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ABSTRACT

Marcet Boiler is a bench top unit designed for the demonstration of the basic principal
of boiling phenomenon to study the relationship between the pressure and temperature of
saturated steam in equilibrium with water. This experiment was also conducted to demonstrate
the vapour pressure curve. Water at room temperature was boiled until 185.0 C and every
changes of pressure, the temperature was recorded until 10.0 bar. Air was removed first to
avoid any of inaccuracy. After the heater was turned off and being cooled, the temperature
was recorded again until the steam pressure reached atmospheric pressure.
The reading of increase and decrease in temperature was being calculated to find
temperature at average. Average temperature at first reading is 106.15 C and increase until
184.60 C with 29 readings. The graph also shows that the curve of pressure and temperature
are directly proportional as the temperature increase with pressure. The graph of absolute
pressure against dT/dP (measured slope) was slightly deviate compared to absolute pressure
against Tvg/hfg (calculated slope). This occurred maybe because of a few errors during the
experiment was conducted. Steam was allowed to come out from the vent valve for about 30
seconds before the valve was closed is the main procedure. Air maybe not completely flowed
out from the valve so the reading was not being constantly increased. Besides that, maybe
temperature was taken while the pressure still not stable.

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The marcet boiler is the unit for the demonstration of the basic principle in Thermodynamics
studies which is the boiling phenomenon. Initially, the discovery of this phenomenon is
founded by Rudolf Clausius, a German physicist that was a thermodynamics power icon [1].
Marcet boiler is also a device that is used for the understanding of the basic properties of
saturated steam to superheated steam. It consists of cylinders surrounded with isolated
substance in its electrically heated boiler which is used to heat up water and to measure both
the temperature and pressure. Marcet boiler also contains thermometer, barometer and safety
valve. The saturation pressure curve can be determined at the pressure within 10 bar [2].
2.0 OBJECTIVE
The aim of this experiment is to study the relationship between the pressure and temperature
of saturated steam in equilibrium. Besides that, this experiment was also done to demonstrate
the vapour pressure curve. This was accomplished by collecting the reading of temperature
when pressure increases. The respective values of pressure and temperature are able on the
digital indicators as the unit comes with the pressure and temperature transducers. Drawing
the graph of pressure against temperature allows the experiment to draw conclusions of the
relationship between pressure and temperature.

3.0 THEORY
Thermodynamics is a part of physics, which deals with work, energy and power of a system.
Thermodynamics mainly works with large-scale system, which can be measured by
experiment study of liquid or gas [3]. The properties of fluid is also a part of thermodynamics.
Most Thermodynamics substance such as gases and vapours are often referred as P-V-T
substance which is absolute pressure (P), volume (V) and absolute temperature (T).
An ideal gas obeys the equation of state relates the absolute pressure (P), volume (V),
number of moles (n), ideal gas constant(R) and absolute temperature (T).
PV = nRT .(2)
However, real gas does not absolutely obey the equation of state. A few changes on the ideal
gas equation of state allow its application in the properties of real gas [3].
When water was boiled, the energy will increase. This situation will affect the number of
molecules escape from the surface until an equilibrium state achieved. This is because the
activities among the molecules will be increase. The state of equilibrium depends on the
pressure between the water surface and the steam [2]. Saturated temperature is called for
temperature where equilibrium occurs at given temperature, while saturated pressure is the
pressure where equilibrium occurs at a given temperature.
The measured value of the slope of the graph (dT/dP) obtained from the experiment results
can be compared to the theoretical value determined through calculation from the steam table
[4]. Clausius-Clapeyron states :
dT

( dP SAT

TV fg
hfg

.(2)

dT

( dP SAT

hf

T ( v f v g )
h f hg

+ h fg = h g .(2)

dT

Hence, ( dP SAT

As

.(2)

vg

>>

T ( v f v g )
h f hg

Tv g
hfg

.(2)

vf

In which,
vf

= specific volume of saturated liquid

vg

= specific volume of saturated vapour

hf

= enthalpy saturated liquid

hg

= enthalpy of saturated vapour

h fg

= lantent hat f vaporization

4.0 DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Legend:
1= Pressure Transducer

6= Bordoun Tube Pressure Gauge

2= Pressure Indicator

7= Temperature sensor

3= Temperature controller/indicator

8= Pressure Relief Valve

4= Control Panel

9= Heater

5= Bench

10= Water Intel Port & Valve

The Marcet Boiler apparatus is equipped with a stainless steel pressure vessel fitted with high
pressure immersion electrical heater. It has a temperature and pressure devices controlled
which is needed to set at 185.0

and 15 bar which is slightly above the expected boiling

point of the water at 10 bar (abs). Next, it comes together with temperature and pressure
transducers so that students will able to read the respective values on the digital indicators
easily. Water inlet port and valve is formed to allow water charging and together with a safety
relief valve which is used to control or limit the pressure in a system. On the other hand, it
consists of temperature sensor to measure the temperature of a medium and bourdon tube
pressure gauge that is used to quantify the pressure in a vacuum. Then, it contains a control

panel with comes with three important buttons such as main switch to switch on the water
heater and reset/emergency button to stop the devices if any leakage or uncontrolled
temperature is happened. Finally, it has a bench which is supported the unit and the water
heater is protected from burnout by setting high temperature cut-off by means of a
temperature controller.

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


5.1 General Start-up Procedures.
1

A quick inspection was performed to ensure that the unit was in proper operating

2
3
4
5

condition.
The unit was connected to the nearest power supply.
The water was already filled in boiler. If already filled skip step 4 and 5 below.
The level sight tube (V1, V2, & V3) and the valves at the feed port were opened.
The boiler was filled with distilled water through the feed port and the water level
was at about the half of the boilers height. Then, the valves, V1 & V2 were closed

6
7

at the level sight tube.


The power supply switch was turned on.
Now you are ready to carry on with the experiment.

5.2 Procedures.
1
2

The general start-up procedures were performed as described in section 5.1.


If the boiler is initially filled with water, open the valves at the level side tube(V2
& V3) to check the water level. Pour in additional distilled water if necessary.
Then, close the valve.

The temperature controlled was set to 185.0

expected boiling point of the water at 10.0 bars (abs).


The valve, V3 was opened and the heater was turned on.

which slightly above the

Important:
Always make sure that the valves at the level sight tube are closed before turning on
the heater as the sight tube is not designed to withstand high pressure and temperature.
5 The steam temperature was observed, rise as the water boils.
6 The steam was allowed to come out from the valve, V3 for about 30 seconds, and
then the valve was closed. This step is important to remove air from boiler as the
accuracy of the experimental results will be significantly affected when the air is
7

present.
The steam temperature and pressure was recorded when the boiler was heated until
the steam pressure reached 10.0 bar (abs).The intervals for pressure data for

initially, followed by 0.2 and 0.5 for the following data were made.
Warning!
Never open the valve when the boiler is heated as pressurized steam can cause severe
injury.
8 Then, the heater was turned off and the steam temperature and pressure was
dropped. The steam temperature was recorded when the boiler was cooled until the
seam pressure reached atmospheric pressure.
9 The boiler was allowed to cool down to room temperature.
10 The steam temperature was recorded at different pressure readings when the boiler
was heated and cooled.
5.3 General Shut-down Procedures.
1

The heater was switched off and the boiler temperature was allowed to drop until
room temperature.
Note:
Do not open the valve at the water inlet port as it is highly pressurized at high

temperature.
The main switch and the main power supply were switched off when it had
dropped to room temperature,

6.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

6.1 Results Of Experiments : Tabulated Data

Pressure , P (bar)

Gaug

Temperature, T ( C)

Inc.

Dec.

Measured

Calculated

Slope,
dT/dP

Slope,
Tvg/hfg

( K/kPa)

(K/kPa)

Tavg

Tavg

( C)
( C)
106.70 106.15

(K)
379.30

115.90
125.20
133.90
138.80
144.10
148.90
153.20
157.20
160.90
164.20
167.40
170.40
173.20
175.90

388.25
397.50
406.30
411.25
416.65
421.50
426.00
429.90
433.50
436.90
440.10
443.10
446.00
448.60

0.225
0.170
0.135
0.123
0.108
0.097
0.090
0.078
0.072
0.068
0.064
0.060
0.058
0.052

0.190
0.145
0.115
0.103
0.091
0.082
0.074
0.068
0.063
0.060
0.056
0.053
0.050
0.047

Absolute
e
0.10

1.10

( C)
105.60

0.50
1.00
1.60
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00

1.50
2.00
2.60
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00

114.30
123.50
132.40
137.40
142.90
147.80
152.50
156.30
159.90
163.30
166.50
169.50
172.50
175.00

115.10
124.35
133.15
138.10
143.50
148.35
152.85
156.75
160.40
163.75
166.95
169.95
172.85
175.45

6.2 Results of Experiment : Graph


Graph of Average Temperature, T against Absolute Pressure, P

Graph of Average Temperature, T against Absolute Pressure, P


200.00

190.00

180.00

170.00

160.00

Average Temperature, T (C) 150.00


140.00

130.00

120.00

110.00

100.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.0012.00
Absolute pressure, P (bar)

Graph of dT/dP and Tvg/hfg against absolute pressure, P

Graph of dT/dP and Tvg/hfg against absolute pressure, P


0.3
0.25
0.2

dT/dP and Tvg/hfg 0.15

dT/dP (K/kPa)
Tvg/hfg (K/kPa)

0.1
0.05
0
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00

Absolute pressure, P (bar)

6.3 Discussion
It is necessary to remove air form the boiler as this could affect the accuracy of the
experimental results. When there were air trapped inside the boiler, it will affect the pressure
readings. Based on the graphs, the relationship between pressure and temperature is directly
proportional and there is a slightly deviation between the experimental slope and the
theoretical slope at the beginning. The percentage of error ranged from 0% until 50%.
Sources of errors are measurements or reading accuracy, pressure, and calculations (decimal
points were not being constant when calculating every data). When the liquid
absorbed enough heat energy, it will change to vapour form. As the steam is not allowed to
exit, it will cause an increase in pressure and thus causing the temperature to increase.
Applications of boilers include water boiling, gasifier system, power plant and cooking
utilities.
7.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION
Temperature Average, Tavg (0C) = T increases + T decreases

2
= 107.20 0C + 109.40 0C
2
= 108.30C
Tavg (K) = T (0C) + 273.15
= 381.45 K
Measured slope, dT/dP = 381.45 K 379.30 K
1.1 bar 1.0 bar
= 2.15 K
Bar

= 0.215 K/ kPa

Calculated slope, Tvg/ hfg = (381.45 K)(1.256 m3/kg)


(2234.3 kJ/kg)
= 0.2144 K. m3
kJ
1 kJ = 1 kPa. m3
= 0.2144 K/ kPa
8.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions

The pressure increase as the temperature increase. This was proved with the obtained graph of
average temperature against absolute pressure that directly proportional. The vapour pressure
curve obtained was slightly deviate because of some errors of data.
Recommendations
Air must be completely removed from the valve to avoid any inaccuracy of the readings. The
readings of temperature also should be recorded after the pressure was stable. Switch on the
heater to boiled the water when the temperature reading at room temperature.
9.0 REFERENCES
1) Mechanical Engineering (Marcet Boiler). (2013). Retrieved July 7, 2013, from
http://www.studymode.com/essays/Mechanical-Enggering-1362032.html
2) Chemical Engineering Laboratory Manual (CHE331), Faculty of Chemical
Engineering, UiTM
3)

Marcet

Boiler

Penang.
Experiment.

(2012).

Retrieved

July

7,

2013,

from

July

7,

2013,

from

http://www.scribd.com/doc/93324504/Marcet-Boiler
4)

Marcet

Boiler

Lab

Report.

(2011).

Retrieved

http://www.slashdocs.com/pwxyx/marcet-boiler-lab-report.html