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Introduction

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)


characteristics

20 - 30 satellites constellation
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) approx. altitude 20,000 km
Inclined orbital planes > 50
Provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global
coverage
Accuracy 10 m or better

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GNSS
Global operational in 2013:
GPS (United States of America)
GLONASS (Russian Federation)
Regional operational, expanding to be global in 2020:
BeiDou/Compass (China)
Initial deployment phase, fully operational in 2020:
Galileo (European Union)
France, India, and Japan are in the process of
developing regional navigation systems.

WHAT IS GPS?
GPS stands for global position satellite
worldwide radio-navigation system formed from a
constellation of 30 satellites up to now.
The GPS was developed as a US military navigation
system but now open to the public uses.

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There are four satellites in each of 6 orbital


planes.
Each plane is inclined 55 degrees relative
to the equator, which means that satellites
cross the equator tilted at a 55 degree
angle.
The system is designed to maintain full
operational capability even if two of the 24
satellites fail.

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CONTROL SEGMENT
The U.S. Department of Defense
maintains a master control station at
Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado Springs
There are four other monitor stations
located in Hawaii, Ascension Island, Diego
Garcia and Kwajalein
The stations measure the satellite orbits
precisely.
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September 2013

GPS Control Segment

SATELLITE SIGNALS
GPS satellites continuously broadcast satellite
position and timing data via radio signals on two
frequencies (L1 and L2).
Two kinds of code are broadcast on the L1
frequency (C/A code and P code)
C/A (Coarse Acquisition) code is available to
civilian GPS users and provides Standard
Positioning Service (SPS).
P code, used for the Precise Positioning Service
(PPS) is available only to the military.
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GPS Basic Frequencies


All signals and time information are coherently derived
from the same clock with a frequency of f0 =10.23 MHz.
Two carrier frequencies:
L1 = 1575.42 MHz (154 x f0) (wavelength 19.05 cm)
Used in civil GPS receivers
L2 = 1227.60 MHz (120 x f0) (wavelength 24.45 cm)
mostly found in military GPS receivers.
For (uplink), ground stations use S-band signals.

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GPS Basic Signals (3/4)


NAV data message includes:
Almanac
Approximate orbit information for all satellites in the
constellation.
Ephemeris
Predictions of the transmitting satellites current
position and velocity as determined by the Master
Control Station and uploaded to the satellites.
Satellite clock correction parameters
Satellite health data

GPS Signals Modulation (2/2)


Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) is used to
limit the interference from other signals and to prevent
jamming and spoofing.
(C/A) code bandwidth = 2.046 MHz
(P) code bandwidth = 20.46 MHz
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is utilized for all
the GPS signals.
(all of the satellites broadcast their signals upon the
same carrier frequencies).

GPS Signals Spectrum

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The satellites measure the


distance between itself to the
GPS receiver.

The position of a GPS receiver is


found by trilateration.
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TRILATERATION

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POSITION LOCATION IN GPS


Four GPS satellite signals are used to
compute positions in three dimensions and
the time offset in the receiver clock
Three measurements can be used to
locate a point

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R2

R3
R4

R1

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Position dimensions are computed by the


receiver in Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed X,
Y,Z (ECEF XYZ) coordinates.

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The measured distance to satellite i is


called a pseudorange, PRi
PRi = Ti c
where
PRi is the pseudorange
Ti is the time delay between the satellite and the
receiver
c is the velocity of EM waves (3 108 ms-1)
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The satellite and the receiver clocks must be


synchronized
If the two clocks are off by only a small fraction,
the determined position data may be
considerably distorted
For example, suppose the receiver clock has an
offset of 10ms relative to GPS time:
PR = t x c
= (10 10 3 s )(3 108 ms 1 )
= 3000 km

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The equations which relate pseudorange to time delay are called


ranging equations:

( X 1 U x )2 + (Y1 U y )2 + (Z1 U z )2 = (PR1 c )2


( X 2 U x )2 + (Y2 U y )2 + (Z 2 U z )2 = (PR2 c )2
( X 3 U x )2 + (Y3 U y )2 + (Z 3 U z )2 = (PR3 c )2
( X 4 U x )2 + (Y4 U y )2 + (Z 4 U z )2 = (PR4 c )2
where is the receiver clock error
U is the location of the GPS receiver
c is the velocity of EM waves (3 108 ms-1)
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GPS ERROR SOURCES


The GPS system has been designed to be
as nearly accurate as possible.
There are several sources for these errors,
the most significant of which are discussed
below:
Atmospheric Conditions
Ephemeris Errors/Clock
Drift/Measurement Noise
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HOW TO REDUCE GPS ERROR?


Differential correction is a method used to
reduce the effects of atmospheric error and
other sources of GPS positioning error
Differential GPS (DGPS) Techniques:The idea behind all differential positioning is to
correct bias errors at one location with
measured bias errors at a known position. A
reference receiver, or base station, computes
corrections for each satellite signal.
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GPS ACCURACY
The accuracy depends on:
Type of equipments used
Time of observation
The position of the satellite being used to
compute position

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Receiver using C/A code

Without differential correction


Accuracy between
5 15 meters

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With differential correction


Accuracy between
1 5 meters

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Carrier-Smoothed code can be used to


increase the accuracy of C/A code
 involves measuring the distance
from the receiver to the
satellites by
counting the number of waves that
carry the C/A code signal
Accuracy increase to 10 cm to 1 meters
with differential correction.
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GPS APPLICATIONS
AIRBONE
- Navigation by general aviation and
commercial aircraft
SEA
- Navigation by recreational boaters,
commercial fisherman and professional
mariners
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a)
b)
c)
d)

LAND
Surveyors
Mapping
Recreational
Automobile

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 LAW ENFORCEMENT
- Support a variety of policing and criminal
justice functions
- Enhance the efficiency of the aviation
units
- Assist personal operating in ground
vehicles

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MILITARY
- Navigation,reconnaissance and missile
guidance systems
 AGRICULTURE
- Precision on farming techniques that can
help increase profits and protect the
environment.
- Precision involves when applying
fertilizer and pesticides
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REFERENCE
Pratt, Bostian and Allnutt, Satellite
Communications, John Wiley and Sons,
pp. 458-485. 2003.
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/
notes/gps/gps_f.html
http://www.montana.edu/places/gps/under
std.html
http://www.cmtinc.com/gpsbook
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VSAT NETWORKS

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Overview
 Introduction
 Network Architecture, Protocols and Access
techniques
 VSAT Earth stations (HUB and Remote)
Engineering
 Link budget and performances
 Conclusion
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Introduction
VSAT : Very Small Aperture Terminal
A small earth station, usually from 1.2 to 2.4 meters, used for
satellite data communications. One form of datacasting.
In common practice, the VSAT label does not so much establish
the size of the dish as it indicates two-way data communication.
Retail credit card authorizations are a widespread application of
VSAT technology.
Significant increase in the transmit power capabilities of
satellites, and move to frequency bands above C Band made
the access of the satellite more affordable.

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Introduction

The basic structure of a VSAT


network consists of a hub station
which provides a broadcast facility
to all the VSATs in the network

The hub station is operated by the


service provider.

Each user organization has


exclusive access to its own VSAT
network.

Transmitter power : 1 to 2 W

Antenna diameters:
C-Band 1.8, 2.4, 3.5, and 3.5m
Ku-Band 1.2, 2.4, 3.5

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VSAT Network Architecture


VSATs are connected by radio frequency links via a
satellite.
The overall link from station to station, called hop, consists
of an uplink and a downlink.
The are three network types of VSATs
One-way Implementation
Split-two-way Implementation
Two-way Implementation

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VSAT Network Architecture


 One-way Implementation
 The mode of satellite used in broadcast satellite service (BSS)
 The hub transmits carriers to receive-only VSATs.
 This configuration supports broadcasting services from a central site
where the hub is located to remote sites where the ROVSATs are
installed.

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VSAT Network Architecture


 Split-two-way
Implementation
 This implementation is used when
there is no normal return channel :
BSS
 The relatively high capacity of the
downlink is not complemented by
an uplink capability from the user
terminal.
 Internet split IP

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VSAT Network Architecture


 Two-way
Implementation
 The VSATs can transmit and
receive. Such networks support
interactive traffic
 Can be achieved either of two
ways:



Either direct links from VSAT to VSAT


via satellite , should link performance
meet the requested quality.
Or by double hop from VSAT to hub
and then a second hop using the hub as
a relay to the destination VSAT.

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Protocols
ISO/OSI seven-layer stack for interconnecting data terminals
The satellite communications occupies primarily the physical
layer where the bits are carried between terminals.
A VSAT must have terminal controller at each end of the link
(network & link layer)
The network control center typically controls the system and is
responsible for the remaining layers.
Error control method in TCP/IP : ACK NAK ARQ
X.25, X.75 use ARQ
Frame relay and ATM flag retransmission but continue the flow
of information.
The propagation delay and the induced errors are critical design
elements in digital VSAT connections.
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Protocols

User 1 and user 2 are


conducting a two-way
communications session with
each other.

Each user interacts with their


local device at the application
layer of the ISO-OSI stack.

The transaction is then routed


via the various layers with
suitable processing

By then, the content is ready to


be transmitted via the physical
layer.

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Access Techniques
The most popular access method is FDMA which allows the use
of comparatively low-power VSAT terminals.
TDMA can also be used, but is not efficient for low-density uplink traffic from VSAT.
Inventory control
Credit verification
Reservation requests

The traffic in VSAT network is mostly data transfer of a bursty


nature occurring in random and possibly infrequent intervals.
The allocation of time slots in the normal TDMA can lead to a
low channel occupancy.
Demand Access Multiple Access (DAMA)
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Access Techniques
Channel capacity is assigned in response of the
fluctuating demands of the VSATs in the network.
DAMA can be used in both FDMA and TDMA
Examples of access technologies:
SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier)
TDM/SCPC Return (Time Division Multiplex) Asymmetrical
SCPC
TDM/TDMA Return (Time Division Multiple Access)

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Single Channel Per Carrier


Each Carrier Pair Dedicated
to
a Customer
No Sharing of Bandwidth
between Carriers

Advantages
Simple
Easy to Troubleshoot
Minimal Equipment Required
Maximum Bandwidth Availability

Disadvantages
Hard to manage centrally
High Maintenance
Bandwidth Inefficient
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Extremely Inflexible

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TDM/SCPC

Shared outbound corresponds to


the highest data rate direction

Since shared, actual utilization


tends to flatten out

Outbound TX from HUB is


shared among all remotes.
Each remote has
individual carrier to return
data (SCPC

B1

B1

Advantages
Bandwidth efficient outbound
Flexible
Ability to burst
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Dedicated return

Disadvantages
Inefficient return
More complex than
SCPC
No reduction in eq. cost.

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- Outbound and Inbound are shared.


- Remotes are shared amongst assigne
return carriers.
- Since shared, actual utilization tends
to flatten out for both Outbound and
Inbound.

TDM/TDMA Return

B1

B1

Advantages
Bandwidth efficient
Flexible
Bursting, QoS, VPNs w/ TCP
Acceleration, CIR/Burst Dedicated
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return
Centralized management

Disadvantages
Complexity
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Technologies Fit Different Usage Profiles

Single user sites

Limited # phone lines


SCPC
Dedicated Link

Price of Service

Basic broadband access


Infrequent use
SCPC
Asymmetric Cloud

Call centers
Streaming content
Real-time video

TDMA

Shared

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Continuous use

Semi-Dedicated

Bandwidth Utilization

Dedicated

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VSAT Earth Station (HUB and Remote)


Engineering

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VSAT Network Earth Station


VSAT station is made of
two separate sets of
equipment:
The outdoor unit (ODU):
Interface to the satellite
The indoor unit (IDU) :
Interface to the
customers terminals or
LANs

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Schematic of a VSAT
User Setup
 The outdoor unit is located where
it will have a clear line of sight to
the satellite and is free from
casual blockage.
 Interfacility link (IFL) carries the
electronic signal between the
ODU and indoor unit (IDU) as
well as power cables for the ODU
and control signals from the IDU.
 IDU : Workstation ( baseband
processor units and
interface equipments)
Modem, mux/demux.

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Typical Configuration of
a VSAT Earth Station
 LNC receives the RF signal,
amplifies, and mixes it down to
IF for passing over the IFL to the
IDU.
 In the IDU, demodulator extracts
the information signal from the
carrier and passes it at baseband
processor.
 The data terminal equipment then
provides the application layer for
the user to interact with the
information input.
 On the transmit operation, the
opposite is performed.

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Typical Hub Master


Control Station
 The line interface equipment
handles the terrestrial ports to
the host computer.
 the control bus via the hub
control interface allows all of the
transmit, receive, and switching
functions to be carried out.
 The transmit processing and
control equipment (PCE)
prepares the TDM stream for the
outbound link to the VSATs.
 This stream passes through the IF
interface to the up-convertor that
mixes the IF to RF.
 On the receive side, the antenna
passes individual inbound
MF-TDMA signal to the LNA for
amplification prior to DC, DEM,
and so on to the user.
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Link Budget and Performances


The minimum allowed carrier to noise (C/N)o for a typical
inbound VSAT is 6dB, with BPSK modulation and half rate FEC
encoding, giving a BER of 10-6 (Threshold).
Varies depending on the modulation and FEC methods used on
the link.
Rain fade on the uplink or rain fade on the downlink can reduce
the clear sky (C/N)o
The entire two way system drops below the performance
minimum.
Failure at Satellite-hub link should be much less likely, otherwise
failure will affect the every VSAT in the network.
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Link Budget :

Preliminary Calculations

All link budgets require knowledge of the


free space path loss between the earth station and the satellite and
the noise power in the operation BW

Noise powers:

Noise power in transponder 1, Inbound SCPC FDMA Channels


Noise power in the Hub Station Receiver, Inbound SCPC FDMA Channels
Noise power in the Transponder 2, Outbound TDM Channels
Noise power in the VSAT Receivers, Outbound TDM Channels.

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Examples: Stabilized VSAT Systems


Both C- & Ku-Band
applications
C-Band Systems from 2.4
meter and larger
Ku-Band systems from 1.0
meter and larger

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Maritime VSAT Systems


3-axis stabilization
Pointing accuracy
less than 0.2
Withstands harsh
maritime conditions

Corrosion
Shock & Vibration
High wind load
Vessel movements

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Mobile VSAT Systems


Self-contained & mobile
Always ready for
communication
Full-motion video while
moving
Wireless connectivity to
external voice, video and
data sources

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Rapid-Deploy VSAT Systems

Self-contained
Includes power &
wireless links
Automatic
deployment of
antenna
Acquisition of satellite
within 5 min.

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Conclusion
The need to make access to the satellite more affordable and the
rapid expansion of the satellite communications worldwide brought
forward VSAT.
A significant increase in the transmit power capabilities of satellite
and the move to frequency bands above C band lead to the
reduction of the size and cost of earth station antenna.
VSAT technology now occupies the context of satellite
communications in terms of network configuration, services,
economics, operational and regulatory aspects.

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References
Pratt Timothy, Bostian C.W. and Allnutt J.E., (2003),
Satellite Communications, John Wiley & Sons.
G. Maral. VSAT Networks. 2nd Edition

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Iridium
Satellite

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History
Iridium communications service was
launched on November 1, 1998. The first
Iridium call was made by then-Vice
President of the United States Al Gore.
Motorola provided the technology and
major financial backing.

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History
The 1990s
1999.

The original Iridium LLC enters bankruptcy in August

Dec 2000 Iridium Satellite LLC" acquires Iridium's assets out of


bankruptcy. U.S. DoD awards contract.
Mar 2001
Iridium begins offering commercial service for mobile
voice; shifts company's strategy to vertical markets.
June 2001

Introduces data and Internet services.

Feb 2002

Announces successful deployment of in-orbit spares.

June 2003

Introduces short-burst data (SBD) services.

Aug 2003

Announces short messaging services (SMS).

Mar 2004

Launches fax and enhanced messaging services.

June 2004

FCC grants access to 3.1 MHz of additional spectrum.

July 2004

Surpasses 100,000+ subscribers;

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History
Sep 2005 Provides critical telecommunications to first
responders in Hurricane Katrina region. Regional traffic
increases more than 3000%.
Feb 2006 Launches compact lower-cost satellite data
transceiver for supply chain management, field force
automation and remote asset tracking. Commences
engineering studies for future satellite replenishment
and replacement plan.
Nov 2006
Feb 2007
July 2007

September 2013

Announces 169,000+ subscribers.


Announces 183,000+ subscribers.
Announces 203,000+ subscribers.

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Services
All Gateways Support
Voice and Data
Services
Dial-up
Direct Internet
Access
Short Message
Service
Short Burst
Messaging
Paging
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Global Commercial Usage

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Telephony Traffic, November 2003

General Information
The satellites are in a near-polar orbit.
Using 6 orbital planes with the inclination of 86.4
degrees.
the altitude of 485 miles (780 km).
The 66 active satellites plus 6 in-orbit backup satellites
fly in formation in six orbital planes,
each with 11 satellites equally spaced apart from each
other in that orbital plane.
Orbital period 100 minutes, 28 seconds.
traveling at a rate of 16,832 miles per hour, and traveling
from horizon to horizon across the sky in about ten
minutes.
As a satellite moves out of reach, the call is seamlessly
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handed over to the next satellite coming into view.

General Characteristics

Satellite weight - 700 kg (1500 lb),


Spot beams - 48 per satellite,
link margin - 16 decibels (average),
lifetime - 5-8 years.
Allocated frequencies:

Direction
Iridium Phone-Satellite
Satellite-Iridium Phone/Pager
Satellite-Satellite
Satellite- Gateway
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Gateway-Satellite

Frequency
1616-1626.5MHz
1616-1626.5MHz
23.18-23.38GHz
19.4-19.6GHz
29.1-29.3GHz

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How it Work

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Iridium Satellite Vehicle (SV)

Three Principal Elements Of SV:


Payload Provides All Command, Control and Communications
Functions
Main Mission Antennas (MMAs) Provide L-Band Telephony Functions
Bus Platform For SV Operations, Provides Power, Pointing, Propulsion
Satellite weight..700 Kg
Instant. Peak Power...>4000 W
Avg. Power Load620 W
Vehicle Length160 in
Vehicle Wingspan..........330 in

Battery &
Radiator

Solar Array Panels (2)

L-Band
MMA (3)
Payload
Electronics

Ka-Band Feeder
Link Antenna (4)
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Ka-Band CrossLink Antenna (4)


Launch Configuration

Seven Power PC Processors


Four Gimbaled K-Band Feederlinks
Four K-Band Crosslinks (2 Fixed & 2
Gimbaled)
Three L-Band Phased Arrays
Two 42.5 sq. ft. GaAs Solar Arrays
One 60A-hr SPV NiH2Battery
Three-Axis Momentum-Biased Attitude
Control System
Redundant Orbit Adjust
Graphite Epoxy Structure
Active & Passive Thermal Control
Life time is 5-8 years.
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Present Constellation Configuration


Plane 1

Plane 2

Plane 3

Plane 4

Plane 5

MS-9 5/17/98

SV22

MS-8 3/30/98

SV19

MS-7 2/18/98

SV72

SV18

MS-3 8/21/97

SV28

MS-4 9/27/97

SV56

MS-2 7/9/97

MS-9 5/17/98

SV23

PR-2 9/14/97

SV34

MS-7 2/18/98

SV42

SV75

MS-3 8/21/97

SV29

MS-4 9/27/97

SV52

LM-1 12/8/97

MS-9 5/17/98

SV76

PR-2 9/14/97

SV35

MS-7 2/18/98

SV40

SV70

LM-4 8/19/98

SV31

MS-4 9/27/97

SV53

MS-5 11/9/97

MS-9 5/17/98

SV25

PR-2 9/14/97

SV36

MS-7 2/18/98

SV39

SV62

MS-3 8/21/97

SV30

MS-4 9/27/97

SV84

MS-5 11/9/97

PR-3 4/6/98

SV45

PR-2 9/14/97

SV05

MS-11 11/6/98

SV80

SV63

MS-6 12/20/97

SV32

MS-1 5/5/97

SV10

MS-10 9/8/98

PR-3 4/6/98

SV46

PR-2 9/14/97

SV06

PR-1 6/18/97

SV17

SV64

MS-6 12/20/97

SV33

MS-1 5/5/97

SV54

MS-2 7/9/97

PR-3 4/6/98

SV47

PR-2 9/14/97

SV07

MS-7 2/18/98

SV15

SV65

MS-6 12/20/97

SV57

MS-1 5/5/97

SV12

MS-2 7/9/97

PR-3 4/6/98

SV20 (89)

MS-8 3/30/98

SV08

PR-1 6/18/97

SV81

SV66

LM-5 12/19/98

SV58

MS-1 5/5/97

SV13

MS-10 9/8/98

PR-3 4/6/98

SV49

MS-8 3/30/98

SV04

PR-1 6/18/97

SV82

SV67

MS-6 12/20/97

SV59

MS-1 5/5/97

SV83

MS-10 9/8/98

PR-3 4/6/98

SV26

MS-8 3/30/98

SV37

MS-11 11/6/98

SV41

SV68

MS-3 8/21/97

SV60

MS-4 9/27/97

SV86

MS-5 11/9/97

PR-3 4/6/98

SV03 (78)

MS-8 3/30/98

SV61

MS-11 11/6/98

SV43

SV74
Slot 1

66 Operational Satellites

Slot 2
Slot 3
Slot 4
Slot 5
Slot 6
Slot 7
Slot 8
Slot 9
Slot 10
Slot 11

SV55

12 Spare Satellites

LM-4 8/19/98

Spare1
Spare2

SV50

LM-2 3/25/98

SV14 (92)

SV11 (88)

SV90

SV51

LM-6 6/11/99

LM-5 12/19/98

IS-1 2/11/02

LM-2 3/25/98

SV21 (93)

SV91

SV97

LM-6 6/11/99

IS-1 2/11/02

IS-2 6/20/02

Spare3

Plane 6

SV94

Slot 1
Slot 2
Slot 3
Slot 4
Slot 5
Slot 6
Slot 7
Slot 8

Color Codes:
Delta

Slot 9

Proton
Long March

Slot 10

Eurockot
NOTE: All launch dates

Slot 11

are GMT

MS-5 11/9/97

(May 2006)

SV77

Spare1

MS-10 9/8/98

Spare2
Spare3

IS-1 2/11/02

Spare4

SV95

Spare4

IS-1 2/11/02

Spare5

SV96

Spare5

IS-1 2/11/02

Drifter
September
2013

SV98
IS-2 6/20/02

Drifter

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Multiple Launch Vehicles Used


DELTA II

PROTON

12 launches
5 SVs / LV

3 launches
7 SVs / LV

LONG MARCH 2C
6 launches
2 SVs / LV

September 2013

EUROCKOT
1 launch
2 SVs / LV

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A Boeing Delta II rocket


launched the latest
additions to the Iridium
satellite constellation
Monday Feb. 11, 2002
from Vandenberg Air
Force Base, Calif. at
9:44 a.m. PST.
The Delta II launch
vehicle deployed five
satellites into low-Earth
orbit to serve as
spares for Iridium
Satellites worldwide
communications
network.

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Iridium Satellite
Constellation
Each Satellite Footprint is
Approximately 2800 Miles
in Diameter
All Satellite Footprints
Overlap
Each Satellite has 48 Spot
Beams
Size of Each Spot Beam is
Approximately 250 Miles
in Diameter
All Spot Beams on a
September
Satellite2013
Overlap

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Handover in satellite systems


Several additional situations for handover in satellite systems
compared to cellular terrestrial mobile phone networks caused
by the movement of the satellites
Intra satellite handover
handover from one spot beam to another
mobile station still in the footprint of the satellite, but in
another cell
Inter satellite handover
handover from one satellite to another satellite
mobile station leaves the footprint of one satellite
Gateway handover
Handover from one gateway to another
mobile station still in the footprint of a satellite, but
gateway leaves the footprint
Inter system handover
Handover from the satellite network to a terrestrial
September 2013
cellular network
mobile station can reach a terrestrial network again

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Overview of LEO/MEO systems


# satellites
altitude
(km)
coverage
min.
elevation
frequencies
[GHz
(circa)]
access
method
ISL
bit rate

Iridium
66 + 6
780

Globalstar
48 + 4
1414

ICO
10 + 2
10390

Teledesic
288
ca. 700

global
8

70 latitude
20

global
20

global
40

1.6 MS
29.2
19.5
23.3 ISL
FDMA/TDMA

1.6 MS
2.5 MS
5.1
6.9
CDMA

2 MS
2.2 MS
5.2
7
FDMA/TDMA

19
28.8
62 ISL

yes
2.4 kbit/s

no
9.6 kbit/s

no
4.8 kbit/s

2700
7.5

4500
12

yes
64 Mbit/s
2/64 Mbit/s
2500
10

2.9 B$

4.5 B$

9 B$

# channels 4000
Lifetime
5-8
[years]
cost
4.4 B$
September
2013
estimation

FDMA/TDMA

81