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Original Title: Basic Type of Graphs

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Theory

What is a Network?

Network = graph

arrows.

Graph-based representations

provide a different point of view

Representing a problem as a graph can

make a problem much simpler

appropriate tools for solving the problem

techniques for analysing graphs

Complex systems network theory provides

techniques for analysing structure in a

system of interacting agents, represented

as a network

Applying network theory to a system

means using a graph-theoretic

representation

have natural correspondences to problem

elements

entities are edges

Friendship Network

Protein-Protein Interaction

Networks

Transportation Networks

Internet

Ecological Networks

Bridges of Knigsberg ,

published in 1736.

Cycles in Polyhedra

Thomas P. Kirkman

William R. Hamilton

Trees in Electric Circuits

Gustav Kirchhoff

Enumeration of Chemical Isomers

Arthur Cayley

James J. Sylvester

George Polya

Four Colors of Maps

Definition: Graph

E is a set, whose elements are known as edges or lines.

f is a function

maps each element of E

to an unordered pair of vertices in V.

Definitions

Vertex

Basic Element

Drawn as a node or a dot.

Vertex set of G is usually denoted by V(G), or V

Edge

Drawn as a line connecting two vertices, called end vertices, or

endpoints.

The edge set of G is usually denoted by E(G), or E.

Example

V:={1,2,3,4,5,6}

E:={{1,2},{1,5},{2,3},{2,5},{3,4},{4,5},{4,6}}

Simple Graphs

Simple graphs are graphs without multiple edges or self-loops.

loop

multiple arc

arc

node

Weighted graphs

given by a weight function w: E R.

1.2

.2

.3

.5

4

1.5

5

.5

2

5

1

4

3

6

metrics

interesting or important sections of a

graph

Structural metrics provide a measurement

of a structural property of a graph

Local metrics refer to a single node in a graph

Graph structures

domain-specific structure, or because they

significantly contribute to graph properties

graph that possess certain characteristics,

or relate to each other in particular ways

Connectivity

a graph is connected if

you can get from any node to any other by following a sequence of edges

OR

any two nodes are connected by a path.

any node to any other node.

Component

connected components.

Degree

The degree of 5 is 3

outdeg(1)=2

indeg(1)=0

outdeg(2)=2

indeg(2)=2

outdeg(3)=1

indeg(3)=4

deg(v) = 2m = 2 |E |

If G is a digraph then

indeg(v)= outdeg(v) = |E |

Walks

A walk of length k in a graph is a succession of k

(not necessarily different) edges of the form

uv,vw,wx,,yz.

This walk is denote by uvwxxz, and is referred to

as a walk between u and z.

A walk is closed is u=z.

Path

A path is a walk in which all the edges and all the nodes are different.

1,2,5,2,3,4

1,2,5,2,3,2,1

walk of length 5

CW of length 6

1,2,3,4,6

path of length 4

Cycle

1,2,5,1

3-cycle

2,3,4,5,2

4-cycle

No edge

Null graph

No nodes

Obviously no edge

Trees

between them

Special Trees

Paths

Stars

Regular

Connected Graph

All nodes have the same

degree

C3

C4

C5

Bipartite graph

and V2

such that (u,v)E implies

either u V1 and v V2

OR v V1 and uV2.

Complete Graph

other set

Stars

Planar Graphs

Subgraph

subgraph.

A clique is a maximum complete

connected subgraph.

A

Spanning subgraph

H spans G.

Spanning tree

spanning tree in G is a subgraph of G

that includes every node and is also a

tree.

Isomorphism

f : V(G) -> V(H)

u and v from G are adjacent if and only if f(u) and f(v) are

adjacent in H.

we say those graphs are isomorphic.

Isomorphism Problem

isomorphic

they are isomorphic; one isomorphism

between them is

f(a)=1 f(b)=6 f(c)=8 f(d)=3

f(g)=5 f(h)=2 f(i)=4 f(j)=7

Representation (Matrix)

Incidence Matrix

VxE

[vertex, edges] contains the edge's data

Adjacency Matrix

VxV

Boolean values (adjacent or not)

Or Edge Weights

Matrices

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 1

0

0

0

0

0

1 0

1

1

0

0

0

0 0

1

0

1

0

0

0 0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

2

3

4

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

0

3

0

1

0

1

1

0

4

0

0

1

0

0

0

5

1

1

0

1

1

0

6

0

0

0

1

5 1 1 0 1 0 0

6 0 0 0 1 0 0

0

1

Representation (List)

Edge List

Optionally weight and other data

Implementation of a Graph.

Adjacency-list representation

For each u V , ADJ [ u ] points to all its adjacent vertices.

Edge List

12

12

23

25

33

43

45

53

54

Node List

122

235

33

435

534

Graphs

Edge List

1 2 1.2

2 4 0.2

4 5 0.3

4 1 0.5

5 4 0.5

6 3 1.5

Topological Distance

A shortest path is the minimum path

connecting two nodes.

The number of edges in the shortest path

connecting p and q is the topological

distance between these two nodes, dp,q

Distance Matrix

dij is the topological distance between i and j.

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

0

1

2

2

1

3

2

1

0

1

2

1

3

3

2

1

0

1

2

2

4

2

2

1

0

1

1

5

1

1

2

1

0

2

6

3

3

2

1

2

0

N = 12

Random Graphs

Erds and Renyi (1959)

p = 0.0 ; k = 0

N nodes

A pair of nodes has probability p of

being connected.

Average degree, k pN

p = 0.09 ; k = 1

different values of p or k ?

(that are true as N )

p = 1.0 ; k N2

Random Graphs

Erds and Renyi (1959)

p = 0.0 ; k = 0

p = 0.09 ; k = 1

p = 0.045 ; k = 0.5

Lets look at

Size of the largest connected cluster

p = 1.0 ; k N2

Diameter (maximum path length between nodes) of the largest cluster

Average path length between nodes (if a path exists)

Random Graphs

Erds and Renyi (1959)

p = 0.0 ; k = 0

p = 0.045 ; k = 0.5

p = 0.09 ; k = 1

p = 1.0 ; k N2

11

12

2.0

4.2

1.0

0.0

Random Graphs

If k < 1:

small diameters

short path lengths

At k = 1:

diameter peaks

path lengths are high

For k > 1:

diameter shrinks

path lengths shorten

Diameter of largest component (not to scale)

1.0

1.0

phase transition

Random Graphs

Erds and Renyi (1959)

David

Mumford

Fan

Chung

Peter

Belhumeur

Kentaro

Toyama

then

Because the average person easily knows more than one person (k >> 1),

world where within a few links, we are connected to anyone in the world.

Erd

Erds and Renyi showed that average

path length between connected nodes is

Random Graphs

Erds and Renyi (1959)

David

Mumford

Fan

Chung

Peter

Belhumeur

Kentaro

Toyama

BIG IF!!!

then

Because the average person easily knows more than one person (k >> 1),

world where within a few links, we are connected to anyone in the world.

Erd

Erds and Renyi computed average

path length between connected nodes to be:

Watts (1999)

The people you know aren

arent randomly chosen.

links away (Rapoport

(Rapoport *, 1957).

by MSR Redmonds Social Computing Group

Watts (1999)

model: Add edges to nodes, as in random

graphs, but makes links more likely when

two nodes have a common friend.

of number of mutual friends

( is 0 in upper left,

1 in diagonal,

and in bottom right curves.)

short), and

coefficient).

Watts (1999)

Clustering coefficient /

Normalized path length

graphs, but makes links more likely when

two nodes have a common friend.

short), and

coefficient).

average path length (L)

plotted against

Watts and Strogatz (1998)

=0

= 0.125

=1

People know

their neighbors.

People know

their neighbors,

and a few distant people.

People know

others at

random.

Clustered, but

not a small world

Clustered and

small world

Not clustered,

but small world

Watts and Strogatz (1998)

Jonathan

Donner

Kentaro

Toyama

Nobuyuki

Hanaki

of random graphs, but also allow for clustering.

between order and chaos.

Clustering coefficient /

Normalized path length

length of the network by half, regardless of N!

path length (L) plotted against

Power Laws

Albert and Barabasi (1999)

What

Whats the degree (number of edges) distribution

over a graph, for real-world graphs?

distribution.

distribution.

N = 10,000 p = 0.0015 k = 15.

(Curve is a Poisson curve, for comparison.)

Power Laws

Albert and Barabasi (1999)

What

Whats the degree (number of edges) distribution

over a graph, for real-world graphs?

distribution.

distribution.

Power Laws

Albert and Barabasi (1999)

space.

a power-law distribution of node degrees?

Hint:

Pareto

Paretos* Law: Wealth distribution follows a

power law.

Power laws in real networks:

(a) WWW hyperlinks

(b) co-starring in movies

(c) co-authorship of physicists

(d) co-authorship of neuroscientists

Power Laws

Anandan

Jennifer

Chayes

Kentaro

Toyama

richer!

Edges are added in proportion to the number of edges

a node already has.

nodes to grow faster than others.

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

doesnt mean

you can easily find it.

You don

dont know all of the people whom your

friends know.

searchable?

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

Variation of Watts

Wattss model:

a)

b)

c)

Lattice is d-dimensional (d

(d=2).

One random link per node.

Parameter controls probability of random link greater for closer nodes.

geographic correlation in links

For high , not a small world; no short paths to be found.

Searchable Networks

Kleinberg (2000)

Ramin

Zabih

Kentaro

Toyama

Watts, Dodds,

Dodds, Newman (2002) show that for d = 2

or 3, real networks are quite searchable.

tended to search their networks by d = 2:

geography and profession.

closely fitting a real-world experiment

References

Introductory Approach, Springer, 2000.

Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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