C, = (1,49  0,53k) 1. 0,6;
C, = 1 + H/750 5 1,2;
C, = l / k when H 5 66,5;
C, = (1,l  H/665)/k when H > 66,5;
C, = (0,98  H/865)/k ;
H = h,/t ;
h, is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of the web;
k = 883fjE ;
I, is the bearing length;
N = L,/t ;
R = r/t ;
3%
SABS 01622~1993
6.4.8 Combined web crippling and bending
Except where otherwise noted, unreinforcedflat webs of sections subject to a combination of bending
and web crippling shall be designed to comply with the following requirements:
Mr
P,
P,
Mu is the bending moment due to ultimate loads at the point of application of the concentrated
load or reaction: and
M,
Combined web crippling and bending does not need to be checked for multipleweb deck sections
except where Mr has been calculated in accordance with 6.4.2.2.
where
A,
= b,t + A, for transverse stiffeners at interior supports and under a concentrated load;
A,
A,
= 18t * + A, for transverse stiffeners at an interior support and under a concentrated load;
A,
A,
b,
b,
39
SABS 01622:1993
is the compressive limit stress determined in accordance with 6.6 when the web stiffener
section having a crosssectional area A, is designed as an axiallyloaded compressive
member with K = 1;
fa
fy
is the lower value of the yield stress of the beam web or the stiffener section;
L,,
The flat width ratio Wof stiffened and unstiffened elements of coldformed steel transverse stiffeners
shall not exceed Vk,,,, as defined in 5.6.2, with f = fy , the yield stress of the stiffener steel.
IS
b3
c,
s/h,
(s/h3)2
+
(1
(S/h3)' )Ot5
where
310 OOOk,
c,
H'fy
500
c,
k,
k,
4,OO
(s/h3)2
s
Y =
D
40
= hJt;
YDH,t
h,
is the flat dimension of the web measured in the plane of the web; and
a) members for which the loading criterion stated in 6.6.1.1 does not apply shall be designed in
accordance with 6.7;
b) members classified as structural hollow sections and manufactured in accordance with
SABS 6571 (coldformed nonstressrelieved)or in accordance with BS 48482 or I S 0 65714
(hotformed or coldformed stressrelieved), and complying with clause 11 of SABS 01621 for
sections of class 1, 2 or 3, shall be designed in accordance with that standard;
c) members other than those referred to in (b) above that are coldformed from material of thickness
exceeding 4 3 mm shall be designed as follows:
1)
the area of the member shall be the effective crosssectional area calculated on the basis of
the effective width provisions of 5.6.;!; and
2)
the effective width shall be determined with the value of f set equal to the axial compressive
stress given by the applicable expression in SABS 01621, taking the radius of gyration as
that of the full crosssection of the member; and
d) additional requirements for members corisisting of channels, Zshapes, or single angles with
unstiffened flanges are given in 6.6.3.2.
6.6.1.3 Except as noted in 6.6.5, in the case of members in which the maximum flat width ratio of
stiffened compressive elements does not exceed 200 and for which the maximum flat width ratio of
unstiffened compressive elements does not exceed 60, the compressive resistance C, shall be
determined by
41
SABS 01622:1993
a) when
fp > fy12,
f
f2
2
4fp
= f
a
b) when fp 5 fy/2,
fa = fp
where
is the effective crosssectional area, determined in accordance with 5.6.2 or 6.6.5, as
applicable, with f = fa ; and
A,
is the critical elastic buckling stress, being the least of the stresses for Eulerflexural, torsional
or torsionalflexural elastic buckling, multiplied by the coefficient 0,833, determined in
accordance with 6.6.2, 6.6.3, 6.6.4 or 6.6.5.
fp
fD= 0,833 fe
where
f, = x2E/(KL/r)'
KLIr is the the greater of the effective slenderness ratios about the principal axes;
K
f,
fst
 fs
* [
28
fs = x2E/(KL/r)'
42
ft  J ( f s
ft)2
 4Pfsf,
r,
1  (xo/r0)
/
r, ,ry are the radii of gyration of the full crosssectional area about the centroidal principal axes;
L,
x,
is the distance from the shear centre ,to the centroid of the section;
KLIr is the effective slenderness ratio associated with bending about the axis of symmetry of the
full crosssectional area; and
t
I, t n 3 )
where
f,, f2, f,, are the steel thicknesses of the member segments; and
I,, 12, I,, are the middle line lengths of the member segments.
6.6.3.2 For channels, Zshaped sections, and singleangle sections with unstiffened flanges, the
factored compressive resistance shall be further limited as follows:
c,
+akrc2EA
12(1 
&w2
where
@a
= 0,90;
= 0,43;
This additional limit shall be waived if the channel or Zshaped sections are fully restrainedwith respect
to torsion and flexural buckling about the asyrrimetric axis.
43
SABS 01622:1993
6.6.4 Pointsymmetric sections
For pointsymmetric open sections, such as cruciform and Zshaped sections, or such builtup sections
that may be subject to torsional buckling and that are not braced against twisting, 6.6.1 shall be used
to obtain the factored resistance, with fpequal to the lesser of 0,833 fe (from 6.6.2) and 0,833 ( (from
6.6.3).
A, = A
b) when fp > f,l2 and dlt s 0,113 Elf,:
A, = A
c) when fp > f,l2 and 0,113 Elf, < dlt s 0,441 Elf,:
where
=
0,037Elf,,
d/t
0,666 A ;
fe = n2N(KLlr)2; and
fp = 0,833 f,.
fD= 0,833 fe
where
fe
44
X2E
(KL I
r)2
+ ( s I r,)*
is the overall slenderness ratio of the entire section about the builtup member axis;
r1
6.6.7.2 Each discrete connection shall be c,apable of transmitting a longitudinal shear force of
0,05 times the force in one section of a builtup member.
6.6.7.3 For torsionalflexural buckling of singlysymmetric sections, 6.6.1 shall be used to obtain the
factored compressive resistance, except that in 6.6.3, fe shall be as determined in 6.6.7.1, and this fe
replaces 5 in the expression for .
ct
where
C, is the axial force in the member due to ultimate loads;
Cr = @,A& ;
is as defined in 6.6;
are the factored moment resistances determined in accordance with 6.4.1 and
6.4.3, with C, = 1;
are the maximum calculated moments due to ultimate loads occurring either at or
between braced points;
are the coefficients used to determine equivalent uniform bending stress defined
in 6.7.3:
are the amplification factors, equal to 1  Cu/Ce;
45
SABS 01622:1993
CU
is the axial compressive force in the member due to ultimate loads; and
Ce
= Afe , where feis as defined in 6.6.2, with KL/r being the slenderness ratio in the
plane of bending for which is calculated (i.e. xaxis or yaxis) and A being the full
crosssectional area.
cu
Mux
Cr
Mrx
 + 
M
31. l,o
MV
where
CU
C,
is as defined in 6.6;
Mu, Mu,
Mrx
fbx= fy
 when
fy
4 fcr
fcrsf42,
fbx
= fcr
fcr
where
0,833cro A
I X
46
SABS 01622:1993
is as defined in 6.6.3.1;
I,
is the moment of inertia of the full (crosssectionalarea about the axis of symmetry;
is the distance from the centroidal xaxis to the fibre with maximum compressive stress;
r., =
,/
; and
when
fcr5 f 4 2 ,
fby
= fcr
where
fc,= 0,833 fbcfor bending causing compression on the shearcentre side of the centroid;
cr = 0,833 fbtfor bending causing tension on the shearcentre side of the centroid;
fbt= Mt = maximum compressive!bending stress caused by M, ;
I Y
Mcc
I,
A, r,, x,,
6 and
Iyis the moment of inertia of the full crosssectional area about the asymmetric axis; and
c is the distance from the centroidal yaxis to the fibre with maximum compressive stress.
47
SABS 01622:1993
6.7.3 Coefficients of equivalent uniform bending
6.7.3.1 General
The coefficients of equivalent uniform bending w, and w, shall be determined by analysis, or the
values specified in 6.7.3.2 and 6.7.3.3 may be used. The symbol w refers to either w, or w, .
6.7.3.2 Members not subject to transverse loads between supports
6.7.3.2.1 For compressive members in frames that depend on their own flexural stiffness to prevent
sidesway in the direction being considered:
w = 0,85 for members bent in double curvature or subject to moment at one end only; and
w = 1,Ofor members bent in single curvature due to moments at both ends.
6.7.3.2.2 For compressive members in frames that are braced against joint translation in the direction
being considered:
w = 0,6+ 0,4 M,lM, for members bent in single curvature; and
w = 0,6  0,4 Ml/M, for members bent in double curvature, but not less than 0,4
where Ml/M2is the ratio of smaller to larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced length in the
plane of bending considered.
6.7.3.3 Members subject to transverse loads between supports
For compressive members in frames braced againstjoint translation in the plane of loading and subject
to transverse loading between their supports, the value of w may be determined by rational analysis.
However, in lieu of such analysis, the following values may be used:
48
r,
SABS 01622:1993
K
is the effective length factor = 0,8 for 1:ranslationfixedconnections using a single bolt and 0,7
for translationfixed connections using welds or two or more bolts.
6.8.2.1 For studs that have identical sheathing material (having limit shear rigidity ) attached to both
flanges, and where any rotational restraint provided by the sheathing is ignored, the factored
compressive resistance shall be determined Iby
C,= w,A,fa
where
A,
fa
Provision 1
To preclude column buckling between fasteners in the plane of the wall, fa is determined as in 6.6.1,
with KL equal to twice the distance between fasteners.
Provision 2
To preclude flexural or torsional overall column buckling, or both, fa is determined as follows:
a) when fp> f42,
(fJ2
f a = f  
4fp
49
SABS 01622~1993
b) when fp5 fJ2,
fa = fD
where
fp
is the critical elastic buckling stress under concentric loading, which shall be taken as
specified below for each section type:
1)
= 0,833 (fey+
fp
2)
6,) and
= 0,833 (< +
6,)and
6,)and
fp = 0,833 fex
where, for items (I),
(2) and ( 3 ) ,
fey = n2E/(L/r,)*
fex = n2 E/(L/r,)
fexy = n2 ElwlAL2
Q = gB is the limit shear rigidity with sheathing on both flanges of the studs;
q = g o ( 2  ~ 1 3 0 0is) the limit shear rigidity per unit length of stud spacing, with sheathing
on both flanges of studs, based on the actual fastener spacing (see table 6);
Q, = ;
A
50
= 1  (x,/r,)* ;
x,
is the distance from the shear centre to the centroid of the section (absolute value);
ro
rx
ry
x,
r,, ry are the radii of gyration of the lull crosssectional area about the centroidal principal
axes;
C,
Zv
Provision 3
To preclude shear failure of the sheathing, fa shall also not exceed 0,where a is determined (by
iteration), to satisfy the requirement that y, the shear strain in the sheathing corresponding to 0,does
not exceed the limit shear strain of the sheathing 7 given in table 6. To initiate the iterative calculations
required to establish the strain compatibility of ,y and 7 , 0 can initially be taken as the lesser value of
fa as calculated in provisions 1 and 2 of this subclause. The shear strain y shall be determined as
follows:
where C, and E, are the absolute values of C,and E, specified for each of the following types:
a) singlysymmetric channels
c, =
(Jco fey
(J
+Qa
b) Zshaped sections
51
SABS 0162211993
c) Ishaped sections
E, = 0
where, for items (a), (b) and (c),
fex, fey, fexy, ftQ,
CO,E, and Do are initial column imperfections, which shall be assumed to be at least as follows:
CO = L/350, in a direction parallel to the wall;
Do = L/700, in a direction perpendicular to the wall, and
15, = L/10 000 h, a measure of the initial twist of the stud from the ideal configuration.
If U > fy/2,then in the definitions for fey, fex, fexy
and fta , the parameters E and G shall be replaced by
E' and G', respectively, given by
E' = 4E a (fy a )/f: and
G' = G(E
'/a.
4,
9,
52
SABS 016221
1993
Table 6  Sheathing parameters)
Sheathing material)
Nlmm
9 3 to 15 mm thick
Lignocellulosic
board
gypsum board
3
mmlmm
0,008
0,009
315
0,007
0,010
6.8.2.2 Studs with sheathing on one flange only, nonidentical sheathing, or when the rotational
restraint is included, or any combination of the above, shall be designed in accordance with the same
basic principles of analysis used in deriving the provisions in 6.8.2.1.
When
where
C,
C,
is the factored compressive resistanc:e under concentric loading in accordance with 6.8.2;
Mu, is the maximum calculated moment about the xaxis due to ultimate loads;
Mm is the factored moment resistance calculated in accordance with 6.4.1 and 6.4.2;
53
SABS 01622:1993
C,
=AY,,;
r,
is the radius of gyration of the full crosssectional area about the xaxis.
7 Connections
7.1 General
7.1.1 Design
Connections shall be designed to transmit the effects of ultimate loads in connected members with due
regard for eccentricity.
c ,
Where each connected part exceeds 3,5mm in thickness, welding shall comply with the provisions of
SABS 044.
54
55
SABS 01622:1993
Tr =@,0,67t(d t)fu ;
where
V,
T,
fu
is the thickness of the sheet; one sheet thickness in the case of multiple plies;
is the surface width (diameter) of the weld; not to be taken as greater than 20 mm;
d,
If
1 3 If
; and
@, 0,70t [ 0,25L
+ 0,96(d
t ) ] fU
where
L is the length of the seam weld excluding the circular ends (but which shall not exceed 3d ); and
d is the surface width (diameter) of the weld (but which shall not exceed 16 mm).
7.2.2.4 Fillet welds
Fillet welds covered by this part of SABS 0162 apply to the welding of joints in any position, either
sheettosheet or sheettothickersteelmember.
The factored shear resistance V, of a fillet weld in lap and Tjoints shall be determined as follows:
a) for welds parallel to the direction of loading,
when Llt 5 2 5 :
v, = @,fL(l  0,OI))
f"
v, = acfLf,
where
L is the length of the fillet weld;
56
SABS 01622:1993
t is the thickness of the thinner sheet; ancl
fu is the tensile strength of the thinner sheet.
where
L is the length of the weld;
V, = @,0,75tLfu
If t, is equal to or greater than 2t and the lip height is equal to or greater than L, then
where t, is the effective throat of the flarebevel groove weld as shown in figure 7(c).
V, = @,4000t1*5
where t is expressed in millimetres.
This equation applies to welds in sheets of thickness between 0,7 mm and 6 mm (inclusive).
57
SABS 0 1622:1993
service conditions. The design of mechanically fastened connections in which the thickness of all
connected parts exceeds 4 3 mm shall be in accordance with SABS 01621.
7.3.1.2 For screws and special fasteners not covered by 7.3.2,7.3.3 and 7.3.4, the factored resistance
shall be taken as 0,75@, times the average ultimate resistance considered, as determined by the
manufacturer.
50
NOTE
t,
= Lesser O F
t,
and
t2
Org.12840ec/0005
59
SABS 01622:1993
7.3.2 Factored shear resistance
For bolts and solid rivets, the factored shear resistance V, of the fastener is given by
v, =
@,0,6A,f
where
T, = 1,25 T,  kV, 5 T,
where
60
Ratio of fastener
diameter to thickness
of part dlt
dlt
5 10
10 < dlt
15
30 tld
61
SABS 01622:1993
7.3.6 Factored bearing resistance (groups of fasteners)
7.3.6.1 Where the force is directed away from the edge of the connected part or the group of
fasteners is remote from an edge, the bearing resistance of a group of fasteners in which the
centretocentre distance between fasteners is at least Cd shall be equal to the sum of the individual
resistances.
If the spacing is less than Cd but not less than 2,5d, the resistance shall be reduced proportionately.
7.3.6.2 For fastener groups where the force is directed towards an edge, the factored resistance shall
be the lesser of that given by 7.3.6.1 and that given by
a) for rectangular groups as shown in figure 8(a):
B,
act[(rn
l)(g
d h )+ ( n
l)(S
dh) + e] fu
B, = act[2(m
l)(g
d , + $149) + e]
fu
where
g, s are the spacings of rows of fasteners measured normal and parallel to the direction of force,
respectively;
rn
is the edge distance of the first row; if e = Cd, e should be replaced by Cd in the equation;
d,
fu
The above equations represent the force required to tear out the portion bounded by the failure planes
ABCD indicated in figure 8. For other fastener patterns, the tearout resistance shall be shown to be
adequate.
62
SABS 01622:1993
D

s
I
e
T
s e
1
(b)
la)
Figure 8
g is the distance from the fastener to flanges that are tending to close.
63
SABS 01622:1993
In the case of uniformly distributed loading, the value of Vshall be given by V = 3sp
where
s is the fastener spacing along the beam; and
sb =
1,5t J E I f
where
is the compressive stress in the cover plate or sheet calculated using ultimate loads and
effective section properties;
is the flat width of the narrowest unstiffened compressive element in the portion of the
cover plate or sheet that is tributary to the connections; and
f,
In the case of intermittent fillet welds parallel to the direction of stress, the spacing shall be taken as the
clear distance between welds, plus 13 mm. In all other cases, the spacing shall be taken as the
centretocentre distance between connectors.
The above does not apply to cover sheets that act only as sheathing material and are not considered
as loadcarrying elements.
8 Bracing
8.1 General
8.1.1 Structural members and assemblies shall be adequately braced to prevent collapse and to
maintain integrity during the expected service life of the structure. Care shall be taken to ensure that
the bracing of entire structural systems is complete, particularly when there is interdependence between
walls, floors, or roofs acting as diaphragms.
64
SABS 01622:1993
8.1.2 Design drawings shall show the details of the essential bracing requirements, including any
details necessary to assure the effectiveness of the bracing or bracing system.
8.1.3 The spacing of braces shall not exceed the unbraced length assumed in the design of the
member or component being braced.
65
SABS 01622~1993
8.3.2.4 Braces to restrain flanges shall be designed to resist a lateral force PL,determined as follows:
a) for a uniformly loaded beam, fL
= 1,5K' times the load within a distance of 0,5a on each side of
the brace: and
b) for concentrated loads, PL= K'times the concentrated load P within a distance of 0,3a on each
side of the brace, plus 1,5(1  x/a)PK'for each such concentrated load P, located further than 0,3a,
but not further than the distance a, from the brace,
where
x is the distance from the concentrated load P, to the brace; and
rn
is the distance between the shear centre and the midplane of web; and
1,
is the moment of inertia of full crosssectional area about the centroidal axis.
9 Testing
9.1 General
9.1 . I Testing facilities shall be suitable for the type of test required (see 9.2). Tests may be made at
a manufacturer's or an independent testing facility.
9.1 2 Test results and reports for types C and D tests shall be certified by a Professional Engineer.
66
SABS 01622:1993
9.1.3 The provisionsof clause 9 do not apply to steel deck diaphragms, composite steel components
or composite steel assemblies.
a) for sharp yielding steel, the yield stress shall be determined by the autographic diagram method
or by the totalstrainunderloadmethod. When the totalstrainunderloadmethod is used, there
shall be evidence that the yield stress so determined agrees within 5 % with the yield stress that
would be determined by the 0,2 % offset methods; and
67
SABS 01622:1993
b) or gradual yielding steel, the yield stress shall be determined by the totalstrainunderload method
or by the 0,2 % offset method. When the totalstrainunderload method is used, there shall be
evidence that the yield stress so determined agrees within 5 % with the yield stress that would be
determined by the 0,2 % offset method.
9.3.2.4 Where the principal effect of the loading to which the member will be subject in service will be
to produce bending stresses, the yield stress shall be determined for the flanges only. In the
determining of such yield stresses, tests shall be made on specimens cut from the section. Each such
specimen shall consist of one complete flange plus a portion of the web such that the specimen is fully
effective.
9.3.2.5 For acceptance and control purposes of full sections to be used with 5.2.2, two fullsection tests
shall be made from each lot of not more than 50 000 kg and not less than 30 000 kg of each section,
or one test from each lot of less than 30 000 kg of each section. For this purpose, a lot may be defined
as that quantity of one section that is formed in a single production run of material from one heat or cast.
9.3.2.6 At the option of the manufacturer, either tension or compression tests may be used for routine
acceptance and control purposes, provided the manufacturer demonstrates that such tests reliably
indicate the yield stress of the section when it is subjected to the kind of stress under which the member
is to be used.
where
at is the resistance factor corresponding to the appropriate limit state given in 6.2; and
R , is the tested strength limit state.
The virgin yield stress shall be determined. The performance test results shall be adjusted to the design
yield stress fy (see 3.2) of the steel that the manufacturer intends to use. The test results shall not be
adjusted upward if the yield stress of the test specimen is less than fy . Similar adjustments shall be
made on the basis of tensile strength instead of yield stress where tensile strength is the critical factor.
Consideration shall also be given to any variation or difference that may exist between the design
thickness and the actual thickness of the specimens used in the tests.
The tested serviceability limit state R, is equal to Rt .
9.3.3.3 The tested strength limit state Rt shall be established based on the mean values resulting from
tests of not fewer than three identical specimens, provided that the deviation of any individual test result
from the mean value obtained from all tests does not exceed 10 %. If such deviation from the mean
exceeds 10 %, at least three more tests of the same kind shall be made. The average of the lowest
three values of all tests made shall then be regarded as the tested strength limitstate value Rt.
68
SABS 01622:1993
9.3.4 Type D  Confirmatory tests
9.3.4.1 Procedures for testing shall be established with due consideration given to the loading and
boundary conditions in which the elements or assemblies are intended to be used.
9.3.4.2 The test shall be considered successful if the following conditions are met:
R , and
10 Fabrication
10.1 General
All aspects of fabrication, both in the workshop and on site, shall comply with the provisions of 5.2 and
5.3 of SABS 1200H, insofar as they are applicable to coldformed structural members, and the
provisions of the following subclauses. Where the provisions of the following subclauses differ from
those of 5.2 and 5.3 of SABS 1200H, the following subclauses shall govern.
10.3 Fastenings
Steel components may be assembled by welds, mechanicalfasteners (such as bolts, rivets or screws)
or a combination of these. Assembly by other means (such as metal stitching and clinching) may also
be used where suitable. The strength offastenings shall be establishedby test in accordance with 9.3.3,
unless values are specified elsewhere in this part of SABS 0162.
69
SABS 0162211993
Where dissimilar metals are in contact, attention should be paid to insulation of the metals and the
selection of suitable fasteners in order to inhibit galvanic corrosion.
10.6 Tolerances
Structural sections, deck, cladding and other loadcarrying members shall be to the full dimensions
claimed by the manufacturer. Fabrication tolerances shall be in accordance with established practice
(see SABS 1200H) unless more stringent requirements are specified. In no case shall tolerances
exceed those necessary to ensure the specified strength and serviceability requirements of a member
or assembly.
11 Erection
11. I Handling requirements
Attention shall be paid to the handling of coldformed members so as not to nick, gouge or dent the
material, or damage the protective coating. Adequate precautions shall be taken when loading,
unloading and handling long, slender members.
11.5 Tolerances
Tolerances on accuracy of erection of steelwork shall be as given in the relevant parts of clause 6 of
SABS 1200H.
70
SABS 01622:1993
sabs pta
71