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# Kinematics

i
i

Dynamics
• Th
The study
d off objects
bj
in motion under the
action of forces
• Applications:
– Determine trajectories
off satellites
t llit
(aerospace)
– Highways design:
geometry and speed
limit
2

j
and p
professions
Maths, Physics

Statics

Dynamics

Mechanics of Solids

Structural Dynamics
Fluid Dynamics

Structural Analysis,
Geotechnical Engineering
Water Engineering

Design of structures

3

Mass and Acceleration -.Kinematics and Kinetics Kinematics: Branch of dynamics which describes the motion of bodies without reference to the forces that cause the motion concerned d with ith the th geometric t i aspects t off motion ti -.Work and Energy -.Impulse and Momentum concerned with the forces causing the motion .“Geometry of Motion Kinetics: Study of the relations between forces and the changes in motion -.Force.

mass and d acceleration l ti  Work and energy  Impulse and momentum 5 . ti l fforce.Course Objectives & Topics • Introduce the fundamental of dynamics  Kinematics of particles: rectilinear motion and curvilinear motion  Kinetics Ki ti off particles.

Rectilinear motion • • • • Position and displacement Velocity Acceleration Rectilinear motion with o Constant acceleration o Variable acceleration .

Consider the simplest p form – with a constant velocity. y The next simplest form is constant acceleration. .Rectilinear Motion The simplest p motions are those in a straight g line.

Speed and Velocity
Speed
p
has onlyy magnitude.
g
Velocityy has a magnitude
g
and direction.
Speed is a scalar, Velocity is a vector.
We will deal with velocity.

Position and Displacement
Consider a particle moving in a straight line.
The change in position of the particle in a given
time is the displacement (s).
Change in position means the final position minus
initial position.

Displacement and Velocity
Displacement in time t is s. Displacement in time
t+Δt is s+Δs. Hence in time interval Δt the
displacement is Δs.

Δs = s′ − s
Therefore
e e o e velocity
e oc ty

Δs
v=
Δt

As Δt becomes smaller,
smaller the velocity becomes the
Instantaneous velocity

ds
v=
= s&
dt

Displacement . then v −u a= t v = u + at s=average velocity × time u+v u + u + at 1 2 s=( )t = ( )t = ut + at 2 2 2 .Velocity . Acceleration Similarly acceleration is the rate of change of velocity dv a = = v& dt ds d( ) 2 d s dt a= = 2 dt dt d 2s a = 2 = &s& dt If the acceleration is uniform.

Displacement .Velocity . Acceleration v = u + at Squaring both sides 1 2 v = u + 2uat + a t = u + 2a(ut + at ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 v = u + 2as 2 2 Note: the following statement is true only for constant acceleration. acceleration u+v vaverage = 2 .

Velocity . Acceleration a = v& = &s& dv dv ds dv a= = ⋅ =v dt ds dt ds 2 dv d s dv a= = 2 =v dt dt ds ds& a = v& = &s& = s& ds .Displacement .

Displacement .Velocity . Acceleration For a constant acceleration dv v& = = a d dt v′ T ∫ dv = a∫ dt u′ 0 v′ − u′ = a(T − 0) v′ = u′ + aT [v] v′ u′ = a[t] T 0 .

u.Velocity .Displacement . a and T v′ = u′ + aT v = u + at S T d ds = ( u + at ) d dt ∫ ∫ 0 0 a 2 2 S − 0 = u(T − 0) + (T − 0 ) 2 dds v = s& = = u + at dt T 1 2⎤ ⎡ [s] = ⎢ut + at ⎥ 2 ⎦0 ⎣ S 0 a 2 S = uT + T 2 . Acceleration Relation between s.

Displacement .Velocity . Acceleration Relation between s. v and a ddv v =a ds v′ S u′ 0 vdv = a ds ∫ ∫ v′ u′ − = aS 2 2 2 2 ′ 2 v ⎡v ⎤ S ⎢ 2 ⎥ = a[s]0 ⎣ ⎦u′ v′ − u′ = 2aS 2 2 . u.

Velocity . Acceleration v′ − u′ = 2aSS 2 v − u = 2as 2 2 2 v = u + 2as 2 2 Caution: one of the frequent mistakes made by students is the attempt to use the above equations for problems of variable acceleration. The above equations derived are only valid for constant acceleration. acceleration .Displacement .

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion Given the s-t Graph. Construct the v-t Graph .

Construct the a-t Graph .Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion Given the v-t Graph.

Rectilinear Kinematics: Erratic Motion Given the v-s Graph. Construct the a-s Graph .

max 1 max height sB reached by the rocket (Answer: 327m) 2. 80 1 / ) .EXAMPLE 1 A rocket travel upward at 75m/s. When it is 40m from the ground.1m/s). Determine 1.its speed just before it hits the ground ( (Answer: -80. ground the engine fails fails.

Maximum Height Height. System Origin O for the position coordinate at ground level with positive upward. Knowns: 1) vA = +75m/s when t = 0.81m/s2 t = ? aC=-9.EXAMPLE Solution: Coordinate System.81m/s2 v=75m/s v=0 40 s=? .81m/s2 (negative since it act opposite sense to positive velocity or positive displacement) Solve for s (s0=0 in the selected coordinate system) A B 0 aC=-9. s = sB when vB = 0 at max ht. 2) aC = -9.

EXAMPLE .

s = f (t) This can be differentiated to obtain functions for v & a. .Variable Acceleration Acceleration is the function of time: a = f (t) Similar integration can be carried out to obtain functions for velocity v and displacement s. Displacement s is also the function of time time.

Initially ll at t=0 0. s0 = -5 m and d v0 = 3 m /s. Determine v and s as function off time t. / Solution: a = 4t − 30 dv v& = a = = 4t − 30 dt [ v − v0 = 2t − 30t 2 v = v0 + 2t − 30t 2 v t v0 0 d = ∫ (4t − 30)dt d ∫ dv ] t 0 v = v0 − 30t + 2t 2 .Variable Acceleration – Example 2 Acceleration a = 4t-30.

Variable Acceleration – Example 2 ds 2 s& = = v = 3 − 30t + 2t dt s t ∫ dv = ∫ (3 − 30t + 2t )dt 2 s0 0 2 3⎤ t ⎡ 2 s − s0 = ⎢3t −155t + t ⎥ 0 3 ⎦ ⎣ 2 3 s = s0 + 3t −15t + t 3 2 3 2 s = −5 + 3t −15t + t 3 2 .

velocity and acceleration •Rectangular Rectangular components •Motion of a projectile •Polar components •Circular motion . displacement.Curvilinear Motion •Position.

Plane curvilinear motion This describes the motion of a particle along a curved Path that lies in a single plane. plane Circular motion and Projectiles Consider the continuous motion of a particle along a plane l curve. .

General Curvilinear Motion Curvilinear motion occurs when the particle moves along l a curved d path th Position. The position of the particle. is designated by the position vector r (a vector is written in boldface). . measured from a fixed point O.

f so the th r is i a function f ti off time t.General Curvilinear Motion Position. We can express this motion ti by b r = r(t () . Suppose P is in a motion relative to the chosen h reference f frame.

General Curvilinear Motion Displacement. Suppose during a small time interval (t. t+Δt) the particle moves a distance Δs along the curve to a new position P’. Δr = r(t + Δt ) − r(t ) . The displacement Δr represents the change in the particle’s position. defined by r’=r(t+Δt).

The average velocity of the particle is defined as v avg Δr = Δt The instantaneous velocity is determined from this equation by letting Δt → 0.General Curvilinear Motion Velocity. 0 dr v= = r& dt .

General Curvilinear Motion • Direction of v is tangent t the to th curve • Magnitude of v is the speed. ds v= dt .. which may be obtained by noting the magnitude of the displacement Δr is the length of the straight line segment from P to P P’.

The increment of velocity is Δv = v(t + Δt) .v(t). The average acceleration a avg Δv Δv = Δt The instantaneous acceleration 2 dv d r a= = v& = 2 = &r& dt dt .General Curvilinear Motion Acceleration. If the particle has a velocity v at time t and a velocity v v’ = v(t + Δt) at time tt’ = t + Δt.

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components Position. i. j k are unit vectors (independent of time t) The magnitude of r is always positive and defined as r = x2 + y2 + z 2 The direction of r is specified by the components of the unit vector ur = r/r . Position vector is defined by r = xi + yj + zk i j.

Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components Velocity. . where r r r dr dr v= = vx i + v y j + vz k dt v x = x& v y = y& v z = z& The velocity has a magnitude defined as the positive value of v = v x2 + v y2 + v z2 and a direction that is specified by the components of the unit vector uv=v/v and is always tangent to the path.

a will not be tangent to the path. r r r dv a= = axi + a y j + az k dt where a x = v& x = &x& a y = v& y = &y& a z = v& z = &z& The acceleration has a magnitude defined as the positive value of a = a x2 + a y2 + a z2 Since a represents the time rate of change in velocity. .Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components Acceleration.

Projectile motion An important application of two-dimensional kinematics theory is the problem of projectile motion .

81 m/s2 . y0) • Path defined in the x-y x y plane • Air resistance neglected • Only force acting on the projectile is its weight.Motion of a Projectile • Free-flight motion studied in terms of rectangular components since projectile’s acceleration y act verticallyy always • Consider projectile launched at (x0. g in constant downwards acceleration resulting ay = g = .9.

e. The acceleration Th l ti in i the th xdirection is zero i.Motion of a Projectile: Horizontal motion At t = 0: x = 0 and vx = v0cos θ0. dv x =0 ax = dt Therefore vx is constant and remains equal to its initial value: dx vx = = v0 cos θ 0 dt .

Motion of a Projectile: Horizontal motion Integrating ∫ x dx = v x dt = v0 cos θ 0 dt d = dx 0 ∫ t 0 v 0 cos θ 0 dt x = (v 0 cos θ 0 ) t Thus. . we have determined the position and Thus velocity of the projectile in the x-direction as functions of time w/o considering the projectile’s p j motion in the y y-direction.

The acceleration in the ydirection is ay = .Motion of a Projectile: Vertical motion At t = 0.g ay = By integrating. we obtain: bt i vy ∫v 0 sin θ 0 dv y dt dv y = = −g t ∫0 − g dt dy vy = = v 0 sin i θ 0 − gt dt . y = 0 and vy = v0sin θ0.

Motion of a Projectile: Vertical motion Integrating vy yields: y ∫0 dy = t ∫0 ( v 0 sin θ 0 − gt ) dt 1 y = ( v 0 sin θ 0 ) t − gt 2 2 The vertical motion is independent of the horizontal motion. .

1 2 y = (v0 sin θ 0 ) t − gt 2 Parabolic trajectory of the projectile: g 2 y = (tan θ 0 ) x − 2 x 2 2v0 cos θ 0 .Eliminating time t from x = (v0 cos θ 0 ) t .

(Ans er 80. 400 / Determine the two angles l off elevation l ti θ which will permit th projectile the j til tto hit the mountain target B (Answer: B.Example The muzzle Th l velocity l it of a long-range rifle att A is i u=400m/s.1o) . 26.6 80 6o.

Example .

Example .

radial coordinate r. which is the counterclockwise angle b t between a fifixed d reference line and the r axis r = x2 + y2 θ = tan −1 ( y / x) . which extends outward from the fixed origin O to the particle and a 2. traverse coordinate θ..Curvilinear Motion: Polar Coordinates Polar Coordinates Specify the location of P using 1.

Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Vectors in polar coordinates are defined by uisng the unit vectors ur and uθ extends from P • ur : along increasing r. when θ is held fixed • uθ : along increasing θ when r is held fixed Position Position vector: r = rur r r (or written as : r = rur ) Note that ur and uθ • change directions as P moves • are perpendicular to each other .

θ(t) The time derivative of e is defined byy de e(t + Δt ) − e(t ) = lim dt Δt →0 Δt .Rotating g Unit Vector Unit vector e rotating at an angular velocity dθ & θ= dt Rotation angle during Δt : Δθ = θ(t + Δt) .

time although its magnitude = 1 (rotating of a unit vector) u& r = θ& uθ V Vθ Vr .t.Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Velocity • Instantaneous velocity v is obtained by the time derivative of r (using product rule) d ( ru r ) = r&u r + ru& r v = r& = dt • To evaluate u & r note that ur changes its direction w.r.

Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Instantaneous velocity v v = vr u r + vθ uθ vr = r& vθ = rθ& • Radical component vr is a measure of the rate of increase or decrease in the length of the radial coordinate • Transverse component vθ is the rate of motion along the circumference of a circle having a radius r .

Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates • Since vr and vθ are mutually perpendicular. perpendicular the magnitude of the velocity or speed is simply the positive value of v= (r& ) 2 2 & + (rθ ) • Direction of v is tangent to the path at P .

r.Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Acceleration d a = v& = (r&u r + rθ&uθ ) dt = &r&u r + r&u& r + r&θ& uθ + rθ&&uθ + rθ& u& θ • uθ changes direction w w.t. r t time u& θ = −θ& u& r .

Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Instant acceleration has two componets r r a = ar u r + aθ uθ a = &r& − rθ& 2 r aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ& • The term θ&& = d 2θ / dt 2 is called the angular g acceleration since it measures the change made in the angular g velocity y during g an instant of time • Use unit rad/s2 .

the magnitude of the acceleration is simply the positive value of a= (&r& − rθ ) 2 2 & 2 & & & + (rθ + 2r&θ ) • Direction is determined from the vector addition of its components • Acceleration is not tangent to the path .Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates • Since ar and aθ are always perpendicular.

radius r is constant for all θ. Since r is constant constant. r=r r& = 0 &r& = 0 . Coordinate System. Polar coordinates Velocity and Acceleration Acceleration.Circular Motion For circular motion.

Circular Motion Velocity and Acceleration. (r = constant vr = r& = 0 v = rθ& θ 2 2 & & & & a r = r − rθ = − rθ vθ2 =− r aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ& = rθ&& θ r& = 0 &r& = 0) .

Circular Motion For circular motion with a constant angular velocity θ& (θ&& = 0) vr = r& = 0 v = rθ& θ ar = − rθ& 2 vθ2 =− r aθ = 0 Acceleration is towards the centre of the circle .

ball A travels across the slotted path. 80 .15(1 – cos θ)m where θ is in radians. determine dete e instant the angular velocity and angular a gu a acce acceleration e at o o of tthe e fork. a portion of which is in the shape of a cardioids.2m/s and its acceleration is 9m/s2 at sta t θ = 180°. r = 0. .EXAMPLE Due to the rotation of the forked rod. If the ball’s velocity is v = 1.

EXAMPLE .

EXAMPLE .

Motion of a Projectile If x = y = 0 at t = 0 x = (v 0 cos θ 0 ) t y = (ta tan θ 0 ) x − v y = v 0 sin θ 0 − gt 1 y = ( v 0 sin θ 0 ) t − gt 2 g 2 x 2 v 02 cos 2 θ 0 2 Curvilinear Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates Position: Velocity: r r r = ru r r r r v = v r u r + vθ u θ v r = r& v = r θ& θ Acceleration: r r a = a ru r + aθ uθ a = &r& − r θ& 2 r a θ = r θ& & + 2 r& θ& V Vθ V r .

r r rr = rur r & u& r = θuθ r r & u&θ = −θu r r r r r r r & v = r& = r&u r + ru& r = r&u r + rθuθ r r r r r r r & & & & a = v& = &r&u r + r&u& r + r&θuθ + rθuθ + rθu&θ r r r r r & & & & & & = &r&u r + r&θuθ + r&θuθ + rθuθ − rθ (θu r ) r 2 r & & & & = (&r& − rθ )u r + (rθ + 2r&θ )uθ a= (&r& − rθ ) 2 2 & 2 & & & + (rθ + 2r&θ ) r r r v = vr u r + vθ uθ vr = r& v = rθ& θ v= (r& ) 2 2 & + (rθ ) r r a = ar u r + aθ uθ 2 & & & a = r − rθ r aθ = rθ&& + 2r&θ& .