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Trends in Emotional Intelligence

Where the Sky is the Limit !

ISBN 81-86067-25-6

Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Trends in Emotional Intelligence

(Based on Project Report)

Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

ISBN No. - 81-86067-25-6
Copyright@CFI 2015, Publisher : Confidence Foundation
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Dr. Neelam Tikkha dedicates the book

Trends in Emotional Intelligence
to her parents and Dr. Sherwanaz Buhariwala
who were a continuous source of inspiration.


Introduction to Emotional Intelligence

Chapter - I
What is Emotional Intelligence?

Chapter - II
History and Development of Emotional Intelligence


Chapter - III
Review of Research and Development in the Subject


Chapter - VI
Significance and Status of the Study


Chapter - V
Why is Emotional Intelligence Important?


Chapter - VI




Introduction to Emotional Intelligence
"A bit of perfume always clings to the hand that gives roses."
Emotional Intelligence has gained tremendous importance in the
business world. Daniel Golemans landmark book Working with
Emotional Intelligence (Goleman) was an eye opener for identifying
the cause of success in personal life as well as work front.
The present study deals with identifying levels of Emotional
Intelligence Quotient with the use of Schuttle scale, among teachers
of various disciplines like Arts, Science, Bio Technology and
Management. Teachers selected for this study were from Europe,
Bangladesh and India.
Students also were selected from Arts, Management, Law, Bio
Technology, Engineering and Social work. Other professionals in
service industries selected were Managers with Insurance division of
private banks, Lawyers and Researchers.

Origin of the Research Problem: It is observed that crime and

scandals are increasing now days. Doctors and teachers are being
beaten up. All this can be attributed to declining trend in Emotional
Intelligence. Hence the need was felt to study the Emotional

Interdisciplinary Relevance:

The subject relates to many

disciplines since it is based on the study of Human Behavior. It is

linked to Sociology since the behavioral patterns determines the social

milieu. It relates to psychology since behavior is an integral aspect of
society. It is also is linked with management since training to modify
behavior can be given and it becomes easy to manage people once
their Emotional Quotient is identified. The present study focuses on
identifying the phenomena related to emotional intelligence among
teachers from Europe, Bangladesh and India mainly from Arts,
Engineering and Management disciplines at private educational
Emotional Quotient helps to establish social relationships and
managing emotions in others. The teachers who have high emotional
intelligence communicate with constructive goal in mind and control
his or her emotions carefully more than reacting to situation on the
basis of impulse generated by emotion generated event. This may help
the educational institutions to initiate some change in work
environment so as to increase the level of emotional intelligence
among the teachers at work place.


Action research was adopted for this study because it is

important to test it with individuals to get correct information.
Data will be collected through interviews with Teachers,
students, Bank Managers and Insurance Managers.
The list of persons to be interviewed will depend upon sample
fit with research focus.

Data Analysis:
The Schuttle Scale research data was analyzed to test the
hypothesis that Emotional Intelligence is declining amongst present

The interpretation of Schuttle Scale research data will be analyzed

to determine whether the research phenomenon supports the
theoretical assumption that Emotional Intelligence is declining
amongst present generation.
The Schuttle Scale research data will be analyzed to provide a
rich description of Emotional Intelligence in research context of
EQ in order to test the validity of the theoretical that that
Emotional Intelligence is declining amongst present generation.
The Schuttle Scale research data will be analyzed to reflect upon
the interpretation of research phenomena about EQ within
specific social context in order to understand whether research
focus that Emotional Intelligence is declining amongst present
Other methodology was Document analysis, Textual analysis,
Policy analysis, Interview, Survey and Statistical analysis of the
survey. Epistemological Method was followed to explicate how we
come to know about ourselves and our world, or the grounds upon
which we will claim to have produced 'valid' knowledge. The
methodology was Qualitative and quantitative.
*Schuttle Scale is a self- report Emotional Intelligence test. It is a method of using four
sub scales viz. emotion, perception, utilizing Self- relevant emotions and managing
others emotions. It was designed by Salovey and Mayer (1990). It has 33 item selfreport using a 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree) scale for responses. Each subtest score is graded in reverse order and then added together to give the total score for
the participant. He identified the following scores:
Scoring for the Emotional Intelligence Scale:
Reverse score (1=5, 2=4, 3=3, 4=2, 5=1) items 5, 28, 33.
Add all the numbers in front of all 33 items.
Average scores:
For females = 131
For males = 125

For therapists = 135

For prisoners = 120

The approach was basically of the following type: Exploratory

research helps to identify and define a problem or question.
Constructive research helps to test theories and propose solutions
to a problem or question. Internet and open source were also
explored. Furthermore, Document analysis, Textual analysis was
also done. Schuttle Scale* questionnaire was applied. Sample :
The Sample size considered was at least 35 in number for each
category. It was a Random sample survey.
Time Length: Time length of data collection was 12 months.

1. To study the Emotional Intelligence competency among teachers
in Europe.
2. To examine the level of Emotional Intelligence among students of
various disciplines and compare it. .
3. To compare the Emotional Intelligence competency in Indian,
Bangladeshi and European Teachers.
4. To compare emotional intelligence between Bankers, Insurance
Mangers and Teachers.
Chapter Scheme: First Chapter is introduction that lays foundation
for exploring the details of Emotional Intelligence and is titled
What is Emotional Intelligence? Second chapter deals with the
History of Emotional Intelligence. Third chapter deals with review of
related literature which helps to understand the future directions.
Fourth chapter deals with the Significance and Status of the Study
Fifth Chapter deals with the importance of Emotional Intelligence.
Sixth Chapter deals with interpretation of result and conclusion.


Chapter I
What is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotionally literate students have mastered the emotional abilities
that inoculate them against the turmoil and pressures they are about
to face during life transitions. Daniel Goleman, 1995.
Emotional Intelligence plays a vital role in social sciences; it has
direct impact on the persons behavior working in an organization and
it is important for the success of ones profession. It is an important
trait but remains 80 percent hidden which makes it unfathomable.

Fig:1 Proportion of Emotional Intelligence (Funderstanding)

Emotional Intelligence is a key factor that makes people successful in

life. Emotional intelligence is a key ingredient in ones life whether at
school or personal life, research shows that people capable of

managing emotions are highly successful. Intelligent quotient cannot

be improved but EQ can be improved. Emotional Intelligence
happens to be the skill that one can learn by some training.
Daniel Goleman the guru of Emotional intelligence defines it as the
capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for
motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves
and in our relationships. (Goleman)
Daniel Goleman in his bestseller book Emotional Intelligence: Why
it Matters More than IQ proved that emotional intelligence matters
two times more as compared to IQ or technical expertise in
determining success at work.
In a report published on the state of literacy in the US Daniel
Goleman mentioned that :
in navigating our lives , it is our fears and envies,
our rages and depressions, our worries and anxieties that
steer us day to day. Even the most academically brilliant
among us are vulnerable to being undone by unruly
emotions. The price we pay for emotional literacy is in
failed marriages and troubled families, in stunted social
and work lives, in deteriorating physical health and
mental anguish and as a society, in tragedies such as
Goleman attests that the best remedy for battling our
emotional shortcomings is preventive medicene. In other
words, we need to place as much importance on
teaching our children the essential skills of Emotional
Intelligence as we do on more traditional measures like
IQ and GPA (Funderstanding)
Dr Martyn Newman, in his book Emotional Capitalists: The New
Leaders, a bestseller, presented the Emotional Capital model of

emotional intelligence and also showed how Emotional Intelligence

can be developed.

Figure 2: The Emotional Capital model of EQ identifies 10 key social & emotional competencies. By understanding the building blocks of
each and practicing them consistently, anyone can improve their emotional intelligence (RocheMartin)

Teachers are considered as the main pillar in the educational system.

They are the moderators through which the knowledge can be
transferred to the students who represent the foundation of the society.
Teachers cannot be the effective sources of knowledge unless they are
possessed with the essential skills, knowledge and talents. In the
recent years, the concept of the emotional intelligence among teachers
has been taken attention in the educational institutions due to its great
importance. In fact, emotional intelligence is a type of social
intelligence that includes to control own and others emotions; make a
choice between them and the ability of using these emotions to set his
life. Therefore this skill is really required to make the teachers
performance very effective. This skill can make the teachers not only
able to deal with their students but, with their colleagues as well.
Therefore, a study on the emotional intelligence among teachers and
students of various disciplines has been conducted. This study is
based on the idea to know the level of the emotional intelligence
among teachers and students.

People with high Intelligent Quotient are not always successful. It

does not ensure success, happiness or virtue. It was an unknown
phenomenon till the time Daniel Goleman came up with his path
breaking brilliant report from the realm of psychology and
neuroscience and gave a surprising new insight into our "two
minds"the rational and the emotionaland provided the knowledge
they together shape our destiny.
Daniel Goleman defined emotional intelligence as knowing what
ones feelings are and using that knowledge to make good decisions.

According to Goleman five basic components of EI are:

Self-Awareness: The person recognizes his/her emotions and is able
to handle them more appropriately and judiciously. This also makes
the person aware of ones own positive attributes, strengths, negative
aspects and weaknesses.
Self-Regulation: When a person becomes aware of one self, he/she
can handle and regulate his/her feelings in a better and appropriate
manner. The person becomes more responsible and develops positive
attributes of novelty, flexibility, integrity and honesty.
Motivation: Better level of EI makes a person positive and better
equipped to handle failures and shortcomings for then he/she instead
of blaming others or wallowing in self pity tries to overcome the
situation in a positive manner. Optimism is engendered as are the
qualities of excellence, perseverance, determination and cooperation.
Empathy: Self-awareness leads to an awareness and understanding of
others that leads to more fruitful relationships. Group qualities are
fostered and aids in the overall development of the individual as well
as the group or institution.
Adeptness in Relationships: Making and maintaining relationships
require a sound level of EI. Self-awareness and empathy aid the
individual to understand oneself and others better, and thus work
towards an amicable and complementary decision thereby avoiding
conflict and confrontation. Managerial ability, team work, leadership
quality are garnered as a result by forming and maintaining
relationships. (Goleman)


Emotional Intelligence was introduced as early as 1990 and the trait

thoery is explained below with the help of figure given below:

Fig 3: Trait Theory (Currie, Ben and McGarth)



Fig: 4 Emotional Intelligence Model (Contact Centre Management Group)

Fig:5 Emotional Intelligence Mind Map Nitya Wakhlu (Wakhlu)




Chapter II
History and Development of Emotional

In a 1961 book of literary criticism, Van Ghent noted that certain

characters within Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice possessed
emotional intelligence (EI) in comparison with others (1961: 103).
She referred to EI as emotionally informed intelligence or shall
we say, that intelligence which informs the emotions (Van Ghent,
1961: 107).
In 1990, two articles were published that first employed the EI label
for a clearly specified set of findings in the scientific literature. The
theoretical article, Emotional Intelligence, made the case that a
coherent intelligence existed that was concerned with the emotions
(Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Emotional intelligence was said to involve
the ability to reason with emotions, and the capacity of emotions to
enhance intelligence. Evidence for EI was collected from the areas of
clinical psychology, artificial intelligence, aesthetics, and non-verbal
perception. A pattern was present, it was argued, that indicated a
heretofore overlooked human ability. The other, empirical, article
provided a demonstration that emotional intelligence could be
measured as ability (Mayer, DiPaolo & Salovey, 1990). Precursor
measures in the area of nonverbal behaviour had mostly failed at
identifying any meaningful, consistent individual differences (Buck,
1984). The 1990 article reported new measurement procedures by
which consistency was greatly improved.


Emotional intelligence would probably thereafter have evolved slowly

if it had not been for the science journalist Daniel Goleman, who was
working on a book about social and emotional learning. Goleman
entitled his book Emotional Intelligence, to reflect the work
mentioned above. At the same time, he defined EI very broadly, in
part, probably, so that the concept would cover the large number of
studies he discussed. His lively popularization became an
international best-seller and generated popular interest in the idea, and
ultimately, further scientific interest in it as well. (FernndezBallesteros)
It is further seen that the voters do not support candidates who
appear too intellectual, as if they are out of touch with the
common citizen. This is often the case in the United States
presidential elections where candidates such as John Kerry, Mitt
Romney, and Barack Obama were labeled as being too intellectual
and professorial. This may shed light on the appeal of politicians
who appear to be more like the common personLyndon B. Johnson,
and George W. Bush, Eva Peron, and Sarah Palin, former Australian
Prime Minister John Howard, and Cuba's Fidel Castro. We have
noticed the same case with Sonia Gandhi who did not appeal but APJ
Abdul Kalam and Mr. Modi have appealed people world over . In
fact a small child in France said that she wanted to be a chai wala .
This is the power of Emotional Intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is ones ability to deal with emotions. A
number of key concepts are responsible for determining emotional
intelligence. Emotional intelligence also helps to understand and
define giftedness. Authors like Howard Gardner in his book
published in 1983 titled Frames of Mind has drawn attention to the


concept of multiple intelligences, which is critically relevant to a

wide array of human functioning and performance, naming
interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence as an integral part of this
concept. In addition, Robert Sternberg suggested, when describing
practical intelligence in 1985, that intelligent functioning revolves
around the ability to solve complex problems efficiently, effectively,
and economically. Emotional Intelligence helps to solve problems
with the use of emotional capability in interpersonal and intrapersonal
The rule of working world is fast changing. Management guru
Gurucharan Das in one of the book signing functions at Delhi said It
is important to hire people with right attitude rather than graduates
from big B schools like Harvard, since attitude is more important than
the names. People with high emotional intelligence are able to
handle themselves and people who work around themselves.
Today the rules of the world of work are rapidly changing; a new
yardstick is being used to judge people. This is not merely in terms of
how smart you are or what your academic qualifications are or what
your expertise is but also by how well you are able to handle yourself
and others. This yardstick is increasingly applied in selecting and
retrenching; who will be hired or fired, rejected or promoted. It is
increasingly recognized that IQ may account for only about 20 per
cent of a person's success in life. The remaining 80 per cent depends
largely on a person's emotional intelligence (EQ). It is said that in the
corporate world a person is recruited on the basis of IQ but promoted
on the grounds of his/her EQ. Research conducted on EQ has revealed
that people high on EQ are happier, healthier and more successful in
their relationships. They strike a balance between emotion and reason,


are aware of their own feelings, empathies and compassion.

Scientific Basis for EI Theory
The theory of emotional intelligence was developed by Peter Salovey,
a psychologist at Yale University, and his colleague, John D. (Jack)
Mayer, a psychologist at the University of New Hampshire. In a 1990
scientific publication, they defined EI as the ability to monitor one's
own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them,
and to use this information to guide one's thinking and action
(Salovey and Mayer 1990, 189). Mayer and Salovey later revised
their theory to focus more specifically on the intersection of emotion
and thinking. This updated model, encompassing four broad, emotioncentered abilities, defined EI as the ability to perceive accurately,
appraise, and express emotions; the ability to access and/or generate
feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand
emotion and emotional knowledge, and the ability to regulate
emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer and
Salovey 1997, 10). (Goethals, Sorenson and Burns, pp 723-727.)




Chapter III
Review of Research and Development in the
Hayden Richards It would appear as a common trait of managers
running high-performance businesses not only operational
intelligence is a necessity but also emotional intelligence as well. In
April this year, a study by Six Seconds, the emotional intelligence
network, demonstrated that business leaders with higher emotional
capabilities enable higher performance. The research focused on
AMADORI*, a supplier of McDonalds in Europe, and assessed links
organizational engagement, and organizational performance.
Quy Nguyen Huy Insead presents a multilevel theory of emotion and
change, which focuses on attributes of emotional intelligence at the
individual level and emotional capability at the organizational level.
Emotional intelligence facilitates individual adaptation and change,
and emotional capability increases the likelihood for organizations to
realize radical change. He also presented a mesolevel framework
relating emotion-attending behaviors to three dynamics of change:
receptivity, mobilization, and learning. These behaviors, which he
termed emotional dynamics, constitute the organization's emotional
capability. He concludes that: organization members can either share
the same authentic emotion or be required to display or act out a
"legitimate" emotion in response to certain organizational events,
such as the sudden death of the company's founder, which may trigger


a radical change in the philosophy of the firm. These feeling rules and
displaying or acting out of emotions all can be subsumed under
emotional behaviors. Organizations are repositories of shared
emotions that are also enacted in terms of visible emotion attending
behaviors. These behaviors become organizational routines that enact
cultural norms related to feelings about change (Schein, 1992).
Jeffrey M. Conte finds Emotional intelligence measures vary widely
in both their content and in their method of assessment. In particular,
emotional intelligence measures tend to use a self-report personalitybased approach, an informant approach, or an ability-based
assessment procedure. In this paper, the measurement and
psychometric properties of four of the major emotional intelligence
measures (Emotional Competence Inventory, Emotional Quotient
Inventory, Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, Mayer-SaloveyCaruso Emotional Intelligence Test) are reviewed, the comparability
of these measures is examined, and some conclusions and suggestions
for future research on emotional intelligence measures are provided.
He concludes that: In sum, serious concerns remain for all of the El
measures, ranging from scoring concerns for ability-based El
measures to discriminant validity concerns for self-report EI
measures. Although ability-based El measures appear to be most
promising, many unresolved issues remain even with them. Gowing
(2001) notes that many El measures have been used for development,
but that the trend is toward using them for selection as well. Managers
and other organizational decision-makers should be wary of making
this leap unless more rigorous discriminant, predictive and
incremental validity evidence for El measures is shown. Although
Mayer et al. (2003) have developed the most promising of the El
measures, even they state that 'the applied use of El tests must proceed


with great caution' (p. 104). After conducting this review of EI

measures, I would have to agree. Nevertheless, I look forward to
additional scientific investigations of the incremental validity of EI
measures in predicting job performance and other work outcomes
above the contribution of established predictors such as cognitive
ability and Big Five personality dimensions. (Conte)
In the first of two articles presenting the case for emotional
intelligence in a point/counterpoint exchange, we present a brief
summary of research in the field, and rebut arguments against the
construct presented in this issue .We identify three streams of
research:(1 ) a four-branch abilities test based on the model of
emotional intelligence defined in Mayer and Salovey( 1997); (2) selfreport instruments based on the Mayer-Salovey model; and( 3)
commercially available tests that go beyond the Mayer-Salovey
definition. In response to the criticisms of the construct, we argue that
the protagonists have not distinguished adequately between the
streams, and have inappropriately characterized emotional
intelligence as a variant of social intelligence. More significantly, two
of the critical authors assert incorrectly that emotional intelligence
research is driven by a utopian political agenda, rather than scientific
interest. We argue, on the contrary, that emotional intelligence
research is grounded in recent scientific advances in the study of
emotion specifically regarding the role emotion plays in
organizational behavior. We conclude that emotional intelligence is
attracting deserved continuing research interest as an individual
difference variable in organizational behavior related to the way
members perceive, understand, and manage their emotion.
PETER J. JORDAN from Griffith University NEAL M.
ASHKANASY The University of Queensland Business School
CHARMINEE . J. HARTEL presented a model linking perceptions of


job insecurity to emotional reactions and negative coping behaviors.

Their model is based on the idea that emotional variables explain, in
part, discrepant findings reported in previous research. In particular,
we propose that emotional intelligence moderates employees'
emotional reactions to job insecurity and their ability to cope with
associated stress. In this respect, low emotional intelligence
employees are more likely than high emotional intelligence
employees to experience negative emotional reactions to job
insecurity and to adopt negative coping strategies. They conclude
that: emotional intelligence-an individual-difference variable may be
a key factor in determining employees' responses to perceptions of job
insecurity. We have argued also that perceptions of job insecurity lead
to emotional reactions, including lowered affective commitment and
increased job-related tension. These reactions, in turn, result in
negative coping behaviors that can affect individual performance. In
our model emotional intelligence moderates the effects of perceptions
of job insecurity on emotional reactions, and it also moderates the
effects of emotional reactions on behavioral strategies. Thus, an
understanding of the effects of employees' emotional intelligence may
need to be incorporated in future models of organizational behavior,
especially in these days of rapid change and attendant job insecurity.
(Jordan, Ashkanasy and Hartel)
Peter Salovey and Daisy Grewal from Yale University: provide an
overview of research on emotional intelligence. Although it has been
defined in many ways, we focus on the four-branch model by Mayer
and Salovey (1997), which characterizes emotional intelligence as a
set of four related abilities: perceiving, using, understanding, and
managing emotions. The theory provides a useful framework for
studying individual differences in abilities related to processing
emotional information. Despite measurement obstacles, the evidence


in favor of emotional intelligence is accumulating. Emotional

intelligence predicts success in important domains, among them
personal and work relationships. They come to the conclusion that:
future researchers will need to address more fully the potential
impact? positive and negative? of instituting emotional-intelligence
training programs. Although such programs appear to offer the
possibilities of tackling major social problems, from obesity to school
violence, we must caution re searchers that the same problems that
face any application of basic science to real-world settings also apply
to emotional intelligence. The curricula of programs aimed at
increasing emotional intelligence should be empirically-based. Rather
than a panacea for all human problems, emotional intelligence is a set
of abilities that can be applied in prosocial or antisocial ways. Simply
developing the skills of emotional intelligence may not prove fruitful
unless we also implement interventions that address the contextual
and motivational factors affecting the use of these skills. A careful
application of the scientific basis of emotional intelligence holds
promise in affecting the lives of schoolchildren, workers, and family
members. (Salovey and Grewal)
Sanjay Singh states : Stress is an inevitable outcome of modern day
complex life in organizations and needs to be experienced at an
optimal level, which depends upon person's characteristics, for
making life meaning-ful and productive. This does not happen most
of the times in organizational lives as demands and expectations from
inside and outside the organization keep on constantly changing.
Researches across the globe have found the relevance of emotional
intelligence of the employees which act as a moderator vis-?-vis
perception of job stress. This paper is an attempt to meta analyze
available research findings and develop a framework to be used by the
industry practitioners. The conceptual model based on research


literature is assumed to fill-in the gap and also to address the

organizational concerns. He concludes that: The making of global
economy has in it some undesired offerings as well for the humanity
at workplace but those who have well developed emotional
competencies may have advantage over others to better manage
people, relationships, roles, etc. for their own psychological wellbeing
as well as organizational productivity. As it has been said in the
previous section, the emotional competencies are not innate but
acquired abilities which can be nurtured in the human resources over
a period of time. At the same time, the humanity in organization with
developed emotional competencies may not remain same for long
until and unless it is maintained and sustained through specifically
designed training programs at a regular interval. It is contended that
one cannot make organization free from 'stress' but leveraging the
benefits of emotional intelligence competencies can make both
personal and professional, lives psychologically healthy. The
organizations around the globe have started to give due importance to
making executives emotionally competent through different training
and developmental programs but the emphasis towards it needs to be
augmented. (Singh)
Stphane Ct and Christopher T. H. Miners examined how
emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence are associated with
job performance. We develop and test a compensatory model that
posits that the association between emotional intelligence and job
performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence
decreases. We report the results of a study in which employees
completed tests of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence,
and their task performance and organizational citizenship behavior
were assessed by their supervisors. Hypotheses from the model were
supported for task performance and organizational citizenship


behavior directed at the organization, but not for organizational

citizenship behavior directed at individuals. We discuss the theoretical
implications and managerial ramifications of our model and findings.
According to him the results prove that: The common belief that:
organizations that attract and retain the smartest people will have a
competitive advantage, because cognitive intelligence helps workers
to process increasingly technical and large amounts of information
(Schmidt and Hunter, 1998, 2000; Michaels, Handfield-Jones, and
Axelrod, 2001). Our results showing that emotional intelligence
compensates for low cognitive intelligence suggest that this common
belief represents just one approach to building a successful
organization. Organizations can also be successful if they attract and
retain people who have high emotional intelligence. (Ct and

Judith L. Irvin and Tommye Lou Richardson Emotional intelligence

can be nurtured in young adolescents by teaching them coping skills,
how to acquire and use information, how to work with others, and
how to manage personal growth. Concludes that : Activities that
involve students in common work place ethics and enable students to
identify, organize, plan, and allocate resources like time and money
are also important activities for transition success. These activities are
not necessarily designed to teach emotional intelligence directly, but
they have components of emotional intelligence that many teachers
simply intuitively teach. Emotional intelligence is a characteristic that
can be nurtured and developed in a person. Teachers and other adults
need to gain more information about emotional intelligence and
through their influence develop emotional intelligence in the children.
Teaching young adolescents how to use coping strategies, how to
acquire and use information, how to work with others, and how to


manage personal growth are components necessary for transition

success. Ironically, these skills are also components of emotional
intelligence. (Irvin and Richardson)
Employers need to recognize the constant challenge many employees
face in balancing work and family. Recruiting and retaining top
workers is essential to the success of the organization; thus, it
behooves employers to understand the variables associated with the
effective management of the work-family conflict. The primary
purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the effect that
work-family conflict has on one's well-being, by introducing a
dispositional variable, Emotional Intelligence, into the equation. The
results provide an avenue to explore that attempts to shed some light
on the opposing views in the work-family conflict literature, namely
the depletion and the enrichment hypotheses. The results of this study
support the finding that possession of Emotional Intelligence will act
as a protector variable of one's well-being in the face of work-family
conflict. In other words, Emotional Intelligence interacts with workfamily conflict to predict one's well-being. (Lenaghan, A. Buda and B.)
Zahra found the relationship between emotional
intelligence and job self-efficacy in research courses among 200
Tehran physical education teachers. Bar-On, Emotional and Self
efficacy job questionnaires were used to evaluate the teachers
attitudes. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between
emotional awareness, empathy and self-efficacy. (Abdolvahabi and
Bagheri Sara) Emotional Intelligence is very important for language
students. Communication is not a dry field but, a very electrifying
field full of emotions and feelings.
Greg feels that: The art of conversation, of listening attentively and
weighing each response, is not a universal gift, any more than any


other skill. If it becomes possible to hone ones conversational skills

with a computerdiscovering your strengths and weaknesses while
enjoying a chat with a character that is no less interesting for failing to
existthat might well lead to better conversations with fellow
humans. (Greg)



Chapter IV
Significance and Status of the Study
International Status: Zahra found the relationship
between emotional intelligence and job self-efficacy in research
courses among 200 Tehran physical education teachers. Bar-On,
Emotional and Self efficacy job questionnaires were used to evaluate
the teachers attitudes. The results demonstrated a significant
relationship between emotional awareness, empathy and self-efficacy.
National Status : Review of literature was done to report the studies
related to Level of Emotional Intelligence among teachers of Private
educational institutions. Following studies examined the underlying
phenomena of Emotional Intelligence in various professions,
organizations and sectors. Review provided a foundation to identify
the research gap for the present study. Mondal, N.K., Paul, P.K and
Bandopadhyay.A (2012) analyzed the nature and extent of emotional
intelligence among secondary level schools teachers of Burdwan
district in west Bengal (India). 300 teachers in urban and rural areas
encompassing different gender, age, teaching experience,
qualification and training were taken for the study. The results
revealed that few demographic factors positively impacted on the
level of teachers emotional intelligence while some were not
significant. Akomolafe (2011) made an attempt to study the
interactive and relative effect of Emotional Intelligence and locus of
control on burnout among the secondary school teachers and has
suggested that secondary school teachers should be managed by
capable and qualified counselors for the desired results to be
achieved. Krishnamurthy and Varalakshmi (2011) conducted a study
to know the emotional intelligence of employees working in


educational institution. A sample size of 200 teaching and nonteaching staff was taken for study on the basis of demographic
factors. Questionnaires were designed in five segments consists of
personal information, adaptability, assertiveness, emotional
management, self-esteem and relationship of respondents. The result
revealed that the improvement in emotional intelligence would
increase the motivation and effectiveness of the employee. A similar
study was conducted to identify the level of emotional intelligence
among the teachers Edannur, S (2010) assessed the emotional
intelligence level of teachers educators of Barak valley region in the
Indian state of Assam(India). The result showed that the group under
study possessed average emotional intelligence. The gender and
locality of the teacher educators did not make any differential
influence on their emotional intelligence.
Focus of the Study :The study will focus on identifying the
phenomena related to emotional intelligence among teachers at
private educational institutions in Maharashtra. It helps to establish
social relationships and managing emotions in others. The teachers
who have high emotional intelligence communicate with constructive
goal in mind and control his or her emotions carefully more than
reacting to situation on the basis of impulse generated by emotion
generated event. This may help the private educational institutions to
initiate some change in work environment so as to increase the level
of emotional intelligence among the teachers at work place.




Chapter V
Why is Emotional Intelligence Important?
Emotional Intelligence is very important since working with people
does not mean working with machines but with emotions.
Language students are required to be aware of the finer nuances of
language more than the technicalities of the language. Finer nuances
can only be developed through proper implementation of right
Emotional Intelligence. The dual combination of EI and ELT helps
develop better social skills by enhancing empathy for other person.
One has to interact and communicate at various levels with family,
friends, colleagues, neighbours, superiors, juniors, business
associates, and strangers. Communication can make or mar
relationship or a business deal. Use of right expression in
communication comes only through proper use of Emotional
Intelligence. A person who is charged with appropriate EQ is
expressive, enthusiastic, socially convivial and has empathy for
others. EI is an integral part of ones life.



Fig 4 : Emotional Intelligence is caring for others. (Deutschendorf)

No one cares how much you know, until they know how much you
care Theodore Roosevelt
When people collaborate on work front to work on any project they
work not only on dry soil but moist full of emotions. Emotions
determine the ambience at workplace and success of any project.
Daniel Goleman has shown that organizations and employees who
respect emotional intelligence and practice Emotional Quotient are
better in decision making , are more productive in work and get
better results. For example a survey by Hay group found that 44 of
Fortune 500 companies had salespeople with high EQ who produced
double the revenue of others performing at or below average. In
another study, technical programmers who were in the top 10% of
emotional intelligence competency developed software 3 times faster
than those with lower EQ.



EQ Competencies that Correlate to Workplace Success

Mike Poskey outlines a set of five emotional Intelligence
competencies which help to achieve target more than technical skills,
cognitive ability, and standard personality traits combined.
Social Competencies:






Intuition & Empathy: Our awareness of others feelings,

needs, and concerns. This competency is important in
the workplace for the following reasons.
-Understanding others: an intuitive sense of others
feelings and perspectives, and showing an active interest
in their concerns and interests
-Customer service orientation: the ability to anticipate,
-People development: ability to sense what others need
in order to grow, develop, and master their strengths
-Leveraging diversity: cultivating opportunities through
diverse people
Political Acumen & Social Skills: Our adeptness at
inducing desirable responses in others. This competency
is important in the workplace for the following reasons.
- Influencing: using effective tactics and techniques for
- Communication: sending clear and convincing
- Leadership: inspiring and guiding groups of people
- Change catalyst: initiating and/or managing change in


- Conflict resolution: negotiating and resolving
- Building bonds: nurturing instrumental relationships
- Collaboration and cooperation: working with
coworkers and business partners toward shared goals
- Team capabilities: creating group synergy in pursuing
collective goals
Personal Competencies-Competencies that Determine How We
Manage Ourselves
Self Awareness: Knowing ones internal states, preferences, resources,
and intuitions. This competency is important in the workplace for the
following reasons.
Emotional awareness: recognizing ones emotions and their effects
Accurate self-assessment: knowing ones strengths and limits
Self-confidence: sureness about ones self-worth and capabilities
Self-Regulation: Managing ones internal states, impulses, and
resources. This competency is important in the workplace for the
following reasons.
Self-control: managing disruptive emotions and impulses
Trustworthiness: maintaining standards of honesty and integrity
Conscientiousness: taking responsibility and being accountable for
Innovation: being comfortable with an openness to novel ideas,
approaches, and new information
Self -Expectations & Motivation: Emotional tendencies that guide or
facilitate reaching goals. This competency is important in the
workplace for the following reasons.


Achievement drive: striving to improve or meet a standard of

Commitment: aligning with the goals of the group or organization
Initiative: readiness to act on opportunities without having to be told
Optimism: persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and
He further gives example of the following success stories:
A Fortune 500 company in financial services proved
that their high EQ salespeople produced 18 percent more
than the lower EQ salespeople. One recent study
conducted by a Dallas corporation measured that the
productivity difference between their low scoring
emotional intelligence employees and their high scoring
emotional intelligence employees was 20 times. A
Texas-based Fortune 500 Company had utilized
personality assessments for candidate selection for years
with little results in reducing turnover in their high
turnover sales force. After turning to an emotional
intelligence-based selection assessment and EQ training
and development program, they increased retention by
67 percent in the first year, which they calculated added
$32 million to their bottom line in reduced turnover
costs and increased sales revenues. A large metropolitan
hospital reduced their critical care nursing turnover from
65 percent to 15 percent within 18 months of
implementing an emotional intelligence screening
assessment. A community bank that reduced staff by 30
percent due to the sluggish economy assessed the
remaining workforce for their emotional intelligence
competencies, placed them in the right role for those
competencies, and the bank is now producing more with
less people. (Poskey)


Fig 4: Job Performance and EQ (Poskey)

It is observed that organizations with High Emotional Quotient have

lesser attrition rate. Employees and companies who exercise higher
Emotional Quotient are more successful and productive. They are
more dedicated and involved individuals and better teams and are
more fruitful and passionate towards their organization.
Employees with low IQ are a source of problem and Unmet
emotional needs cause the majority of problems at


It is rightly said that: People see what they want to see.-Red Barber
Increasing emotional intelligence helps great deal in making
companies and employees more successful and inspired. A low
level of Emotional Quotient reduces work potential and has adverse
effect. Organizations with lower levels of EQ leaders and employees
do not encourage each other and are not good at building confidence
or inspiring. They promote failure of their teams and hamper
relationships with others, and lack ability to properly handle
incongruity, destroying relationship, generating negative emotions
building constant fear and a lack of veneration both of which are
seriously injurious buzz kills to motivation and productivity.

Methods to become aware of Emotional Intelligence Quotient

Goleman has suggested a questionnaire to evaluate emotional
intelligence. The Yes or No will provide a clue to ones
Emotional Intelligence Quotient .
a. Do you know both your strengths and weaknesses?
b. Professionally, can you be depended on to take care
of details?
c. Do you hate letting things slide?
d. Are you motivated by the satisfaction of meeting
your own standards of excellence?
e. Do you often act or feel optimistic, even when
things go wrong?
f. Can you see things from another persons point of
view easily and seem to get a sense of what matters
to them?
g. Do you often find win-win solutions in negotiations
and conflicts?
h. Do you enjoy collaborating with others?
i. Are you persuasive when you feel passionate or
motivated about something? (Goleman)


Methods to improve Emotional Intelligence Quotient :

1. Socializing is a part of it. Businesses and employees in
the workplace spend an incredible amount of time in
meetings, or group-like forums. Be motivated and
productive in your approach to these functions.
2. Plan things. Even a simple mental plan is better than
doing something without thinking it through. Identify the
skills and time needed to get results. Plan ahead, plan in
detail, and proceed with confidence.
3. Encourage others. Part of being enthusiastic is
encouraging those you work with. Get fellow employees
to share information and contribute to team decisionmaking.
4. Up your awareness. Goleman wrote that the key to
understanding others is having an awareness of
the emotional components at work in professional
relationships and teams.
5. Be a great listener. If your EQ could use some
improvement, try listening more. Think of things you can
do to be a better listener.
In essence, practicing higher emotional intelligence
involves recognizing patterns in the thinking and
decisions of others, as well as your own. (Poskey)
Employees with higher EQ have higher empathy and are better
communicators. They build better relationship and create positive
ambience. They are able to resolve conflicts and are flexible. They
are able to handle conflicts successfully. They generate positive vibes
and create healthy work environment based on love and respect for
each other. They are team workers and are able to handle change
easily. It is highly essential for employees to become in the words
of Dr. Goleman, emotional matured.


It is essential for organizations to recognize the importance of

Emotional Intelligence.




The sample size selected was 35 for each category. The total sample
size was 595 ( Appendix 1). Teachers from 10 different categories
were taken and their Emotional Intelligence was measured through
the use of Schuttle EI scale ( Appendix 2).

Sr. No


Sample Size



Insurance Bank
Bank Manager








M A Students



B. Tech Students



MBA Students



MSW Students



Engineering Students





The questionnaire had 33 questions to measure Emotional


Graph showing the answers given by the respondents

Teachers: The interpretation of questionnaire showed that teachers

from Arts faculty in Bengal a few exceptional arts teachers have high
Emotional quotient which reaches up to 140, which is the highest as
compared to all categories, but, the rest of Bengal arts teachers are
close to 76. Maharashtra Arts Teachers Emotional quotient is at 124
followed by Management teachers which are at 102. Bengal science
teachers Emotional Intelligence lies between 75 and 94. The lowest is
for Andhra Arts teachers which are at 42 .The average value for
European teachers work out around 86 points which happens to be the
same as that of B. Tech teachers from India which is around 86.
Engineering college teacher reaches up to 82.



Graph Showing EQ Level in Teachers Category

Other: The other category bar graph reflects that highest EQ is for
Insurance Managers which reaches up to 117 though the lowest is 38
. Bank managers falls in the range of 57 to 90 Lawyers have shown
the EQ in the range of 60 to 85. Researchers range is between 48 and
81. This proves that even other sector category needs training in EQ
since their EQ is also below the prisoners.

Graph Showing EQ level in other category

Students : The graph shows that the EQ range for MSW students is
83 to 130 , whereas for MA students is 55 to 122. Further B.Tech
students EQ lies in the range of 53 to 109. MBA student reflected the
EQ in the range of 58 to 102. Engineering students EQ was also very
poor which was between 59 and 92. This shows that the students of
all category are poor in EQ levels and need training to improve since
their EQ lies even below that of prisoners. Students scoring 130 and
122 are exceptions as most of them have low EQ levels.


Graph Showing EQ level in Students category

In fine, as per the measurement from Schuttle scale a couple of

Bengal arts teachers are an exception and thus proves the hypothesis
that trends in Emotional Intelligence is declining in India Bangladesh
and Europe For categories like Maharashtra Arts teachers it is close
to the prisoners as shown by Schuttle and for all other categories it is
even shockingly lower.




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