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tudent's Book

KathyGude

withJaynе Wi|dmen

cooo

oxroRD

New

G

trre

Upper-lntermediate

Student's Book

Kathy&udе

withJaynе Wildman

oxroRD

UNI\/ЕRSITY

PRЕss

a Powеrxa''ittlаg7еs NаturаIimages Еxamtrаining: sk]m геadirз Examtrаining: kаnnInq v: Thеnаtura| wог]d' Еrо ;: oп Suffiхesаnd ргеfiхеs
a Powеrxa''ittlаg7еs
NаturаIimages
Еxamtrаining: sk]m геadirз
Examtrаining: kаnnInq
v: Thеnаtura| wог]d' Еrо ;: oп
Suffiхesаnd ргеfiхеs
R: П/atсhinghеаdlines
4
2 lаt.'гаr
г.eoctno',s
Happiness
Еxаmtrаining: \!zlс. ng
v: Ехрrеssingiееiingj
Wordsthаt go togеIhсr
R: N,4atсhin8
sUmmаг]еs
16
3AllеIping''or,d
тhеnaturа| wor|d
v: Gpiпii\ аndtгееooпl
R: Тгuеor fа|sе quеst!ons
30
4
vlediа
птqttеls
Thе trouЬlе with ТV
v:
п
аno гаd]О
R: \1UIt]рlе.(n0i(с
t]UеstioПs
5
s.'Gcеss
scoriеs
out of lndiа
V: FiIm.mаking
R: Truеor fаlsе quеsi!oпs
56
6}''/sсеr'.d''d
Thе MаrуCеlеstе
ittlogtitlаtiotт
v: I\,4уstеry аndimаgiпаtiоn
R: l\,4uIt]p|е.сhoiсе qUеstions
Page68
68
7
LeG'sriveаlix1tlе!
Еxtremesports
Exаmtraining: N,lаtсhing
V: Leisurеасtivitiеs
spееdаnd movemеnt
R: |Vаtсhinghеаdings
a2
8
a n
Go
tI,
е
1' t, k,
|o'w,,
Nightlights
v: Еnvironmеntа|
issuеs
VerbsWith negаtivе
94
gWisdotttot
d
visuaIсonсepts
Iс',owredge
v: Undеrstаnding
R: Мatсhingdеsсriptions
108
aioDividеdro5rаlties
Lovесonquеrs аII
V: Love
Usеsof make
tt,4аsсulinе
R: N,4U|tipIe-сhoiсе
quеsti0n5
120

hеadings

mеаniЛ8

R: Rеаdiлgfor speсifiс informаtion

andfеminine nouns

Eхаmtвining: Тгj€ orfа|sе quеstions

Eхаmtaiпiпg: \. JI,O P (.o|(е qUб[ion\

Exаmtгаining: Тгuе ог fа|sе quеstions

Exаmtrаiпing: l\lu tip]е.сhoiсе quеstions

Prе>ег| pedPсt) mp|еаnd pа>tsimp|c'

Prе\Pnl реrlPсl lrmp|еаnd ( OntinUous:

Рresentpеrfесt With whеn,it', untiI

[: Photographiсimagеs - a ta|k

Yе5/nostatеmеnts

Еxаmtrаining: Notе takin8

P: Wordstrеss

S: Ro|е p|аy jobs

Stimulusbаsеd disсussiоn imаgе

  • 6 I

Gегundsапd infinitivеs

[: Diffеrentwor|ds_ pеrsona| еxpеr|еnсe

Examtrаining: 0rdеring in{ormаtiоn

Exаmtraining: Truе or fаlse questions

s: Dlsсu55|on

StimuIus-bаsеd

disсussion

_

globа|isation

Soa$ Onevision

z0

L: ResсUe_rad|o pro8rаmmе

 

Ехpressions

 

P: Wеаkform words

Exаmtrаining: N,4uItiplе сhoiсe questions

Еxаmtrаining: Givin8 а

prеsеntаtion

S: Prоb|еm.so|ving'

Ro|е

p|ау

 

Givin8а 5hort presеntation

 

34

L: Thеpowеr of thepress opinions

P: Usingstrе55 tOr mеаnin8

Ехamtrаining: |\4U |tip|е mаtсhin8

Eхamt]aining: Speaking

tоаn audienсе

s: stimUlUs-basеd

disсUssion

_ thеmediа

 

D|5сUsslon

 

46

Narrativеtensеs: Past s|mp|е,

L: веаtingthе stеrеotypes- intеrviеW

pаstсontinUoUs,

раst pеrfесtsjmр|е

P: VOWе| sounds

andсontInUoU5

Eхamtraining: Identifyin8 stа1еments thеspеаkеrs mаke

Аdvеrbсlаusеs

Ехаmtraining; Using fi|lеrs

s: t]singfi||еrs

 

А shortprеsentat|on

 

song:Moneу, moneу' monеу

58

60

Pastm0dа|s

L: Sсiеnсеfiсtion intеrviеw

Logiса|еXpIаПаtions

P: Soundsаnd spе||iпg

Еxamtrаining: с0mр|еting

sentеnсеs

5: Ехprеssing

{ее|ings

and opiniоns

 

su88е5tin8

еХрlаnаti0n5

stimUlUs.bаsed

disсussion

_ spaсеexpIorаtion

70

72

Тhе pass|ve

L: LondonLаndmarks

_

phoneса|l

Сausalivе hIvе/gе|

Understаnding

аnпоUnсеmеnt5

 

5: Saуingwhiсh you prеfer

 

stimUIUs-basеd

disсussion

_ tоurism

u

86

Waysof tа|king about thе tutUrе

L:

PoIs аpart! сhatsh0w

Examtrainingi Еxtrа Words

P: HOmoрhonеs

 

H0monyms

 

5: speсU|at|ng

 

Priоritisiпg

Intеrprеtin8

hеаdI nеs

96

98

Thirdсonditionа|

L:

Goodfor thе brain rаdiоprogrаmme

Wi5hеsаnd rе8rеts

P: Silеntletters

s: Brainstorming

a

prеsеntаtion

 

Givin8а presеntаtiOn

110

112

L:

optingout _ pеrsona|

еХpеriеnсе

 

l0loms

 

P: VoWе|sounds

Еxamtrаining: Ro|е p|ay

s; Rolep|ау _ a dесision

 

song.'

^lеmory

 

124

с:=сulturefo(us,[=Listening'R:=Rеading's:=sPeaking,v:=voсаbulаryP:=Pronunсiation

iliгтпц а dеJсiPtio'п

 

6rаmmr

Vеrbsand prepositions

:.;тnt pеrfесtsimp|е аnd pаst slmp|е'

Nеgаtivеprеfixеs

imtfainiпg:l,::

Ргеsеntperfесt Withwhеn, if, until;

Wordbuilding

 

Prеsеntpеdесt simpIe аnd соntinuous

Phrаsа|

verbs

skills

Rеаding/ Listеning

/ Writing

'I

 

12

14

flryEп{,Е а storу

Grаmmа]

Еxpressing

fееlings

.'й

Gerundоr infinitivе

Usingаdvеrbs

 

Ьiпing. '.l;*

..

',,,П:rngm0re

Skills

ExprеssingtWO points оf view

-:-:'!:

-q

Spеаking/ Writing / Listеning

 

24

26

frnnпg аn informaI Iеttеr аnd notеs

 

Grаmmаr

Wordbuilding

::: s:ot]аЛd

 

Hаbit5

ЕnvironmentaI

prob|еms

iffi

trаining:Inс|uding a|| thе nесеsяrу

 

Skills

AdjeсtivesWith Jеss anсJ ul

.-: --зiion

 

Rеading/ Writing / LЬtеning

Wordsthаt go together

rii

38

40

ltt*п:ц

а dекription

': ] :.;р

o{ an evеnt

 

Grаmmаr

Rе|ativеаnd noun с|аusеs

Vеrbswith different

mеanings

NеWspаpers

ffi

trаiniпg:Тiming your writing

5kills

TVpro8rаmmes

 

Rеading/ Listеning

/ Writing

4l

50

52

il.{гщ аn еssаy arguing for and against

 

Grammаr

Wordbuilding

 

Nаrrativеtеnsеs: Pаst simp|е, pаst сontinUoUs,

Phrаsаlvеrbs

:flm training:Lookin8 аt bothsides of аn

 

i]аst pеrfeсt 5imp|eаnd сontinuous

Prеp05|tl0n5

 

Advеrbсlаusеs

Wordsthаt go tOgеther

skills

Ski||sаnd quа|ities

nееdеd in dif{еrenl

Spеaking/ Listеning / Writing

п]

66

lr!пm€

а dеtесtive story

Grаmmar

Prеpos|1|ons

'::.

nvestigаtion

Pаstmodа|s

Тhеright vеrb

irаm trаiпing:Writing еffесivе|y

 

Logiса|ехpIanаtions

WоrdsWith oppositе meаnings

 

Skills

0rdеrоf ad1есtives

Listеning/ Writing / Rеаding

ilштnmg

a reviеw

Grammаr

Wordsthаt 80 to8еthеr

: - эп in Blосk

Pa5sIvе

ЕХpressi0nsWith l],ye

:lшm trаining:Тhinkin8 about your intеndеd

 

СalsaIi\tе h1уе/gеt

Adjeсivеs

]-]-lсе

Skills

РгеposIt]oЛ5

Reаding/ Writing/ Listеning

WоrdbuiIding

Еt

90

92

il*Ег|з а

personalstatеmrnt аnd Ietter

 

Grаmmar

Fjom0nуms

::

..

|oгаjob

Wаysof tа|kingabout the futurе

Thе rightwords

iшm tвining:HighIightin8

information

Skills

 

Writing/ Reаding

 

'nfl

102

104

iфПltiгtg аboutdаtа

 

Grammar

Wordbuilding

. ]]:* саttitudеs

 

Thirdсonditional

Phrаsаl verbs With rdke

in'm tnining:Presenting data

Wishеsand rе8rеts

Prеpositions

 

skills

Wordsthаt g0 tOgether

Rеаding/ Writing / Listеning

116

118

iint.}g

'-

еsяy

Grаmmаr

ldroms

. :g |лIеrеsтs

 

Rеpodеd5реесh

Prеp05|t]oЛ5

 

Skills

Wordsthat 80 to8еthеr

Listening/ Wriling

ЕхpressiOnsWith fldke

128

130

jobs

с: Imagesof lreIand

R: тhеLф oJ Pi byYаnn |\4аrtе|I

R: тhе тhirorninesteps by John Buсhan

с: YoungpeopIe аnd the mediа

R: Thе \ound Moсhiлe by Roa|dDah|

с; Тhe Britishаnd theirсаrs

R:

Fohrеnheit 451 bv Rаv Brаdburv

R.

тhе сhаtgе oI thе Light Brigodе

bv Alfrеd LordТеnnvsоn

  • 1 Lookаt thе piсturеs.Why is аppеarаnсеimportant

to

аnimaIsаnd to pеople?

Rеading

Titlе:

{D

 

Skimreading

 

Whеrеvеr 1 wе look nowadays Wе arе surroundеd-by'ii.gl]:

 

mеansreаding a tеХt through quiсklу to gеtа gеnеraI

idеaof whаtit isabout. Тhis prеparеs

you for answеring

morеdеtai|еd оuеstions,

Skimrеad thе tехtand matсhheаdings а_е to parаgraphs

1-5.

sее

thеm

il;;;';

on TV

a сonstant fеatuI; of

today,s world.

at thе сinеma, in magazinеs.

huЬan

Howеvеr, not all of

thеm havе bееn сrеatеd by

сrеatеd somе of

thе

of imagеs in

.u.rl

,fr

bеings. Naturе itsеlf has

most bеautiful imagеs, and thе variеty

..

i"

naturе is еnormous. Ovеr millions of yеars'

s has developed

its owп

.look, Thеre

..

arе thrее

a

Inspiration

d

Аppеа|

*ui'l *u,o's

for this

divеrsity of natural imagеs.

b

Sаfеty

|nvisibiIitу

2

 

VаrlеtУ

Lеt,s bеgin by looking

stiсk insесt and thе

ш tw9 vеIy d'I*':"j.'^Y-::1.:^

ti!еr. Stiсk insесts hav.ееvolvеd to

 
     
  • 3 whatwould be a suitаbIеtit|е for the tеxt?

Sсanning

mеаnsIooking quiсkIy through а tехtwithout rеading

еVerуsеntеnсе

to findthе informаtion

you nееd. This

hе|ps уou to finddеtаiled information

morе quiсk|y.

and lеavеs thеy livе amongst. For

еxaсtly likе thе branйеs

thеm, thе ability to

bесausе

thеy

hidе from thеir еnеmiеs is еssеntial

offеrs thеm thе only

arе small and саmouflаgе

*uy .o protЪсt thеmsеlves. Yеt it,s

that usе сamouflagе.

Largе

totally

hidе

diffеrеnt way.

not only small сrеaturеs

too, but

in

a

StripеS to

mammals do

Tigеis, for еxamplе, havе

thеmsеlvеs in ,n" й,.g grass,whеrе

thеy сan launсh

possiblе fоr

thеir attaсks on thеir p,"y. ёйo.,flagе

madе it

  • 4 Sсanthе textand findthе answеrsto thе quеstions.

tigеrsto bесomе suссеssful huntеIs.

 
  • 1 Whеrеdo wе соmе асross imaяеs? What arе thе sourсеs

 

оf thеsеimagеs?

Whyhavе stiсk insесts dеvе|opеd thеir imagе? Havе

tigеrsеvolvеd stripеs for thе samе rеаson?

But hiding from thеir prеdatoIs isn't'th"

thеir survival. Thе armadillo

сan еnsurе

South Amеriсa, for еxamplе, is protесtеd

:-ч}Y.::ii.:

from Сеntral and

bу thiсk piесеs.of

Thе

Whаtdoеs thе аrmadiIIo usе to protесtitseIf? What othеr

hard bonе

whiсh

to'*

u

shЪll

around

its tlody.

spесiеsusе similаr wаys of protесtion?

Whаtimportаnt rо|е doеs imagе p|ау in thе|ifе of

pеасoсks?

armadillo looks

,.i.,'."

fi.сtion

morе likе

fllm

an armourеd m1сhi1е

l':i.i

than an animal. Or lеt,s takе a

rnоrе

сommon еxamplе. Thе hеdgеhog

is a muсh smallеr animal,

\Vhеrеdo pеoplеoftеn Iook for fаshion idеаs?

й.,i

has providеo it йitь

a

сoаt of Long, sharp Spinеt

 

''u',,,"

to protесtitsеIf from its еnеmiеs'

Yoсahшlary

Тhe naturalшorld

  • 5 Еxp|ainthе meaningof the wordsin itаliсaссording to howthеy arе usеdin

i

'i.

:l

thе tеxt.

 
  • 6 Sсanthе tеxtand find wordsor phrasesthаt mean:

 

1

a

numbеrоf diffеrеnttypеs of somеthing(paragraph

1)

 

2

3

a groupof аnimаIsor p|аntsthаt shаrе thе samе сharасtеristiсs

(parаgraph

1)

dеvеIopgrаduа|Iy

frоm а

simpIеto а morесomp|еx form (pаrаgrаph

2)

4

bеin а p|aсеwhеrе уou сannotbе sееn (pаragrаph

2)

 

5

kееpsоmеthing

or somеbodysаfе (pаrаgrаph

2)

6

аn аnimaIthat is ki||еdand еatеn by othеr аnimals (paragrаph

2)

 

7

аn animа|thаt ki||s аnd еats оthеr аnimals (paragrаph

З)

8

makеsomeonе fее| thаt thеу |ikе уou (pаragrаph4)

9

bemorе suссеssful

thаn othеrs (paragrаph

4)

 

Еvolution

 
  • 7 Matсhthе verbs in Iist1 to thosеin list2 thаtаrе simi|аr in mеaning.

 

1

protесt

еVOIVе

providе

аttrасt

сrеаtе

2

ofIer

form . аppеal

dеvеlop

dеfеnd

.-

is yеt anothеr rеason for

..

'.rе.s

variеty of

imagеs. For thе

 

1''.s

to

survivе it,s not

еnough to

.:е from prеdators. Somеtimеs it,s

stаnd out iп

thе сrowd.

. -.tu,.t to , - ,.uks, for

instanсе, dеvеlopеd

.:.: ехtlaordinary bluе

and

grееn

.

io

attraсt {еmalеs 1pеаhens)

',.:-:1g

thе

mating

sеason. Many

to

 

animals

usе

thеir

imagе

,', ]сf,} to potеntial matеs and to gеt

. - .зd

of thеir rivals.

 

. :-' enimal,s appеaтanсе seпds out a

-. ilпportапt mеSSаgе. Тhеir imagе

-.'l.'s ihеm

 

to

hidе,

to

dеfеnd

 

.епrsеlvеs or to flnd paтtnеrs. Wе

'

:тlans

havе

stolеn

maлy

of

ouг

'".-lr imagеs from

wildlifе

ovет

thе

- =nturiеs. Just

think

of

rrrilitary

-1lloLtI for еxarnplе, oт thе fеathетs

 

:.

еxpеnsivе

hats,

lеopaтd

skin

:'зriсs, punk

hairstylеs, сamouflagе

 

-.1'',.,,,-fukе

fur ...

thе list is еndlеss.

.r faсt, whеn

it сomеs to fаshion-, it

thе

human

raсе

.

).еms

as

if

nas

 

=ernеd еvеrything -lst onе sourсе _ naturе.

it

knows

trоm

  • 8 Сomp|еtеsеntеnсes 1_5 With the сorrесtform of a verbfrom Iist1 in 7 аbovе, and a suitаblеprеposition' More thаn one prеpositionmay bе сorreсt.

]

Naturеhas -

thеhеdgеhog

а сoatof |ong,sharp spinеs.

2

Sсiеntists

bе|iеvе that our Univеrsе wаs

thеBig Bаng.

а hugеexpIosion

сa||еd

3

|\4аnуVls|tors аrе

LаkеB|еd bесаusе of itsnaturаl bеаutv

4

Dаrwinwas thе first to сIаimthаt thе humаn rасе -

a spесiеs

of аnimа|.

5

Stiсkinsесts arе

prеdatorsbесausе thеy |ook |ikе twigs.

suffixgs and profixоь

  • 9 Formadjeсtivеs from thеsе nouns bу adding -ful andIor./ess.

Thеn sсan the

textand findwhat thе adjeсtivesdеsсribе.

 

1

hе|p

  • 4 сount

2

pеасе

  • 5 wondеr

3

worth

t CI writеwords with а nеgativеprefiх, (un-, im-, in-) whiсh mеаn thе oppositе

of 1-7.

 
 

.l nаturаI

  • 5 сommon

2

еssеntiaI

  • 6 importаnt

3

possibIе

  • 7 еxpеnsivе

4

suссеssfuI

Сhoosеonе of thе statеmеntsbeIow and sаywhy уou agreе/disаgrееwith it.

 

Youсan а|wаys judgе a pеrsonby his or hеrappеаranсе.

 

o

It'snоt what wе wеаr but how wе wеаr it thаtmattеrs.

.

Bеаutvis onlv skin dееp.

ф

Presentperfeсt simplе and past simplе

 

lцдi:-

..

't;--.i l+'':.нiqj.ц:

..

....

l;l

..

ffi

Exp|ainwhy thrеe of thеsеsеntеnсеs аre inсorrесt.

,l

l'vеWorn a nеwdrеss, УеsterdаY.

  • 2 N4уfriеnds Iаughed whеn thеу saw mу о|d tгаiпеrs.

  • 3 Jаnе didn'tbuy аnу brand nаmе с|othеs,

t'еt.

  • 4 Jаmiе just Iosthis wаlIеt.

In pairs,first answеr the quеstions, thеn rеadthе tеxt.Dо

уou agrееwith what KeIly, Davе and thе writеrsay?

Whу/whynot? ,1
Whу/whynot?
,1

Whаtis а brаndnаmе?

  • 2 Whаtdo уou thinkmаkеs с|othеs аnd othеr thinss with brаndnаmеs so popu|ar?

Rеadthе tеxt again. UndеrIine thе еxamp|еs оf thе

prеsеntpеrfeсt simple аnd сirс|еthе еxаmp|еsof thе past

simplеin the еxtraсt.

Hаveyou ever bought а

brаnd

nameproduсt? |fso, why? Мost

peopte, it seems, buythеse

produсts as a Wayof expressing

theirown individuatity

whilestitl

beingpart oГа grоup. Buying

brand namеs is likebеing а fanof

а popular bandor a famous

football team,it gives you a sense

of idеntity. Howevеr, thеse

produсts havebесome muсh morе

important thаnthey used to bе,

espeсiаlly foryoung people.

Yеsterday, I

spoke to some

reenagers about theirbuying

explained .|'ve bought lotsof

hаbits. Ke[lцwhoЪ r7,

сlothеs bесausе oithе label.l bought

Т.shirt two

l disсovered thatthe

'u

i.,. designer

yеars agobeсause it wasсheap in a satе.But

quаtity wаsgood.

|tdidn,t fall

to

pieсes aftertwo Wеeks, so nowl buyсlothes withlabets

whеn| сan.'ltЪ

not just thegirts whoare imagе

сonsсious. Davе, KellyЪ

brothеь toldme .Dad bought me

birthday a fewyеars ago.

somedеsignеr trainersfor my

Sinсethen l hаve аlways wornbranded trainers. And

lrlаtсhthе vеrbsin boIdin thе tеxtto thе usеs1-4.

,l tо dеsсribеan ехpеriеnсеthat has оr hаsn'thаpреnеd аt

:1,

аn indеfinitеtime in thepast е.g.

|lаve уou evor bought?and -

  • 2 3еsсribeаn асtion thаt has finishеd but has аn еffесt

.-

 

.' * orеsеnt

3

.'

:l.s:t

..

bеаn

4

-i-

1

2

3

Sаrаworkеdihаs

4

5

6

|sоw/hаvе

 

rесеntIy.

7

8

Put thе

sentеnсеs .l_8.

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

orеsеntrеsu Its?

Did уou watсh/11avе

асtion or stаtеthаt stаrtеd in thеоаst аnd

.,]еs :о thеprеsеnt -

:с сеs:rbе а finishеdaсtion or stаtеаt а dеfinitеtimе in

Undеr|inethе сorrесt tеnsе in sеntеnсes1_8.

Dtd )ou е\еrsее Науе \oLl еvеr sееn Оasis in сonсеrt?

Sjmonbought hаs оought sоmе dеsignеr

ууorkеd

| сan'tсаlI Jеssiе - | t'оrgоtihаl,е

| didn,tgo/hаvеn't

jеans |аstwееk.

аs a modе|in thеholidаys.

mv mobiIе.

t'оrgottеn

bееn to sсhoоlvеstеrdау.

sееn Iwo fi|ms starring Gеоrgе Сloоnеу

Markdidn't еоt/hаsn,t еatеn Сhinеsе food bеforе - Wе,rе

goingto trуsomе tonight.

уou wаtсhedtе|еvision Iast night?

аdvеrbsin braсkеtsin thе сorrесtplaсе in

Don,tfееd thе саt; |'vе givеn him his dinnеr. (аlrеady)

Hаvе уou pаidthе tеlеphonе bil|? (yеt)

Thе|еttеr from my pеnfriеnd hasn,t arrivеd. (stiI|)

Pau|a,smissеd thе bus. (just)

Hаvеyou triеd Grееk food? (evеd

l'vеbееn аbrоаd. (nеvеr)

Аnnahаs Iikеd с|аssiса| musiс. (а|ways)

N4аtthasn't movеd hоusе. (yеt)

thаt hаvе or haven'thappеnеd

аtan indеfinitеtimе in thеоаst?

withthе prеsеnt pеrfесt to taIkаbout rесеnt асtions with

withthе prеsеntpеrfесt for unfinishеdtimе?

Read1-8 in 6 аgainand answеrquеstions ,l_3.

dо wе use

Whiсhаdvеrbs or timе еxprеssions

,l to tа|kabout еxpеriеnсеs

,,,,1'

sinсеl stаrted buying my

ownсlothes, lastyea1

l havealso

сhosenjeans andT-shirts withtabets; thesejeans l,m

wearing nowfor examplе. lt

meansyou alwaysfeel

сonfident thatyou're

wearing somеthing

сool.'

:::r.ita:r r:.:r',:.::::rirrr: rll

..

..

Рrеsеntpеrfесt simple and р rеsеntperf eсt сontinuous

\ilаtсhеraглpiеs а_с to thе usеsоf thе prеsеntpеrfесt

:опtinuous-l-3.

a

.\4hу аГe fou эo hot?. ,!'ve baan runnin7.,

6

Theу,vebaen going to tha tannis сlub for уoаrь.

!,ve been living hore ьinсe lаst Аpril.

for:

. lsе thе presеntpеrfесt соntinuous

'1 асtionsor statеswhiсh startеd in thеpast аnd аrе sti||

:

]

]

3оing on.Wе wаnt to еmphаsisеthе Iеngth of timе.

aсtionsor statеswhiсh hаvе stoppеd, but havе prеsеnt

tonsеquеnсеs.

асtionswhiсh hаvе hаppеnеd rеpеatеdly

for somе timе.

\Vеwant to еmphаsisеthе rеpеаtеd

асtion.

Lookаt еxampIes1 and2 and thеn putthе timе

ехвressionsinto thе сorrесtсolumn.

  • 1 l,vo Knоwn6а|Iу far 6iх уoаro.

  • 2 |,votrived hеro einсa 2o0l,

Prеsent perfеct with when,if ' or antil

"Е,E Rеadthе ru|еsand thenсomplеtе sеntеnсеs 1_5 using

yourown words.

Rulеs

,l

Wесаn usе thе prеsеntperfесt simp|е instеad of thе

prеsеnt to taIkаbout sоmеthing

thаt wilI or should

l

*

ll

I

I

I

п

happеnbеforе anothеr еVent in thеfuturе' е.g.

When уou.vofinishod уour homeworK. уou сdn go

out.

You саn,t go out unIil уou,vefinished уour

homеworK.

  • 2 Wесan usе thе prеsеnt pеrfесt simp|е instеad of thе оrеsеntin somеfirst сonditionаl sеntеnсеs' e.g.

lf уou,vеfini;hod уour homeworK,we will go out.

,l

|fthеу

not -

by|unсhtimе,

wе wi|l ring

andfind out whеrе thеy are.

  • 2 yourbеdroom, wе саn havе

Whеn уoU-

din nеr.

a Iongtimе

twоwееks

|astMarсh

thrееhours

I'lIbе rеady to goout whеn | -

mуhаir.

Сhristmas |Vondаy а fеwminutеs ninеo,с|oсk

  • 4 thеtab|е for dinnеr, уou сou|d

Whеnyou -

 

hеIpmе preparе thе vеgеtаb|еs.

for (periodof time)

sinсе(point in timе)

  • 5 I сan'ttе|| you what mу sесrеt is untiII -

to

 

Annе.

In pairs,first put thе vеrbsin braсkеtsinto thе сorrесt

tеnse(present perfесt simpIе or сontinuous).

Тhen

сomplеtеthe sеntеnсеswith /or or sinсе.lf bothtensеs

arе possibIe,еxplain thе diffеrenсеin meaning.

  • 1 (rеаd)thе sаmе book

Pеtеr

Iаst уеаr. l

wondеrwhеn hе wiIl finish.

  • 2 (try)to phonеthеm -

Wе -

hours'pеrnаps

thеirphonе is brokеn.

  • 3 Ourgrandpаrеnts

(hаvе)thеir саt -

two

уеa rs.

  • 4 (do)this jоb --

N4аriа

thrееmonths.

  • 5 (bе)a friеnd --

Kar|

|

  • 6 -

(notgo) to theсinеmа

agеs.

I movеdhousе

  • 7 (notwatсh) a footbal|matсh -

John

months.

  • 8 (stay)with his сousins

Sаm

hеstartеd

сoIlеgе.

Lеt's aсtivatе

Peгэonal

oъPorieoс.o

  • 12 ln pairs'read thе instruсtions1_3 аnd intеrviewеaсh othеr.Usе thеse quеstion words.

Whеn

What

with

How

Whу

Howmanу timеs

Whеrе

How|ong

  • 1 Findout if yoUrpartnеr has donе thе things (а-с) bе|ow.

  • 2 Findout as muсh information

аs you саn аbout what

hаppеnеdwhеn hе/shе did thеm.

  • 3 N4аkеa notе of Уour partnеr'srеp|iеs.

Ехаmple

Ann Whаtis thе mоst exсiting sport yoU havе triеd?

Bob

Kayаking.

 

Ann

Bob

Ann HowIong havе

you bееn doing it?

Bob SinсеI

wаs ,l2'

a

tryan ехсitingsport

b

visitаn intеrеsting

p|aсе

pеrformin pub|iс

Howmаny timеs hаvе уоu donеit?

Lots.I do it еvеrуwееkеnd in summеr.

T 3 Workin groups'Disсuss thе quеstions.

  • 1 Do уou buуdеsignеr с|othеs? WhyiWhy not?

  • 2 Howhavе brаnd nаmеs сhаnged pеop|е,sspеnding hаbitsin yourсountry?

ф

PIlotogtrа1oIтiс

I'i,аgIes

.t Inpairs, disсuss thesе quеstions.

]

2 З
2
З

Hоwdo you fеe| аbout:

.

.

takingphotogrаphs?

sееingphotоgraphs

of yourse|f?

.

Iookingаt othеr pеoplе,s photogrаphs?

Whуdo pеoplеtаkе photogrаphs

of еасhоthеr?

Hоwdo pеop|еrеасt whеn thеу knоw thеir photоgl.аph

is bеingtаl'епi

Whу?

4

1

 

wastаkеn?

2

Whаtwords wou|d

уoU Usеto dеsсribе

thеman?

3

Howdo уou think

hеfе|t аbout thе

phоto?

Notе-taking

WhеnIistеning

аnswеrform.

Ехаmplе

1

2

Whеnwаs it tаkеn?

3

4

5

6

Listеning

  • 2 Lookаt thisphotograph a

аnswеrthе quеstions.

Whеndo you think it

HowWеrе |mаgеs rеprеsеntеd

bеforе thе invеntion оf phоtogrаphу?

don't wоrrу if уou do notundеrstаnd

еverу word.

l\4аkеbrief notеs thе firsttimе уou listеne.g. аntiquе mаrkеt/Pоris.

Тhеnсonfirm уoUr answеron thе sесond Iistеning

bеforе fi||ing in thе

гo6Jl:l Listеnto a shortnеws itеm аbout thе o|dphotogrаph аnd answеl

thе quеstions.Write notеs |ikе thosе in thе ехamp|е.

|Уhеrеdid NlonsiеurPаgneuх buу it? Аntiquo mаrKrt / Раris

Whуis it soimportаnt?

Whеndid thе pub|iс hеаr аbout thе photogrаph?

Whowаs Niсo|аs Huеt?

Whаtdid hеhаvе to do?

Whydidn't hе сomb his hair or smi|е?

Eхpandyour notеs into sеntenсеs. Тhеn сompare your аnswеrs to а

partnеr's.

  • 5 Lookat thеsеphotographs аnd аnswеr thеquеstions. ,l Howold do yоu think thе pеoplе arе?

    • 2 Whаtjоbs do уou thinkthеy do?

ro6,|l.z Thegirl in thе photogrаphis

сa||edAnnа Pimm. listеn аnd сomplеtе

thе notеs.

 

AnnаPimm

.l

Аgе:

2

Nаtiоnа|itу:

-

3

N4аinoссupаtion:

4

Pаrt-limеjob: -

5

Eаrnings:

6

Fаthеr'soссupаlion:

7

Fathеr'sаdviсе:

8

N4ainаmbition:

Inpairs, disсuss thеsе quеstions.

1

Whodo уou thinkwas right, Аnnа or

hеrfаthеr?

2

Whatdo you think hаs hаppеnеd to

Annаsinсе thеn7

 

,:.

.: j.

 

:

.

: l.j;

-

 

:'*

i ..

зs[

i.,:

. ' j': *:.:-l

._

]

. -. :'.;.:*:-:;

 

:.,

..

-:.

п

ml

Ё*''\.'ithZасk'the

quеstionsdо уou

thеn Iistеnto the intеrviеw

*зtсh rl.hаtZaсk saysаbout

.

l

.: l|: -| . -| nеsidееасh statеmеnt. Did thе

:

:. ;:ц ]*, -l ihе quеstionsyouprediсtеd?

 

.:

..

]:

j'llo0еl.

' '" ]- ,,' -il onеаgеnсy.

 

::

:,':'

..

;

ОПgpеriods WithoUt Work. -

 

-

 

]

,

].О.

.: -]:l- ,siO е for my WorstеXpеriеnсе.

 

j ":,

-

)l sОll-lеfriеnds bесausе of my Сarееr.

..

hаvеtriеd to mаkеmе givеup modеIIing.

s

Jt]еrl-l С rvork suffеrеd аs a rеsultof modе|linя.

  • - : ikеа сomp|еtесhаngе of сarееr.

:,]i

..

lшnсiation

l. :""435

-: :iiridеd into sуl|аbIes:

units usuа||y

сontаining

а

.

.lrlsоnаntbеforе аndior аftеr it, е.g. af-tеr.

  • - -::, nеthе strеssеd syIlablе in еaсhworс.

 

..

асt(noun)

b

сontrасt (vеrb)

'. 'llеrсе(noun)

b

сommеr сia| (аdjесtive)

 

:ft

vеrlэ)

b

sаtis faс tiоn (noun)

:

:

iП

V€ГD)

b

assign mеnt (nоun)

: : I \.еrb)

b

rеас tiоn (noun)

 

.оgrаph (noun) b

phоto grаphiс (аdjесtivе)

..

\оtv Iistenand сhесkyour answеrs. Prасtise

thеrvords with thе сorrесtstrеss.

О6Jl's Nowintеrviеw еaсh othеr. Rеfеr to whаtyour

з

з

pаrtnеrhаs sаid tо shоwthat you arе Iistening.

Usе thе

diaIoguеbox to he|pyou'

,r;:t:r:::::

....

,

..

"1",;1;i;:.1-:i::;;;:-:,,:i;::

..

;r:;;:-;,:.::;";-.:-,;;:;;,;;:rt.,.'-:;Jrr::-

..

-;"ir:.:;r,

.-! sьowingthat you arе listеning

.j

A

Now уou mеntionedthаtуou,d а|wауs wantеd to bеа

 

modе|.

 

B

Yеs,еvеr sinсе | tookpаrt in a fаshiоnshow аt sсhooI

A

Sothаt,s how it a||stа rtеd?

B

Yеs,p|us thе fасt that Iwon а сompеtitionin а |oсаI

nеWspapеr.

j^ Aсtuаllу,I wаsgoing to аsk уou аbout thаt. Сould уou

ехplаinin moredetаil ехaсt|уhow thаt hе|pеd уou?

stimulus - b aьod diьcuвьion

t4

Disсussthеse quеstions.

'l

Whаtarе thе pеop|е in thеpiсturеs doing?

  • 2 Whаtis thе sIogаn suggеsting?

З

4

5

Whаtis mоrеimportаnt for а

hаppу|ifе аppеaranСеor

pеrsonaIity?

Towhаt еxtеnt do photographs

in advеrtisеmеnts

influеnсеus?

Arephotogrаphiс

imagеs aIwаys аn асСuratе

piсturе of

rеа|itу?

l;еaking

"

'

_1 '

',

' . :". goingto intеrviеwa partnеr.lmаginе you еaсh

' =: J ffеrеnt job in whiсhyou havе bееn vеry

' ' -.: s.;]. \Vritе quеstions to findout аbout:

r

:-

. iltl-lеdоing thе job

)

.

.'lg/tvorstеxpеriеnсе

.а пlr iv lifе/|lfеstу|е

l's

n/lake the most

of

Yourself

I

i

 

.

Lookаt thе piсtures.What

 

diffеrеntimages of Britaindo thеy

show?

:

Whatimages do you havеof

Britainwhiсh are not in thе

piсturеs?

Studyingthe samplе

Understandingtho taeK

:. Тiсk(/) the pointsin thе listthаt

mightаppеar in a writtеn

desсription.

о pеrsonaIfее|ings аnd еmotions

.

fасtsаnd figurеs

.

exp|anаtions of who, whаt,

whеn,whеrе аnd why

informa |,сonvеrsаtionа |-tуpе

|аnguagе, е.g. сontraсtions

a

a

storiеsor nаrrаtivе

piсturеs, drаwings andl or

diаgrаms

j

", €)

,

.j::.:1traditional images of,Britain whiсhhеtp pеople to

have a betteridea of what British tifеis tiketoday.

lT:.

z

Manypeople thinkoГ Britain and immediatety thinkof

Ben is an

London. Big

еxample of a сharaсteristiс image of London. Тhisis

part of the Housеs of Parliaй"n., *r.''.й ,,.;;;.

beсause it is

tradition as wе[las

symbolise the

todayЪgovernment. othertourist imagеs don,t

Bеn.Мany

whote сountryin thе sameWay as Big

people thinkof a

British manwеaring a dark,uit uй .u,.;u;.; u,

typiсat thesedays.

Howevеr, an

umbrella' whiсhis notvery

is an

weather, whiсhpeoplе

umbrella

important image of Britain bесausе it sayssomething aboutthe

talkabout altthe time.other important

traditionat image,

but mostyoung

"iion

,.'o

imagеs arefood and drink.Tea is a

people nowdrink morе сoffee. British people stirr;; . i".

сhips, howеVer, so

thisappears to be one of the bestrepresеntations

oГtraditionat Britishfood.

  • 3 Тhere are manyBritish musiсians and popular in manyparts of the world.Тhе

bands and British musiсis

musiсаl instruments give an

,;.;;;;;ъieo

witr,

there.A f,ootbalt

idеa oi thе influenсе of musiс.Sport is аlsoan

Britain beсausе so manysports originally сamеfrom

is a

better imagethan a сriсkеt bаt beсause everybody reсognisеs a

footba[[.

  • 4 Finallцyoung people havean

do

important part

to

play in British lifе,аs

young people and

pеopte frommany differеnt сultures. Images of

of a multiсultural soсiety showhow fаsсinating Britain is todav.

uring Paregr.?ьс

  • 4 dшbtirru

Dесidewhiсh paragrаph, ,l-4,

*Еаd thе

foоrsсsom рйПse{.

.

b

Britishсulfurе todaу

 

d

ТypiсаlIуBritish

\ сouпtrrof сuhurеs

{ morеассUгаtе imprеssion

Arоidiпgrepetition

\еt.еrwritе еxасt|у thе samе thing morе than onсе whеn

\truarе writing. Trytо useа variеtyof waуsof rеpеating

similаridеas.

  • 5 lоok аt thеsеphrases from thе dеsсription.Thеy sаy sfuпilarthings about what the imagеsmеan but in frffеrеntways. Whiсh imagе does eaсh phrаserefеr to?

1

for

..

2

symbolisе

.'.

 

3

is notvеrу typiсa| ...

{

something

about ...

5

isа trаditiоnaI

imagе ...

6

of ...

.-.thе bеst rеоrеsеntation

7

аn idеаof ...

 

8

hаvеаn importantpart to p|ayin ...

!

...shоw...

Stсps to hеttеr writing

Ёзпtоnсоbuilding

  • C сomplеtеthе sentenсeswith information for a dеsсriptionоf your own сountry.

    • l [lаnypеoplе think of

...and

immеdiateIy think of ...

  • 2 l wou|dсhoosе an imagеin myсountrу |ikе ...

  • 3 standsfor ...

-

..

...dоеsn't/don't

' ..

isa trаditiona|

  • 7 \!е еata |otof ..

  • 5 Ьlanypеop|е think of а

  • 4 symbo|isе

..

thе who|е сountrу'

' manor Womаn as ...

  • 6 imagе of ...

  • 8 Pеоp|еin mусountry |istеn to ...

  • 9 our nаtionalsport is ...

l0

isa ...soсiеty.

Writingyour desсription

9rainоtorming

7

{),n

пgroups' preparеto dеsigna posterаnd writеa

 

desсriptionof yourсountry. Disсuss what imagеs you

shouIdinсIude and why.Use the diаIoguеbox to hеIp

 

you.

 

Justifying opinions

A

Pеrsonollу,I don,t think ууeshould сhoose an imagеo{

 

a manwеаring a darksuit and сarrying an umbrеl|a.

 

B

I agrеe.Lеt,s not hoveIhal bесаusе it's a bit o|d-

 

fаshionеd,isn't it?

ln mу opinion, we should inсludean imаgеof the

Housеsof Pаrliаmentbeсouse еvеrybody rесognisеs

thаtas an

imagеоf Britain.

 

A

I feel it ltlouldbe betterto inсludеan imagеof how

 

youngpеop|е |ive. Surеlу thаt,s llthot students Want to

see?

 

B

АbsoIutе|y.

It,s reollу importаntto inсlude that kind

 

of imаgе.Thаt,s the kind of thing уoung peopleсаn

rеlаte to.

Planning

B

Dесidе:

 

.

howtо introduсеyour dеsсription.

.

whiсhordеr to put уour dесisionsin.

 

Ц|riting

9

Usеyour notesto writе a desсription.

.

Expandyour notеs into сomplеtе sеntеnсеs.

 

Usеdiffеrent waуs of sayingwhat you dесidеd and whаt

thе imagеsrеprеsеnt'

LhocYing

  • 10 сhесkthat you have:

.

usedparagrаphs

to introduсеdiffеrеnt idеas.

.

writtenthе rightаmount (200-250 words).

(D

?roьon|porteс|. eimple and paьtsimplo

Сomp|etеsеntеnсе а of еасhpаir with thе сorrесtform of

  • 1 Writethе pаstsimpIe and pastpartiсip|еs of thе vеrbsin thесorreсt сolumn.

 

thеvеrb. Тhеn сomp|еtе sеntеnсе b so it hasthе sаmе

mеaningаs sеntеnсеa.

 

1

a

lt'sаgеs sinсе | boughi; .сil раir oftrаinеrs. l:,.

= bе

u

bеgin*

bring* сomе * deсidе* fа|l = find

= forgеt* go ф know u

lеavе*

prоmisе* rеmеmbеr

 

2

b

I hвvpn'tbвuyht a

ilе,

..i-.

|t,sa |ongtimе sinсе l ...

",''.'f trаinеrs for аgез

tоthе

.:

 

= sее s

= Writе

sing * 516p * tеaсhu think "

visit * wаsh

b

-

1othе tirlг:'

 
 

3

a

It.sovеr а Уеаr sinсеГ,r .,.

a holrdai

 

pаstsimpIe

rеgularpаst

irrеgularpаst

partiсiplеs

partiсiplеs

b

 

a

It'shours sinсе wе -

..

.

'-.аl-

 

l-tаtе

 

wаь/wor*

bcen

b

-

anythlngto еаt',

 

a

It'sаbout two mоnths sinсе | -

 

b

|-аhаirсul-

a

It,snеаr|у а fortnight sinсе Susаl

b

Susаn-mе-,,,

 

Proьon| Porfoс| wihhwhen, if, ar unti!

  • 2 СompIеtеthе sеntеnсеswith thе pastsimplе or prеsеnt

5

UndеrIinеthе сorrесt word to сomplеtееaсh sепtеnсе.

pеrfeсtsimpIе of onе of thе verbsfrom 1 abovе.

1

Whеn/Until

you'vе finishеd plaуing thе с.'^.]-.,

.J.'.:

1

-

you -

thе HаrdRосk Сafё whеn you wеrе

сanlhаvеago?

 

in Lоndоn?

I'mnot |еnding you аny morе monеy уу|lсr ',,'. ,. --

2

oh no!| -

mуСamеrа at homе.I саn'ttаkе аny

pаidmе bасkthе monеу уoU oWеmе.

 

photos.

3

|'mnot going anуwhеre

if/until уou,vе tо|d-

..

,.h

3

YоuIооk tаnnеd.

уoU-

аWayon holidаy?

4

lf/Whеnyou,vе а|rеadу sееn thе fi|m, wе ]l $О :

...

::-

4

Ethаn -

worriеdabоut his appеaranсе

for yеаrs,

somеthingеlsе.

 

butnow hе's quitе соnfidеnt.

Until/Whеnyou,vе tаkеn thе phоto, сouId t.оL, : .- ...

|

-

in pub|iсtwiсе with mу сhoir. I wаs vеrу

саmеrаbасk to mе?

 

nеrvoUs.

l'|lring Bob if/untilyou,vе

finishеd using thе р[с г t

6

Niсk -

hiswа||еt in thесinеmа |аst wееk.

?сeьen|. ?orfoс| эimplоand сontinuous

 

7

you

-

BrаdPitt's nеw fi|m?

I

you -

to phonеSusan |аst night? | bеtyou

6

Rеwritеthе sentеnсеsso thе mеaningis thе samе.

 

fоrgot!

,l

It'sаbout two months sinсе | stаrtеdstudying

Сompletеthе dialoguеswith thе mostаppropriatе

adverb.lf morеthаn onе answeris possib|е,writе both

 

photogrаphy.