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**EVEN 4386 Air Quality and Pollution
**

Control

1

Contents

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

**Particle removal mechanisms
**

Types of particle removal equipment

Cyclone dimension

Design and Process Parameters

Pressure drop

Cyclone collection efficiencies

Costs

2

**Mechanisms to Remove Particulate
**

Contaminants from Gas Streams

• The primary mechanisms for removal of particulate

material from gas streams are Brownian motion,

interception, and impaction.

**• Enhancement of these mechanisms can occur by using
**

external forces such as electrostatic, gravitational

and/or centrifugal forces.

3

**Removal of Particles from a Gas Stream with a
**

Collector Body via Brownian Motion, Interception,

and Impaction

impaction

Brownian

Motion

interception

collector

body

fluid

streamline

4

**Separation and Removal of
**

Particulate from Gas Streams

**• Particulate contaminants are typically removed from
**

industrial gas streams with the use of:

Settling Chambers (gravitational force)

Cyclones (centrifugal force)

** Wet Collectors (Brownian motion, interception,
**

and impaction)

Electrostatic Precipitators (electrostatic force)

** Fabric Filters (Brownian motion, interception, and
**

impaction)

5

• The centrifugal force causes the particle to be transported in a different direction than the gas stream allowing for separation and collection of particles from gas streams. • The gas stream is forced to change its direction with the particles following a different direction.Cyclones (Centrifugal Force) • Gravitational force is useful to remove coarse particles (dp > 10 mm) from gas streams but is not very effective for smaller particles. • The centrifugal force can be used to achieve larger removal efficiencies for smaller particles. 6 .

Cyclone Schematic Flow Koger Industrial Cyclones Type A-B Source: Koger Air Corporation website: http://www.com 7 .kogerair.

Advantages • Low capital cost • Ability to operate at high temperatures • Low maintenance requirements • Can handle liquid mists or dry materials • Eases re-use or disposal • Needs relatively small space for installation Disadvantages • Low efficiencies for small particles < 1um • High operating costs due to pressure drop • Unable to process “sticky” materials 8 .

0 2.75 0.2 0.0 1.8 Width of inlet.5 0.6 0. De/D 0.0 1.25 0.5 2.Classical Cyclone Dimensions Lapple standard Conventional Cyclone Cyclone Type High Efficiency Conventional High Throughput (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Body diameter.4 0.5 0.25 0.0 1.7 Length of Cone.35 Diameter of Gas Exit.25 0.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 0.75 Length of Vortex .5 0. H/D 0.625 0.75 0. W/D 0.5 2.5 1.85 Length of Body.4 0.375 0. S/D 0.375 0.4 2.4 9 .5 0.21 0.375 0.75 1.0 Height of inlet. Lb/D 1.5 2.5 1.44 0.5 0. Lc/D 2. Dd/D 0.5 0.875 0. D/D 1.4 0.0 Diameter of Dust.0 1.5 0.

Relationship of collection Efficiency versus Particle for Cyclones 100 High efficiency Conventional Efficiency. ɳ (%) High throughput 50 10 20 dp (μm) 10 .

1) Do H S where N e number of effective turns Lc2 D H height of inlet duck D Lb length of cyclone body W Dd Lc length (vertical) of cyclone cone 11 .Collection Efficiency: Effective Turns L H 1 Ne H Lc Lb 2 Sc De L LLb1 (4.

Terminal Velocity 12 .

Smallest particle that will be collected In theory.5) where m gas viscosity W width of the inlet duck N e number of effective turns Vi gas inlet velocity p density of the particle g gas density 13 . the size of the smallest particle that will be collected: 9 mW dp N eVi p g 1 2 (4.

Particle collected with 50% efficiency In practice. the diameter of particle collected with 50% efficiency (semi-emperical): d pc 9 mW 2N eVi p g 1 2 (4.6) where m gas viscosity W width of the inlet duct N e number of effective turns Vi gas inlet velo city p density of the particle g gas density 14 .

Control Efficiency jth Particle j 1 d 1 pc __ d pj 2 (4.7) where η j collection efficiency for the jth particle size range __ d pj characteri stic diameter of the jth particle size range __ (usually d pj is the median diameter of particle size range) 15 .

Standard Cyclone Efficiency 16 .

8) where ηo overall collection efficiency m j mass fraction of particle in the j th size range 17 .Overall Control Efficiency o j m j (4.

cyclone efficiency will: Particle size Increase Particle density Increase Dust loading Increase Inlet gas velocity Increase Cyclone body diameter Decrease Ratio of cyclone length to diameter Increase Smoothness of cyclone inner wall Increase Gas viscosity Decrease Gas density Decrease Gas inlet duct area Decrease Gas exit pipe diameter Decrease 18 .Effects of Design and Process Parameters on Cyclone Efficiency Parameter If parameter increases.

calculate the particle collection efficiency of a Lapple standard cyclone with a body diameter of 0.67x10-5 kg/m‐s. 19 .50 meters.Example-Cyclone Particle Collection Efficiency • For the following particle size distribution.90 g/m3. The particulate density ρp = 1200 kg/m3. the gas density ρg = 0. the gas viscosity μ = 1. and the inlet gas velocity Vi = 25 m/s.

Example-Cyclone Particle Collection Efficiency – 2/3 Strategy: N e d pc j o 1 Ne H Lc Lb 2 20 .

14 0.Example-Cyclone Particle Collection Efficiency – 3/3 j 1 d pc 1 __ d pj o j m j 2 __ __ d pj d pc d pj 2.27 0.58 0.07 0.04 0.05 21 .

gVi 2 HW 2 De2 DP = pressure drop [N/m2] Vi = inlet gas velocity [m/sec] g = gas density [Kg/m3] 22 . • An empirical expression describing pressure drop for cyclones is presented below: DP K where.Pressure Drop for Cyclones • Pressure drop (DP) across air quality control devices is also important because operating cost of the device can depend heavily on pressure drop.

Pressure Drop for Cyclones – 2/2 DP K K gVi 2 HW 2 De2 = empirical constant (range from 12 to 18) H = height of inlet [m] W = width of inlet [m] g = gravitational force constant [9.8 m/sec2] De = diameter of cyclone’s outlet for gas stream [m] 23 .

W Q volumetric flow rate. m 3 / s 24 .Fluid Power for Cyclones w f Q DP where w f work input rate into the fluid.

7/scfm to $8.0965 A is the cyclone gas inlet area.50/scfm – Operating and maintenance costs: $0. Pv=273 A0. Pc=6520 A0.Costs • EPA estimates: – Capital costs: $ 2.5/scfm per year • Total purchased cost (1988 dollars) of a cyclone system = Pc + Pv Where Pc is the cost of the cyclone system. ft2 25 .903 Pv is the cost of the rotary air lock valve.20/scfm to $3.

Additional Information (not required for tests) 26 .

Multiple-tube Cyclones 27 .

Vane-axial cyclone outlet for clean gas stream inlet for particle laden gas stream inlet for particle laden gas stream vane vortex finder outlet for particles 28 .

Multiple-tube Cyclones FCC Cyclones MultiCyclones 29 .

dp. will just reach the outer wall of the cyclone and be removed from the gas stream R* Ro Ri W 30 .Ri = width of the cyclone's inlet = minimum radius for which a particle of diameter.L1 = 2Do H De Sc L2 = 2Do L1 Standard (Involute) Cyclone dimensions and standard proportions H = Do/2 Do Sc = Do/9 De = Do/2 L2 Dd = Do/4 W = Do/4 (width of cyclone inlet) Dd Ro Ri W R* = Cyclone body radius (= Do/2) = radius to the inner end of gas inlet = Ro .

Then the graded collection efficiency of an involute cyclone.Involute Cyclone: Particle Removal Efficiency • Ro – R* represent the particles of diameter dp that will be collected. 31 . (dp). can then be described by: Ro R * Ro R * (dp ) Ro Ri W • A force balance can be used to describe the normal velocity vector of a particle that is located in a gas stream that is turning with radius R. and Ro – Ri represent the total particles of size dp entering the device inlet.

ap acceleration of particle Fac centrifugal force mp Vp. tang Vp. rad Fac Fd particle where.2 tang R tangential velocity vector of particle R radius of curvature 32 . tang R mp d(Vp ) d(t) Vp.Particle Force Balance in a Cyclone mp ap Fi Vp.

in a Cyclone recall from slide 44 Lecture 4 drag force Fd with particle radial velocity V p . C D (Stokes regime).radC D 2 1 2 24 V p .rad 33 .rad d p g Substituting : Ap d p .rad V p .radd p g mg 2 4 Fd 3d p2 m gV p2. Re m g 4 Re 1 1 2 2 24 Fd g d pV p .rad : 1 Fd g ApV p2.Drag Force. Fd.

2 tang R 3 mg dp Vp. d( Vp ) m 0 and Fac Fd p d( t ) mp Vp. rad Vp.2 tang 3 mg dpR 34 . rad mp Vp. thus. and is removed when it covers the distance to the outer diameter of the cyclone. Assumptions: transition to terminal velocity is ignored and particle mass remains constant.Particle Force Balance in a Cyclone Principle: A particle will deviate from the vortex stream flow when the centrifugal force equals the drag force. then travels at the resulting terminal velocity in radial direction.

tang 6 3 m g dpR 2 2 dpp Vp. tang 18m gR 35 . rad 1 3 2 dp p Vp.Particle Force Balance in a Cyclone • Assuming spherical particles with density (p) 1 3 mp dp p 6 Vp.

• The magnitude of Vp. or: Qg Vp. 36 . Vp.W) and the outer radius Ro of the cyclone. tang ug WH • Radius (R) has some value between the inner radius Ri (Ri = Ro . rad is then described by.rad Ro R Dt * where Dt is some time period for the particle to be transported from R* to Ro.• It is also assumed that the tangential velocity of the particles is the same as that of the gases.

Vp.rad dp2 p ug2 Ro R Dt 18mgR * Ro R * 2 2 dp p ug D t 18mgR 37 .Particle Force Balance in a Cyclone • Therefore.

• It is now necessary to determine Dt. some displaceme nt of the gas stream in the tangential direction Dt (superfici al gas velocity) circumfere nce of the (number of turns) vortex wit h radius R (superfici al gas velocity) (2R)(Ne ) ug 38 .

where. Ne number of equivalent turns of the gas stream in the cyclone L1 = H Sc De L2 = L1 H= Do L2 1 L1 H 2 Sc = L2 De = Dd = W= Dd H = height of inlet to involute cyclone L1 = height of cylindrical portion of cyclone L2 = height of conical portion of cyclone 39 .

Ro R * 2 2 dp p ug (2R)(Ne ) 18m gR ug dp2p ug Ne 9m g and. 2 d u Ne Ro R p p g (dp ) W 9m g W * 40 .Particle Force Balance in a Cyclone • Therefore.

(dp ) 2 dppQgNe 2 9mgW H • This expression for (dp) exhibits some problems because (dp) can be calculated to be 100% for all particles > dp and the other assumptions in its derivation. Qg ug WH • Then.Involute Cyclone: Particle Removal Efficiency • But. 41 .

(dp ) 0. define dp.50 1/ 2 9m g W H 2pQ g Ne 2 42 .5.5 dp2.50 as the particle diameter that is collected at (dp) = 0.50pQgNe 9mgW 2H dp.Involute Cyclone: Particle Removal Efficiency • Therefore.

43 .• This expression for dp.6 shown on page 141 of the textbook.50 is similar as the equation 4. • A calibration curve can be used for cyclones of standardized proportion (see Figure 4. • Now the problem is how to apply the equations to calculate collection efficiency for the cyclone.3 in the text).

Calibration Curve for Cyclones of Standardized Proportions (dp) C B A A = High throughput B= Conventional C = High efficiency dp / dp.50 44 .

• dp/dp.50. density of the particles.50 can be readily calculated given the geometry of the cyclone. 45 .50 values can then be determined for the particle size distribution of interest. viscosity of the gas and volume flow rate of the gas stream.Involute Cyclone: Particle Removal Efficiency • dp. • Values of (dp) can then be read from the calibration curve for calculated values of dp/dp.

Involute Cyclone: Overall Removal Efficiency • The overall collection efficiency (T) can then be calculated: m i (d pi ) (d p ) T i T .in i 1 m 46 .

5 to 3 m L1 = 2Do H Sc De L2 = 2Do L1 Do u 10 20 m/sec H = Do/2 g Sc = Do/9 L2 De = Do/2 Dd = Do/4 Dd W = Do/4 (width of cyclone inlet) 47 .Typical Values for Involute Cyclones (dp ) 50% for dp 1 10 mm Do 0.

The gas stream consists of air at 500 K and 1 atm.142) of textbook.5 (p.Example (Cyclone) An involute cyclone of standard proportions with a 2 m diameter is operated at a gas flow rate of 10 m3/sec. What is the collection efficiency for a 10 mm diameter particle? Use the calibration curve for the cyclone is presented in Figure 4. 48 .

DP = pressure drop [N/m2] ūg = inlet superficial gas velocity [m/sec] g = gas density [Kg/m3] 49 .Pressure Drop (DP) for Cyclones • An empirical expression describing pressure drop (DP) for cyclones is presented below: u g 2 g HW DP K 2 (PT 2 PT1 ) 2gL De where.

8 m/sec2] L = density of liquid water [1.5 for vane axial entry H = height of cyclone’s inlet [m] W = width of cyclone’s inlet [m] g = gravitational force constant [9.000 Kg/m3] De = diameter of cyclone’s outlet for gas stream [m] 50 .Pressure Drop (DP) for Cyclones K = empirical constant = 16 for standard tangential inlet = 7.

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