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CEMENT INDUSTRY

CEMENT
Cement is a crystalline compound of calcium silicates and other calcium compounds
having hydraulic properties.
Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind
other materials together.
It is a mixture of calcareous, siliceous, argillaceous and other substances.
HISTORY.
300 BC
-Romans used slaked lime a volcanic ash called pozzuolana, found
near
Pozzouli by the bay of Naples.
1756
-John Smeaton rediscovered hydraulic cement through repeated testing
of
mortar in both fresh and salt water.
1779
-Bry Higgins was issued a patent for hydraulic cement (stucco) for exterior
plastering use.
1796
-James Parker from England patented a natural hydraulic cement by
calcining nodules of impure limestone containing clay, called Parkers Cement or Roman
Cement.
1812-1813
-Louis Vicat of France prepared artificial hydraulic lime by calcining
synthetic mixtures of limestone and clay.
1822
-James Frost of England prepared artificial hydraulic lime like Vicats and
called it British Cement.
1824
-Joseph Aspdin, bricklayer and mason in Leeds, England, patented
what
he called portland cement, since it resembled the stone quarried on the Isle
of Portland off
the British coast.
1825
-Erie Canal created the first great demand for cement in the US.
1850-1880
-Francois Coignet, a builder in France, responsible for the first
widespread
use of concrete in buildings.
USES OF CEMENT
Main use is in the fabrication of concrete and mortars.
Modern uses
Building (floors, beams, columns, roofing, piles, bricks, mortar, panels, plaster)
Transport (roads, pathways, crossings, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, parking, etc.)
Water (pipes, drains, canals, dams, tanks, pools, etc.)
Civil (piers, docks, retaining walls, silos, warehousing, poles, pylons, fencing)
Agriculture (buildings, processing, housing, irrigation)

CEMENT MAKING PROCESS


1. EXTRACTION and PRE-PROCESSING of RAW MATERIALS
a. QUARRYING
b. RAW MATERIAL PREPARATION/PROCESSING
i. DRY PROCESS
ii. WET PROCESS
2. PYROPROCESSING to PRODUCE CLINKER
3. BLENDING and GRINDING of CLINKER to CEMENT
a. BLENDING
b. FINISH GRINDING
4. STORAGE, PACKING and DELIVERY of CEMENT

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CEMENT INDUSTRY

TYPES OF CEMENT
TYPES OF CEMENT
Portland Cement

COMPOSITION
Artificial cement. Made by
the mixing clinker with
gypsum in a 95:5 ratio.

PURPOSE
It plays a pivotal role in
setting and hardening the
concrete.
It is extensively used by the
retaining walls and the
precast concrete block
walls as a major component
to build a strong foundation
of concrete.

Rapid Hardening Cement

Increased Lime content

Attains high strength in


early days it is used
in concrete where form
work is removed at an early
stage.

Quick setting cement

Small percentage of
aluminiumsulphate as an
accelerator and reducing
percentage of Gypsum with
fine grinding

Used in works is to be
completed in very short
period and concreting in
static and running water.

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CEMENT INDUSTRY

Low Heat Cement

Manufactured by reducing
tri-calcium aluminate

It is used in massive
concrete construction like
gravity dams

Coloured cement

It is produced by mixing
mineral pigments with
ordinary cement.

They are widely used for


decorative works in floors

Pozzolanic Cement

It is prepared by grinding
pozzolanic clinker with
Portland cement

It is used in
marine structures, sewage
works, sewage works and
for laying concrete under
water such as bridges,
piers, dams etc.,

Hydrographic cement

It is prepared by mixing
water repelling chemicals

This cement has high


workability and strength

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS IN CEMENT INDUSTRY


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Maintenance Manager
Reliability Enginner
VP Operations
Production Manager
Safety Engineer
Process Engineer
Plant Engineer
Project Manager

CEMENT INDUSTRIES IN THE PHILIPPINES


Pacific Cement Philippines, Inc.
CEMEX Philippines
Holcim Philippines
Lafarge Associated Companies
Northern Cement Corporation
Taiheiyo Cement Philippines, Inc

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