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365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R

Table of Contents
1. GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 3
2. SAFETY ................................................................................................................................. 4
3. COMPONENTS OF THE COMPRESSOR AND PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS ........................... 5
3.1. Pneumatic circuit diagram and components .................................................................................... 5
3.2. Location of pneumatic circuit components DX500, 680, 700, 780, 800 ..................................... 8
3.3. Location of components - DX_R .......................................................................................................... 9

4. AIR END ................................................................................................................................. 10


4.1. Technical data ........................................................................................................................................... 10
4.2. Air end main components ...................................................................................................................... 10
4.3. Compressing principle ........................................................................................................................... 11

5. OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF THE COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT ............................................. 13


5.1. General ........................................................................................................................................................ 13
5.2. Description of components ................................................................................................................... 14
5.3. Air circulation ............................................................................................................................................ 16
5.4. Oil circulation ............................................................................................................................................ 17
5.5. Compressor regulating system ............................................................................................................ 18
5.5.1. Before starting, ignition key position 0 ......................................................................................... 18
5.5.2. Ignition key to position 1 ................................................................................................................. 19
5.5.3. Starting, load relief 30 s; ignition key position 2 ......................................................................... 20
5.5.4. 30 seconds after starting ................................................................................................................ 21
5.5.5. Delivery ............................................................................................................................................. 22
5.5.6. Throttling ........................................................................................................................................... 23
5.5.7. Idling .................................................................................................................................................. 24
5.5.8. Stopping ............................................................................................................................................ 25

6. CONTROL INSTRUMENTS OF THE COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT .......................................... 26


6.1. Pneumatic circuit control instruments and warning lights .......................................................... 26
6.1.1. Compressor thermal switch ........................................................................................................... 26
6.1.2. Air filter service indicator ................................................................................................................ 27
6.2. Oil circuit control instruments .............................................................................................................. 28
6.2.1. Thermostat ....................................................................................................................................... 28
6.2.2. Oil filter service indicator ................................................................................................................ 28

7. ADJUSTING PRESSURE AND VALVE BLOCK CONNECTIONS ....................................... 29


8. TROUBLESHOOTING ........................................................................................................... 31
8.1. The compressor overheats .................................................................................................................... 31
8.2. Oil in the compressed air ....................................................................................................................... 31
8.3. Insufficient air output .............................................................................................................................. 32
8.4. Pressure too high ..................................................................................................................................... 32

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

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Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
1.

GENERAL ID: 16479

This document describes the components, operating principle and troubleshooting of the DX and
DX_R compressor and pneumatic circuits.
Control instruments and warning lights are described in the operators manual, in the chapter entitled
Control instruments.

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
2.

SAFETY ID: 16480


Always follow the safety instructions and be careful with your
work.
Only people who have been given specific service training are
allowed to undertake service, adjustment and repair procedures. Read the instructions before undertaking any servicing,
adjusting or repairing.
Hazardous moving and rotating parts. Carry out service and repair work only when the rig is not running. Make sure that the
rig cannot be accidentally started or moved when you are carrying out the service.
High-pressure air spray hazard. Risk of severe injury. Release
pressure before opening any plugs or joints.

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
3.

COMPONENTS OF THE COMPRESSOR AND PNEUMATIC CIRCUITS ID: 16484

3.1.

Pneumatic circuit diagram and components ID: 16485

DX and DX_R rigs are equipped with a compressor producing compressed air for
- flushing the drill hole;
- lubricating the shank;
- cleaning dust collector filters;
- dust collector air cylinder;
- rod thread greasing device (option)

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R

25

21
22

18

20 19

23

24
15
3

16

14

12

9
10
8
7

5
11

17
13

38

29
30

28
39

31

32
33

27

26

34
36

35

ID: 16563

1. Air pre-cleaner*
2. Ejector*
3. Compressor air filter
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37

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
4. Air filter service indicator*
5. Air end, screw compressor
6. Intake valve
7. Oil/air receiver
8. Oil separator elements
9. Minimum pressure valve
10. Safety relief valve
11. Thermostat
12. Oil cooler
13. Oil filter
14. Strainer (in the oil regeneration line)
15. Orifice (in the oil regeneration line)
16. Non-return valve (in the oil regeneration line)
17. Temperature gauge, compressor
18. Pressure regulator
19. Blow-down valve
20. Non-return valve
21. Non-return valve
22. Solenoid valve
23. Solenoid valve
24. Pressure accumulator
25. Pressure gauge
26. Flushing valve
27. Half flushing valve
28. Flushing regulating valve
29. Pressure gauge
30. Drill rod greasing valve
31. Suction cut-off valve
32. Dust collector solenoid valve
33. Dust collector
34. Air output connection and valve
35. Shank lubrication pneumatic valve
36. Water separator
37. Shank lubrication unit
38. Flushing control
39. Rock drill
40. Non-return valve of the oil filling pump*
41. 3-way valve of the oil filling pump*
42. Oil filling pump*
* = not shown on the chart, see location of components and functional diagram

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
3.2.

Location of pneumatic circuit components DX500, 680, 700, 780, 800 ID:
16486

39

30

17 28 29

26 27

38

14 15 16

32
12

40 41 42
35 36 37

11 13

31
18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25
34

33

2
1

5
ID: 16567

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
3.3.

Location of components - DX_R ID: 16487

39

30

29

26 27
28

10

38
14 15 16

17
32

12

40 41 42
35 36 37

11 13

31
18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25
2

34
1

33

ID: 16568

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
4.

AIR END ID: 16488

4.1.

Technical data ID: 16489


DX500, DX680, DX500R,
DX680R

DX700, DX780, DX800,


DX700R, DX780R, DX800R

Type

Enduro 12

Enduro 25

Max. ambient temperature

40...45 C

40...45 C

Outlet air thermal switch

115 C

115 C

Output

5.8 m 3/min

8.1 m 3/min

Max. operating pressure

10 bar

10 bar

Bearings

Roller bearings

Roller bearings

Male rotor dia

120 mm

155 mm

Gear ratio

1:2.4

1:1.564

4.2.

Air end main components ID: 16490

The main components of the air end include:


5

ID: 16625

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Housing
Rotors
Outlet cover
Bearing housing cover
Gear

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
4.3.

Compressing principle ID: 16491

Together with the housing, the two meshing rotors form the compression chamber. The rotating rotors
take air into the housing through the intake port as the grooves of the rotors pass the intake port.
As the rotors turn, the meshing point closes the passage to the intake port and the air is trapped in
the chamber.
As rotation continues, the volume of the chamber between the two rotors becomes smaller and the
pressure increases.
When the desired and most economical operational pressure is reached, the compressed air flows
through the outlet port into the receiver.

ID: 16626

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R

21

24

22

2
6.1

3.1

3.2

6.2

23

6
18

4
5
20

17

12

12.1

16

15

14

19

9
10

12.2

25

7
8
8.1

13.1 13.2

40

41

11

13

42

ID: 16627

The components are shown under normal operating conditions when compressed air is being produced.

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF THE COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT ID: 16492

5.1.

General ID: 16493

The air end (5) produces the compressed air used by the drilling rig. From the air end the air is led
into the oil/air receiver (7), where the oil is separated from the air.
The pressure regulator (18) adjusts the intake valve (6) that regulates the intake port according to
the air consumption. The temperature gauge (17) indicates the output air temperature.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.2.

Description of components ID: 16494

1. Air pre-cleaner
The intake air is forced into a whirling motion inside the air filter housing and the centrifugal
force separates the coarsest impurities from the air.
2. Ejector
The diesel engine exhaust pipe is used as a venturi tube to generate suction in the pipe
connected to the air filter. The impurities separated in the air pre-cleaner are drawn through
the pipe and blown out with the exhaust gases.
3. Compressor air filter
From the pre-cleaner the air flows through the filter unit (3) where it first passes through the
air filter (3.1) and then through the safety filter (3.2).
4. Air filter service indicator
The filter element must always be changed when the service indicator shows red. It locks into
this position. The indicator must be checked daily by pressing the button on the top and the
red warning colour must show. (For filter servicing refer to the carrier manual and maintenance
schedules.)
5. Air end, screw compressor
The filtered intake air is compressed by the rotating rotors. Oil is used to cool the air. It also
seals the clearances between the rotors and the housing, and lubricates the unit
6. Intake valve
Suction acting on the valve disc opens the intake valve when the compressor is started. The
intake valve also acts as an air end underload valve by restricting the intake flow whenever the
compressor output exceeds the air consumption. The disc valve acts as a non-return valve
when the rotors are stopped. This prevents the oil in the rotor chamber from entering the intake
duct through the compressor.
7. Oil/air receiver
The receiver functions as an air and oil receiver as well as an oil separator.
8. Oil separator
The oil separator separates the oil mixed with the compressed air.
9. Minimum pressure valve
The minimum pressure valve keeps the pressure in the receiver at least at 3 bar while the
compressor is running. This pressure ensures oil circulation in the compressor.
10. Safety relief valve
Restricts the maximum pressure in the receiver to 11.7 bar.
11. Thermostat
The thermostat directs the oil below 45 C past the oil cooler. The thermostat starts to close
when the oil temperature exceeds 45 C, allowing some of the oil to flow through the cooler.
When the oil temperature exceeds 48 C, the thermostat closes and all of the oil flows through
the oil cooler.
12. Oil cooler
The system includes cooling cores for the hydraulics, and for the compressor oil circuit. The
cooling efficiency can be regulated by allowing some or all of the oil to the fan motor (12.2) to
flow through the orifice (12.1) to the tank.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
13. Oil filter
The oil filter is a full-flow in-line unit with a mechanical service indicator and a built-in by-pass
valve. The by-pass valve (13.1) opens when the pressure difference over the unit exceeds 3.5
bar. The red knob of the service indicator (13.2) pops up when the pressure difference exceeds
2.5 bar. The indicator has a built-in bimetallic device to prevent it operating until the oil
temperature exceeds 27 C.
14. Strainer
Prevents impurities from entering the air end.
15. Orifice
Restricts the oil flow in the oil regeneration line.
16. Non-return valve
Prevents the oil/air mixture from entering the air end oil/air receiver when stopping. The screw
unit remains pressurized until the pressure in the oil/air receiver is released.
17. Temperature gauge
Indicates the temperature of the compressor output air. The sensor (17.1) is located under the
air end.
18. Pressure regulator
The pressure regulator controls the intake valve in accordance with the air consumption,
maintaining the desired pressure. By adjusting the spring of the valve, the compressor output
pressure can be regulated between 4 and 10 bar.
19. Blow-down valve
The blow-down valve automatically releases the pressure from the oil/air receiver when the
compressor is stopped. The pressure is released through a valve.
20. Non-return valve
Prevents oil from entering the pneumatic circuit after the compressor has stopped.
21. Non-return valve
Prevents the pressure accumulator from losing its pressure.
22. Solenoid valve
Allows the pressure from the pressure accumulator to the intake valve when the rig is started.
The valve remains activated for 30 seconds when the rig is started.
23. Solenoid valve
Releases the pressure from the intake valve when the system is switched on. When the rig is
started, the valve closes for 30 seconds, preventing the pressure accumulator from losing its
pressure through the valve. The valve is open while drilling occurs.
24. Pressure accumulator
Functions as a pressure accumulator by closing the intake valve when the rig is started.
25. Pressure gauge
Displays the system pressure.
26. Flushing valve
Allows pressure for flushing the hole
27. Half flushing valve
Allows pressure for flushing the hole.
28. Flushing regulating valve
Restricts the amount of air for half flushing.
29. Pressure gauge
Displays the flushing air pressure.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
30. Drill rod greasing valve
Allows pressure for rod thread greasing
31. Cut-off cylinder and flap
Dust collector suction can be shut off easily and quickly by closing the valve: the pressure stops
affecting the cut-off cylinder and the exhaust port flap is closed by the spring.
32. Dust collector solenoid valves
Allow pressure onto the dust collector filters.
33. Dust collector
34. Air output connection and valve
Compressed air output for external use
35. Solenoid valve for the shank lubrication air line
Allows pressure for the rock drill when the shank lubrication pump is on.
36. Water separator
Separates the water from the compressed air.
37. Shank lubrication pump unit
Pumps oil to the rock drill.
38. Pressure difference switch and venturi for the flushing automatics
The pressure difference switch measures pressure difference over the venturi.
39. Rock drill
40. Non-return valve of the oil filling pump
Prevents the oil from flowing from the tank to the pump
41. 3-way valve
Directs the oil from the oil filling pump (42) to the compressor receiver or to the drilling hydraulic
tank.
42. Oil filling pump
The pump is used to add oil into the compressor and the drilling hydraulic circuits. The required
circuit is selected with the valve (42). The non--return valve (40) prevents the air circuit pressure
from breaking the seals in the pump.

5.3.

Air circulation ID: 16495

The ejector (2) in the diesel engine exhaust pipe generates suction that is used to draw out the
coarsest impurities from the pre-filter housing (1) and blow them out with the exhaust gases.
The pre-cleaned air flows through the air filter (3) into the air end (5). The intake and non-return valve
(6) on top of the air end opens when the air end is started. The intake valve (6) is controlled by the
pressure from the pressure regulator (18).
After compression, the oil/air mixture is led into the oil/air receiver (7), where the oil is separated from
the air. As soon as the air pressure in the receiver exceeds the opening pressure of the minimum
pressure valve (9), the clean, oil-free air is led off for hole flushing and other pneumatic devices.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.4.

Oil circulation ID: 16496

While the compressor is running, the minimum pressure valve (9) keeps the pressure in the oil/air
receiver at least at 3 bar. This pressure forces the oil from the receiver into the oil circuit. The oil
circulation is based on the pressure difference between the receiver and the intake side of the compressor.
The oil flows to the thermostat (11) through the connection at the bottom of the air/oil receiver.
Oil temperature below 45 C
The cold oil flows directly through the thermostat valve (11) and the oil filter (13) to the compressor
(5).
Oil temperature 4548 C
The wax core in the thermostat valve (11) expands, partially closing the thermostat valve, and some
of the oil flows through the oil cooler (12).
Oil temperature over 48 C
The thermostat valve is fully closed and all of the oil flows through the oil cooler (12).
From the oil cooler the oil flows to the oil filter (13). The filter has a built-in by-pass valve (13.1) that
allows the oil to flow past the filter if the filter is clogged or if the oil is too thick while it is cold. The
opening pressure of the by-pass valve is 3.5 bar. The filter unit also includes a mechanical indicator
(13.2) with a red button that pops up if the filter element is clogged (pressure difference over 2.5 bar).
From the filter the oil is led into the lubricating channels at the intake side of the screw compressor
(5). At the beginning of the single phase compression, oil is injected onto the rotors to cool down the
air and to seal the clearances between the rotors and the housing. Oil is also led through other
channels to lubricate the bearings and the shaft gasket.
After compression, the compressed oil/air mixture is led from the screw compressor into the spiral
duct of the oil/air receiver (7), where most of the oil is separated from the air and falls to the bottom
of the receiver. The rest of the oil mixed with the air is separated when the air flows through the oil
separator elements (8). The oil from the bottom of the separator chamber is forced through the pipe
to the intake side of the compressor unit using the pressure difference. The pipe includes the strainer
(14) and orifice (15) (on top of the oil/air receiver) which must be cleaned regularly.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.

Compressor regulating system ID: 16498

5.5.1.

Before starting, ignition key position 0 ID: 16499

The system is not pressurised. The air end (5) is not running and the intake valve (6) is closed,
preventing oil from entering the intake duct from the compressor. The minimum pressure valve (9) at
the top of the oil/air receiver (7) is also closed. The solenoid valves (22) and (23) are closed and not
activated.

22

23

6
9

ID: 16710

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.2.

Ignition key to position 1 ID: 16500

When the rigs power is switched on with the ignition key, the solenoid valve (23) is activated. The
valve opens and releases the pressure from the intake valve (6).

23

ID: 16713

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.3.

Starting, load relief 30 s; ignition key position 2 ID: 16501

When the diesel engine is started, the solenoid valve (22) opens and the solenoid valve (23) remains
closed for 30 seconds after starting. The pressure of the pressure accumulator (24) keeps the intake
valve (6) closed so the compressor does not load the diesel engine.

24

22

23

ID: 16714

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ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.4.

30 seconds after starting ID: 16502

The solenoid valve (22) closes after 30 seconds after starting the engine. At the same time the solenoid valve (23) is activated and the valve remains open. Compressor creates suction which opens
the spring-loaded intake valve (6), allowing air to enter the air end. At the same time, the compressor
sucks oil from the oil/air receiver (7). The rotating rotors compress the oil and air into a mixture which
is led into the receiver. In the receiver the oil is separated from the air with oil separators. Since the
pressure in the receiver is below the opening pressure of the minimum pressure valve (9) during
starting, the valve remains closed.

22

23

5
7
ID: 16717

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.5.

Delivery ID: 16503

The disc valve is fully open and the pressure in the oil/air receiver (7) starts rising. When the pressure
reaches 3 bar, the receivers minimum pressure valve (9) opens. The pressure regulator (18) is used
to adjust the desired output pressure. Normally, the pressure is adjusted with the valve (18) so that
the intake valve starts closing at 8 bar, and is fully closed at 9 bar. The intake valve operates steplessly
between 8 and 9 bar. The oil separated in the separators is led into the air end by the regeneration
line. The line includes the orifice, non-return valve, and strainer.

18

7
ID: 16719

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.6.

Throttling ID: 16504

When the system pressure reaches the pressure setting of the regulator (18), the regulator opens,
allowing the air to enter into intake valve (6). The pressure pushes the piston of the valve and partially
closes the air intake port, thus restricting air flow to the compressor. At the same time, the air flows
to the compressor through the non-return valve (20). In this way the compressor receives extra air
when the intake valve (6) is closing; this prevents noise caused by the reduced intake air flow into
the compressor.
The intake valve (6) operates steplessly over a 1-bar range (for example it starts to close at 7 bar
and is completely closed at 8 bar). The pressure setting for the system is normally 7 bar but it is
adjustable between 4 and 10 bar.

20

18

ID: 16723

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.7.

Idling ID: 16505

In this situation the compressor output exceeds the air consumption. The only difference with throttling
is that the intake valve (6) is now completely closed. Only oil and the air from the non-return valve
(20) circulate in the compressor circuit.

20

ID: 16733

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
5.5.8.

Stopping ID: 16506

When the compressor stops rotating, it also stops sucking air. With no suction present, the intake
valve (6) is closed by the spring. Because of the pressure in oil/air receiver (7), the compressor (5)
becomes pressurised through the delivery line. The line from the compressor to the blow-down valve
(19) is pressurised and the valve opens. Both lines of the blow-down valve are pressurised but because of different diameters of the valve spools, the pressure from the compressor can push the other
spool open, releasing the pressure from the oil/air receiver (7).
The non-return valves in the oil regeneration line (18) and the regulator exhaust line (20) prevent the
air/oil mixture from entering the system.
When the pressure in the receiver drops below the minimum pressure valve (9) setting, the valve
closes.

19

20

6
9
5

16

ID: 16737

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
6.

CONTROL INSTRUMENTS OF THE COMPRESSOR CIRCUIT ID: 16507

6.1.

Pneumatic circuit control instruments and warning lights ID: 16508

6.1.1.

Compressor thermal switch ID: 16509

The compressor temperature gauge (in the operating panel) indicates the compressor temperature. The thermal switch stops the diesel engine
and lights a warning light if the compressor temperature exceeds 115 C.

ID: 16784

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Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
6.1.2.

Air filter service indicator ID: 16510

The filter element must always be cleaned when


the service indicator (4) shows red while the compressor is running. The filter element must be replaced every 600 hours of operation, or every six
months. The safety filter must be replaced when
every third air filter is removed, or every 1,200
hours.
The operation of the indicator can be checked
with the button on the service indicator. The red
warning colour must show when the button is
pressed.

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
6.2.

Oil circuit control instruments ID: 16511

6.2.1.

Thermostat ID: 16512

The thermostat (11) controls the amount of oil flowing through the oil cooler according to the temperature.

11

ID: 16807

Oil temperature
below 45 C

thermostat fully open

over 48 C

thermostat fully closed

6.2.2.

Oil filter service indicator ID: 16513

The compressor oil filter has a mechanical service indicator (13.2). The filter element (13) must
be replaced if the red indicator knob stays up
while the compressor is running and the oil has
reached normal operating temperature (above
48 C).
For operating principle and operating range, refer
to the chapter entitled Description of components/Oil filter.

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13.2

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13

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
ADJUSTING PRESSURE AND VALVE BLOCK CONNECTIONS ID: 16514

7.

1. The pressure is adjusted while the compressor is running.


2. Flushing must be off.
3. Adjust the pressure to 8 bar with the valve (18). Read the pressure from the gauge (25) (if you
want to adjust the pressure lower, open the ball valve slightly before adjusting).

22
21
23

18
20
5

19

25
1

ID: 16824

18. Pressure regulator


19. Blow-down valve
20. Non-return valve
21. Non-return valve
22. Solenoid valve
23. Solenoid valve
25. Pressure gauge

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R

3
25

1
4

18

21
24

20

19

23

22

5
2

ID: 16825

1. From the air receiver


2. To the pressure accumulator
3. To the intake valve
4. To the compressor
5. Out-blow from the air receiver

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Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
8.

TROUBLESHOOTING ID: 16531

8.1.

The compressor overheats ID: 16532

POSSIBLE REASON

CHECK / OPERATION

Oil level too low.

Check the oil level before starting and fill up if


necessary. Avoid overfilling (about 1/3 of the
height of the sight glass is sufficient).

Faulty thermostat (11). (Oil circulation through Check the operation and condition of the
the cooler core is partially or completely
thermostat (11).
obstructed.)
Dirty oil cooler core (12).

Clean the core.

Clogged oil filter (13). (Poor oil circulation poor Replace the oil filter (13).
cooling efficiency.)
Low output pressure. (Poor oil circulation with Increase the pressure by adjusting the pressure
low receiver air pressure.)
regulator (18). Low pressure may also be caused
by excessive air consumption.
Oil viscosity too high (oil too thick). (Poor oil Check the oil grade, refer to the oil
circulation poor cooling efficiency.)
recommendations.
Air in the oil cooler core.(Poor circulation)

Bleed the oil cooler core and change the oil type
if foaming occurs.

Incorrectly adjusted/leaking/faulty pressure


relief valve (84) of the pump (80) for the oil
cooler. (The fan rotates slowly poor cooling
efficiency.)

First check that the one-way restrictor valve at the


fan motor is not open; all oil should go through the
fan motor (12.2). Refer to the instructions for
Drilling hydraulics. Check/adjust the pressure
relief valve.

8.2.

Oil in the compressed air ID: 16533

POSSIBLE REASON

CHECK / OPERATION

Clogged oil return line. (Too much oil in the


separator chamber of the oil/air receiver oil
mixes with the output air.)

Clean the orifice (15) ( 1.0 mm) on top of the oil/


air receiver, and the strainer (14) and the nonreturn valve (16) located in the same line.

Faulty oil separator element (8) or O-ring (8.1). Check the oil separator elements (8) and the Orings (10.1) (for example, a hole in the element).
Oil level too high in the tank.

Check the oil level and drain if necessary.

Foaming oil.

Check the oil grade, refer to the oil


recommendation. Check the oil level.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

31 (34)

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R
8.3.

Insufficient air output ID: 16534

POSSIBLE REASON

CHECK / OPERATION

Incorrectly adjusted or faulty pressure


regulator (18).

Adjust the regulator for higher pressure. Check


the operation and condition of the regulator.

Leaking blow-down valve (19).

Clean the blow-down valve.

Clogged breather hole of the intake


valveconnecting nipple. (The pressure under
the intake valve piston not released.)

Clean the breather hole of the intake valve


connecting nipple (intake line).

Leaking pneumatic circuit.(For example, a


broken hose allows the air to escape.)

Repair the leaks.

Faulty dust collector solenoid valve(s).

Turn the switch to the forced flushing position.


The solenoid valve is not activated and it closes.
Loosen the connector to the dust collector while
the flushing is on. If air comes out through the
connection, the solenoid valve is faulty.

8.4.

Pressure too high ID: 16535

Leaking intake valve (6) piston seal, or faulty If air escapes through the breather hole above the
intake valve. (The intake valve does not close piston while the compressor is running and the
properly.)
intake valve is closed, the piston seals must be
replaced.
Incorrectly adjusted or faulty pressure
regulator (18).

32 (34)

Adjust the pressure regulator for lower pressure.


Check the operation and condition of the
regulator.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

Air End and Pneumatic Circuit


DX and DX_R

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 365 1 en 2009-04-08

33 (34)

www.sandvik.com

Original instructions
377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance

Table of Contents
1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................................... 5
2. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS .............................................................................................................. 6
3. MAIN COMPONENTS .................................................................................................................... 7
4. TECHNICAL DATA ........................................................................................................................ 8
5. DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION ................................................................................................... 9
5.1.

Shank lubrication system monitoring ......................................................................................................... 9

5.2.

Operating principle of the shank lubrication system ............................................................................. 9

5.3.

Operation diagram of the shank lubrication oil pump ........................................................................... 10

5.4.

Monitoring unit .................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.5.

Heating circulation function .......................................................................................................................... 12

5.6.

Boost switch ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

5.7.

Air line pressure switch S305 ....................................................................................................................... 14

5.8.

Cabin indicator lights ...................................................................................................................................... 14

6. ADJUSTING THE SHANK LUBRICATION DEVICE ..................................................................... 15


7. MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................. 17
7.1.

Checking the operation of the monitoring unit ........................................................................................ 17

7.2.

Bleeding the shank lubrication oil line ....................................................................................................... 18

7.3.

Bleeding the shank lubrication oil pump ................................................................................................... 19

7.4.

Replacing seals ................................................................................................................................................. 20

7.5.

Replacing a faulty shank lubrication hose ................................................................................................ 21

7.6.

Draining the condensed water from the oil tank ...................................................................................... 22

7.7.

Cleaning the oil receiver ................................................................................................................................. 22

7.8.

Replacing the oil tank breather ..................................................................................................................... 23

8. TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................................... 24

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

3 (26)

4 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
1.

GENERAL

The purpose of shank lubrication is to lubricate the rock drills rotation mechanism and shank.
Lubrication is carried out using a mixture of shank lubrication oil and compressed air. Proper shank
lubrication is essential. Inadequate lubrication rapidly causes serious damage to the rock drill.
Following these instructions will significantly increase the safety, reliability and operating life of the
rig. Sandvik Service is always willing to provide advice and help with any problems related to the rig.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

5 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
2.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Take all safety factors into consideration and perform your work
with care. Follow all drilling site safety regulations.

Operating, service and adjustment procedures must be carried


out only by personnel with specialized operation and service
training. Read and ensure that you understand the operating,
maintenance, and safety instructions before using or servicing
the rig.
Danger of venting compressed air. Compressed air jets can
cause serious injury. Allow the pressure to be released before
opening the filling cap or the compressed air connector.

6 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
3.

MAIN COMPONENTS
1

3
10
4
11
5

12

13

Level switch

Breather / filler cap

SLCU control unit

Forced operation button (Boost)

Pump control valve CT5.1

Pump unit

Drain valve

Oil dipstick

Oil tank

10

Fine adjustment switches

11

Bleeding screw CT7

12

Hydraulics bleeding screw CT4

13

Control switch CT1

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

7 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
4.

TECHNICAL DATA

Oil tank
Total amount of oil (l)

Depends on the equipment type

Breather (m)

10

Oil strain (mm)

Level switch

Yes

Pump unit
Stroke volume

2,0 cm

Output range

188 - 2800 g/h

Max. operating pressure

210 bar

Min. operating pressure

25 bar

Max. lubrication oil pressure

25 bar

Tightening torques

Nm

Control switch

ump unit fastening screws

20

8 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
5.

DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION

5.1.

Shank lubrication system monitoring

The shank lubrication system monitors air pressure, oil flow and oil level in the oil tank. If the air
pressure drops, oil flow decreases too much (or stops completely) or the tank runs out of oil, the
shank lubrication system goes into alarm state. In the alarm state, drilling is stopped, the joystick is
automatically centered and the red indicator light turns on.

5.2.

Operating principle of the shank lubrication system


1

6
3

4
8

7
P

10

Breather / filler cap

Oil tank

Pump unit

Hydraulic oil pressure line

Level switch

Shank lubrication oil line

Hydraulic oil tank line

Compressed air line

Pressure switch

10

Rock drill

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

9 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
5.3.

Operation diagram of the shank lubrication oil pump

CT1

control switch

CT2

suction side non-return valve

CT3

operating piston

CT4

hydraulics bleeding screw

CT5.1

directional valve

CT6.1

non-return valve

CT7

bleeding screw

CT8

heating circuit

The lubrication pump is a hydraulic, elctrically controlled piston pump. The lubricant dosage is
determined electrically by changing the operating frequency of the pump.
The main block has its own lubrication control switch CT1. The control is always operational when
the operating voltage is switched on.
The directional valve (CT5.1) guides the hydraulic oil pressure to the piston side and the piston rod
side alternately. When valve (CT5.1) receives the control voltage, it prevents the pressure from
entering at the piston side, whereupon the pressure on the piston rod side forces the oil on the piston
side into the tank line. At the same time, the lubrication oil is sucked from the tank through port S into
the operating piston chamber. When the control voltage is cut off from the valve (CT5.1), the higher
pressure is directed to the piston side, and the oil on the piston rod side re-enters circulation. The
lubrication oil is pumped to the rock drill through port L.

10 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
5.4.

Monitoring unit

The shut-off ball of the lubrication pump output port non-return valve operates as a control switch
(CT1) against the valve seat. The oil flow through the non-return valve removes the ball from the seat
surface and shuts off the circuit. The control switch non-return valve ball is electrically connected to
the pump (and rock drill) frame. The voltage is directed to the ball via a spring isolated from the pump
frame.

If the ball remains against the seat or remains open for four
operational cycles, an alarm is switched on and drilling
functions stop.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

11 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
5.5.

Heating circulation function

The performance of the pump decreases in cold


conditions. This is due to the increased viscosity
of both the shank lubrication oil and the hydraulic
oil that drives the pump. The increase in viscosity
causes problems in, for example, the ON/OFF
valve (CT5), which controls the pump and the
pump intake valve (CT2).
The heating circulation function is based on circulating the hydraulic oil driving the pump through
the pump. The oil circulates through an 0.6-mm
orifice (CT8) and then directly into the tank. The
volume flowing through the orifice is approx. 1
2.5 l/min. The heating circulation function can be
enabled and disabled.

12 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
Heating circulation components

3
1
4

Locking nut

Heating circulation orifice, 0.6 mm

Plug screw

Seal

Cap

Enabling/disabling the heating circulation function


Enabling the heating circulation

Disabling the heating circulation

1. Unscrew the cap (5)


2. Loosen the locking nut (1) but do not remove
the nut
3. Turn the plug screw (3) 2.5 turns counterclockwise
4. Tighten the locking nut (1)
5. Reinstall the cap (5)

1. Unscrew the cap (5)


2. Loosen the locking nut (1) but do not remove
the nut
3. Turn the plug screw (3) 2.5 turns clockwise
4. Tighten the locking nut (1)
5. Reinstall the cap (5)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

13 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
5.6.

Boost switch

The boost switch is used in the following cases:


to fill the shank lubrication hose
when higher shank lubrication is temporarily needed
When the boost switch is activated, the indicator light of the pump control valve starts to flash. The
oil output of the pump is now 2800 g/h and the pumps stroke frequency is 30 strokes / minute. The
boost function is active as long as the boost switch is on.

Remember to turn off the boost switch after the service


operations!

5.7.

Air line pressure switch S305

The air line pressure switch monitors the air pressure to the rock drill when the SLU pump is activated.
If the air flow is disturbed (the pressure drops below the value set to the pressure switch) the red
indicator light turns on, the green indicator light turns off and the joystick is automatically centered.

5.8.

Cabin indicator lights

H93

H93 Shank lubrication is working.


Shank lubrication malfunctioning (drilling is
H94 stopped) or shank lubrication oil level is
low.
H94

14 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
6.

ADJUSTING THE SHANK LUBRICATION DEVICE

The pumping frequency of the lubrication pump


can be set within the range of 2...30 strokes per
minute using the two 16-position rotary switches
on the SLCU unit. The 16 positions of each switch
are indicated with numbers 0...9 and letters A...F.
The first switch is the range switch (RANGE)
which is pre-set and sealed at the factory. The
other switch is the fine adjustment switch (FINE).
Correct lubrication dosage for various rock drills
in various drilling conditions is achieved by the
different positions of these adjustment switches.
The range switch settings are the same in settings 6-F.
Rock drill
type

Range of the RANGE Setting Setting of the


switch setting (g/h) of the
FINE switch
RANGE
switch

Amount of lu- Lubrication


brication to
check value (ml/5
the rock drill min)
(g/h)

HLX 5

300-600

230

21 3

HLX 5T

200-400

310

28 3

HL 510

200-400

310

28 3

HL 600

300-600

400

38 4

HL 710

400-850

470

44 5

HL 650/710

400-850

470

44 5

HL 710T

400-850

690

64 7

HL/HF 810T

400-850

690

64 7

HL 800T

400-850

690

64 7

HL 800

400-850

690

64 7

HL 1010

400-850

690

64 7

HL 1560

600-1200

910

76 8

When a circuit board is supplied as a spare part, it is set at the


maximum settings. Set the board to the correct settings
according to the values indicated in the lubrication table.
Depending on the drilling conditions (hole depth, rock type,
etc.) the required amount of lubrication may vary both within
and beyond the specified range. For small hole sizes (for the
rock drill in question) and in upwards drilling and bolting, we
recommend using low fine adjustment settings. For larger hole
sizes and high temperature surface applications, we
recommend using higher fine adjustment settings.
Example for reading the table: Range setting = 3, Fine setting = 7 Lubrication oil volume is about
690 g/h.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

15 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
LUBRICATION CONTROLLER 2.0cm ^ 3
3000

2500

l u b r i c a t i o n [ g /h ]

2000

0
1
2
3

1500

4
5
6
1000

500

0
0

10

11

12

fine adjustment

16 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

13

14

15

16

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

7.1.

Checking the operation of the monitoring unit

1. Check the operation of the monitoring unit as follows:


Disconnect the directional valve (CT5) plug: the alarm must activate after four operational
cycles.
Disconnect the flow monitoring cable from the monitoring unit (CT1): the alarm must activate
after four operational cycles.
Short-circuit the flow monitoring cable to the pump body: the alarm must activate after four
operational cycles.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

17 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.2.

Bleeding the shank lubrication oil line


CT4

CT7

1. Turn off the engine.


2. Open the bleeding screw (CT7) 12 revolutions.
3. Close the bleeding screw (CT7) when the oil bleeding out no longer contains air bubbles.

18 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.3.

Bleeding the shank lubrication oil pump


CT4

CT7

1.
2.
3.
4.

Disconnect the hose from port L.


Connect a separate hose to port L and place the other end of the hose in a receptacle.
Start the diesel engine.
Open the bleeding screw (CT7) half a turn and the bleeding screw (CT4) one turn.
Leave the screws open for about one minute.
5. Close the bleeding screw (CT7).
6. Close the bleeding screw (CT4) when the oil bleeding out no longer contains air bubbles.
7. Turn off the engine.
8. Disconnect the bleeding hose from port L and reconnect the original hose.
9. Start the diesel engine.
10. Start the forced shank lubrication by pressing the forced operation button (Boost).
Leave the forced operation on for about 10 minutes.
11. Ensure that the rock drill receives shank lubrication oil.
12. Stop the forced shank lubrication.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

19 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.4.

Replacing seals
4

20 (26)

Pump unit

Plug

Piston

Piston seals

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
1. Remove the old seals from the piston grooves.
A

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.

Clean the grooves.


Install the guide sleeve C on to piston E as shown in the picture.
Lubricate the o-ring D and slide it over the guide sleeve into the groove in the piston.
Lubricate the piston seal B and slide it over the guide sleeve into the groove on top of the o-ring
D.
Use the mounting sleeve A if needed.
Repeat the procedure with the o-ring F and the piston seal H using corresponding tools (G and
A).
Press the seals lightly with oily fingers to better fit them into the grooves.
Calibrate the seals from both ends of the piston (B, D, F and H) using mounting sleeve A.
Calibration is performed by sliding the mounting sleeve carefully over the piston and the piston
seal, and then carefully rotating the sleeve so that the seal is set to its groove evenly.
Install the piston back into the pump unit.

7.5.

Replacing a faulty shank lubrication hose

When replacing a faulty shank lubrication hose with a new one, operate as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Change the faulty hose.


Disconnect the end of the desired shank lubrication hose from the rock drill.
Start the power pack (electric motor or diesel) and turn the air on.
Turn the boost switch on.
Keep the boost switched on, until oil comes out of the hose (drain it into the overflow receptacle).
When system has bled, turn off the boost switch, and stop the powerpack.
Re-connect the shank lubrication hose to the rock drill.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

21 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.6.

Draining the condensed water from the oil tank

1. Drain the condensed water from the oil tank


into a receptacle by using the drain valve.

7.7.

Cleaning the oil receiver

1. Empty the oil tank into a receptacle.


2. Wash the inside of the tank.
3. Flush the tank.

22 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
7.8.

Replacing the oil tank breather

1. Replace the breather at the intervals specified


in the maintenance instructions or as required,
e.g. in the event that the breather has become
wet.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

23 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
8.

TROUBLESHOOTING

Problem: No oil output, green indicator light not on, drilling joystick is centered
POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

No operating voltage at the pump

Check the rotation and percussion pressure


switches, electrical connections and wiring

Problem: No oil output, red indicator light on, green indicator light off, drilling joystick is
centered
POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

Oil level too low

Add oil and remove air from pump through bleeding screw

Pump intake blocked

Check and clean container

Delivery pipe blocked

Remove and clean or replace delivery pipe

Oil viscosity too high

Select correct oil grade

No pump operating pressure

Problem in rigs hydraulic system

Faulty solenoid valve of pump

Check / replace valve

Faulty pump timer

Check (measure) / replace timer

Solenoid valve wiring fault

Check / replace wiring

Shank lubrication pressure hose damaged

Change or fix the hose

Problem: Too little oil


POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

Incorrectly set timer frequency

Check setting

Air in pump

Check oil level and bleed pump

Dirt in intake side non-return valve

Clean ball of non-return valve

Dirt in control switch non-return valve

Clean control switch / container

Breather blocked (underpressure)

Clean breather

Return hose to collector tank blocked

Clear obstruction

Problem: Too much oil (red indicator light may turn on and drilling joystick may be centered)
POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

Hydraulics bleed screw open

Close bleed screw

Timer frequency incorrectly adjusted

Check adjustment

Piston seals damaged

Check piston and replace seals

BOOST switch activated

Check and turn off

24 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance
Problem: Internal oil leakage of pump
POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

Hydraulics bleed screw open

Close bleed screw

Piston seals damaged

Check piston and replace seals

Problem: Normal amount of oil, but alarm activated (red indicator light on, green indicator
light off, drilling joystick is centered)
POSSIBLE REASON:

REMEDY:

Control switch wiring cut or shortcut to ground

Check/replace wiring

Dirty oil, conducting electricity

Change oil in shank lubricator tank

Worn flow monitoring device (pitted ball surface) Check / replace flow switch assembly
Air line pressure switch wrongly adjusted or faulty Readjust the switch (correct value is ca. 1 bar on
the switch's scale), replace if needed
NOTE! If the air line pressure switch S305 or relay K150 are not activated when starting drilling,
indicator lights (H93 ja H94) will not turn on and the drilling joystick is automatically centered.

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

25 (26)

Shank Lubrication System (SLU)


Operation and Maintenance

26 (26)

Copyright Sandvik Mining and Construction


ID: 377 2 en 2011-04-12

www.sandvik.com

V 64450-2 en 0106