You are on page 1of 456

Title page

Alcatel-Lucent
Base Station Subsystem | B12
Overview
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA
Issue 4 | October 2012

Legal notice
Legal notice

Alcatel, Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent and the Alcatel-Lucent logo are trademarks of Alcatel-Lucent. All other trademarks are the property of their respective
owners.
The information presented is subject to change without notice. Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies contained herein.
Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Note:

Not to be used or disclosed except in accordance with applicable agreements.

Contents
About this document
xxiii
Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................................................ xxiii
Reason for reissue

................................................................................................................................................................... xxiv
xxiv

New in this release

.................................................................................................................................................................. xxiv
xxiv

Intended audience

.................................................................................................................................................................... xxiv
xxiv

Supported systems

.................................................................................................................................................................... xxv
xxv

How to use this document ...................................................................................................................................................... xxv


xxv
Prerequisites

................................................................................................................................................................................ xxv
xxv

Conventions used

...................................................................................................................................................................... xxv
xxv

Related information
Document support

................................................................................................................................................................ xxvi
xxvi

................................................................................................................................................................... xxvi
xxvi

Technical support ..................................................................................................................................................................... xxvi


xxvi
How to order .............................................................................................................................................................................. xxvi
xxvi
How to comment ...................................................................................................................................................................... xxvi
xxvi
1

Introduction to GSM
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1-1
GSM Background ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1-1
GSM Architecture ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1-3
1-3
GSM Functions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1-8
1-8

Alcatel-Lucent BSS
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2-1
BSS Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2-1
2-1
Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................... 2-6
2-6

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
iii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

External Components ............................................................................................................................................................ 2-16


2-16
Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions

.......................................................................................................................................... 2-25
2-25

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS ................................................................................................................... 2-27


2-27
Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS .......................................................................................... 2-30
2-30
Network Management and the Alcatel-Lucent BSS .................................................................................................. 2-48
2-48
Network Interworking
3

.......................................................................................................................................................... 2-50
2-50

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3-1
Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS
Packet Switching and GPRS Elements ............................................................................................................................. 3-4
3-4
Packet Switching ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3-5
3-5
GPRS Elements

......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-6
3-6

GPRS Channels and System Information Messages


Overview of GPRS Channels and System Information Messages ....................................................................... 3-10
3-10
Logical Channels .................................................................................................................................................................... 3-10
3-10
Virtual Channels ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3-11
3-11
System Information Messages ........................................................................................................................................... 3-11
3-11
GPRS Interfaces
Overview of GPRS Interfaces

........................................................................................................................................... 3-13
3-13

Gb Interface .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3-13


3-13
BSCGP Interface
GCH Interface

.................................................................................................................................................................... 3-16
3-16

......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-16
3-16

Specific LCS Interfaces

....................................................................................................................................................... 3-17
3-17

GPRS Network Functions


Overview of GPRS Network Functions ......................................................................................................................... 3-18
3-18
MAC and RLC Functions

................................................................................................................................................... 3-18
3-18

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
iv
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Temporary Block Flow ......................................................................................................................................................... 3-18


3-18
Mobility Management

.......................................................................................................................................................... 3-19
3-19

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection ................................................................................................................................... 3-22


3-22
Paging ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-25
3-25
Radio Power Control and Radio Link Measurement

................................................................................................ 3-26
3-26

Additional GRPS Network Functions


Resource Management
Timeslot Allocation

......................................................................................................................................................... 3-27
3-27

............................................................................................................................................................... 3-28
3-28

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation ..................................................................................................................... 3-29


3-29
Packet Flow Context

............................................................................................................................................................. 3-31
3-31

Dynamic Abis Allocation

.................................................................................................................................................... 3-33
3-33

Enhanced Transmission Resource Management ......................................................................................................... 3-36


3-36
Frequency Hopping

............................................................................................................................................................... 3-36
3-36

PCM Link Sharing ................................................................................................................................................................. 3-37


3-37
TBF Resource Re-allocation .............................................................................................................................................. 3-37
3-37
Dynamic Allocation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3-39
3-39
Extended Dynamic Allocation ........................................................................................................................................... 3-39
3-39
Traffic Load Management
Overview of Traffic Load Management ......................................................................................................................... 3-40
3-40
Smooth PDCH Traffic Adaption to Cell Load Variation

......................................................................................... 3-40
3-40

Congestion Control ................................................................................................................................................................ 3-41


3-41
M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing
GPRS Overload Control

................................................................................................................................... 3-41
3-41

...................................................................................................................................................... 3-42
3-42

Data Transmission
Overview of Data Transmission ........................................................................................................................................ 3-43
3-43
GPRS Attach

............................................................................................................................................................................ 3-44
3-44

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
v
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation ...................................................................................................................... 3-47


3-47
Data Transfer ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3-51
3-51
Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation ................................................................................................................ 3-61
3-61
GPRS Suspend

........................................................................................................................................................................ 3-66
3-66

GPRS Resume

......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-68
3-68

GPRS Detach

........................................................................................................................................................................... 3-71
3-71

Location Services
Overview of Location Services ......................................................................................................................................... 3-75
3-75
Logical Architecture .............................................................................................................................................................. 3-76
3-76
LCS Positioning Methods

................................................................................................................................................... 3-77
3-77

LCS Scenario in Circuit-Switched Domain .................................................................................................................. 3-79


3-79
Physical Implementation

..................................................................................................................................................... 3-79
3-79

SMLC Functions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3-80


3-80
BSS and Cell Configuration ............................................................................................................................................... 3-81
3-81
LCS O&M ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-81
3-81
High Speed Data Service
HSDS Description .................................................................................................................................................................. 3-83
3-83
GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol ............................................................................................................................ 3-84
3-84
Transmission Handling ......................................................................................................................................................... 3-87
3-87
Cell/GP Mapping Modification ......................................................................................................................................... 3-89
3-89
Gb over IP
Overview Gb over IP
4

............................................................................................................................................................ 3-90
3-90

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One Slot (VAMOS)


Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-1
4-1
VAMOS
VAMOS Overview

................................................................................................................................................................... 4-2
4-2

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
vi
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Downlink
Orthogonal SubChannels Concept ...................................................................................................................................... 4-3
4-3
VAMOS Adaptive Symbol Constellation ......................................................................................................................... 4-4
4-4
Training Sequences Used in VAMOS
VAMOS Operation in DTX

............................................................................................................................... 4-5
4-5

.................................................................................................................................................. 4-6
4-6

Power Control in VAMOS ..................................................................................................................................................... 4-7


4-7
Associated Control Channels

............................................................................................................................................... 4-8
4-8

Uplink
Burst Structure and Training Sequence Codes

............................................................................................................ 4-10
4-10

Associated Control Channels ............................................................................................................................................. 4-10


4-10
Reception of VAMOS SubChannels at the BTS ......................................................................................................... 4-10
4-10
Mobile Station Types for VAMOS
Overview of Mobile Station Types for VAMOS ......................................................................................................... 4-11
4-11
VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
Overview of VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
5

................................................................................. 4-12
4-12

Call Set Up
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5-1
Call Set Up
Overview of Call Set Up ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-3
5-3
Call Types .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-3
5-3
Call Set Up Phases

................................................................................................................................................................... 5-4
5-4

Mobile-Originated Call
Overview of Mobile-Originated Call

................................................................................................................................ 5-5
5-5

Radio and Link Establishment ............................................................................................................................................. 5-5


5-5
Authentication and Ciphering ............................................................................................................................................ 5-15
5-15
Normal Assignment ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-16
5-16
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
vii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile-Terminated Call
Overview of Mobile-Terminated Call ............................................................................................................................. 5-24
5-24
Radio and Link Establishment ........................................................................................................................................... 5-25
5-25
Authentication and Ciphering ............................................................................................................................................ 5-26
5-26
Normal Assignment ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-26
5-26
Off Air Call Set Up ................................................................................................................................................................ 5-28
5-28
IMSI Attach-Detach

.............................................................................................................................................................. 5-28
5-28

Paging
Overview of Paging ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-29
5-29
Paging Control ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5-31
5-31
Discontinuous Reception ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-34
5-34
Congestion
Overview of Congestion ...................................................................................................................................................... 5-35
5-35
Queueing .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-35
5-35
In-queue

..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-36
5-36

Pre-emption

.............................................................................................................................................................................. 5-38
5-38

Classmark Handling
Overview of Classmark Handling .................................................................................................................................... 5-40
5-40
Classmark IE ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5-41
5-41
Classmark Updating

.............................................................................................................................................................. 5-43
5-43

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure ............................................................................................................ 5-44


5-44
Authentication
Overview of Authentication
IMSI/TMSI

............................................................................................................................................... 5-47
5-47

............................................................................................................................................................................... 5-47
5-47

Authentication Procedure .................................................................................................................................................... 5-49


5-49

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
viii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ciphering
Overview of Ciphering ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-51
5-51
Mobile Station Ciphering Capability

.............................................................................................................................. 5-52
5-52

BSS Ciphering Capability ................................................................................................................................................... 5-52


5-52
Ciphering Keys ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5-53
5-53
Ciphering Process ................................................................................................................................................................... 5-54
5-54
Ciphering in DTM Mode ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-57
5-57
Tandem Free Operation
Overview of Tandem Free Operation .............................................................................................................................. 5-58
5-58
TFO Process ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5-59
5-59
TFO Functional Architecture

............................................................................................................................................. 5-60
5-60

TFO Optimization and Management ............................................................................................................................... 5-62


5-62
6

Call Handling
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-1
6-1
Overview of Call Handling
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-4
6-4
In-Call Modification
Overview of In-Call Modification ...................................................................................................................................... 6-5
6-5
In-Call Modification Procedure ........................................................................................................................................... 6-6
6-6
Circuit-Switched Group 3 Fax Data Rate Change ........................................................................................................ 6-7
6-7
Error Handling

........................................................................................................................................................................... 6-8
6-8

Frequency Hopping
Overview of Frequency Hopping ........................................................................................................................................ 6-9
6-9
Baseband Frequency Hopping ........................................................................................................................................... 6-10
6-10
Synthesized Frequency Hopping ...................................................................................................................................... 6-12
6-12

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
ix
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Speech Transmission
Overview of Speech Transmission ................................................................................................................................... 6-13
6-13
Continuous Transmission

.................................................................................................................................................... 6-13
6-13

Discontinuous Transmission

.............................................................................................................................................. 6-13
6-13

Voice Activity Detection ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-14


6-14
BSS Discontinuous Transmission Towards Mobile Station

................................................................................... 6-15
6-15

Mobile Station Discontinuous Transmission Towards BSS

................................................................................... 6-16
6-16

Radio Power Control


Overview of Radio Power Control
BTS Radio Power Control

.................................................................................................................................. 6-19
6-19

.................................................................................................................................................. 6-19
6-19

Mobile Station Radio Power Control .............................................................................................................................. 6-20


6-20
Radio Link Measurements

.................................................................................................................................................. 6-20
6-20

Power Control Decision and Handover .......................................................................................................................... 6-21


6-21
Change Power Levels

........................................................................................................................................................... 6-23
6-23

Packet Downlink Power Control

...................................................................................................................................... 6-25
6-25

Handover
Overview of Handover ......................................................................................................................................................... 6-26
6-26
Principal Handover Types

................................................................................................................................................... 6-27
6-27

Radio Measurements ............................................................................................................................................................. 6-29


6-29
Handover Detection ............................................................................................................................................................... 6-31
6-31
Handover Detection Overview .......................................................................................................................................... 6-31
6-31
Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover ..................................................................................................... 6-32
6-32
Handover Detection Level Intercell Handover ............................................................................................................ 6-34
6-34
Handover Detection Quality Intercell Handover ........................................................................................................ 6-34
6-34
Handover Detection Quality Intracell Handover ........................................................................................................ 6-34
6-34
Handover Detection Better Zone Handover ................................................................................................................. 6-35
6-35
Handover Detection Better Cell Handover ................................................................................................................... 6-36
6-36
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
x
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Distance Handover

....................................................................................................................... 6-38
6-38

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover .................................................................................. 6-40


6-40
Handover Detection Multiband Handover .................................................................................................................... 6-41
6-41
Target Cell Evaluation .......................................................................................................................................................... 6-42
6-42
Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover .................................................................................................................. 6-45
6-45
Circuit-Switched Telecom Handovers ............................................................................................................................ 6-49
6-49
Overload Control
Overview of Overload Control .......................................................................................................................................... 6-51
6-51
BTS Overload .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6-51
6-51
BSC Overload .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6-52
6-52
Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station
Overview of Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station ............................................................................................ 6-54
6-54
User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access Control)
Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access Control)

......................................... 6-55
6-55

Interference Reduction
Interference Reduction Using IRC & EIRC ................................................................................................................. 6-58
6-58
7

Call Release
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-1
7-1
Call Release
Overview of Call Release

...................................................................................................................................................... 7-3
7-3

Call Release Procedures in Normal Service


Overview of Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

......................................................................................... 7-5
7-5

Normal Release .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7-6


7-6
Calls Terminated Following a Channel Change .......................................................................................................... 7-15
7-15
Call Release - Special Cases
Overview of Call Release - Special Cases

.................................................................................................................... 7-17
7-17

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xi
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Release Following Reset ............................................................................................................................................ 7-17


7-17
BSC-Initiated Release ........................................................................................................................................................... 7-20
7-20
BSC-Initiated SCCP Release
BTS-Initiated Call Release

............................................................................................................................................. 7-22
7-22

................................................................................................................................................. 7-23
7-23

Mobile Station-Initiated Call Release ............................................................................................................................. 7-25


7-25
Remote Transcoder Alarms ................................................................................................................................................. 7-27
7-27
Preserve Call Feature
Overview of Preserve Call Feature .................................................................................................................................. 7-29
7-29
Normal Release ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7-29
7-29
Abnormal Release .................................................................................................................................................................. 7-30
7-30
8

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-1
8-1
User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS
Overview of Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS ..................................................................... 8-3
8-3
Speech
Overview of Speech ................................................................................................................................................................. 8-4
8-4
Analog ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-5
8-5
Interleaving and Forward Error Correction ..................................................................................................................... 8-5
8-5
Speech Data Bursts

.................................................................................................................................................................. 8-6
8-6

Digital Speech ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8-6


8-6
Digital 64 kbit/s A-law Encoded Speech .......................................................................................................................... 8-7
8-7
Enhanced Full-Rate .................................................................................................................................................................. 8-8
8-8
Half-Rate ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-9
8-9
Adaptive Multiple Rate ........................................................................................................................................................ 8-10
8-10
Channel Mode Adaptation

.................................................................................................................................................. 8-14
8-14

VGCS .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-14


8-14
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Circuit-Switched Data Modes


Overview of Circuit-Switched Data Modes
Transparent Mode

................................................................................................................. 8-16
8-16

.................................................................................................................................................................. 8-17
8-17

Non-Transparent Mode

........................................................................................................................................................ 8-18
8-18

Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast


Overview of Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast .............................................................................................. 8-20
8-20
SMS-CB Operation ................................................................................................................................................................ 8-21
8-21
Phase 2+ Enhancements ....................................................................................................................................................... 8-21
8-21
Support of Localized Service Area
Overview of Support of Localized Service Area ........................................................................................................ 8-22
8-22
PLMN Interworking
Overview of PLMN Interworking .................................................................................................................................... 8-23
8-23
9

Cell Environments
Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-1
9-1
Cell Environments
Overview of Cell Environments .......................................................................................................................................... 9-3
9-3
Rural and Coastal Coverage .................................................................................................................................................. 9-5
9-5
Urban Coverage ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9-5
9-5
Concentric Cell
Overview of Concentric Cell ................................................................................................................................................ 9-6
9-6
Sectored Site
Overview of Sectored Site ..................................................................................................................................................... 9-7
9-7
Extended Cell
Overview of Extended Cell ................................................................................................................................................... 9-9
9-9
Standard Extended Cell ........................................................................................................................................................ 9-10
9-10
Enlarged Extended Cell ........................................................................................................................................................ 9-11
9-11

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xiii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PS in Extended Cell ............................................................................................................................................................... 9-11


9-11
Umbrella Cell
Overview of Umbrella Cell

................................................................................................................................................ 9-12
9-12

Mini Cell .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-12


9-12
Microcell .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-13
9-13
Indoor Cell ................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-16
9-16
Cell Shared by Two BTS
Overview of Cell Shared by Two BTS ........................................................................................................................... 9-18
9-18
Logical Cell
Overview of Logical Cell .................................................................................................................................................... 9-19
9-19
Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS Sector
Overview of Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS Sector

........................................................................... 9-20
9-20

TRX Dynamic Power Saving


Overview of TRX Dynamic Power Saving
10

.................................................................................................................. 9-21
9-21

Operations & Maintenance


Overview

................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-1
10-1

Operations and Maintenance


Overview of Operations and Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 10-3
10-3
Subsystem O&M Functions
System O&M Functions

............................................................................................................................................... 10-3
10-3

...................................................................................................................................................... 10-4
10-4

O&M Control - Subsystems


Overview of O&M Control - Subsystems ..................................................................................................................... 10-6
10-6
LMTs and IMT ........................................................................................................................................................................ 10-6
10-6
OML Auto-Detection

............................................................................................................................................................ 10-7
10-7

Managed Objects .................................................................................................................................................................... 10-7


10-7
Security Blocks

....................................................................................................................................................................... 10-8
10-8

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xiv
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

O&M Control via OMC-R


Overview of O&M Control via OMC-R ........................................................................................................................ 10-9
10-9
Multiple Human-Machine Interface ................................................................................................................................ 10-9
10-9
ACO .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-11
10-11
Connection from BSC to OMC-R

................................................................................................................................. 10-13
10-13

Electronic Documentation ................................................................................................................................................ 10-15


10-15
Configuration Management
Overview of Configuration Management

................................................................................................................... 10-16
10-16

Hardware Configuration .................................................................................................................................................... 10-17


10-17
Logical Configuration ........................................................................................................................................................ 10-17
10-17
Default Parameter Customization .................................................................................................................................. 10-18
10-18
Software Configuration

..................................................................................................................................................... 10-18
10-18

Auto-Identification .............................................................................................................................................................. 10-19


10-19
OML Auto-Detection .......................................................................................................................................................... 10-20
10-20
Network Element Provisioning ....................................................................................................................................... 10-21
10-21
Fault Management - Alarms
Overview of Fault Management - Alarms
Alarm Generation

.................................................................................................................. 10-23
10-23

................................................................................................................................................................ 10-24
10-24

Alarm Functions ................................................................................................................................................................... 10-25


10-25
BSC Alarms

........................................................................................................................................................................... 10-27
10-27

BTS Alarms ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10-31


10-31
Alarms Detected by the TSC ........................................................................................................................................... 10-32
10-32
MFS Alarms ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10-33
10-33
Recovery Example: Carrier Unit Failures with BCCH .......................................................................................... 10-34
10-34
Automatic Power-Down .................................................................................................................................................... 10-37
10-37
BSC Alerter ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10-38
10-38

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xv
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Contents
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Performance Management
Overview of Performance Management ...................................................................................................................... 10-39
10-39
Traces

....................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-40
10-40

Performance Monitoring

................................................................................................................................................... 10-40
10-40

Radio Measurements Statistics

....................................................................................................................................... 10-41
10-41

Radio Measurements Statistics Improved ................................................................................................................... 10-43


10-43
Results Analysis

................................................................................................................................................................... 10-46
10-46

Audits
Overview of Audits

............................................................................................................................................................. 10-47
10-47

Audit Types ............................................................................................................................................................................ 10-47


10-47
Audit Flow .............................................................................................................................................................................. 10-49
10-49
Remote Inventory
Overview of Remote Inventory

...................................................................................................................................... 10-50
10-50

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xvi
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of tables
1-1

Basic Teleservices

..................................................................................................................................................... 1-9
1-9

1-2

GSM Channel Characteristics

1-3

Control Channel Types .......................................................................................................................................... 1-13

2-1

System Information Messages

2-2

UTRAN/E-UTRAN FDD/TDD Supported Combinations

3-1

Network Operation Modes

4-1

TSC Set 1 & 2

5-1

Cell List Identifier and Paging Performed

..................................................................................................... 5-31

5-2

Cell List Identifier and Paging Performed

..................................................................................................... 5-32

6-1

Operator Discontinuous Transmission Options

6-2

Mobile Station Maximum and Minimum Power Ranges

8-1

Software Version versus Hardware Board/Feature

8-2

Circuit-Switched Data Rate Conversions Across the Air Interface

............................................................................................................................ 1-12

........................................................................................................................... 2-44
...................................................................... 2-58

.................................................................................................................................. 3-25

............................................................................................................................................................. 4-5
4-5

........................................................................................... 6-16
......................................................................... 6-24

..................................................................................... 8-11
...................................................... 8-18

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xvii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of tables
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xviii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of figures
1-1

Base Station Subsystem

.......................................................................................................................................... 1-7
1-7

2-1

Synchronous Transport Mode level 1 (STM1)

2-2

Logical Position of External Components Associated with BSS

2-3

Location Updating

.................................................................................................................................................. 2-21
2-21

2-4

Location Updating

.................................................................................................................................................. 2-23
2-23

2-5

Timeslot 4 of a TDMA Frame Supporting Access Grant Channels ...................................................... 2-40

2-6

TMN System Hierarchy ........................................................................................................................................ 2-49

3-1

Model LLC Packet Data Unit used in GPRS

3-2

The Alcatel-Lucent GPRS Solution in the PLMN ......................................................................................... 3-7

3-3

Mobile Station-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

3-4

GGSN-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context Activation ................................................................ 3-49

3-5

Mobile-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

3-6

Network-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation Processes

4-1

OSC baseband transmitter

4-2

VAMOS baseband transmitter

4-3

Power control in VAMOS ....................................................................................................................................... 4-8

4-4

FACCH soft stealing for two users sharing the same radio resource: TCH for both users A and B,
FACCH for user B, FACCH for user A. ......................................................................................................... 4-9

4-5

VAMOS Multiplexing Combinations per timeslot

5-1

Radio and Link Establishment for Mobile-Originated Call

5-2

Connection for Mobile-Originated Call .......................................................................................................... 5-13

5-3

Channel Request ...................................................................................................................................................... 5-18


5-18

5-4

Radio and Link Establishment for Mobile-Terminated Call

5-5

CCCH with Three Blocks Reserved for AGCH ........................................................................................... 5-29

............................................................................................... 2-5
.......................................................... 2-17

.................................................................................................. 3-6

............................................... 3-47

........................................................ 3-61
................................. 3-64

...................................................................................................................................... 4-3
.............................................................................................................................. 4-4

..................................................................................... 4-13
....................................................................... 5-7

................................................................... 5-24

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xix
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of figures
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

5-6

Four TDMA Frame Cycles Providing 24 Paging Sub-channels

............................................................ 5-30

5-7

Location Update with Mobile Station Sending Location Area Identity of Previous VLR

5-8

Example of TFO Establishment ......................................................................................................................... 5-59

6-1

Different Forms of Discontinuous Transmission ......................................................................................... 6-18

6-2

Power Output Balancing Based on Received Quality and Signal Levels

.......................................... 6-22

6-3

Power Output Balancing Based on Received Quality and Signal Levels

.......................................... 6-23

6-4

Umbrella Cell Load in Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

6-5

Example of the New Round Robin Algorithm Applied for an ACC Configuration

7-1

Mobile Station Disconnecting a Call .................................................................................................................. 7-6

7-2

Normal Call Release ................................................................................................................................................. 7-8


7-8

7-3

Initiation of Normal Release by MSC ................................................................................................................ 7-9

7-4

BSC/BTS/Mobile Station Interactions in Normal Call Release

7-5

Normal Release Final Steps

7-6

Call Release Following Reset ............................................................................................................................. 7-19

7-7

BSC-initiated Call Release Toward the MSC

7-8

BTS-initiated Call Release following LAPD Failure

7-9

Call Release due to Mobile Station-Initiated Radio Link Failure

7-10

Call Release Due to Communication Failure Detected by Transcoder

8-1

Encoded Speech Transmission Across the BSS with 9120 BSC

8-2

Multiplexed Ater Interface

8-3

Data Transmission Across the BSS

9-1

Example: Cell Configurations ............................................................................................................................... 9-4

9-2

Sectored Site Configuration ................................................................................................................................... 9-8

9-3

Example of Extended Cell Topology

9-4

Umbrella Cell with Mini Cells

9-5

Indoor Cell Example Network Hierarchy with Three Layers and Two Bands

10-1

Multiple HMI Access to OMC-Rs .................................................................................................................. 10-10

........... 5-48

.............................................................. 6-41
....................... 6-56

............................................................ 7-12

................................................................................................................................ 7-13

............................................................................................... 7-21
................................................................................ 7-24
......................................................... 7-26
............................................... 7-28

............................................................. 8-4

..................................................................................................................................... 8-7
8-7
.................................................................................................................. 8-16

................................................................................................................. 9-9

........................................................................................................................... 9-13
................................. 9-17

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xx
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of figures
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

10-2

ACO Links

.............................................................................................................................................................. 10-12
10-12

10-3

X.25 Without Redundancy

10-4

X.25 With Redundancy

10-5

RSL Correlation on the Abis Interface .......................................................................................................... 10-28

10-6

Example Alarm Report

10-7

Example: Loss of Carrier Unit Holding BCCH.

10-8

RMS OMC-R Implementation.

10-9

RMSI OMC-R Implementation ....................................................................................................................... 10-45

................................................................................................................................ 10-13

...................................................................................................................................... 10-14

....................................................................................................................................... 10-30
....................................................................................... 10-36

....................................................................................................................... 10-43

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxi
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

List of figures
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

About this document


About this document

Purpose

This document provides a detailed overview of the Alcatel-Lucent Base Station


Subsystem (BSS) and its functions and features, as well as an introduction to GSM
operation and (E)GPRS.
The first part of the document provides an overview of GSM functions and architecture,
as well as a high level introduction to:

The principle role and tasks of the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Network organization, functions and network management
General BSS operations and maintenance (O&M).

The document then provides more specific technical information about:

GPRS in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


This section provides an overview of GPRS functionality and processes as applied
within the Alcatel-Lucent BSS.
Call set up, handling and release
These sections provide detailed information about how the three major stages of call
transmission and management are implemented in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS.
Specific sections focus on how user traffic is handled across the BSS and how
different cell environments impact call handling.
Operations and Maintenance (O&M).
These sections describe the local and distributed O&M functions as they are applied
in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS.

Note that some of the functions and features may not be available on the system installed
at your location.
The following convention applies for a 9125 TC equipped with a TC STM1 - IP subrack:

TC STM1 interface board is also referred as TCIF

TC STM1 IP interface board is also referred as TCIFI.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxiii
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

About this document


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Reason for reissue


Issue number

Reason for reissue

Section Radio Measurements Statistics Improved


(p. 10-43) was updated.

The following sections were updated:

Information about IRC & Enhanced IRC has been


added in Interference Reduction (p. 6-58).

Information about Flexible RMSI Report Content


has been added in Radio Measurements Statistics
Improved (p. 10-43)

Information about Packet Downlink Power Control


and Reduction of Transmitted PDDCB has been
added in Radio Power Control (p. 6-19)

Improvements performed in

RMSI in OMC-R (p. 10-43).

Alcatel-Lucent Radio Solutions (p. 2-2)

Base Transceiver Station (p. 2-8)

First official release of the document for B12 Release.

New in this release

This section contains information about changes to the current document.


New features

IRC & Enhanced IRC


Packet Downlink Power Control
Reduction of Transmitted PDDCB
Other changes

None.
Intended audience

This document is for people requiring an in-depth understanding of Alcatel-Lucent BSS


functions:

Network decision makers who require an understanding of the underlying functions of


the system

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxiv
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

About this document


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Including:
Network planners
Technical design staff

Trainers.
Operations and support staff who need to know how the system operates in normal
conditions
Including:
Operators
Support engineers

Maintenance staff
Client Help Desk personnel.

Supported systems

This document applies to Release B12 of the BSS.


This document contains IP transport in the BSS related information. This feature is
available commercially from Release B12.
How to use this document

No specific recommendation applies regarding the way readers should read this
document.
Prerequisites

You must have a good understanding of:

BSS
GSM

GPRS
Mobile telecommunications
Network Management concepts and terminology.

Conventions used

This section gives information on conventions.


Vocabulary conventions

None.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxv
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

About this document


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Typographical conventions

The following typographical convention is used in this document:


Appearance

Description

Italicized text

Emphasized information.

graphical user interface text

Text that is displayed in a graphical user interface or in a


hardware label.

Document reference, reference


number

Related document that is referenced in the document.

Related information

None.
Document support

For support in using this or any other Alcatel-Lucent document, contact Alcatel-Lucent at
one of the following telephone numbers:

1-888-582-3688 (for the United States)


1-317-377-8618 (for all other countries)

Technical support

For technical support, contact your local Alcatel-Lucent customer support team. See the
Alcatel-Lucent Support web site (http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/support/) for contact
information.
How to order

To order Alcatel-Lucent documents, contact your local sales representative or use Online
Customer Support (OLCS) (http://support.alcatel-lucent.com)
How to comment

To comment on this document, go to the Online Comment Form (http://infodoc.alcatellucent.com/comments/) or e-mail your comments to the Comments Hotline
(comments@alcatel-lucent.com).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
xxvi
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM
1

Overview
Purpose

This section reviews basic mobile communications concepts and provides an overview of
GSM architecture and functions, including its evolution to (E)GPRS.
Contents
GSM Background

1-1

GSM Architecture

1-3

GSM Functions

1-8

GSM Background
Overview

The Group Special Mobile was originally part of the European Conference of Posts and
Telecommunications (CEPT) group. This organization was responsible for developing the
first mobile telecommunication standards. It produced recommendations for mobile
services, radio transmission, network architecture and interfaces between subsystems. The
resulting cellular radio telephone system is known as the Global System for Mobile
Communications, or GSM. GSM standardization was later taken over by the global
European standards organization, the ETSI, and in 1998 a collaboration agreement was
established between a number of telecommunications standards bodies, resulting in the
3rd Generation Partnership Project Agreement (3GPP).
3GPP is responsible for defining recommendations for the advanced use of cellular radio
telephone systems. The recommendations are defined by technological generations.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Background

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. The main difference to


previous mobile telephone systems, retrospectively dubbed 1G, is that the radio signals
that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
3G is the generation of mobile phone standards and technology after 2G. It is based on
the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the
International Mobile Telecommunications programme, "IMT-2000". 3G technologies
enable Network Operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while
achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. 3G networks are
wide area cellular telephone networks which evolved to incorporate high-speed internet
access and video telephony. Both 2G and 3G systems use digital signaling to connect
radio transmission towers to the rest of the telephone system.
2G technology encompasses:

GSM

GPRS
EDGE ((E)GPRS)
EDGE Evolution.

3G technology includes the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS),


which is sometimes know as 3GSM, in order to emphasize the combination of the 3G
nature of the technology and the GSM standard which it was designed to succeed.
The GSM working group based their system on digital transmission technology because
digital transmission provides greater reliability, higher traffic density, and better quality
than earlier analog methods. The original GSM recommendation specified a common
frequency band around 900 MHz for mobile communication. Systems using this band are
referred to as GSM 900 systems. To provide additional coverage in densely populated
urban areas, a second band around 1800 MHz/1900 MHz was reserved. This is referred to
as GSM 1800/1900 and uses the same GSM standards operating at the higher frequency
range. The GSM 900 systems have been extended into the 900 MHz primary band
(P-GSM band) and the 900 MHz extension band (G1 band).
The GSM 850 MHz band was introduced in Release 1999 of the 3GPP Standard in 1999,
but is supported by all mobile station releases since 1997, to allow operators to
progressively replace the D-AMPS and CDMA technologies that were using these
frequencies.
For more information about GSM frequency ranges, refer to:

Channels (p. 1-11)

Frequency Band Configurations (p. 2-3).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GSM Architecture
Overview

The GSM architecture is a functional structure defined to ensure compatibility between


the different subsystems, their components and the communication interfaces. The
definition is based on the GSM recommendations.
Standard GSM PLMN

A public land mobile network (PLMN) is a network that is established and operated by an
administration or by a recognized operating agency for the specific purpose of providing
land mobile telecommunications services to the public. Access to PLMN services is
achieved by means of an air interface involving radio communications between mobile
phones or other wireless enabled user equipment and land based radio transmitters or
radio base stations PLMNs interconnect with other PLMNs and public switched
telephone networks (PSTNs) for telephone communications or with internet service
providers for data and internet access.
The standard GSM PLMN, shown in the figure below, consists of:

Mobile stations, to transmit and receive calls

At least one BSS, to act as the radio part that connects the mobile station to the
switching part of the PLMN
The Network Subsystem (NSS), to manage switching, interconnection and subscriber
data.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GSM/(E)GPRS PLMN

Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows increased data
transmission rates and improved data transmission reliability.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A GSM/(E)GPRS PLMN, shown in the figure below, consists of:

Mobile stations, to transmit and receive calls

At least one BSS, to act as the radio part that connects the mobile station to the
switching part of the PLMN
At least one MFS (see Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (p. 2-13)).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

Mobile Stations

Mobile stations (MS) are the only items of mobile telecommunications equipment the
subscriber physically uses. They can be vehicle mounted or portable kits, but the most
popular models are hand-held stations.
Mobile stations provide generic radio and processing functions, allowing subscribers to
access the mobile network via a radio interface called the Air Interface. Modern MS and
their associated service providers propose many features, including Short Message
Services (SMS), Multimedia Services (MMS), the ability to transfer data to and from
computers and faxes, television and radio streaming, and the possibility of creating and
manipulating photos and video imaging.
For more detailed information about MS, refer to Mobile Stations (p. 2-19).
Base Station Subsystem

The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) is the section of a traditional cellular telephone
network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone
and the NSS. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels, allocation of radio
channels to mobile phones, paging, quality management of transmission and reception
over the Air interface and many other tasks related to the radio network.
In summary, the BSS connects the mobile stations to the switching part of the GSM
PLMN, as shown in the figure below:
Figure 1-1 Base Station Subsystem

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

A BSS comprises:

At least one Base Transceiver Station (BTS), which provides the radio links between
the mobile stations and the Base Station Controller (BSC)
A BSC, which controls several BTSs
A Transcoder (TC), located between the BSC and the NSS.

The BSS can include additional transmission equipment to perform multiplexing and
monitoring functions.
With (E)GPRS data traffic, the BSS also includes a Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (MFS)
to manage data packets and perform Location Services (LCS) through Serving Mobile
Location Center (SMLC) functions within the MFS.
For detailed information about the Alcatel-Lucent BSS, refer to BSS Overview (p. 2-1).
Network Subsystem

The main role of the NSS is to manage communication within the PLMN and with the
public telephone network. The NSS manages the subscriber administration databases. It is
sometimes referred to as the Core Network (CN).
For more information, refer to Network Subsystem (p. 2-17).
BSS Telecommunications Layers

The telecommunications functions of a GSM network are split into two basic layers:

The Application layer, split into sub-layers


These sub-layers control:
Call management
Mobility management
Radio resource management.
The Transmission layers, which provide transmission to various components.

For a detailed description of the BSS telecommunications layers, refer to


Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS (p. 2-30).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Network Management

In GSM, the PLMN is managed according to a network management concept referred to


as the Telecommunication Management Network (TMN). The TMN defines a set of
network management functions according to the ISO systems management rules. For
more information, see Telecommunications Management Network (p. 2-48).
Operations and Maintenance (O&M) describes the set of actions that monitor, control,
and record how the system is functioning.
O&M activities are divided into three functional groups:

Configuration Management
Fault Management

Performance Management.

The exact implementation of these functional groups for network management is not
strictly defined within GSM. Therefore, Alcatel-Lucent has developed its O&M concept
to ensure high performance.
For further information on O&M, refer to:

Chapter 10, Operations & Maintenance

Alcatel-Lucent GSM 2G - OAM - Operations & Maintenance Principles

Alcatel-Lucent 9153 Operation & Maintenance Center Radio - Getting Started.

GSM Functions
Overview

The primary function of a GSM network is to provide a consistent mobile


telecommunication service. To do so, GSM supports a number of standardized services,
some of which guarantee basic telephony services and others which provide an extra level
of service for the user and service provider.
Mobile Network Services

Network operators can implement three types of mobile network services:

Teleservices
Bearer services
Supplementary services.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Teleservices
Table 1-1

Basic Teleservices

Service

Description

Telephony

GSM supports telephony with the ability to send or receive calls anywhere in the world
where there is GSM or fixed network coverage.

Emergency call

GSM allows calls to be routed to an emergency service. Emergency calls have priority.
If there are insufficient radio resources, the call request is queued at the highest priority.

Data Calls

GSM supports the transmission of a wide range of data and offers a variety of
transmission types. (E)GPRS increases the throughput of data traffic.

Fax

High speed telefax messages can be sent to or received from a standard fax machine
anywhere in the world.

Videotex

GSM supports the transmission of videotex information such as is used in the Minitel.

SMS

SMS allows the transmission of messages containing up to 160 alphanumeric characters


to be sent to a subscriber. The SMS center interfaces with other network services such as
paging, message handling and voice messaging.

MMS

MMS allows the transmission of messages containing test, voice and images to be sent
to a subscriber. The MMS center interfaces with other network services such as paging,
message handling and voice messaging.

Cell Broadcast

Cell broadcast is a short message service which allows short messages to be sent to all
phones in a geographical area.
Bearer Services

Bearer services provide basic transmission functions. GSM uses a variety of bearer
services to provide the different speeds and communications types required to run a range
of service applications, including data transmission.
Supplementary Services

In addition to the teleservices provided by a mobile network, the network supports the
following supplementary services that are provided by the NSS, with input from other
elements.
These are administered by the Network Operator and offered to the mobile subscriber as
options:

Call forwarding (unconditional, mobile subscriber busy, no reply, mobile not


reachable)
Call barring (outgoing, outgoing international, outgoing international except to home
country, incoming, incoming when roaming abroad)
Call waiting, call hold, and multi-party service such as the Voice Group Call Service
(VGCS)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call prioritization, using features such as Enhanced Multi Level Priority and
Pre-emption (eMLPP)
Billing advice.

GSM defines a comprehensive set of recommendations concerning the management and


implementation of these services, in conjunction with 3GPP and other standardization
groups.
Call Management

Communication to or from a mobile station must be:

Initiated

Authenticated
Established
Maintained

Analyzed
Terminated.

For more information about call management, refer to:

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions (p. 2-25)

Chapter 5, Call Set Up


Chapter 6, Call Handling

Chapter 7, Call Release.

Location Services (LCS)

LCS are optional, end-user services that provide the geographical location (longitude,
latitude, and, optionally, altitude) of mobile stations.
For more information, refer to Location Services (p. 3-75).
Location Updating

Location updating allows the network to know the location of a mobile station at any
given time. It lets the mobile station identify a change in cell location and initiate
automatic updating procedures.
For more information, refer to Location Updating (p. 2-21).
Network Security

This section describes the security functions available to the Network Operator to
minimize the risk of fraudulent use of the network.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Subscriber Identity Confidentiality

Each subscriber has a personal Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card. The SIM is part of
a removable smart Integrated Circuit Card (ICC) which stores all the information a
subscriber requires to use a GSM mobile telephone, and which can be transferred to any
mobile cellular telephony device such as mobile computers and mobile phones. The SIM
is protected against unauthorized access by a PIN code.
SIM cards conform to internationally recognized standards and securely store the
service-subscriber key, the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), which is used
to identify a subscriber in the network, to provide security and protection against misuse,
and to acquire other details of the mobile in the HLR or in the VLR.
The network must identify the mobile subscriber at the beginning of each transaction
between a mobile station and the network. The mobile station sends its related IMSI,
stored on the SIM, to the network. The IMSI must be protected when sent over the Air
Interface. Therefore, the VLR assigns the IMSI a TMSI. The TMSI is ciphered when
transmitted to the mobile station, where it is stored.
For more information, refer to Authentication and Ciphering (p. 5-15).
Keys and Triplets

A secret identification key is associated with each IMSI. One copy of this data is stored
on the SIM. A second copy of the data is stored in the AUC, which verifies security data
for each subscriber attached to it.
For more information, refer to Authentication and Ciphering (p. 5-15).
Authentication

For authentication purposes, the VLR chooses a triplet and sends the value of the random
number to the mobile station. The mobile station calculates the value of the signed
response and returns it to the VLR, where it is compared with the value in the selected
triplet. If the signed response value is the same, then the mobile station is ready for use. If
not, no calls are permitted for the mobile station.
A mobile station which is unknown to the PLMN and which enters a VLR's territory is
authenticated if there is a roaming agreement with the mobile station's home network. If
not, no calls are permitted for the mobile station.
For more information, refer to Authentication and Ciphering (p. 5-15).
Channels

The following table shows the used frequency channels between the mobile station and
the BTS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports the E-GSM band:

The 900 MHz primary band (P-GSM band, 890-915 MHz in uplink, 935-960 MHz in
downlink), and
The 900 MHz extension band (G1 band, 880-890 MHz in uplink, 925-935 MHz in
downlink).

The following table shows all the supported frequency bands and the number of channels
for each band.
Table 1-2

GSM Channel Characteristics

Parameter

GSM 850

GSM 900

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Transmit band

869 - 894 MHz

925 - 960 MHz

1805 - 1880 MHz

1930 - 1990 MHz

Receive band

824 - 849 MHz

880 - 915 MHz

1710 - 1785 MHz

1850 - 1910 MHz

Number of
channels

124

174

374

299

The radio carriers are separated by 200 kHz. Each radio carrier is divided over time to
give an eight timeslot frame. This is a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame. In
TDMA, the callers are assigned timeslots as they are needed, and their signals are
interleaved within the one channel as the sequence is transmitted.
A channel uses a particular timeslot at each occurrence of a frame.
(E)GPRS traffic uses the same radio resources as circuit-switched traffic, and is carried on
the same type of physical channel.
There are two types of GSM radio channels:

Traffic Channels (TCH)

Control Channels (CCH).

Traffic Channels

TCHs are used as speech traffic channels (for ciphered speech) or as data traffic channels.
Speech traffic channels are defined as:

Half-rate traffic channels which use half a timeslot, at a rate of 6.5 kbits/s

Full-rate traffic channels which use a full timeslot, at a rate of 13 kbits/s


Enhanced full-rate traffic channels which use a full timeslot, at a rate of 13 kbits/s, but
offer better speech quality.

For more information, refer to Traffic Channels (p. 2-40).


Control Channels

A CCH carries signaling information and channel control information. Control channels
have individual functions and operate at different rates.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 1-3

Control Channel Types

This control channel...

Is used to...

Slow Associated Control CHannel (SACCH)

Control and supervise the associated TCHs.

Fast Associated Control CHannel (FACCH)

Handle irregular control requirements, for example,


handovers.

Dedicated Control CHannel (DCCH)

Manage location updating, authentication, call set up,


and SMS.

Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH)

Provide general network information such as the cell


in which the mobile station is located.

Paging CHannel (PCH)

Call mobile stations when there is an incoming call.

Random Access CHannel (RACH)

Inform the network that there is a mobile


station-originated call.

Access Grant CHannel (AGCH)

Assign a dedicated control channel to the mobile


station.

Cell Broadcast CHannel (CBCH)

Transmit cell broadcast information.

For more information, refer to Control Channels (p. 2-42).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Introduction to GSM

GSM Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
1-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an overview of the Alcatel-Lucent BSS, its functions and features.
Contents
BSS Overview

2-1

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

2-6

External Components

2-16

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions

2-25

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

2-27

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

2-30

Network Management and the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

2-48

Network Interworking

2-50

BSS Overview
Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a
mobile phone and the NSS. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels,
allocation of radio channels to mobile phones, paging, quality management of
transmission and reception over the Air interface and many other tasks related to the radio
network.
The following figure shows the Alcatel-Lucent BSS within the PLMN, and its links to the
PSTN and the PSDN in a fixed network.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

BSS Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

NMC

Network Management Center

PSDN

Packet Switched Data Network

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Alcatel-Lucent Radio Solutions

To respond to the swiftly evolving needs in the BSS, Alcatel-Lucent offers specific Radio
Solutions.
The Alcatel-Lucent Radio Solutions include the following BSS equipment:

9120 BSC
9130 BSC

G2 Transcoder

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

BSS Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

9125 Transcoder
BTS 9100
BTS 9110

Distributed BTS
Macro BTS
9130 MFS.

For more information, refer to Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components (p. 2-6).


Frequency Band Configurations

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports the following multiband network configurations:

BSS with a mix of GSM 850 and GSM 1900 cells

BSS with a mix of GSM 850 and GSM 1800 cells


BSS with a mix of GSM 900 and GSM 1800 cells
BSS with a mix of GSM 900 and GSM 1900 cells.

Extended GSM Band (E-GSM)

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports the E-GSM band. E-GSM consists of:

The 900 MHz primary band, called the P-GSM band. This uses 890-915 MHz for
uplink, and 935-960 MHz for downlink
The 900 MHz extended band, called the G1 band. This uses 880-890 MHz for uplink,
and 925-935 MHz for downlink.

This corresponds to a total number of 174 addressable frequencies.


GPRS

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports GPRS, the solution chosen by the ETSI in response to
the demand for increased data transmission rates.
This means there are now two parallel systems in the PLMN:

Circuit-switched transmission for voice


Packet-switched transmission for data.

For an overview of the different PLMNs, refer to:

Standard GSM PLMN (p. 1-3)

GSM/(E)GPRS PLMN (p. 1-4).

For information about how GPRS functions in the BSS, see Chapter 3, GPRS in
Alcatel-Lucent BSS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

BSS Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

IP Transport Mode

The IP transport in GSM project replaces the existing TDM based transport with an IP
based transport.
There are two modes:

Mixed mode BSS contains both TDM BTS and/or IPoEth BTS. It needs an IP
backbone on Ater.
Full IP BSS no longer contains TDM BTS and/or IPoEth.

There are three modes:

Mixed mode BSS contains both TDM BTS and/or IPoEth BTS. It needs an IP
backbone on Ater.
Full IP BSS no longer contains TDM BTS and/or IPoEth
Full IPoEth BSS only uses IPoEth (there are no more Abis links that use IPoE1).

There are two stages:

IPoE1 (Abis on E1, Ater on Eth)


IPoEth (Abis on Eth, Ater on Eth).

The stage is : IPoEth (Abis on Eth, Ater on Eth).


There are two types of network access:

Layer2 Transport Network


Using a Layer 2 transport network means that, despite the BSS, NEs (BTS, BSC, TC,
MFS) will still exchange IP packets, and the underlying functional architecture of the
transport network is seen as a single LAN.
Layer Transport Network.

The IP transport mode is supported only in 9130 MFS, 9130 BSC, Alcatel-Lucent BTS
(with SUM-X board) and 9125 TC (with TCIF IP board).
IP external routers management in:

BSC
The BSC performs a leachability test an
OEM address (REACHABILITY_TEST_ADDR_O&M)

several telecom addresses (REACHABILITY_TEST_ADDR_BSS,


REACHABILITY_TEST_ADDR_ASIG)
They are supplied by the operator (on POLO or BSC Terminal). The reachability test
is performed by the active OMCP on both the active and standby switch sides for the
two (O&M and telecom) reachability test addresses.
TC
The TC operates along the same principles as the BSC.
MFS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

BSS Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS has two reachability addresses for O&M


(REACHABILITY_TEST_ADDR_O&M) and telecom (REACHABILITY_TEST_ADDR_TELECOM). They are supplied by the operator. The telecom address is
tested by the GP on its active side so that the GP can swap to the standby side if
required. The O&M address is used by the Control Station for both switch side
management and supervision purposes.
STM1 Topology

In order to decrease the cost of transport in the BSS, Alcatel-Lucent provides an


alternative solution to TDM transport, STM1 (Synchronous Transport Mode level 1) in
the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) network. STM1 permits the transportation of
larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber wire without
synchronization problems, using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LED).
Figure 2-1 Synchronous Transport Mode level 1 (STM1)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

BSS Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This feature is currently only available for the 9130 BSC Evolution, and four STM1s can
be connected on the front plate of the new TPGSMv3 board.
The basic unit of framing in SDH is a STM1 (Synchronous Transport Module level 1),
which operates at 155.52 Mbit/s, and is used in GSM solely for transporting E1 links. The
SDH is used in the canalized mode.
Each E1 link is transported transparently (using asynchronous mapping) in one VC12
container. One STM1 link can contain up to 63 VC12 containers. Therefore, one STM1
can carry 63 Abis and/or Ater, and each E1 of 2048 kbps is transported separately on one
VC12 container.
A VC12 container is also called a VC12 tributary, and performs the mapping between E1
and VC12.
The VC12 (TU12) tributaries are numbered according to G.707: (K, L, M) with:

K=1..3
L=1..7
M=1..3

The numbers go from (1,1,1) to (3,7,3). In total, there are 63 tributaries. A tributary on
TPGSMv3 is therefore identified by: X, K, L, M; with x=1..4 as the STM1 link number.
This feature provides the following benefits. It:

Reduces the cabling effort

Reduces the space needed for cables and distribution frames


Simplifies cabling/assignment changes
Reduces the cost of transmission equipment
Increases the reliability and availability.

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components


Overview

There are three main units in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS:

The BSC, which acts as the controller of the BSS. The BSC provides control of the
BTS and their resources, and performs switching functions within the BSS.
The BTS, which provides the radio transmission and reception functions for a cell
The Transcoder, which performs rate adaptation and encoding/decoding of speech and
data between the MSC and the BSC.

Refer to Figure 1-1, Base Station Subsystem (p. 1-7).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS is supervised by the OMC-R. In a large network, one or more high-level
supervisors, such as NMCs, can exist to centralize network management activities. The
NMC has the authority to send directives to the OMC-R.
For more information about the NMC, refer to documentation supplied with the NMC.
For more information about the OMC-R, refer to Operations and Maintenance
Center-Radio (p. 2-24).
Base Station Controller

The BSC provides control of the BTS and manages radio resources and radio parameters.
From a transmission point of view, the BSC also performs a concentration function if
more radio traffic channels than terrestrial channels are connected to the MSC. A single
BSC can control a large number of BTS. The exact number is a function of the BSC
equipment and the configurations used.
The BSC provides:

Resource management

Database management
Radio measurement processing
Channel management
Operations and maintenance functions within the BSS
Communication with the OMC-R

Switching between the Air Interface channels (and their associated Abis channels),
and the A Interface channels.
For more information about these interfaces, refer to:
A Interface (p. 2-33)

Abis Interface (p. 2-37)

Air Interface (p. 2-39).

The 9120 BSC also incorporates the following transmission equipment:

The Base Station Interface Equipment (BSIE), which performs signaling and
submultiplexing on the Abis Interface

The Transcoder Submultiplexer Controller (TSC), which collects and processes


transmission data. It also provides an operator interface to certain transmission
functions via a Local Maintenance Terminal.

For a more detailed description of the 9120 BSC, refer to the Alcatel-Lucent BSC / TC Overall Description.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In the 9130 BSC, the transmission equipment is replaced by virtual transmission


processes, to ensure the same functions as in the 9120 BSC. For a more detailed
description of the 9130 BSC, refer to the Alcatel-Lucent 9130 BSC Evolution Functional Description.
Base Transceiver Station

The BTS provides the radio transmission, control and baseband functions for a cell. The
BTS also supports the Air Interface with the mobile stations. Alcatel-Lucent provides the
following families of BTSs: BTS 9110, BTS 9100 (G3, G4, G5 TRE, MC TRX, MC
TRDU) and distributed BTS (MC RRH TRX). Where TRX is the HW TRE Function.
The BTS performs the following functions under the control of the BSC:
The BTS performs the following functions under the control of the BSC:

Transmit and receive functions


Antenna diversity
Frequency hopping

Radio channel measurements


Radio frequency testing
Antenna Hopping.

The BTS also includes BIEs which enable it to communicate with the BSC over the Abis
Interface. In the BTS 9100 and BTS 9110, the BIE is integrated into the SUM.
For a more detailed description of the BTS and its use, refer to the:

Alcatel-Lucent 9100 / 9110 Base Station / Micro Base Station - 9100 BTS/9110
Micro BTS Functional Description
Alcatel-Lucent 9153 Operation & Maintenance Center Radio - O&M Parameters
Dictionary.

Antenna Diversity

Antenna Diversity is a BTS feature that protects against multipath fading. This is
achieved by duplicating the receive antenna and receive path up to the Frame Unit (FU)
of the BTS (or the TRE for a BTS 9100 or BTS 9110). The Frame Unit (or TRE) uses the
data burst which has the fewest errors. This increases the low-power mobile station range,
thereby allowing larger cells.
BTS 9100/9110 Antenna Diversity

Antenna diversity on the BTS 9100 or BTS 9110 duplicates the receive antenna and
receive path up to the Frame Unit. The Frame Unit uses the data burst which has the
fewest errors. This increases low-power mobile station range, therefore allowing larger
cells and lowering infrastructure investment.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The antennae transmit and receive, and the receive path is duplicated up to the TRE,
providing the same gain in efficiency and low-power mobile station range.
The following figure shows the antenna diversity path through the BTS 9100.

Legend:

ANT

Antenna

ANx

Antenna Network Type x

ANy

Antenna Network Type y

SUM

Station Unit Module

TRE

Transmitter/Receiver Equipment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Note: The configuration shown above (1 Sector, 3X4 Transceivers) is one example
only. Other combinations of Antennae and TREs are possible. There is no ANy in the
BTS 9110, and ANy is not needed if the sector has two TREs.
Antenna Hopping

Antenna hopping means that the sequence of bursts comprising a radio block are
transmitted over more than one antenna. The purpose is to get diversity of the radio path
to the mobile.
In conjunction with frequency hopping, the number of paths provided by frequency
hopping can be multiplied with the number of antennas involved in the antenna hopping.
The feature is intended to be provided by the twin module.
Antenna hopping can be used if:

The two TRE of a twin module are connected to different antennas of the same sector
(cell)

The mate TRE of a twin module is in traffic


TxDiv feature is not used
The number of antennas for antenna hopping is two.

To avoid the loss of a complete sector in the case of Twin module failure, it is
recommended for small BTS configuration to configure each TRE of a Twin in different
sector.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A TRE is antenna hopping capable if:

TxDiv capability is true


TxDiv usage is false

Antenna hopping is activated only on BTS configured with all TRE full rate or all TRE
dual rate
Transcoder And Transmission Functions

The Transcoder is the key component for the transmission function, which provides
efficient use of the terrestrial links between the equipment of the BSS. In addition to the
Transcoder, Submultiplexers are also used for transmission functions.
The Transcoder provides:

Conversion between A-law and Radio Test Equipment-Long Term Prediction encoded
traffic (speech)
Conversion between A-law and Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction encoded
traffic (speech)
Rate adaptation (data)
O&M control of the transmission function.

The Transcoder is normally located next to the MSC.


The Submultiplexer performs submultiplexing on the Ater Interface, between the MSC
and the BSC. When submultiplexing is used, a Submultiplexer is located at each end of
the link.
The following figure shows how transmission components are distributed in the BSS with
a 9120 BSC.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

BIE

Base Station Interface Equipment

SM

Submultiplexer

TSC

Transcoder Submultiplexer Controller

TC

Transcoder

A BSS with the 9130 BSC differs from BSS with the 9120 BSC, in that the transmission
components are replaced by virtual transmission processors.
There are two types of transcoders:

G2
There are 2 types of G2 TC:
G2 TC equipped with ASMC and TRCU
G2 TC equipped with ASMC/TRCU + MT120 boards (in the case of an
extension).

9125

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The 9125 TC can be equipped with up to 48 sub-units (referred to as MT120 boards).


Each MT120 offers an Atermux connection to a BSC and up to 4 Atrunk connections
to the MSC.
The 9125 Compact TC can have 2 9125 TC STM1 boards, active and standby. They
are inserted in a dedicated 9125 TC STM1 subrack, which is located in the bottom
part of the TC rack. Each TC MT120 board is connected to both TC 9125 STM1
boards (dual star).
Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

The MFS is preferably located at the Transcoder/MSC site.


It is internal to the BSS and provides the following functions:

PCU (Packet Control Unit) functions


Comprising:

PAD (packet assembly/disassembly) function


Scheduling of packet data channels
Automatic Retransmission Request functions

Channel access control functions


Radio channel management functions.
The Gb Interface protocol stack.

The MFS converts GPRS frames, carried on multiple 16 kb/s links from multiple BTS, to
one or more frame relay channels connected to the SGSN on the Gb Interface. For more
information, refer to Gb Interface (p. 3-13).
The set up of Packet Data Channels is controlled by the MFS. It also negotiates resources
with the BSC and routes GPRS packets. When an additional channel is required on a
BTS, the MFS asks the BSC to allocate a channel and to connect it to an Ater channel
which the MFS controls.
The Alcatel-Lucent solution also supplies two dedicated GPRS interfaces between the
MFS and the BSS:

The BSCGP Interface supplies routing of GPRS messages and resource negotiation
between the BSC and the MFS
The GCH Interface routes user data traffic and signaling between the MFS and the
BTS transparently (to the BSC).

The MFS provides a terminal interface, the IMT, for local O&M of the MFS.
GPRS Processing Units

The MFS is divided into GPRS Processing Units (GP) which are interconnected via an
Ethernet bus and controlled by a control station. The GP handles the O&M and telecom
functions of several cells, but a cell cannot be shared between several GPs.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A GP cannot be connected to more than one BSC, which means that each GP cannot
manage several BSSs simultaneously. Even so, the use of several GPs per BSS is required
for traffic capacity reasons. The MFS is in charge of associating each cell with a GP. This
is referred to as GP cell mapping.
The GP is in charge of:

O&M functions
Comprising:
Initialization of the MFS
Software download
Software configuration
Performance monitoring.
Telecom functions
Comprising:

Radio and transmission resource control


Radio link control of packet connections
Common control channel management

MS radio resource control


Logical Link Control (LLC)
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) transfer
Multiframe management

Congestion control
Gb Interface management
Signaling management on the GSL interface.

In IP transport mode, the BSS bases the IPGSL, TCSL and the IPGCH control link on a
TCP connection:

Between the 9130 MFS GP and the 9130 BSC CCP for the IPGSL
As follows:
In the case of IP BSS, there is one IPGSL per GP
The IPGSL IP addresses and port numbers are fixed (OAM) on both GP and CCP
sides

In IP mode, the IP GSL uses a (unique) TCP connection between the GP and the
BSC (CCP board).
Between the 9130 MFS GP and the BTS TRE for IPGCH
Between the 9130 BSC OMCP and the TC TCIF for the TCSL.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GP Protocol Management

The GP is split into two sub-units:

The Packet Management Unit (PMU), and


The Packet Traffic Unit (PTU).

The protocols handled by a GP are split in the following manner:

Protocols handled by the PTU:


Including:
Radio interface protocols (RLC and MAC)
GCH interface protocols (L2-GCH and L1-GCH).
The PTU manages the corresponding GCH Interface; for more information, refer to
GCH Interface (p. 3-16).
Protocols handled by the PMU:
Including:
Gb interface protocols (BSSGP, Network Service, and Full Rate)
BSC interface protocols (BSCGP, L2-GSL, and L1-GSL)
The RRM protocol.
The PMU manages the corresponding Gb and GSL interfaces.

Multi-GP per BSS

To increase the GPRS capacity of the BSS in terms of the number of PDCH, several GP
boards can be connected to the BSC to support the PCU function. This feature is applied
regardless of the BTS type.
For one BSC, in the case of a multi GP configuration, if the last GSL of any GP is lost, all
GPs assigned to the BSS will be reset (reset_data) and PS outage occurs.
The only exceptions are the following:

GSL loss on GP which have all cells locked

GSL loss on GP and the other GP have also their GSL down.

Cell Mapping

Mapping a cell means that a cell is associated with a GP. Remapping a cell means that a
cell, already linked to a GP, is moved to another GP. The mapping of cells onto GPs is
performed by the MFS, which actually defines the mapping of cells onto LXPUs (logical
GP). An LXPU is either the primary GP, or the spare GP in the case of switchover. All the
GPRS traffic of one cell is handled by only one GP. The following figure shows an
example of cell mapping.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

GP

GPRS Processing Unit

External Components
Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS communicates with three external components:

The NSS, on the A Interface

The mobile station, on the Air Interface


The OMC-R, on the BSS/OMC-R Interface.

The following figure shows the logical position of the external components.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 2-2 Logical Position of External Components Associated with BSS

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

HLR

Home Location Register

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

NMC

Network Management Center

PSDN

Packet Switched Data Network

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Network Subsystem

The primary role of the NSS is managing communication within the PLMN and external
networks. The NSS manages the subscriber administration databases.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

An NSS comprises:

The Mobile Switching Center (MSC), which co-ordinates outgoing and incoming call
set up for GSM subscribers for voice and other user traffic
The Home Location Register (HLR), which is the central database within a given
network for mobile subscriber-specific data
The Visitor Location Register (VLR), which temporarily stores information about the
mobile stations entering its coverage area
The Authentication Center (AUC), which manages the security data used for
subscriber authentication
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR), which contains the lists of mobile station
equipment identities.

To handle (E)GPRS data traffic, the NSS also includes:

The Serving (E)GPRS Support Node (SGSN), which handles packet (i.e. data) traffic,
including security functions, and the interface to the HLR
The Gateway (E)GPRS Support Node (GSGN), which provides interworking with
external packet-switched networks.

The following figure shows the components of a typical NSS.

Legend:

AUC

Authentication Center

EIR

Equipment Identity Register

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

HLR

Home Location Register

MSC

Mobile Switching Center

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

VLR

Visitor Location Register

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Outgoing inter-PLMN handovers allow operators to define handover adjacency links


towards external cells belonging to foreign PLMNs (to which external OMC-R cells
belong).
The Multi-PLMN feature allows operators to define several PLMNs in order to support
network sharing, inter-PLMN handovers and cell reselections between two different
PLMNs.
The BSC cannot be shared and therefore remains mono-PLMN (i.e. all BSC cells belong
to the same PLMN). This feature defines several PLMNs, inter-PLMN handovers, and
cell reselections between two different PLMNs. New BSC counters as well as Outgoing
Inter-PLMN handovers monitor procedures involving all types of inter-PLMN handover.
Mobile Stations

Mobile stations provide radio and processing functions which allow subscribers to access
the mobile network via the Air Interface.
Subscriber-related information is stored on a specific device called a SIM. Each mobile
station has its own International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The IMEI is used by
the Network Operator to prevent stolen or non-type approved mobile stations from
accessing the network.
There are three types of mobile station in GSM:

Phase 1

Phase 1 extended
Phase 2.

For information about GPRS mobile stations, refer to GPRS Elements (p. 3-6).
Mobile stations have different capabilities according to the class of mobile station and the
purpose for which the mobile station was designed. These differences include power
output and ciphering.
Only phase 2 mobile stations can turn off ciphering, or change the ciphering mode, during
a channel change procedure such as a handover. The ciphering capability of a mobile
station is signalled to the BSS in the mobile station classmark.
Ciphering is used to protect information transmitted on the Air Interface. This is
performed between the BTS and the mobile station (i.e., Air Interface). Transmission
ciphering does not depend on the type of data to be transmitted (i.e., speech, user data,
signaling), but on normal transmission bursts. For more information about mobile station
ciphering capabilities, refer to Ciphering (p. 5-51).
Mobile Station Idle Mode

A mobile station is in idle mode when it is switched on but not communicating with the
network on an SDCCH or a traffic channel.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS supports four idle mode functions:

Cell selection and cell reselection

GSM/GPRS to UMTS cell reselection


Location updating
Overload control.

Mobile Station Cell Selection and Reselection

A mobile station monitors the broadcast messages from the BTS. This includes
monitoring the FCCH and SCH.
The mobile station chooses the best cell on which to camp. If this cell is in a location area
other than that stored in the mobile station memory, then the mobile station initiates a
location update procedure. For a mobile station to camp on a cell, it has to synchronize
with the cell.
The BTS broadcasts an FCCH and an SCH at a defined time in the BCCH cycle. These
channels are used as reference points for the mobile station to synchronize with the
BCCH. Once synchronized, the mobile station continues to monitor these channels to stay
synchronized.
This type of synchronization, along with cell configuration and channel frequency
information, enables the mobile station to calculate where channels occur in the
multiframe sequences.
Timing advance information is sent to the mobile station when an SDCCH is assigned.
The mobile station uses the channel configuration information to calculate which part of
the CCCH contains its paging message, and therefore which timeslot to monitor for
paging messages. When the mobile station is camped on a cell, it continues to monitor the
BCCH transmissions from neighboring cells. The BCCH frequencies of the neighboring
cells are transmitted on the BCCH of the home cell (sys_info 2). The mobile station
can decide to camp on a new cell if it receives a better signal from an adjacent cell.
Reasons for moving to a new cell include:

A problem in the existing cell


The mobile station moving.
If the mobile station moves to a new cell which is in the same location area as the one
currently in its memory, it does not initiate a location update. It recalculates its paging
group and monitors the new paging channel. Paging messages are broadcast from all
cells in a particular location area.

GSM/GPRS to UMTS Cell Reselection

The reselection of a UTRAN cell is triggered by a multi-RAT mobile station in:

Circuit-switched idle mode


Packet-switched idle mode, or

Packet-switched transfer mode

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In NC0 mode, a multi-RAT mobile station can reselect a UTRAN cell in any GMM state.
In dedicated mode, the multi-RAT mobile station follows the GSM handover procedures.
The BSS then broadcasts the set of UTRAN cell parameters which allows the multi-RAT
mobile station to reselect a UTRAN cell on its own.
For more information about 2G to 3G cell reselection, see GSM-to-UMTS Cell
Reselection (p. 3-57).
Location Updating

The HLR is the reference database for subscriber information. The VLR contains copies
of most of the data stored in the HLR, but is a temporary database of subscriber
information for wherever the subscriber is physically located within a PLMN. This
eliminates the need for time-consuming references to the HLR.
When the mobile station enters a new VLR area, it uses a Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity (TMSI) that was allocated by the last VLR. The mobile station communicates its
last Location Area Identifier (LAI), which allows the new VLR to identify the former
VLR's address. Then the new VLR requests the mobile station's IMSI and related
information. The VLR sends the updated information to the HLR.
Figure 2-3 Location Updating

Legend:

MSC

Mobile Switching Center

VLR

Visitor Location Register

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The HLR replaces old location data with the location update information sent from the
VLR, which also assigns a new TMSI to the mobile station. The HLR can refuse the
location updating information if, for example, the mobile subscriber does not have
permission to communicate in the new VLR area.
Once a mobile station has been recognized, accepted, and allocated a TMSI, it can set up
calls.
The location update procedure is always initiated by the mobile station. Location update
is performed after the call has finished (cell reselection).
Reasons for location updates include:

A periodic update
The mobile station performs a periodic location update after a lack of signaling
activity for a specific time. If the timer expires, the mobile station initiates a location
update, even if it has not changed location area. The duration of the mobile station
timer is defined by the network and sent to the mobile station as system information
messages on the BCCH. The time can be between six minutes and 25 hours.
A handover to a cell in a new location area.
When a mobile station is handed over to a cell in a new location area, there is no
automatic location update in the network. A new Location Area Identity in the BCCH
(sys_info 3 and sys_info 4) is detected by the mobile station when the current
call is finished, and initiates the location update procedure. This saves the system
performing several location updates if the mobile station is handed over several times
during a call.

The mobile station camps on a cell with a different location area code to the one in the
mobile station memory. The mobile station initiates the location update procedure by
sending a Channel_Request message indicating that the call is for a location update.
The BSS assigns a dedicated signaling channel and establishes a signaling path between
the mobile station and the MSC. See Mobile-Originated Call (p. 5-5) for more
information.
When a signaling path is established, the mobile station sends the Location Area Identity
of the old cell on which it was camped to the MSC. The new VLR interrogates the old
VLR for authentication and subscriber information. For more information, see Location
Updating with Classmark Procedure (p. 5-44) and Authentication (p. 5-47).
The Location Area Identity comprises:

Mobile Country Code


Mobile Network Code

Location Area Code.

The BSS adds the cell identity of the mobile station's current location to the message sent
to the MSC. This information is sent in a Mobility Management sub-layer message and is
transparent to the BSS. The NSS stores this information either in its HLR or its VLR.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Following a location update procedure, the VLR can assign a new Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to the mobile station. For more information about the TMSI,
refer to Authentication (p. 5-47). The following figure shows a mobile station as it
moves to a new location area.
Figure 2-4 Location Updating

Legend:

VLR

Visitor Location Register

Overload Control

To protect itself against overload, the system can bar access to mobile stations by
changing the RACH control information in the system information messages described in
Table 2-1, System Information Messages (p. 2-44).
For more information, refer to:

GPRS Overload Control (p. 3-42)

Overview of Overload Control (p. 6-51).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

External Components

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Phase 2 Mobile Support in a Phase 1 Infrastructure

When a phase 2 mobile station is used in a phase 1 infrastructure network, the BSS
functions as phase 2 on the Air Interface and has the capability of functioning as phase 1
or phase 2, depending on the MSC capabilities. The infrastructure (BSS and MSC)
remains phase 1. This conforms to updated GSM recommendations for phase 1.
Problems that may occur when using phase 2 mobile stations on a phase 1 network
include:

The implementation rules for phase 1 are not strictly defined, therefore some
implementations cannot function with phase 2 mobiles.
For example, some of the spare bits in phase 1 are now used by the phase 2 protocol.
However, some phase 1 infrastructures reject the message as spare bits are used.
Some protocol changes in phase 2 changed or replaced a phase 1 protocol
For example, power and quality measurements sent by phase 2 mobile stations have a
finer range of power control, which the phase 1 infrastructure must process.
Phase 2 mobile stations send some phase 2 messages even though they are in a phase
1 environment.
For example, phase 2 mobile stations send either new messages or new elements in
messages, which the phase 1 infrastructure can reject. This blacklists the mobile
station due to an invalid protocol message for phase 1. Depending on what these
messages are, the updates to the phase 1 infrastructure would accept these
messages/elements. The messages can be either ignored or only partially treated. This
is based on information contained in the messages or elements.

Operations and Maintenance Center-Radio

The OMC-R supervises one or more BSSs.


It performs the following functions:

Manages the BSS software versions


Acts as the central repository for configuration data
Manages fault and performance measurement reports
Handles supervision of alarms and events

Manages the MFS.

The reported data is available to the operator from the OMC-R's central database. The
OMC-R only performs O&M activities. It does not perform user traffic processing or call
establishment and control activities. For more information, refer to Alcatel-Lucent GSM
2G - OAM - Operations & Maintenance Principles.
Operator actions via the terminal interface trigger commands throughout the BSS. The
OMC-R provides object-oriented management information, and supports a
Manager/Agent scheme to perform and control management activities. The terminal
interface supports different user profiles with different access rights.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions


Overview

Functions are defined by the International Telecommunications Union and European


Telecommunication Standards Institute recommendations.
This section provides an overview of the BSS functions with a system-wide view; that is,
how the BSS functions work together within the system. Network elements and
functional units are indicated where applicable, but are not described. For more
information, refer to the specific network element description manuals.
The BSS provides signaling and traffic channels between the mobile station and the NSS.
To ensure a high level of service to the subscribers, the BSS offers the following
functions:
The BSS provides signaling and traffic channels between the mobile station and the NSS.
To ensure a high level of service to the subscribers, the BSS offers the following
functions:

Call Set Up
Call Handling

Call Release
Operations & Maintenance.

Call Set Up Overview

Call Set Up is used for speech and data calls. The following tables shows three basic
types of call.
Type of Call

Description

Mobility Management

Mobility Management calls, such as location updates,


are used by the system to gather mobile station
information. The exchanges are protocol messages
only. Therefore, only a signaling channel is used.

Supplementary Service

Supplementary service calls, such as SMS, allow the


mobile station to send and receive messages to and
from the BTS. These calls pass small amounts of
information. Therefore, only a signaling channel is
used.

User Traffic

User traffic calls, such as speech or data calls to a


correspondent, can pass large amounts of information.
Therefore, they require greater bandwidth than a
signaling channel. These calls use traffic channels.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-25
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call set up processes include:

Radio and Link Establishment to assign a signaling channel between the mobile
station and the NSS
Classmark handling to manage different mobile station power and ciphering
capabilities
Ciphering to ensure data security on the Air Interface
The normal assignment process to assign a traffic channel between the mobile station
and the NSS.

For more information, refer to Chapter 5, Call Set Up.


Call Handling Overview

The call handling function supervises and maintains calls which are in progress. Call
handling involves:

In-call channel modification during a call


Maintenance of call integrity and quality through features such as Frequency
Hopping, Discontinuous Transmission or Radio Power Control

Handover to change channels when a mobile station moves from one cell to another
Handover when the quality of the current channel drops below an acceptable level
Ciphering to ensure data security on the Air Interface
Overload control to manage the call load on the system.

For more information, refer to Chapter 6, Call Handling.


Call Release Overview

The call release function ensures that resources allocated to a call are free for reuse when
they are no longer required by the current call.
Specifically the Call Release function includes:

Call Release in normal service:


Including:
Calls terminated by call management
Calls terminated following a channel change.

Special cases:
Including:

Call release following a reset


BSC-initiated release
BTS-initiated release
Mobile station-initiated release.

For more information, refer to Chapter 7, Call Release.


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-26
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Alcatel-Lucent BSS Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Operations and Maintenance Overview

O&M provides the operator interface for the management and control of the BSS, and its
interconnection to the NSS. O&M is divided into three principal areas:

Configuration Management
Fault Management
Performance Management.

For more information, refer to Chapter 10, Operations & Maintenance.

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview

Two 10 MHz extended bands for GSM 900 in the range 880-890 MHz/925-935 MHz are
specified as an option on a national basis. The reason for this is mainly due to the lack of
primary band frequencies in countries outside Europe. The term "G1" is used for the
extended band. The term "P-GSM" is used for the primary band. The term "E-GSM" is
used for the whole GSM 900 frequency band, i.e., the primary band (890-915
MHz/935-960 MHz) plus the extended band (880-890 MHz/925-935 MHz). This
corresponds to 174 addressable carrier frequencies and leads to an increase of 40%
against the 124 frequencies in the primary band.
With the Enhanced E-GSM Band Handling feature, which is supported by Alcatel-Lucent
BTS only, (E)GPRS and all types of signaling channels are carried on the frequencies in
the entire E-GSM band (e.g., primary and extended), when the
EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 1 (same behavior for E-GSM capable
mobile stations). When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to the default
value of 0 (different behavior for E-GSM capable mobile stations), the OMC-R does not
allow the operator to define the BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH and CBCH on an E-GSM TRX.
Both P-GSM only and E-GSM mobile stations are supported in the network, but are
handled differently, depending on the value to which the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY
parameter is set. When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to the default
value of 0, the BSS handles E-GSM capable mobiles stations differently from P-GSM
only mobile stations. When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 1, the
BSS handles P-GSM only and E-GSM capable mobile stations in E-GSM cells in the
same way, that is, the BSS assumes that all GSM 900 mobiles are E-GSM capable.
E-GSM TRXs are preferred to support (E)GPRS in E-GSM cells, and only when the
EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 0. An E-GSM cell is one in which
FREQUENCY_RANGE = EGSM or EGSM-DCS1800.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-27
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

An E-GSM TRX is a TRX configured with:

Frequencies in the G1 band only, or

Frequencies in both the P-GSM and G1 bands.

For information about radio resource allocation with Enhanced E-GSM Band Handling,
refer to TCH Allocation for E-GSM and P-GSM Mobile Stations (p. 2-29).
E-GSM Mobile Station Recognition

From messages sent by the mobile station, the BSS determines if a mobile supports the
E-GSM band.
The mobile station is determined to be E-GSM if:

The FC bit of Classmark 2 is set to 1 (regardless of the value of the Band 2 bit of
Classmark 3) or

The FC bit of Classmark 2 is set to 0, and the Band 2 bit of Classmark 3 is set to 1.

If the information is not available, the mobile station is considered as not supporting the
G1 band. The BSS never triggers a Classmark Interrogation procedure to obtain the
E-GSM ability of a mobile station.
E-GSM Management After Initial Determination

Once the E-GSM ability is initially determined as described in E-GSM Mobile Station
Recognition (p. 2-28), the mobile station radio characteristics might change during a
transaction. If the BSC receives a classmark change message, it takes this into
account and updates the E-GSM ability according to the content of the received message.
E-GSM Determination at Handover

In the case of an internal handover, the E-GSM ability of a mobile station is stored in the
BSC memory. In the case of an external incoming handover, the handover request
message includes either Classmark 1 or Classmark 2 IE, and optionally Classmark 3 IE. If
Classmark 1 is present and Classmark 3 is not present or Classmark 3 is present but does
not contain the Band 2 bit, the mobile station is not considered as E-GSM. If both
Classmark 1 and Classmark 3 are present, and Classmark 3 contains the Band 2 bit, the
BSC gets the E-GSM ability of the mobile station from Classmark 3. If Classmark 2 is
present and Classmark 3 is not present, or Classmark 3 is present but does not contain the
Band 2 bit, the BSC gets the E-GSM ability of the mobile station from Classmark 2 ("FC"
bit).
If both Classmark 2 and Classmark 3 are present, the mobile station is seen as E-GSM:

If the FC bit of Classmark 2 is set to 1 (whatever the value of the band 2 bit of
Classmark 3)
If the FC bit of Classmark 2 is set to 0 and the band 2 bit of Classmark 3 is set to 1.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-28
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

After an incoming external handover, if a classmark change message is received from


the mobile station, the BSC ignores any subsequent classmark update message
received from the MSC.
TCH Allocation for E-GSM and P-GSM Mobile Stations

The allocation of G1 band channels can be done for:

Normal Assignment (NASS)


Internal Channel Change (ICC)
External Channel Change (ECC).

Each TRE has the capability to support the P-GSM or the E-GSM band. Each TRX is
configured as a P-GSM TRX or an E-GSM TRX. As enhanced E-GSM band handling
allows P-GSM and G1 frequencies to be mixed in the FHS, when a TCH is needed, the
BSC first checks the frequencies in the FHS. If at least one frequency belongs to the G1
band, the related TRX is considered as an E-GSM TRX. TCHs are then allocated as
described below.
In an E-GSM cell, when the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 0, when
allocating a TCH to serve circuit-switched requests, the BSC selects the TCH in the
following order:

For E-GSM capable mobile stations


As follows:

First, a radio timeslot which IS E-GSM capable but NOT PS capable


Next, a radio timeslot which is NEITHER E-GSM capable NOR PS capable
Thirdly, a radio timeslot which is NOT E-GSM capable but IS PS capable
Lastly, a radio timeslot which is E-GSM capable and PS capable.

For P-GSM capable only mobile stations


As follows:
First, a radio timeslot which is NEITHER E-GSM capable NOR PS capable

Next, a radio timeslot which is NOT E-GSM capable but IS PS capable.

When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 1, the BSS assumes that all
GSM 900 mobile stations are E-GSM capable, and handles P-GSM only and E-GSM
capable mobile stations in E-GSM cells in the same way.
In multiband concentric cells, the above allocation only applies to the outer zone.
When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 0, in an E-GSM cell, when
allocating a PDCH to serve packet-switched requests and based on the TRX ranking
provided to the MFS, the BSC selects the TCH in the following order:

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-29
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Extended GSM in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

As follows:

First, a radio timeslot which is E-GSM capable AND PS capable

Next, a radio timeslot which is NOT E-GSM capable but IS PS capable.

When the EGSM_RR_ALLOC_STRATEGY parameter is set to 1, the BSS handles P-GSM


only and E-GSM capable mobile stations in E-GSM cells in the same way.

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview

The telecommunications functions of a GSM network are split into layers.


These layers are split into two basic categories:

The Application layer is split into sub-layers:


They control:
Call Management
Mobility Management
Radio Resource Management.

The Transmission layers, which provide transmission between the various


components.
Note: These Transmission layers relate to the OSI layers, that is, the Physical Layer
(i.e., Layer 1) and the Data Layer (i.e., Layer 2). The protocols used for these layers
are standard.

The following figure shows the general distribution of the telecommunication functions
within a GSM network.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-30
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

CM

Call Management

MM

Mobility Management

MS

Mobile Station

RRM

Radio Resource Management

Call Management Sub-layer

The Call Management sub-layer performs Call Control to establish, maintain and release
calls. SMS within Call Management allows the mobile station to send and receive
messages of up to 160 characters. The Supplementary Service functions are also provided
to the mobile stations as part of Call Management.
Mobility Management Sub-layer

The Mobility Management sub-layer is used by the NSS to manage the subscriber
database, including information about subscriber location and authentication. It is also
used by the mobile stations to send location updates when they move to new location
areas.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-31
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Radio Resource Management Sub-layer

The Radio Resources Management sub-layer establishes, maintains and releases stable
connections between the mobile station and the MSC for the duration of a call. This
includes functions such as managing the limited radio resources, to ensure high service
availability. It also performs handovers when a mobile station moves during a call, or the
channel quality falls below an acceptable level. RRM functions occur mainly between the
mobile station and the BSC.
The following figure shows the application layers, transmission layers and interfaces of
the BSS.

Legend:

BSSAP

BSS Application Part

CM

Call Management

LAPD

Link Access Protocol on the D Channel

LAPDm

Link Access Protocol on the Dm Channel

Layer 1

Physical Layer

Layer 2

Data Link Transfer Layer

MM

Mobility Management

RRM

Radio Resource Management

SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-32
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SS7

Signaling System No. 7

TC

Transcoder

A Interface

The A Interface is used for communication between the BSC and the MSC. The
connection between the BSC and MSC can be either terrestrial lines or a satellite link.
The A Interface includes the:

Physical Layer 1
The physical layer provides a physical connection to transport the signals. It supports
a 2 Mbit/s link divided into 32 x 64 kbit/s channels by Time Division Multiplexing.
The actual physical link used depends on Network Operator implementation.
Data Link Layer 2
Layer 2 provides the frame handling functions for the interface. It is also used to pass
signaling messages using the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) SS7
protocol.
This comprises the:

Message Transfer Part, which provides the mechanism for the reliable transfer of
the signaling messages
Signaling Connection Control Part, which provides the mechanism to identify
transactions relating to a specific communication.
Application Sub-Layer 3 RRM
To transfer Layer 3 messages relating to a transaction, the SCCP uses the BSS
Application Part. This is divided into two parts:
The Direct Transfer Application Part, which transfers messages directly between
the MSC and the mobile station. These messages are not interpreted by the BSS.
The BSS must read and recognize the initial message as a DTAP message.

The BSS Management Application Part which supports procedures between the
MSC and the BSC, such as resource management and handover control.
On the A Interface, the process is terminated at the BSC. Messages for the BSS,
passed by the BSSMAP, are interpreted by the BSC Layer 3.
A Signalling over IP:

The A Signalling over IP is required to ease the connection of the BSS to the NGN
core network that already supports IP transport between its elements (MSC server and
Media gateways).
Terminology
The terminology is as follows:
MTP3 User Adaptation (M3UA)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-33
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

M3UA supplies all the MTP3 interfaces to the user protocol, such as SCCP.
Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP)
SCTP guarantees timely signalling transport. It is used to transfer the M3UA
signalling over IP.
Routing Key
A Routing Key, which describes a set of SS7 parameters and parameter values that
uniquely define the range of signalling traffic to be handled by a particular
application server. The Signalling Point Code (SPC) is used as the routing key.
Application Server (AS)
The AS is a logical entity. One BSC is one AS, and from the BSC view, the MSC
is one remote AS. One AS has one or several IPSPs.
Application Server Process (ASP)
ASP is a process instance of an Application Server.
IP Server Process (IPSP)
The IPSP is the physical entity managing the SCTP associations. An IPSP is
essentially the same as an ASP, except that it uses M3UA in a point-to-point
fashion.
SCTP Association
The SCTP Association is the association established between two IPSPs belonging
to different AS.
Stream
A stream is used in SCTP to refer to a sequence of user messages that are to be
delivered to the upper-layer protocol in order with respect to other messages
within the same stream
Signalling Link Selector (SLC)
The SLC is the logical link used by SCCP. For one SLS, the message is
transferred in sequence. The range of SLS is from 0 to 15.

A-Flex

The A-Flex feature allows a BSC to connect to more than one MSC (maximum 16)
Terminology
The terminology is as follows:

The CS pool area


This is an area within which an MS can roam without changing the serving MSC
server. One or more MSC servers in parallel serve a CS pool area. All the cells
controlled by a BSC belong to the same one (or more) CS pool area(s).
Media Gateway (MGW)
The MGW terminates bearer channels (e.g., A-trunk) from a switched circuit
network. It performs all the switching and signalling functions.
Media Gateway Controller (MGC)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-34
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MGC controls the parts of the call state that pertain to connection control for
media channels in an MGW. An MGC is a MSC Server.
MSC, Monolithic MSC, Legacy MSC
The MSC constitutes the interface between the radio system and another
networks. The MSC can be implemented in two different entities: the MSC
Server, handling only signalling, and the Media Gateway, handling user data. An
MSC Server and a Media Gateway make up the full functionality of an MSC. The
term MSC refers to the MSC server. The legacy MSC refers to the monolithic
MSC that handles both signalling and data.
When A-Flex is applied, one or more MSC serve a CS pool-area, but only one out of
these MSC serves each individual MS.

A User Plane over IP:

The A User Plane over IP is responsible for transporting the User Plane over IP and it
is regarded along with the A Signalling over IP, as the evolution of the network to a
complete IP telecom network.
Terminology
The terminology is as follows:
Media Gateway (MGW)
A MGW terminates bearer channels (e.g., A-trunk or IP packet) from a switched
circuit network. The MGW interacts with MSC server and GMSC server for
resource control, owns and handles resources such as echo cancellers and have
codecs allowing the transcoding.
MSC Server
The MSC Server mainly comprises the call control (CC) and mobility control
parts of a MSC. The MSC Server is responsible for the control of mobile
originated and mobile terminated CC CS Domain calls. It terminates the
user-network signalling and translates it into the relevant network network
signalling. The MSC Server controls the parts of the call state that pertain to
connection control for media channels in a MGW.
TPIP
TPGSM daughter board, TPIP performs the IPoE1 routing and additionally related
to AUPoIP feature the TPIP performs the MUXTRAU/RTP mediation and the
MUXTRAUP routing between the BTS and the primary TC.
Uplink MUXTRAUP
IPTCH packets received from a BTS in IP mode, either a BTS with an IP/eth
transport or either a BTS with an IP/PPP/E1 transport. BSC supports 2 uplink
MUXTRAUP flows: MUXTRAUP are translated in RTP and then IPTCH packet
are sent to MGW and MUXTRAUP are forwarded to TC G2.5.
Downlink MUXTRAUP
IPTCH packets sent toward a BTS in IP mode either a BTS with an IP/eth
transport or either a BTS with an IP/PPP/E1 transport. BSC supports 2 downlink
MUXTRAUP flows RTP from MGW after RTP/MUXTRAUP mediation and
MUXTRAUP from TC G2.5.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-35
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Codec Type
Defines a specific type of a speech Coding algorithm, applied on a specific radio
access technology
Codec Type

Name

GSM Full Rate (13.0 kBit/s)

GSM FR

GSM Half Rate (5.6 kBit/s)

GSM HR

GSM Enhanced Full Rate (12.2 kBit/s)

GSM EFR

Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate

FR AMR

Half Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate

HR AMR

Full Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate WideBand

FR AMR-WB

Codec Mode (AMR & WB-AMR only)


Defines a specific mode of a Codec Type (e.g. 12,2 kBit/s Mode of the FR AMR).
For example the AMR Codec Types comprise eight (Full Rate), respectively six
(Half Rate) different Codec Modes: 12,2 4,75 kBit/s.
Codec Configuration (AMR & WB-AMR only)
Ddefines a specific set of attributes to a certain Codec Type (in particular ACS
(Active Codec (mode) Set). Example: among 16 preferred AMR Configurations
(see 3GPP TS 28.062 Table 7.11.3.1.3-2) is one FR recommended:
Config-NB-Code = 1, with modes 12.2, 7.4, 5.9, 4.75.

Ater Interface

The part of the A Interface between the Transcoder and BSC is known as the Ater
Interface. It is a set of 2Mbit/s PCM/E1 links.

Ater Mux Interface


The Ater Mux Interface is the result of multiplexing four Ater Interfaces. Transcoding
is a Layer 1 process, therefore the difference between the two interfaces is at the
physical level.
Optimized Ater Interface Mapping
This feature improves efficiency on the Ater Mux PCM connection between the 9120
BSC and the G2 Transcoder.
Four Ater Interfaces are submultiplexed onto the Ater Mux connection. This
interconnects four Digital Trunk Controllers and four Transcoder Rate Adaption
Units, achieving a 4:1 mapping.
The 4:1 mapping of the 9120 BSC and G2 Transcoder allows up to 116 traffic
channels.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-36
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Abis Interface

The Abis Interface is used for communication between the BSC and the BTS.
The Abis Interface includes:
The Abis Interface includes:

Physical Layer 1
The physical layer provides a physical connection to transport the signals. It supports
a 2 Mbit/s link divided into 32 x 64 kbit/s channels by TDM.
The physical link used depends on the Network Operator implementing the interface.
Data Link Layer 2
The data link layer provides frame handling and signaling functions using the LAPD.
This layer supports three types of signaling links:

The Radio Signaling Link for signaling to the mobile station (including SMS)
The O&M Link for O&M information
The OML Auto-detection feature (see OML Auto-Detection (p. 10-20)) allows
the timeslot reserved for the O&M Link to be used for signaling. This provides for
an increase in the amount of telecom traffic on the Abis Interface.
The Layer 2 Management Link for the Layer 2 management functions such as
frame checking and error correction.
Application Layer 3: BTS Management Sub-layer
The BTS management sub-layer carries Layer 3 messages between the BSC and the
BTS. Some of these messages are transparent to the BTS. These are passed directly to
the mobile station using the BTS RRM sub-layer 3 on the Air Interface.
Non-transparent messages include messages for radio link layer control and channel
management.

HSL Links

The 9130 BSC capacity depends on a High Speed Signaling Link (HSL) introduction,
between the BSC and the MSC. The ports where HSL are physically connected cannot be
used for other purposes. The HSL is similar to the Low Speed Signaling Link (LSL) (N7).
The same operations are allowed on their SBL. The mixed mode, HSL + LSL, is not
allowed. These links are exclusive.
Lb Interface

The Lb Interface provides the standardized connectivity between the BSC and the SMLC
with the following requirements:

The SMLC functionalities are always provided by an external SMLC when the Lb
interface is activated
The "legacy SMLC" hosted by the BSS is still supported. However either "Lb
interface" or "legacy LCS" can be activated at a given time, but not both at the same
time

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-37
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The Lb Interface is only supported by BSC Evolution


The Lb interface is managed through IP (but the use of a Signalling Gateway allows
managing the Lb interface over TDM)

A given BSC can be connected to one SMLC at the most.

The following two location methods are supported on Lb interface:

Timing Advance positioning (also called Cell Id + TA method)


TA positioning + NMR (handling of the radio measurements from the MS BCCH of
neighbour cells).

The same SIGTRAN stack instance is used for both A Interface and Lb Interface
connections.
The feature is optional and is activated from OMC-R at BSS level on a per TRX quantity.
Satellite Links

The Abis and Ater interfaces were designed to use terrestrial transmission links. However,
in developing countries, the terrestrial transmission infrastructure does not exist and in
many cases is difficult and costly to provide. There is also a need in the developed world
to provide temporary GSM coverage for transient mobile population density increases, for
example at sporting events. Using geostationary earth orbiting satellites is a simple and
relatively low-cost solution to these problems. Unfortunately, there is one major
drawback: transmission delay. The Geostationary orbit is located at an altitude of 35,786
km above the equator, therefore propagation delay of radio signals can vary between 119
ms at the equator to a maximum delay of 139 ms. The delay for one hop (the path from
one point on earth to another point, via one satellite link) varies between 238 and 278 ms.
This delay degrades speech quality, but although the degradation is worse than
experienced in the PSTN, it is usable. The delay also has an effect on signaling messages.
Satellite links can be used on the Abis Interface or on the Ater Interface, but not both.
Parameter modification is done from the OMC-R and propagated to the BSC and the
concerned BTS. A new connection type parameter is associated with each Abis link. The
operator can set the parameter at Abis creation time. If the satellite link is made using the
Ater Interface, the new connection type parameter associated with the Ater as a whole is
used. Both Abis and Ater connection types can be either terrestrial or via satellite. The
default value for each is terrestrial.
Note: This is not a standard GSM feature and Alcatel-Lucent cannot guarantee the
performance because there are so many unknown factors, such as error rate and
mobile population variations, which have significant effects because of the delay.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-38
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Abis Interface Using Satellite Links

This feature is available only for Alcatel-Lucent BTS and later. When the link is installed
on the Abis Interface, for those BTS where the satellite link is installed, the following
features are not available:

Closed multidrop

PCM synchronization (the BTS must be configured as free running).

Synchronous handovers, fax and data (in circuit-switched mode, transparent and not
transparent) are supported.
Ater Interface Using Satellite Links

On the Ater Interface, the satellite link can be installed either on the Ater (between the
BSC and the Transcoder), or on the A Interface (between the Transcoder and the MSC).
Because the latter case is rare, the wording Ater is used for both cases. When only some
of the timeslots are routed via the satellite, at least the Qmux and the X.25 (if the satellite
link is on the A Interface) must be routed. Channels that are not routed must be blocked,
either from the MSC or from the OMC-R. If only one link is forwarded, there is no longer
redundancy on the following: SS7, X.25, and Qmux.
Air Interface

The Air Interface is the radio interface between the BTS and the mobile station.
The Air Interface includes:

Physical Layer 1
Data Link Layer 2
RRM sub-layer 3 of the application layer.

Air Interface Layers

The Air Interface layers comprise:

Physical Layer 1 is a radio link where channels are divided by time and frequency
Data Link Layer 2 provides frame handling and signaling functions, using a
modified version of the LAPDm
Application Sub-Layer Radio Resources Management. On the Air Interface, most
of the Layer 3 messages are transparent to the BTS. The BTS uses Layer 3 to extract
certain information from some messages before passing on the equivalent message.
For example, when the BTS receives an encryption_command message from the
BSC, it reads the Ki value and the algorithm to be used, before passing on the
cipher_mode_command message. For more information about this procedure, refer
to Ciphering (p. 5-51).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-39
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Air Interface Channels

The Air Interface is divided by frequency and time, using Frequency Division Multiplex
Access (FDMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). This provides frames of
eight timeslots for each frequency supported by the cell. The channels of the cell are then
assigned to specific timeslots within the TDMA frames.
GPRS traffic uses the same radio resources as circuit-switched traffic, and is carried on
the same type of physical channel. For information about GPRS channels, refer to
Chapter 3, GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS.
However, not all channels require the full capacity of a timeslot at each occurrence of a
frame. Channels are configured to share timeslots by only using certain occurrences of the
frame. The cycle of frame occurrences is known as a multiframe. A multiframe can be 26
or 51 occurrences of a frame, depending on the channels configured within it. Within a
multiframe, the same physical channel can support more than one logical channel.
The following figure shows timeslot four of a TDMA frame supporting Access Grant
Channels.
Figure 2-5 Timeslot 4 of a TDMA Frame Supporting Access Grant Channels

Legend:

AGCH

Access Grant Channel

Channels can be divided into traffic channels and control channels.


Traffic Channels

A traffic channel can be used for speech or data. The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports the
following types of traffic channels.
Traffic Channel

Types

Speech

Speech

Full-rate speech traffic channel

Enhanced full-rate speech traffic channel

Half-rate speech traffic channel.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-40
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Traffic Channel

Types

Data

Data

Full-rate data traffic channel (9.6 Kbit/s)

Full-rate data traffic channel (4.8 Kbit/s)

Half-rate data traffic channel (4.8 Kbit/s)

Full-rate data traffic channel (<2.4 Kbit/s)

Half-rate data traffic channel (<2.4 Kbit/s).

Note: A timeslot that is configured as a TCH timeslot can be used as a PDCH, a Voice
Group Call Services Channel (VGCH), or a standard CS TCH. In terms of radio
resource management, there is no practical difference between Voice Group Call
Services (VGCS) traffic and standard point-to-point CS traffic, and the operator only
configures the TCH.
Note that a VGCH is simply a normal TCH timeslot that is used for VGCS. One
VGCH channel is allocated by the BSS in each cell involved in a VGCS call. For
more information, refer to VGCS (p. 8-14).
Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) is a technology that allows the real-time optimization of the
speech coding scheme with respect to actual radio propagation conditions.
The AMR Wideband (AMR-WB) codec is developed as a multi-rate codec with several
codec modes like the AMR codec. As in AMR, the codec mode is chosen based on the
radio conditions. This feature is not compatible with Tandem Free Operation (TFO); see
Tandem Free Operation (p. 5-58). For more information, refer to Adaptive Multiple
Rate (p. 8-10).
AMR provides the following improvements in capacity and quality:

Speech quality is improved, both in full-rate and half-rate


The offered capacity is increased due to the provision of half-rate channels whenever
radio propagation conditions are suitable.

Data traffic channels also use a full timeslot or half a timeslot at rates of 300 bit/s to 9,600
bit/s. (E)GPRS implements flexible sharing of timeslots which permits much faster data
transfer rates.
The Alcatel-Lucent BSS uses a feature called Packet Flow Context (PFC) to differentiate
between different types of traffic on the radio interface, by reading a service profile
defined by the mobile subscriber. The BSS can then provide optimum service by
favouring certain types of traffic by reserving radio resources according to the type of
traffic. For more information, refer to Packet Flow Context (p. 3-31).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-41
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Control Channels

CCHs control communications between the BSS and the mobile stations. The following
table describes the four types of CCH.
Control
Channel

Description

BCCH

The BCCH broadcasts cell information to any mobile station in range. Three channels use the
BCCH timeslot:

CCCH

FCCH: used on the downlink for frequency correction of the mobile station with the BTS

SCH: used on the downlink for frame synchronization of the mobile station with the BTS

BCCH: used to broadcast system information to the mobile stations on the downlink, to
give the cell configuration, and how to access the cell.

The CCCH communicates with mobile stations in the cell before a dedicated signaling
channel is established. Three channels use the CCCH timeslot:

RACH: used on the uplink by the mobile station for initial access to the network

PCH: used on the downlink for paging messages to the mobile station

AGCH: used on the downlink to give the mobile station access information before a
dedicated channel is assigned.

The multiple CCCH feature allows the operator to use only three additional BCCH/CCCH, so
four Timeslots TS0, TS2, TS4 and TS6 are used. The operator decides to configure either 1,2,3
or 4 TS for mCCCH, i.e. no dynamic allocation by the BSS depending on the load is foreseen.
DCCH

ACCH

The DCCH passes signaling information for a specific mobile station transaction. Two
channels use the DCCH timeslot:

SDCCH: used for signaling and short message information

CBCH: uses an SDCCH channel for Short Message Service - Cell Broadcasts.

The ACCH passes signaling information for a specific mobile station transaction. An ACCH
channel is always associated with a traffic channel. Two channels use the ACCH timeslot:

FACCH: associated with a traffic channel, and can steal slots out of 24 or 26 slots which
are normally dedicated to the traffic channel for signaling purposes as well as the SACCH
slot.

SACCH: associated with a traffic channel, which uses one out of 26 slots for signaling
purposes.

Dual Transfer Mode

A dual transfer mode capable MS uses a radio resource for CS traffic and simultaneously
one or several radio resources for PS traffic.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-42
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The following DTM principles apply:

DTM allocation means 1 TCH (established in FR) and at least 1 PDCH allocated by
MFS
In DTM, no PS measurements are done (no cell reselection while in DTM, only
emergency CS HO)
CS has priority over PS (direct transition from PTM to DTM is not possible, direct
transition from DTM to PTM is not possible, direct transition from Idle mode to DTM
is not possible, transition from DTM to dedicated mode, and from dedicated mode to
DTM are possible)
Allocated TCH and PDCH are contiguous
Multi slot allocation (3GPP): MS class 5 (1 TCH, 1 PDCH), MS class 9 (1 TCH, 2
PDCH DL, 1 PDCH UL), MS class 3x: up to 5 TS in DL, max 6 TS UL+DL, MS
class 4x: up to 6 TS in DL, max 7 TS UL+DL
(2+3) configuration is supported (requires EDA)(1PDCH DL, 2PDCH UL, 1TCH UL,
1TCH DL)
DTM TBFs are always allocated in NRT
TCH changes must be avoided due to PS outage (only emergency HO are allowed, all
PS reallocation triggers are forbidden in first step, in second step for EDA, T3 is
mandatory).

Specific constraints apply for PS resources to be allocated in DTM:

The PDCH must be allocated in the MFS (i.e. the PDCH is in an "allocated" state, but
not in the "not allocated" or "de-allocating" state)
The PDCH must be located in the "non preemptable PS zone" of the cell

The PDCH must not be in the "Full" state in the considered direction
The PDCH must not be "locked" due to a CS preemption process.

Specific constraints apply for CS resources to be allocated in DTM :

The RTS must be allocated in the MFS (i.e. the PDCH is in an "allocated" state, but
not in the "not allocated" or "de-allocating" state)
The RTS must be located in the "non preemptable PS zone" of the cell

The RTS position must be compatible with the DTM multislot class of the MS
The RTS does not support any RT PFC
The RTS does not support any PACCH channel (when considering all the DL and UL
TBFs established on this RTS and all the RT PFCs created on this RTS)

The basic Abis nibble mapped onto the RTS is "available" (i.e. it is either free or it is
used in an M-EGCH link from which it is possible to release one GCH).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-43
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

System Information Messages

System information messages transmit information about the cell to the mobile station.
System information messages 2 and 5 have several variations to avoid compatibility
problems with phase 1 mobile stations.
The following table shows the system information messages, the channel on which they
are transmitted and the type of information in each message.
Table 2-1

System Information Messages

Message

Channel

Information

Sys_info 1

BCCH

Cell channel description


RACH control information

Sys_info 2

BCCH

Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list


Indication of which Network Color Code it is allowed to
monitor
RACH control information

Sys_info 2bis (multiband

BCCH

systems only)

Extended Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list in the same


band as the serving cell. This message is only sent if
Sys_info 2 is not sufficient to encode all available
frequencies.
RACH control information
Spare bits

Sys_info 2ter (multiband

systems only)

BCCH

Extended Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list in different


band as serving cell
The minimum number of cells, if available, to be reported
in each supported band in measurement results.
RACH control information
3G cell description
Spare bits

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-44
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 2-1

System Information Messages

(continued)

Message

Channel

Information

Sys_info 3

BCCH

Specific Cell Identity


Location Area Identity
Control channel description
Cell options:

Power central information

Discontinuous Transmission (mechanism) information

Radio link time out

Cell selection parameters:

Cell reselect hysteresis for Location Area reselection

Maximum transmit power allowed in cell

Additional reselection parameter

Allows/forbids new establishment causes (phase 2


mobile stations)

Minimum receive level to access cell.

RACH control information


Spare bits setting flags and timers
Sys_info 4

BCCH

Location Area Identity.


Cell selection parameters:

Cell reselect hysteresis for Location Area reselection

Maximum transmit power allowed in cell

Additional reselection parameter

Allows/forbids new establishment causes (phase 2


mobile stations)

Minimum receive level to access cell.

RACH control information


CBCH channel description
CBCH Mobile Allocation
Spare bits setting flags and timers
Sys_info 5

SACCH

Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list


For VGCS, only VGCS capable neighbor cell BCCH
frequency list

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-45
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 2-1

System Information Messages

(continued)

Message

Channel

Information

Sys_info 5bis (multiband

SACCH

Extended Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list

systems only)

This message is only sent if:

The serving cell is a GSM 1800 cell and Sys_info 5


is not sufficient to encode all GSM 1800 neighbor
frequencies

The serving cell is a GSM 900 cell, and


The mobile station is phase 2, and
There are neighboring GSM 1800 cells, and
Sys_info 5ter is not sufficient to encode all of the
GSM 1800 cells.

For VGCS, only VGCS capable neighbor cell BCCH


frequency list
Sys_info 5ter (multiband

SACCH

systems and phase 2 mobile


stations only)

Extended Neighbor cell BCCH frequency list in different


band as serving cell
The minimum number of cells, if available, to be reported
in each supported band in measurement results
For VGCS, only VGCS capable neighbor cell BCCH
frequency list

Sys_info 6

SACCH

Specific Cell Identity


Location Area Identity
Cell options:

Sys_info 7

BCCH

Power control information

Discontinuous Transmission information

Radio link time out

Indication of which Network Color Code it is allowed


to monitor.

For VCGS, status of the NCH, and an indication of


whether paging channel restructuring has taken place

SI 7 Rest Octets
SI 8 Rest Octets

Sys_info 8

SI 4 Rest Octets_S
LSA Parameters
LSA ID information
LSA identity
Sys_info 10

SACCH

$(ASCI)$ message providing information for cell

reselection in group receive mode


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-46
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Telecommunications Layers in the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 2-1

System Information Messages

(continued)

Message

Channel

Information

Sys_info 13

BCCH

SI 13 Rest Octets without PBCCH configured in the cell:

SI 13 Rest Octets

GPRS Mobile Allocation

GPRS cell options

GPRS Power Control parameters.

SI 13 Rest Octets with PBCCH configured in the cell:

BCCH

Sys_info 16

SI 13 Rest Octets

GPRS Mobile Allocation

PBCCH description.

SI 16 Rest Octets
SI 17 Rest Octets

Sys_info 17

LSA Parameters
LSA ID information
LSA identity

Dynamic SDCCH Allocation

Dynamic SDCCH allocation is a specific timeslot used for signaling (SDCCH) or for
traffic (TCH), depending on the overload. The operator configures:

A set of static SDCCH/x timeslots to handle normal SDCCH traffic


A set of dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots, used for TCH traffic, or for SDCCH traffic.

The general principles for dynamic SDCCH are:

Automatic allocation of SDCCH/8 timeslots (minimum and maximum) on a cell basis


Only SDCCH/8 timeslots are concerned. It is not necessary to add or delete a
SDCCH/3, or a SDCCH/4, or a SDCCH/7 timeslot
The set of static SDCCH/x and dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots represents the maximum
number of allocatable SDCCH timeslots
The static SDCCH/8 timeslots cannot be used for TCH purposes
The dynamic allocatable SDCCH/8 timeslots are allocated for SDCCH when all the
static SDCCH/8 timeslots are busy
A TCH call cannot free a timeslot for SDCCH/8 allocation
A TCH is preferably not allocated dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots.
Note: VGCS calls cannot use dynamic SDCCH allocation.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-47
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Management and the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Network Management and the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview

Normally the OMC-R provides all the network management and control functions
required by the BSS. However, the management and control functions are proprietary to
the system supplier. In keeping with ITU and ETSI recommendations, the
Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) model standardizes the Network
Management function. Network Management is compatible with all equipment, even that
of different manufacturers. Network Management is controlled from one or several
NMCs.
Telecommunications Management Network

The ability to transfer management information across the Telecommunications


Management Network environment is defined by a protocol suite, the Q Interfaces. The
following figure shows the hierarchical structure of the TMN. It graphically defines the
respective management responsibilities in the three main levels of the Management
Information Tree (MIT).
For more information about the Telecommunications Management Network, refer to
BSS/MFS and TMN Functions.
For more information about the Telecommunications Management Network, refer to the
BSS/MFS and TMN Functions section of the Operations & Maintenance Principles
document.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-48
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Management and the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 2-6 TMN System Hierarchy

Legend:

OSS

Operation Support System

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

NMC

Network Management Center

Q3 Interface

Communication between the NMC and the OMC-R takes place across the Q3 Interface
(see Figure 2-6, TMN System Hierarchy (p. 2-49)).
The Q3 protocols can be divided into:

Association connection and disconnection mechanisms


Message format and structure
Command types.

For more information about Network Management and the Q3 Interface, see the
Alcatel-Lucent GSM 2G - OAM - Operations & Maintenance Principles.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-49
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Network Interworking
2G and 3G Cells

Cells references

A 2G cell is completely defined in the BSS.


It is defined by:
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN)
Base Station Identity Code (BSIC).
A 3G cell is completely defined by the following elements.
It is defined by:

UTRAN ARFCN (UARFCN)


Primary scrambling code. Like the BSIC in GSM, the primary scrambling code
allows the UE/MS to discriminate UTRAN FDD cells having the same UARFCN.

Identification

2G cells

3G cells

Complete radio reference

ARFCN + BSIC

UARFCN + Primary scrambling code

Partial radio reference

Only ARFCN

Only UARFCN or (UARFCN +


Scrambling codes per scrambling code
group)

Cell Global Identifier

CGI = MCC + MNC +LAC +


CI

MCC + MNC + RNC-ID + C-ID

Partial identifiers

LAC + CI, CI

UC-ID = RNC-ID + C-ID, C-ID

O&M cell identifier

Local Cell Identifier

Cells rapport:

The max number of 2Gto3G Adjacency for one cell is 20


In the case of 9120 BSC:
The maximum number of:
3G external cell per BSC is 450
2G to3G Adjacency per BSC is 980
In the case of 9130 BSC:
The maximum number of:
3G external cell per BSC is 850

2G to3G Adjacency per BSC is 1850

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-50
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

2G to 3G / FDD Handover

2G to 3G handover is supported only towards 3G FDD cells. For the 3G TDD cells only
reselection is supported.
The following rules apply for 2G to 3G FDD handover:

A 2G to 3G handover is based on the measurements reported by the UE/MS. As soon


as measurements above a given threshold are reported for one or several 3G cells,
those cells are candidate for handover. The averaged measurements received along a
given time must be above a given threshold.

The only measurements requested by the UE/MS are the CPICH Ec/No. Nevertheless,
an internal parameter (FDD_REP_QUANT) is defined to choose the type of
measurement.
The feature can be activated (or deactivated) on a per cell basis, by an O&M
parameter (EN_3G_HO)
When a dual mode UE/MS enters the RR dedicated mode, it sends a CLASSMARK
CHANGE message and/or a UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE message which
contains the INTER RAT HANDOVER INFO. There is no acknowledgement from
the network at layer 3
If the UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE is to be sent by the MS, the CLASSMARK
CHANGE message is sent first
If a condition is met to perform handover from 2G to 3G, the BSS does not perform
an intersystem handover via directed retry. The BSS proceeds with the normal
assignment procedure

If a condition is met to perform handover from 2G to 3G on the SDCCH, the BSS


does not perform an intersystem handover. The BSS proceeds with the normal
assignment procedure on the allocated SDCCH
When handover to 3G occurs, the LAC can also be used as additional information but
it is not part of the cell identifier.

There are two types of lists to describe the neighbor cells in the serving cell:

Distribution lists
The list is shared between all the MS of the serving cell and consequently built from
information sent within the SYSTEM INFORMATION family messages on the
BCCH or PACKET SYSTEM INFORMATION family messages on the PBCCH.
Non-distribution lists
The list is given to an individual UE/MS camping on the serving cell and
consequently built from information sent in the dedicated SYSTEM INFORMATION
family, MEASUREMENT INFORMATION and PACKET MEASUREMENT
INFORMATION messages on the SACCH or PACCH/PCCCH.
For 2G to 3G CS handover, in the call setup step of dual mode mobiles, the INTER
RAT HO INFO element via the UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE message is not
segmented and it is compressed. There is a gain of 700ms and a reduction of SDCCH
load during call setup.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-51
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The following dimensioning and support constraints apply:

In the Alcatel-Lucent UTRAN, 2G to 3G handover is supported from Rel-4

This feature is limited to TCH/2G to TCH/3G handover


SDCCH/2G to SDCCH/3G handover will not be implemented
SDCCH/2G to TCH/3G handover will not be implemented

When both 2G and 3G candidate cells are determined, the 3G cell(s) prevail
A dual mode UE/MS only in dedicated transfer mode can be handed over to UTRAN
Maximum number of outgoing 2G to 3G adjacencies (whatever their type) at the most
per 2G cell: 20

Maximum number of outgoing 2G to 3G handover adjacencies at the most per 2G


cell: 12
Maximum number of outgoing 2G to 3G adjacencies (whatever their type) at the most
per BSC: 980
Maximum number of 3G (external) cells at the most per BSC: 450

Maximum number of distinct 3G UARFCN neighboring one 2G cell: 8


MEASUREMENT REPORT message is limited to 6 measurements.

Enhanced 2G to 3G FDD/TDD Cell Re-selection

The following rules apply for 2G to 3G FDD/TDD cell reselection:

There are two possibilities offered for 2G to 3G FDD/TDD cell reselection.


The user can define up to:
ThreeUARFCN at BSC level
Eight UARFCN per serving cell.
These two possibilities are mutually exclusive for a given BSC.
Only one type of 3G cells are defined for one customer: FDD or TDD but not both.
This mandatory rule is ensured by the condition:
EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION can not be <> disabled at the same
time.
So either 2G to 3G/FDD cell reselection or 2G to 3G/TDD cell reselection can be
used.
Only blind search 3G cell reselection is offered.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-52
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

All the 3G cell parameters have to be defined even if not used:


The Local 3G cell Id, MCC 3G, MNC 3G are mandatory for O&M identification
of the cell and always used.

Case 3G FDD cell used for reselection only: scrambling code and diversity are not
used by the BSC; RNC id, Cell id and LAC are not used by the BSC. Nevertheless
they are managed by the OMC and set in the MIB.
Case 3G TDD cell is defined: cell parameter, diversity are ignored by both the
OMC and the BSC.
RNC id, Cell id and LAC are not used by the BSC. Nevertheless they are
managed by the OMC and set in the MIB.
Because the real 3G network configuration is using TDD UARFCN + CELL
PARAMETER and because OMC ignores the 3G CELL PARAMETER, the OMC
database and the MIB may be populated with 3G TDD cells with the same ARFCN.
In this case, the BSC filters and keeps only the distinct ones.
In the OMC-R, there are two separate screens:
One for:
External 3G FDD cell creation
External 3G TDD cell creation.
The maximum number of external 3G cells which can be defined is as follows.
You can define:
900 for a G2 BSC.
1700 for an A9130 BSC Evolution.
The maximum number of 3G adjacencies which can be defined is as follows.
You can define:
1960 for a G2 BSC

3700 for an A9130 BSC Evolution.

3G Search Prio Wrong in PMO

When the Mobile Station enters the PTM, a PMO message is sent, overwriting the GPRS
3G Measurement Parameters broadcasted in SI2Quater to the MS. The objective of the
implementation is to preserve time processing in the mobile in order to avoid the impact
on the on-going 2G packet transfer, otherwise the MS can interrupt its data transfer(s)
more frequently to monitor 3G neighbor cells.
The strategy is to allow a reselection from GSM to UMTS in both modes, packet idle and
packet transfer mode. This mean that sending of a PMO message at the beginning of a
packet transfer would not be necessary. The mobile would use the broadcasted neighbor
cells and reselection parameters for the reselection decision.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-53
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The value Enabled with 3G search activated with flexible prio was added for the
following parameters:

EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION
EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION

Inter-BSS NACC/ Inter-RAT NACC (3G- ->2G)

NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change) feature has been introduced in B9. It allows
decreasing GPRS service outage during intra-BSS PS cell reselection, by providing to the
MS a set of System Information messages (SI), required to access the new cell, before the
MS leaves the old cell.
The Inter-BSS NACC/ Inter-RAT NACC feature is based on the introduction of
RIM-NACC (RAN Information Management) which allows the GPRS service outage
during inter-BSS or Inter-RAT PS cell reselection to be improved.
The RAN Information Management (RIM) procedures provide a generic mechanism for
the exchange of arbitrary information between two RAN nodes, located either in a
GERAN or in a UTRAN access network. The RAN information is transferred via the
SGSN core network node(s).
The feature is used in the following cases:

2G to 2G cell reselection:
When available, SI of the target 2G cell are sent to the MS from the 2G serving cell
3G to 2G cell reselection:
When available, SI of the target 2G cell are sent to the MS from the 3G serving cell

When using this feature, the cell reselection duration is reduced.


The feature reduces the service outage time for an MS in packet transfer mode by giving
the network the possibility to assist the MS before and during the cell change. The
network assistance consists in sending the neighboring cell system information to the
mobile.
The "Inter-BSS/Inter-RAT NACC" feature is optional and its activation is managed
through the EN_RIM_NACC parameter. This parameter can be set from the OMC-R per
BSS when the feature is licensed. The feature optionally is managed on by a TRX
quantity basis, by considering the feature as PS related.
LTE to GSM Handover

The 3GPP has defined the VCC (Voice Call Continuity) which provides the capability to
transfer the path of an existing voice call between a 3GPP CS system (GSM/UMTS) and
IMS (IP multimedia subsystem), and vice versa.
The SRVCC (Single Radio Voice Call Continuity) is the 3GPP way to perform a handover
for voice calls from LTE (PS domain) to GSM (CS domain).
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-54
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Three scenarios are possible:

without DTM

with DTM but without DTM HO support


with DTM HO support.

DTM is supported in ALU BSS while DTM HO is not. The third scenario is then not
relevant for ALU BSS.
This feature implements a mean for the BSS to reject LTEto GSM handovers, based upon
the target cell load (similar to what has been already implemented for 3G to GSM
handovers); this is the 'load based filtering' procedure.
With the introduction of this feature, the BSC either accepts or rejects a handover from a
LTE network, based on its own traffic load and the handover cause. If the load exceeds
the threshold defined for the LTE network, only emergency handovers are allowed.
The threshold is set from the OMC-R THR_CELL_LOAD_LTE_REJECT parameter. This
must be set smaller than HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD parameter or equal to 100%.
This feature is supported only on 9130 BSC Evolution and it is not optional.
Interworking with LTE in Packet Domain

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the evolution of 3G UMTS which targets very high
throughputs.
LTE means:

No more CS plane, voice is carried through VoIP


A flat IP architecture
Use of enhanced radio techniques, including MIMO & OFDM
E-UTRAN the equivalent of GERAN (2G) or UTRAN (3G) is a set of eNodeBs
connected to the same MME (Mobility Management Entity, part of the Core
Network).

The purpose of the Inter-working with LTE in the Packet domain feature is to manage 2G
versus LTE inter-working (in other words, the GERAN versus E-UTRAN inter-working),
with the following requirements:

Support of 2G to LTE-FDD reselection


GERAN CS User Plane is not managed (no CS Handover to be managed)
Inter-RAT NACC is managed for the E-UTRAN to GERAN direction only
Manage cell reselection in blind search mode.

The management of the reselection algorithm by the MS/UE takes into account additional
parameters (the so-called priority parameters ) which are not only related to
E-UARFCNs, but also to UARFCNs and 2G serving cells.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-55
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The feature targets the use of PC Data cards, this means pure PS data stream (VoIP
stream is excluded).
The GERAN/E-UTRAN inter-working feature is not relevant for an MS in DTM mode.
Neighbouring information is broadcasted on the BCCH for MS in Dedicated Mode only
and on the PACCH for MS in PTM mode only, as it is already the case for
GERAN/UTRAN inter-working. Nothing is broadcasted for a MS in DTM mode.
From B10 onwards, it is currently not possible to have UTRAN-FDD and UTRAN-TDD
cell reselections enabled at the same time (as well as UTRAN-FDD HO and
UTRAN-TDD cell reselection). A similar behaviour is kept with the introduction of
E-UTRAN: to have either full FDD interoperability (UTRAN, E-UTRAN) or TDD
interoperability.
Neighbour E-UTRAN cells characteristics are broadcasted through the SI2 Quater
message (same as for UTRAN cells).
3GPP introduced a new inter-RAT cell selection algorithm based upon priority
information :

The legacy algorithm is based upon cell ranking and already used for GERAN -->
UTRAN inter-working. If for a given UTRAN cell all criteria are met during 5s then
this cell is selected.
The priority algorithm allows to additionally prioritize RATs in order to favour for
example E-UTRAN cells
The network provides priority information if E-UTRAN cells or frequencies are
included within the neighbour cells list.

Therefore the BSS broadcast both legacy algorithm information and additional priority
algorithm information. In the BSS, this mainly means new parameters to be sent to the
MS (in SI2Quater or PMO), as this new algorithm is implemented on MS side.
In SI2Quater message, all the parameters for the existing algorithm and the priority
algorithm are sent. Then it is up to the MS to decide which algorithm to use in idle mode
depending of its capabilities. For some cases in packet transfer mode, no Packet
Measurement Order message is sent to a MS and in this case, the MS will use the
parameters received in the SI2Quater message.
Cell reselection towards 3G-FDD or towards 3G-TDD are mutually exclusive in B10 and
B11 implementation. Both cannot be activated at the same time.
The feature is supported only by 9130 MFS Evolution and 9130 BSC Evolution.
The feature is optional and can be activated from OMC-R at cell level through
EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION parameter.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-56
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The following rules apply when using this feature:

The EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION and


EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION parameters cannot be enabled at the same
time.
For a given BSS, we cannot have at the same time FDD_ARFCN_LIST defined at
BSS level and, at least, one 2G cell where both EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION
and EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled.
If both EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled, they must have the same
value.
EN_FAST_3G_CELL_RESELECTION cannot be set on 3 if any of
EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION or
EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_ RESELECTION is = 0

EN_FAST_3G_CELL_RESELECTION cannot be set on 2 if


EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION = 0

MCC_LTE, MNC_LTE, CI_LTE uniquely identify an LTE cell inside the OMC. This
represents the telecom/O&M LTE cell identification, also called ECGI (E-UTRAN
Cell Global Identifier).
The allowed value ranges for ARFCN_LTE (FDD) are: [0..5379] U [5730..6599].

Note: For 2G-LTE interworking, Alcatel-Lucent recommends configuring


ARFCN_LTE (FDD) value compliant with the values recommended by 3GPP release
9, where band 6 (2650 - 2749) is not applicable anymore and band 11 (4750 4999)
is limited up to 4949.
For any given serving cell:

No more than eight distinct values of ARFCN_LTE(FDD) are allowed in the neighbor
LTE cells having RAT_LTE =FDD and targeted by 2g-LTE reselection links.
No more than 20 outgoing 2g-LTE adjacencies are allowed.

2G to LTE (TDD) Cell Re-selection

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the evolution of 3G UMTS which targets very high
throughputs.
LTE means:

No more CS plane, voice is carried through VoIP


A flat IP architecture
Use of enhanced radio techniques, including MIMO & OFDM

E-UTRAN the equivalent of GERAN (2G) or UTRAN (3G) is a set of eNodeBs


connected to the same MME (Mobility Management Entity, part of the Core
Network).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-57
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The purpose of the 2G to LTE (TDD) Cell Re-selection feature is to manage 2G versus
LTE inter-working (in other words, the GERAN versus E-UTRAN inter-working), with
the following requirements:

Support of 2G to LTE-TDD reselection


GERAN CS User Plane is not managed (no CS Handover to be managed)

Inter-RAT NACC is managed for the E-UTRAN to GERAN direction only


Manage cell reselection in blind search mode.

The management of the reselection algorithm by the MS/UE takes into account additional
parameters (the so-called priority parameters ) which are not only related to
E-UARFCNs, but also to UARFCNs and 2G serving cells.
The feature targets the use of PC Data cards, this means pure PS data stream (VoIP
stream is excluded).
The GERAN/E-UTRAN inter-working feature is not relevant for an MS in DTM mode.
Neighbouring information is broadcasted on the BCCH for MS in Dedicated Mode only
and on the PACCH for MS in PTM mode only, as it is already the case for
GERAN/UTRAN inter-working. Nothing is broadcasted for a MS in DTM mode.
The following UTRAN/E-UTRAN FDD/TDD combinations are supported:
Table 2-2

UTRAN/E-UTRAN FDD/TDD Supported Combinations


3G FDD

3G FDD

3G TDD

LTE FDD

LTE TDD

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

3G TDD

No

LTE FDD

Yes

No

LTE TDD

Yes

Yes

No
No

Neighbour E-UTRAN cells characteristics are broadcasted through the SI2 Quater
message (same as for UTRAN cells).
3GPP introduced a new inter-RAT cell selection algorithm based upon priority
information :

The legacy algorithm is based upon cell ranking and already used for GERAN -->
UTRAN inter-working. If for a given UTRAN cell all criteria are met during 5s then
this cell is selected.
The priority algorithm allows to additionally prioritize RATs in order to favour for
example E-UTRAN cells
The network provides priority information if E-UTRAN cells or frequencies are
included within the neighbour cells list.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-58
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Therefore the BSS broadcast both legacy algorithm information and additional priority
algorithm information. In the BSS, this mainly means new parameters to be sent to the
MS (in SI2Quater or PMO), as this new algorithm is implemented on MS side.
In SI2Quater message, all the parameters for the existing algorithm and the priority
algorithm are sent. Then it is up to the MS to decide which algorithm to use in idle mode
depending of its capabilities. For some cases in packet transfer mode, no Packet
Measurement Order message is sent to a MS and in this case, the MS will use the
parameters received in the SI2Quater message.
Cell reselection towards 3G-FDD or towards 3G-TDD are mutually exclusive in B10 and
B11 implementation. Both cannot be activated at the same time.
The feature is supported only by 9130 MFS Evolution and 9130 BSC Evolution.
The feature is optional and can be activated from OMC-R at cell level through
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION parameter.
The following rules apply when using this feature:

For a given BSS, we cannot have at the same time TDD_ARFCN_LIST defined at
BSS level and, at least, one 2G cell where both
EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled.

EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION cannot be enabled at the same time.

If both EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION and


EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled, they must have the same
value.
If both EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled, they must have the same
value.
EN_FAST_3G_CELL_RESELECTION can be set on three,
only if:

EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled or

EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled or

EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled.

EN_FAST_3G_CELL_RESELECTION cannot be set on 2 if


EN_2G_TO_LTEFDD_CELL_RESELECTION = 0 and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION = 0.

The allowed value ranges for ARFCN_LTE (TDD) are: [36000.. 39649].

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-59
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

For any given serving cell, no more than n distinct values of ARFCN_LTE(TDD) are
allowed in the neighbor LTE cells having RAT_LTE =TDD and targeted by 2g-LTE
reselection links,
where n is:
4, if EN_2G_TO_3GTDD_CELL_RESELECTION and
EN_2G_TO_LTETDD_CELL_RESELECTION are enabled on the aim serving cell
and FAKE_FDD_MANAGEMENT = 1 on the aim serving BSC
8, otherwise.

For any given serving cell, no more than 20 outgoing 2g-LTE adjacencies are allowed.

GAN System

GANs extends the radio coverage of 2G and 3G networks by allowing adapted dual mode
(GSM/UMTS and GAN) mobiles to be connected to a 2G or 3G MSC through an
unlicensed radio access (WIFI, Bluetooth).
The GANC (GAN Controller) is connected to a legacy GSM/GPRS Core Network.
In the GSM system, the GANC system interoperates with the 2G, through pseudo GAN
cells.
Each pseudo GAN cell allows the handover between the 2G and GANC (in charge of the
real GAN system). A pseudo GAN cell must be adjacent to the 2G cell.
The MS decides when it is relevant to perform a handover and then the BSS executes the
handover.
There are no requirements on the packet side.
Handover from a GAN cell to 2G has no impact on the BSS:

Incoming External from GSM or from GAN


The counters related to incoming external handovers take into account handovers
coming from GAN and from GSM. No specific counters are provided for incoming
handovers from GAN.
Outgoing External to GSM or to GAN
The counters related to outgoing external handovers take into account handovers to
GAN in the same way as for GSM handovers. No specific counters are provided for
outgoing handover to GAN.

Iur-g Interface with Enhanced Control Plane

Iur is the interface defined by 3GPP between RNCs mainly to allow soft handover inside
RNS (without involving CN) in the case of inter RNC handovers. The Iu interface with
CN is kept unchanged after external handover and two RNCs (drift and serving) are
involved in the call linked by Iur interface. The signaling protocol on Iur is named
RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part).
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-60
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A first step of similar interface named Iur-g between BSCs and between RNC and BSC
has been studied in 3GPP. Only some signalling information exchange between a BSS
and a BSC/RNC has been standardized. The Iur-g interface is based on a subset of
procedures and messages of the Iur interface of UTRAN, namely the RNSAP.
Iur-g+ control plane is carried by SCCP/M3UA/SCTP/IP. Physical layer is IP only.
With the current implementation, one BSC supports up to 16 neighbour RNCs.
The new messages definition through an Iur-g like interface (Control plane) can optimize
3G to 2G Relocation/HO.
Three procedures are defined on Iur-g+:

Information exchange procedure: in line with 3GPP Iur-g RNSAP TS 25.423. The
RNC obtains GSM cell capacity information from BSC.

Common Measurement Procedure: slightly modified procedure against 3GPP Iur-g


RNSAP TS 25.423 (more than one GSM cell per messages). The RNC obtains GSM
cell load indication from BSC. The availability of GSM target cell capacity and load
allows the RNC to trigger a handover toward a GSM cell in which the handover will
be probably successful.
Radio resource reserve handover procedure: specific procedure not defined in 3GPP,
to reduce the handover preparation time and to trigger earlier the intersystem
TD-SDCMA -> GSM handover in the UE. This procedure allows the source RNC to
request directly the BSC to allocate in advance the radio resource needed in the target
BSS for a just triggered external TD -> GSM handover. This anticipation allows the
RNC to trigger the handover command toward the UE earlier (before the receipt of
RELOCATION COMMAND from CN). Consequently, the handover preparation time
is reduced, and consequently the time critical intersystem handover has better
probability to succeed.

The feature is optional, has one BSC-level activation parameter and is controlled per TRX
quantity.
The feature is activated from OMC-R, by setting the EN_IURG parameter on Enabled.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-61
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Network Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
2-62
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

3 PRS in Alcatel-Lucent
G
BSS

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an introduction to GPRS and describes how the Alcatel-Lucent BSS
implements:

Packet Switching
GPRS Elements

GPRS Channels and Interfaces


GPRS Network Functions
GPRS Data Transmission.

Contents
Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

3-4

Packet Switching and GPRS Elements

3-4

Packet Switching

3-5

GPRS Elements

3-6

GPRS Channels and System Information Messages

3-10

Overview of GPRS Channels and System Information Messages

3-10

Logical Channels

3-10

Virtual Channels

3-11

System Information Messages

3-11

GPRS Interfaces

3-13

Overview of GPRS Interfaces

3-13

Gb Interface

3-13

BSCGP Interface

3-16

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GCH Interface

3-16

Specific LCS Interfaces

3-17

GPRS Network Functions

3-18

Overview of GPRS Network Functions

3-18

MAC and RLC Functions

3-18

Temporary Block Flow

3-18

Mobility Management

3-19

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection

3-22

Paging

3-25

Radio Power Control and Radio Link Measurement

3-26

Additional GRPS Network Functions

3-27

Resource Management

3-27

Timeslot Allocation

3-28

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

3-29

Packet Flow Context

3-31

Dynamic Abis Allocation

3-33

Enhanced Transmission Resource Management

3-36

Frequency Hopping

3-36

PCM Link Sharing

3-37

TBF Resource Re-allocation

3-37

Dynamic Allocation

3-39

Extended Dynamic Allocation

3-39

Traffic Load Management

3-40

Overview of Traffic Load Management

3-40

Smooth PDCH Traffic Adaption to Cell Load Variation

3-40

Congestion Control

3-41

M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing

3-41

GPRS Overload Control

3-42

Data Transmission

3-43

Overview of Data Transmission

3-43

GPRS Attach

3-44

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

3-47

Data Transfer

3-51

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

3-61

GPRS Suspend

3-66

GPRS Resume

3-68

GPRS Detach

3-71

Location Services

3-75

Overview of Location Services

3-75

Logical Architecture

3-76

LCS Positioning Methods

3-77

LCS Scenario in Circuit-Switched Domain

3-79

Physical Implementation

3-79

SMLC Functions

3-80

BSS and Cell Configuration

3-81

LCS O&M

3-81

High Speed Data Service

3-83

HSDS Description

3-83

GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol

3-84

Transmission Handling

3-87

Cell/GP Mapping Modification

3-89

Gb over IP

3-90

Overview Gb over IP

3-90

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Packet Switching and GPRS Elements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Packet Switching and GPRS Elements
Overview

The success of GSM runs parallel to the explosion of interest in the Internet and related
data services. Presently, data transmission over the Air Interface is limited to 9.6 kb/s, too
slow for use of graphic-intensive services such as the World Wide Web and personal
video conferences. In addition, the circuit-switched method used for data transmission
makes inefficient use of radio resources, which are under increasing pressure from the
growth in GSM subscribers and use.
The solution chosen by the ETSI for the double challenge of increased demand for data
service and pressure on radio resources is called General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).
The ETSI recommendations establish a standard for inserting an alternative transmission
method for data in the PLMN (packet switching instead of circuit switching).
The Alcatel-Lucent GPRS solution follows the ETSI GSM phase 2+ recommendations
closely.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Packet Switching

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Switching
Overview

In circuit switching, a connection is established and maintained during the entire length of
the exchange, whether data is being transmitted or not. Resources are dedicated to a
single end-to-end connection, and a radio channel in a cell, with its associated
transmission channels, may be unavailable for use even when little or no information is
passing across it at a given moment.
In packet-switched systems, data is transmitted over virtual circuits, which exist only
while data is actively being transmitted over them. This means that during idle time,
timeslots can be used for carrying other data.
Procedure

Packet-switching systems operate according to the following general procedures:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The PAD function disassembles data into "packets" of a predefined size.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The PAD encloses the packets in a data envelope (headers and footers). This data
envelope includes information about origin and destination points, and the order in which
the packet's contents are to be reassembled at the destination. The figure below shows a
model of a GPRS Packet Data Unit at the LLC layer.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packets move from origin to destination point by different routes and can arrive at the
destination in a different order than that in which they were sent.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

At the destination, another PAD reads the envelope information, strips it off, and
reassembles the data in the proper order.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Packet Switching

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Additional information
Figure 3-1 Model LLC Packet Data Unit used in GPRS

Legend:

FCS

Frame Check Sequence

SAPI

Service Access Point Indicator

Examples of packet-switching protocols include X.25 and Internet Protocol. Since GPRS
is compatible with these widely used protocols, it is suitable for access to public or
custom packet data services, or to the Internet. Mobile telephones using packet data
services must be connected to a portable computer or an electronic organizer.

GPRS Elements
Overview

The different elements shown in the figure below represent a parallel system to the
circuit-switched system used in GSM until now.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

GPRS Elements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 3-2 The Alcatel-Lucent GPRS Solution in the PLMN

Legend:

BSCGP BSC GPRS Protocol


FRDN

Frame Relay Data Network

GCH

GPRS Channel

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

VLR

Visitor Location Register

In the Alcatel-Lucent solution, the MFS with its associated interfaces is the BSS element.
All other components are external to the BSS.
This section describes the following internal and external components:

GPRS mobiles

The Serving GPRS Support Node


The Gateway GPRS Support Node
The Multi-BSS Fast packet Server.

This section describes the following internal and external components:


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

GPRS Elements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Mobiles

There are three classes of GPRS capable mobile stations: Class A, Class B, and Class C.
Currently, only Class B and C mobile stations are supported:

Class A
Class A mobile stations can handle circuit-switched voice and GPRS traffic
simultaneously.
Class B
Class B mobile stations can be IMSI attached and GPRS attached at the same time,
but use only one service (circuit switched or packet switched) at a time.
A GPRS-attached Class B mobile station can initiate an IMSI connection and suspend
its GPRS service in the following cases:
When the user is not engaged in any GPRS data transfer, and either:
A mobile station-originated call is initiated
The mobile station receives a mobile-termination call.
When the user is engaged in a GPRS session (e.g., an Internet session), and either:
A mobile station-originated call is initiated
The mobile station receives a mobile-termination call.
The mobile station performs a LAU procedure in network mode II or network
mode III.
Class C
Class C mobile stations can be either IMSI-attached or GPRS-attached, but not both,
and can use circuit-switched or GPRS services alternately.

Serving GPRS Support Node

The SGSN is a GPRS network entity at the same hierarchical level as the MSC. It is
external to the BSS and communicates with it via Frame Relay over the Gb Interface. The
SGSN is involved in requesting specific network resources for GPRS traffic. It performs
GPRS paging, authentication, and cipher setting procedures based on the same
algorithms, keys and criteria as in circuit-switched GSM traffic.
When a mobile station wants to access GPRS services, it makes its presence known to the
network by performing a GPRS Attach procedure. This establishes a logical link between
the mobile station and the SGSN. The mobile station is then available for SMS over
GPRS, paging from the SGSN, and notification of incoming GPRS data.
The SGSN also participates with other network elements in the routing and relaying of
packets from one node to another.
One SGSN can be connected to many MSCs and many MFSs.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS

GPRS Elements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Gateway GPRS Support Node

The GGSN is connected to SGSNs via an IP-based backbone. It provides interworking


between the GPRS network and external packet-switched networks. It is external to the
BSS.
When the mobile station sends or receives GPRS data, it activates the Packet Data
Protocol address that it wants to use. This has the effect of making the mobile station
known to the GGSN. User data is transferred transparently from the mobile station and
external data systems by the GGSN using encapsulation and tunnelling. This allows data
packets equipped with GPRS-specific protocol information to be transferred between the
mobile station and GGSN, in turn reducing the requirement for the GPRS system to
interpret external data protocols.
The GGSN also works with other network elements in the routing and relaying of packets
from one node to another.
Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

For more information about the MFS, refer to the Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server
(p. 2-13).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Channels and System Information Messages

Overview of GPRS Channels and System Information


Messages

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Channels and System Information Messages


Overview of GPRS Channels and System Information Messages
Overview

GPRS traffic uses the same radio resources as circuit-switched traffic, and is carried on
the same type of physical channel. When a physical channel is allocated to carry packet
logical channels (using TDMA frames, as does circuit-switched traffic), it is called a
Packet Data Channel, or PDCH.

Logical Channels
Overview

The types of logical channels which can be carried on a PDCH are the:

Packet Traffic Channel


This channel is analogous to a circuit-switched traffic channel, and is used for user
data transmission and its associated signaling. It has two sub-channels:
Packet Data Traffic Channel which contains the user data traffic
Packet Associated Control Channel (bi-directional) which contains the signaling
information.
If multiple PDTCHs are assigned to one mobile station, the PACCH is always
allocated on one of the PDCHs on which PDTCHs are allocated.
The function of these sub channels is analogous to their circuit-switched counterparts.
Packet Timing Advance Control Channel.
This bi-directional channel is used for maintaining a continuous timing advance
update mechanism.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Channels and System Information Messages

Virtual Channels

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Virtual Channels
Overview

Packet switching is a mode of operation adapted to transmission of "bursty" data - that is,
data which comes in intense "bursts" separated by periods of inactivity. The network
establishes a connection during the transmission of such a "burst" of data. If there is no
activity on this connection, the connection is taken down.
When the original user needs to send or receive another burst of data, a new temporary
connection is set up. This can be on another channel in the same cell, or in another cell if
the mobile station is in motion. The routing of one burst of data may be different from the
routing of another.
The establishment and disestablishment of temporary connections is transparent to the
user. The user sees an exchange of data that seems to be a continuous flow, unless the
network is over congested. This semblance of continuous flow is a Virtual Channel.
A virtual channel can be represented as the flow of data between two terminals during a
user session. The user has the impression of a single continuous connection, but in the
network, this is not the case.
A single data transfer, either in the uplink or in the downlink direction, can pass between
the MFS and the mobile station via one or more PDCH. A PDCH is shared between
multiple mobile stations and the network. It contains asymmetric and independent uplink
and downlink channels.

System Information Messages


Overview

GPRS system information messages, like their GSM counterparts, transmit information
about the cell to the mobile station. GSM BCCH messages, shown in Table 2-1, System
Information Messages (p. 2-44), are also used in GPRS. In addition, GPRS also uses the
messages shown in the following tables.
Message

Channel

Information

SI 13

BCCH

The SI 13 message is sent on the BCCH and contains all


the necessary information required for GPRS. It also
indicates the presence and the location of the PBCCH in
the serving cell. The SI 13 message is broadcast only if
GPRS is supported in the cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Channels and System Information Messages

System Information Messages

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Message

Channel

Information

SI 2quater

BCCH

The SI 2quater message is sent on the BCCH during 2G


to 3G cell reselection and contains information about:

3G cells

3G measurement parameters

GPRS 3G measurement parameters, when there is


no PBCCH.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Interfaces

Overview of GPRS Interfaces

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Interfaces
Overview of GPRS Interfaces
Overview

This section describes the GPRS interfaces, and in particular, the new interfaces
introduced for GPRS needs. These interfaces link the MFS and the SGSN, the BTS, and
the BSC.

Gb Interface
Overview

The Gb Interface uses frame relay techniques to link the PCU function of the MFS and
the SGSN.
Physically, it can be routed in a variety of ways:

A direct connection between the MFS and the SGSN


Via a public Frame Relay Data Network

Via the MSC


Via the Ater Mux Interface through the Transcoder to the MSC. In this case, it carries
a combination of packet-switched and circuit-switched traffic and signaling
Via the IP Network.

Combinations of these methods are also possible. See Figure 3-2, The Alcatel-Lucent
GPRS Solution in the PLMN (p. 3-7) for the position of the Gb Interface in the system.
The Gb Interface provides end-to-end signaling between the MFS and the SGSN, and
serves as the BSS-GPRS backbone. Its principal functions are shown in the following
table.
Function

Description

Network services

Transfer of BSSGP-PDUs between the BSS and the SGSN


Allocation and load sharing of PDUs among Virtual Channels
Access to intermediate Frame Relay Data Network

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Interfaces

Gb Interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Function

Description

BSS-GPRS Protocol
services

Radio resource information


Quality of Service Information
Routing information
Transfer of LLC-PDUs between the BSS and the SGSN
Suspend and Resume procedures for Class B mobile stations

Gb over IP
With the introduction of GBoIP, the telecom traffic, towards/from the SGSN, goes
through the router from/in the MFS.
For a 9130 Evolution MFS the following rules apply:

O&M one LAN:


O&M/Telecom flows are using the same IP interface. This is the default topology.
O&M/Telecom flows use a different IP interface.
O&M two LAN:
The case of a same IP interface used for O&M/Telecom flows is not supported.
The case of different IP interfaces used for O&M/Telecom flows is not recommended.

Gb Flex

Gb Flex feature allows a BSS to be connected to more than one SGSN.


Terminology.
The terminology is as follows:
IP Endpoint
An endpoint is defined by its IP address and UDP port. An IP endpoint can be a
data endpoint, a signalling endpoint or a pre-configured endpoint. An IP endpoint
may be concomitently data and signaling endpoint.
Data IP Endpoint
An IP endpoint used for Data traffic. (Data traffic for an IP Sub-Network is
defined as NS SDUs for PTP functional entities).
Signalling IP endpoint
An IP endpoint used for signalling traffic. (Signalling traffic for an IP
Sub-Network is defined as NS SDUs for Signalling functional entities (BVCI =
0), PTM functional entities (BVCI = 1) and all PDUs for IP Sub-Network Service
Control).
Pre-configured IP endpoint
An IP endpoint used to exchange the configuration between the BSS and the
SGSN.
Only IP V4 endpoints are supported.
NS-VC

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Interfaces

Gb Interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The NS-VC (Network Service Virtual Connection) is given by a pair of IP


endpoints at the MFS and SGSN.
Network Service Entity Identifier (NSEI)
NSEI is an identifier of an NS Entity having end-to-end significance across the Gb
interface, i.e. the peer NSEs on the BSS side and the SGSN side are identified by
the same NSEI value.
BVC entity
A BVC is a virtual end-to-end path between BSSGP peer entities. A BVC is
identified by a BVCI which is unique in one NSE and has an end-to-end
significance across the Gb interface. There are two types of BVCs:
Point-To-Point (PTP) BVC devoted to the GPRS traffic of one cell (BVCI>1)
Signalling BVC, which is the signalling circuit of all the BVC-PTPs of one NSE
(BVCI=0).
Pool area
A pool area is an area within which a MS may roam without need to change the
serving CN node. A pool area is served by one or more CN nodes in parallel. All
the cells controlled by a BSC belong to the same one (or more) pool area(s).
One pool area can be served by one or several SGSNs.
One BSS can belong to several pool areas.
The granularity in a pool area is the BSS.
Pool-Area and Network Resource Identification
An MS is served by one dedicated CN node of a pool-area as long as it is in radio
coverage of the pool-area.
Null-NRI
A 'null-NRI' indicates to the MFS that the NAS Node Selection Function shall be
used for selecting a SGSN to receive a message. There is one unique 'null-NRI' in
a PLMN supporting pool functionality.
NAS Node Selection Function
In the BSS, the function selects the specific CN node (i.e. SGSN) to which initial
NAS signalling messages or LLC frames are routed.
Off-loaded
There are situations where a network operator will wish to remove load from one
CN node in an orderly manner (e.g. to perform scheduled maintenance, or, to
perform load re-distribution to avoid overload) with minimal impact to end users
and/or additional load on other entities.
When Gb Flex is applied, one or more SGSN serve a pool-area, but only one out of
these SGSN serves each individual MS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Interfaces

BSCGP Interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BSCGP Interface
Overview

The BSCGP Interface provides communication between the BSC and the MFS (see
Figure 3-2, The Alcatel-Lucent GPRS Solution in the PLMN (p. 3-7)). The BSC GPRS
Protocol controls two LAPD connections (for redundancy) using 64 kb/s timeslots. The
BSCGP Interface carrier following information.
Function

Description

Common radio signaling

Circuit-switched and packet-switched paging (MFS to BSC)


Channel Requests from BSC to MFS
Uplink and downlink channel assignment (MFS to BSC)

GPRS radio resource


management

Allocation/de-allocation of resources (MFS to BSC)


Release indication (BSC to MFS)
Load indication: this limits the allocation for GPRS traffic (BSC to
MFS)

Note: The common radio signaling functions of the BSCGP are handled on the GPRS
Signaling Link, which is carried inside the Ater Interface.

GCH Interface
Overview

The GCH Interface provides a synchronous connection between the MFS and the BTS,
using one to five 16 kb/s timeslots. The GCH links pass transparently through the BSC
(see Figure 3-2, The Alcatel-Lucent GPRS Solution in the PLMN (p. 3-7)). Its
functions are as follows:

Transfer of PDUs between the MFS and the BTS. (Therefore, packet data is not
directly handled by the BSC but passes transparently through it on the GCH
interface.)
Synchronization with the radio interface at GCH link establishment
Correction of clock drifts between Abis and BTS clocks.

The protocol for the GCH Interface uses the two layers described below:

L1-GCH Layer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Interfaces

GCH Interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

L1-GCH is the physical layer based on ITU-T recommendations G.703. The L1-GCH
layer uses digital transmission at a rate of 2048 kbit/s with a frame of 32 x 64 kbit/s
timeslots. An L1-GCH channel has a transmission rate of 16 kbit/s.
L2-GCH Layer
L2-GCH is the data link layer which is an Alcatel-Lucent proprietary protocol. This
layer is in charge of the data transfer of the GCH frames between the MFS and the
BTS.
The L2-GCH layer offers a service of data transport for the RLC/MAC layers located
in the MFS.
Its main functions are:
GCH link establishment and release
Synchronization with the radio interface
RLC/MAC PDUs transfer.

For more information about GSM transmission, refer to Chapter 5, Call Set Up.
The M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) link is available. The M-EGCH is a link established
between the MFS and the BTS and is defined per TRX. An M-EGCH is made up of one
to 36 GCHs.
The M-EGCH link of a TRX carries:

TBF traffic when TBFs are established on the PDCHs of the TRX
TBF signaling messages on the TBF PACCH
MFS-BTS control messages
Uplink signaling messages after one-block allocation (in UL two-phase access).

Specific LCS Interfaces


Overview

For LCS, the following specific interfaces are used:

SAGI
Supports the exchange of messages between SMLC and the external GPS server
following an Assisted GPS positioning request in the circuit-switched domain
RRLP(BSCLP)
Supports the exchange of messages between BSC and the SMLC (i.e., MFS) in the
circuit-switched domain.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Overview of GPRS Network Functions

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Network Functions


Overview of GPRS Network Functions
Overview

This section describes various GPRS-specific network functions necessary for successful
packet data transfer. This includes paging, cell reselection, error checking and
re-establishment, as well as radio power control and link measurement.

MAC and RLC Functions


Overview

Since multiple mobile stations can be competing for the same physical resource(s), an
arbitration procedure is necessary. This is provided by the Medium Access Control
(MAC) function.
The MAC function operates between the MFS and the mobile station, and works in
conjunction with the Radio Link Control (RCL) function. RCL defines the procedures for
retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered data blocks (error correction) and for the
disassembly and reassembly of PDUs.

Temporary Block Flow


Overview

When PDUs need to be transferred between the MFS and the mobile station, a temporary
point-to-point physical connection is set up to support the unidirectional transfer of PDUs
on one or more PDCHs. This connection is called a Temporary Block Flow (TBF).
A TBF is maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. The TBF is allocated radio
resources on one or more PDCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying
one or more PDUs.
A typical user session, in which data is exchanged bi-directionally, requires the
establishment of one TBF in each direction. The path of each TBF can be different.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Mobility Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobility Management
Overview

The GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) activities related to a GPRS subscriber are
characterized by the following states:
State

Description

Idle

In idle mode, the subscriber is not attached to the GPRS MM and therefore
not known to the different GMM entities. The GMM context holds no valid
location or routing information for the subscriber.

GMM Ready

When the mobile station starts the GPRS attach procedure, the mobile station
enters the GMM Ready state to request access to the network.

GMM Standby

When the GMM Ready timer expires or is de-activated by the network, the
mobile station returns to GMM Standby state.

Cell Reselection Modes

Network-controlled reselection modes are defined below.


Mode

Description

NC0

A GPRS mobile station performs autonomous cell reselection without


sending measurement reports to the network.

NC1

A GPRS mobile station performs autonomous cell reselection. Additionally,


when it is in the GMM Ready state, it periodically sends measurement
reports to the network.

NC2

A GPRS mobile station in GMM Ready state does not perform autonomous
cell reselection. When in GMM Ready state, it sends measurement reports to
the network that controls the cell reselection.
NC2 is used only from R'4 MS.

Error Checking

Since the integrity of the data transmitted is crucial, packet-switched networks employ a
method of error checking. This confirms that the data received corresponds exactly to the
data transmitted.
In GPRS, an LLC-PDU includes a Frame Check Sequence used to detect errors in the
header and information fields of the PDU (see Figure 3-1, Model LLC Packet Data Unit
used in GPRS (p. 3-6)). The Frame Check Sequence uses the Cyclic Redundancy Check
method of error checking.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Mobility Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Most of the mobile stations use non-acknowledged LLC transmission (which can be
incompatible with TCP). Error detection is done at the RLC level. In the case of cell
reselection, the Alcatel-Lucent BSS retransmits the last LLC-PDU if all its RLC blocks
were not acknowledged.
Mobility Management Process

Mobility Management in GPRS can be accomplished by the combination of autonomous


cell reselection by the mobile station and packet error correction.
The process is as follows:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station performs an autonomous cell reselection. The process is based on
average measurements of received signal strength on the BCCH frequencies of the
serving cell and the neighbor cells as indicated in the GPRS neighbor cell list. This refers
to NC0.
The cell reselection procedure is the same as for circuit-switched traffic, but based on
GPRS reselection parameters that can be configured by the operator.
If the cell does not have a PBCCH, the mobile station applies existing circuit switching
parameters using the BCCH.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once the mobile station is camped on the new cell, the data transfer is resumed. If an
LLC-PDU has not been correctly received, it is re-emitted.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Overview

This process produces a slight overhead on throughput but has the advantage of greatly
simplifying the cell change process.
Link Re-establishment

If the mobile station detects a radio link failure, it will re-establish the link with the
SGSN. The BSS transmits the reselection configuration parameters to be used by the
mobile station. Mobile-controlled reselection is equivalent to circuit-switched call
re-establishment. Refer to Overview of Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station
(p. 6-54) for more information.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Mobility Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Full Intra-RA LLC-PDU Rerouting

This feature is implemented for a cell handled by another GP when there is an absence of
information about the target cell to which the mobile station moves.
The BSS links the old and new cells, using the information they have in common for that
mobile station, namely the TLLI and the RAI. Once this link is set up, the BSS reroutes
data from the old cell to the new cell.
The BSS autonomously decides to perform LLC-PDU rerouting on a cell change when
the SGSN does not support the Inter-NSE Rerouting (INR) R4 option. If the SGSN
supports this option, then autonomous rerouting does not occur.
NC2 for Mobile Stations in Packet Transfer Mode

To reduce the number of cell reselections, the mobile station in packet transfer mode does
not make autonomous reselections. It sends measurement reports to the network,
therefore NC2 mode is selected.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection


Overview

In addition to enhanced cell reselection for R97-onwards MS, packet cell reselection is
further improved with the following new features:

Network Assisted Cell Change


Packet SI Status and Packet PSI Status procedures
NC2 Cell ranking with load criteria.

Enhanced Cell Reselections for R97 Onwards Mobile Stations

NC2 mode is activated when the mobile station enters the packet transfer mode and NC2
mode is de-activated either at the end of the packet transfer mode or at GMM Ready timer
expiry (O&M parameter) This reduces the number of cell reselections triggered during
GPRS sessions. When this feature is activated, the BSS prevents multi-RAT mobile
stations from monitoring 3G cells while in packet transfer mode. This allows network
control of mobile station cell reselection in packet transfer mode.
NC2 for mobile stations in packet transfer mode is activated by O&M. When activated,
the network controls cell reselection of each mobile station in a packet data transfer. Each
of these mobile stations periodically reports its measurements to the serving cell and on
the six strongest neighbor cells. This enables the network to decide whether or not an NC
cell reselection is performed and which neighbor cell is the best candidate for reselection.
This feature reduces the number of cell reselections triggered when the mobile station is
in packet transfer mode.
Network Assisted Cell Change

Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) is a one of the new features implemented to
reduce the duration of packet cell reselection. With NACC, control of cell reselection can
be managed by the either the MS or the network, if NC2 mode is not being used. NC2 has
priority over NACC.
With the introduction of RIM-NACC, GPRS service outage during Inter-BSS or
Inter-RAT PS cell reselection can also be improved.
NACC takes place in the serving cell and consists of the following independent
procedures:

Cell Change Notification


Cell System Information Distribution.

NACC is enabled/disabled by the EN_NACC parameter.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

An MS supports Cell Change Notification (CCN) under the following conditions:

CCN is activated in the (P)SI

The MS is not in Dedicated Mode or Dual Transfer Mode


The MS is in NC0 mode
The MS is in packet transfer mode.

Procedure

If the MS fulfills these conditions, when it detects a best new cell, using CCN:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MS informs the BSS it wants to move from serving cell A to target cell B.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS sends the required system information for the target cell on the PACCH.
For a target cell without PBCCH, the SI13, SI1 and SI3 messages contain the required
information. For a target cell with PBCCH, system information is contained in PSI14,
PSI1 and PSI2.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS also returns either a Packet Cell Change Continue or a


Packet Cell Change Order message to the MS.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the MS receives a Packet Cell Change Continue message, it switches to the


previously selected target cell B.
If the MS receives a Packet Cell Change Order message, the CCN procedure ends
and the BSS (in NC2 mode) takes control of cell reselection using the Cell System
Information Distribution procedure. The Packet Cell Change Order message is sent
to the MS when the MS-selected target cell does not correspond to the target cell selected
by the BSS.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Upon receipt of the Packet Cell Change Order message, the MS starts a timer and
sends a Channel_Request message to the network-selected target cell.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the MS receives a successful response to its Channel_Request message, along


with the necessary system information, the MS switches to the new target cell.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Enhanced Packet Cell Reselection

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet PSI Status and Packet SI Status Messages

The Packet PSI and Packet SI Status feature is implemented to reduce the amount of time
required for GPRS cell reselection. This feature allows an MS to access a new cell
without first receiving the full set of (P)SI messages sent on the BCCH (for SI messages)
or the PBCCH (for PSI messages). The MS only has to read the information needed for
GPRS operations in the target cell.
The necessary GPRS information is contained in the following (P)SI messages:

SI13
SI3
SI1 (for SI, only if present; for PSI only if the PBCCH is hopping)

PSI1
PSI2

After receiving the necessary information, the MS sends the appropriate status message
(PACKET PSI STATUS or PACKET SI STATUS) to the BSS. This status message tells
the BSS what information the MS received in the earlier (P)SI messages. The BSS then
sends the remaining SI messages needed by the MS on the PACCH if the MS has not
returned to the packet idle state. If the MS has returned to the packet idle state, the MS
can read the missing SI messages itself.
The new EN_PSI_STATUS parameter is used to enable/disable:

Packet SI Status in cells without BCCH


Packet PSI Status in cells with PBCCH.

Cell Ranking with Load Criteria

In NC2, cell ranking with load criteria avoids directing mobile stations towards high
loaded cells. This reduces the possibility of an MS being served with non-optimum
resources or being rejected due to congestion. The following two parameters control cell
ranking with load criteria.
This parameter...

Is used to...

EN_NC2_LOAD_RANKING

Enable/disable ranking the load of the target cell during NC2 cell ranking.

THR_NC2_LOAD_
RANKING

Set the threshold above which a cell is considered to be in a PS high load


situation for NC2 cell reselection.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Paging
Overview

Paging is the procedure by which the network contacts a mobile station. The network can
co-ordinate circuit-switched and packet-switched paging if there is a Gs Interface
between the MSC and the SGSN. This means that circuit-switched paging messages can
be sent on the channels used for packet-switched paging messages, and vice-versa. Three
modes are defined.
Table 3-1

Network Operation Modes

Mode

Description

Network Operation Mode 1

Circuit-switched paging messages are sent via the SGSN and MFS.
The circuit-switched paging message for the GPRS-attached mobile station is
sent on the PPCH or CCCH paging channel, or on the PACCH. This means
that the mobile station only needs to monitor one paging channel. It receives
circuit-switched paging messages on the PACCH when the mobile station is
in packet transfer mode.

Network Operation Mode 2

Circuit-switched paging messages are sent via the MSC and BSC, but not the
MFS.
The circuit-switched paging message for the GPRS-attached mobile station is
sent on the CCCH paging channel. The channel is also used for
packet-switched paging messages. This means that the mobile station only
needs to monitor the PCH. Circuit-switched paging continues on the PCH
even if the mobile station is assigned a PDCH.

Network Operation Mode 3

Circuit-switched paging messages are sent via the MSC and BSC, but not the
MFS.
The circuit-switched paging message for the GPRS-attached mobile station is
sent on the CCCH paging channel. The packet-switched paging message is
sent on either the PPCH (if allocated) or on the CCCH paging channel.

Packet-switched paging does not use the Local Area for paging, but a GPRS Routing Area
(RA). The RA is smaller, and fewer cells are involved.
For VGCS, Notification messages are broadcast periodically in the cell, on NCH, and
optionally on FACCH, for ongoing point-to-point calls, to notify the VGCS mobile
station of a new VGCS call being established.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-25
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


GPRS Network Functions

Paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This process is similar to the Paging procedure used for standard calls. Different
notification procedures are applied, depending on the mode of the mobile station to be
notified:

Idle Mode Notification messages are broadcast on the NCH of the cell for new or
ongoing VGCS calls
Group Receive Mode or Group Transmit Mode Notification messages are
broadcast on the FACCH of other ongoing VGCS calls to notify the new VGCS calls
that are being setup in the cell
Dedicated Group Transmit Mode Notification messages are broadcast on the
FACCH of the dedicated TCH allocated to the talker
Dedicated Mode Notification messages are broadcast on the FACCH of all
ongoing point-to-point calls in the cell to notify the new VGCS calls that are being
setup in the cell.

Radio Power Control and Radio Link Measurement


Overview

In order to decrease the level of interference in a network, the uplink and downlink
transmissions are constantly measured and a balance is maintained between transmission
power and the actual quality of the link. In GPRS, power control is implemented in an
open loop on the uplink path. This maintains speech quality in the network and keeps a
low bit error rate for data transmission.
The BSS broadcasts the configuration parameters necessary for the mobile station. When
it first accesses a cell, the mobile station sets its output power as defined in the system
information. It then resets its power output according to the parameters broadcast, and to
an evaluation of the uplink path loss.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-26
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Resource Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Additional GRPS Network Functions


Resource Management
Overview

In order to provide flexibility to the operator in managing the use of resources by


circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic, resources are shared between the MFS and
the BSC. Use of these resources by one system or the other can be controlled by a variety
of parameters to meet operators' needs. The MFS and BSC co-ordinate resource
management over the BSCGP Interface.
In GPRS, resource management refers principally to the allocation of Packet Data
Channels. PDCHs are dynamically allocated according to criteria that can be defined by
the user.
Procedure

When a TBF request is made, resources are allocated on one or more PDCH for the
transfer of PDUs. The allocation process takes place as follows:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

A TBF establishment request is received through a Packet Channel request for the uplink,
or through a downlink LLC-PDU for the downlink.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The number of PDCHs is determined by the:

Mobile station multislot class. This is not always known in the uplink case
O&M parameter (MAX_PDCH_PER_TBF). This defines the maximum number of
allocatable PDCHs per TBF.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the requested number of PDCHs is not available, a request to establish a TBF is sent to
the BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

PDCHs are allocated to the TBF.


E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-27
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Timeslot Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Timeslot Allocation
Overview

GPRS allows bandwidth to be shared between several mobiles. On a radio timeslot,


bandwidth can be shared between up to nine users on the downlink path and six on the
uplink path, or up to 16 GPRS requests within one timeslot. Circuit-switched data
services require at least one timeslot per user.
The radio blocks on each timeslot are equally distributed among the users assigned to the
channel. For example, on the uplink path when coding scheme 2 is used, the minimum
raw bit rate per user is 1.9 kbit/s (13.4/7) instead of 13.4 kbit/s. The following table
describes the parameters for timeslot allocation.
This parameter:

Is used to:

MAX_UL_TBF_SPDCH

Define the maximum number of users (between one and six) that share a
PDCH in the uplink direction.

MAX_DL_TBF_SPDCH

Define the maximum number of users (between one and nine) that share a
PDCH in the downlink direction.

N_TBF_PER_SPDCH

Define the optimum number of shared users per direction and per PDCH.
This ensures a good bit rate as long as the GPRS load is normal.

However, setting the N_TBF_PER_PDCH parameter ensures a compromise between


resource efficiency and quality of service. For example, if N_TBF_PER_PDCH = 2 and
coding scheme 2 is used, the preferred raw bit rate per user will be 6.7 kbit/s/s (13.4/2).
When the number of users on the PDCH reaches the N_TBF_PER_PDCH value (2), the
PDCH is declared "busy" and will preferably not accept a third user. But if the GPRS load
is such that all PDCHs are busy, the BSS will override the number of users set in
N_TBF_PER_PDCH and increase the number of shared resources to the maximum, using
the MAL_XL_TBF_SPDCH value.
For VGCS, a timeslot configured as a TCH timeslot is considered by the BSC to be a
TCH timeslot reserved for VGCS and normal traffic when it is identified as
TCH/SPDCH. When there are VGCS only timeslots available (configured but currently
free) in the cell, these timeslots are used for VGCS. If there are no VGCS only timeslots
available, the other free VGCS capable timeslots are used. Otherwise, VGCS calls are
handled as normal calls and are managed using the same timeslot allocation strategy as
for standard calls.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-28
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation


Overview

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation introduces a new way of sharing radio resources
between the MFS and the BSC. With this feature, the MFS no longer needs to request
radio timeslots from the BSC. Instead, the MFS is always aware of all the available
timeslots. This speeds up PDCH establishment and decreases the BSC and MFS CPU
loads.
Because the MFS is aware of all available timeslots, the choice of the best allocation to
serve the TBFs in the MFS is simplified. The SPDCHs are ordered by the BSC to ensure
consistent circuit-switched and packet-switched allocation. The BSC ranks the PS TRXs
and sends this ranking to the MFS on the BSCGP interface at cell creation and if the cell
is modified during an O&M operation. The BSC defines the number of SPDCHs
allocated to the MFS by computing the MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT. The resulting SPDCH
allocation is based on the whole BSS load (CS plus PS load), with the PS load being
provided periodically by the MFS. The BSC informs the MFS of the number of PS
timeslots with the highest priority for PS traffic in the Radio Resource Allocation
Indication message.
Procedure

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation works as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS periodically sends the BSC a Radio Resource Indication Usage
message. This message contains the number of SPDCHs in the MFS and their use.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Upon receipt of this message, the BSC estimates the PS traffic load. Then, the BSC sends
a Radio Resource Allocation Indication message providing the number of radio resources
allocated to the MFS.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS updates its SPDCH allocation table. If necessary, the MFS pre-empts a few
SPDCHs in order to release them to the BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS sends a new Radio Resource Indication Usage message to the BSC
acknowledging the new SPDCHs and indicating the de-allocated SPDCHs (if any).
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-29
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation Process

The following table shows the how the Autonomous Packet Resource Allocation uses a
CS/PS resource-sharing concept with radio resources.
A Timeslot Defined as....

Is...

Reserved for PS

Reserved for PS traffic only. The number of Reserved for PS timeslots is


defined by the MIN_SPDCH parameter.

Priority for PS

Used for either CS or PS traffic, but PS traffic has priority. The number of
Priority for PS timeslots is defined by the MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD and
MIN_SPDCH parameters.

Priority for CS

Used for either CS or PS traffic, but CS traffic has priority. The number of
Priority for CS timeslots available is the difference between the MAX_SPDCH
and MAX_SPDCH_HIGH_LOAD parameters.

Reserved for CS

Reserved for CS traffic only. The number of Reserved for CS timeslots is


defined by the MAX_SPDCH parameter.

This feature introduces a new parameter, MAX_SPDCH_LIMIT. It defines the number of


SPDCHs that can be granted by the BSC to the MFS, and replaces the MAX-SPDCH_DYN
parameter.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-30
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Packet Flow Context

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Flow Context


Overview

The Packet Flow Context (PFC) provides end-to-end QoS management. It allows the BSS
to differentiate between different types of traffic on the radio interface, by reading the
QoS profiles listed in each PDP context defined by the subscriber.
A PFC describes the QoS characteristics of ongoing data transmission. The BSS
recognizes three QoS classes:

The streaming class


This class is a real-time stream and enforces jitter constraints. Video streaming and
Push over Cellular (PoC) are typical applications.
The interactive class
This class corresponds mainly to traditional Internet applications like web browsing.
The background class
This class corresponds to Best Effort services such as e-mail downloading, SMS and
ftp downloading.

When the PFC is activated, the BSS can reject or negotiate the QoS parameters in order to
provide an optimum level of service by:

Favouring conversational and streaming traffic over interactive and background traffic
by reserving resources for these types of traffic
This is particularly useful for subscribers who request a specific quality of service
(QoS) profile for each PDP context, according to their requirements (for example,
contexts associated with e-mail can tolerate lengthy response times, while other
applications such as interactive real-time applications require a very high level of
throughput).
Defining a flow aggregate based on the lifetime of the flows, in order to determine
admission control and QoS based resource allocation in the BSS.

Procedure

In a basic case of mobile station initiated PDP context, PFC works as follows:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station defines the required QoS parameters and sends an
Activate_PDP_Context_Request or a Modify_PDP_Context_Request message
to the SGSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-31
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Packet Flow Context

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN determines the QoS it wants, based on:

The QoS requested by the mobile station

The subscribed QoS stored in the HLR


Network QoS constraints.

The SGSN then performs internal call admission control and resource allocation.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN asks the GSGN to create the PDP context.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GSGN performs internal call admission control and can eventually downgrade the
QoS requested by the SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN uses the PFC feature to read and, if necessary, manage the QoS (for example,
to downgrade resources when there is a cell change to a congested cell).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN informs the GSGN of any changes and informs the mobile station of the PDP
context creation or modification, including the final QoS established in the network.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

Note: PFC can only be used if both the BSS and the SGSN support the feature.
For more information about PDP context management, refer to Packet Data Protocol
Context Activation (p. 3-47).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-32
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Dynamic Abis Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynamic Abis Allocation


Overview

This feature dynamically allocates Abis nibbles among the different TREs used for PS
traffic in a given BTS. That is, the telecom mapping of the Abis nibbles to the TREs in the
BTS is done dynamically. This means that unused Abis nibbles on one timeslot can be
switched to another timeslot as needed. Dynamic Abis allocation reduces the average
number of Abis nibbles used for PS traffic. It allows a higher average Abis bandwidth per
PDCH and increased BSC capacity in terms of TREs. With dynamic Abis allocation,
some BTS configurations do not need a second Abis link. This feature simplifies the
dimensioning of the Abis interface since TRX-level dimensioning is no longer needed.
Dynamic Abis allocation works with M-EGCH statistical multiplexing (see M-EGCH
Statistical Multiplexing (p. 3-41)). As a reminder, a GCH channel in an M-EGCH link
corresponds to a 16k link between the MFS and the BTS and uses one Abis nibble plus
one Ater nibble switched together in the BSC. When needed for PS traffic, the GCH
channel is activated. When no longer in use, the GCH channel is de-activated. In order to
activate GCH channels at the BTS, TREs must listen to the Abis nibbles to detect the
GCH activation messages. With dynamic Abis allocation, the BSC, when requested by the
MFS, performs Abis-Ater switching / de-switching. Abis-Ater switching allows the BSC
to switch N 16k Abis nibbles to N 16k Ater nibbles (n > 1). Abis-Ater de-switching does
the reverse, i.e., N 16k Ater nibbles are switched for N 16k Abis nibbles.
In conjunction with dynamic Abis allocation, the process also uses Abis Nibble Pools
(p. 3-33) and a new Abis Resource Manager (p. 3-34).
Abis Nibble Pools

Dynamic Abis allocation uses logical pools of Abis nibbles. An Abis nibble pool is a set
of basic and extra Abis nibbles which can be dynamically allocated among TREs. The
nibbles of a given pool can only be used by a fixed set of TREs. That is, there is a
one-to-one logical association between a pool of Abis nibbles and a set of TREs. The
basic and extra Abis nibbles in the pool are not shared among TREs in the same way.
The different types of Abis nibbles in a pool are shared as follows:

Extra Abis nibbles are shared at BTS level (e.g., among all TREs of the BTS)
Bonus basic Abis nibbles are also shared at BTS level
Basic Abis nibbles are shared at cell level (among all the TREs of the same sector in a
shared cell). Note that in a cell shared over two BTS, only one BTS sector supports
PS traffic.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-33
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Dynamic Abis Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

To build Abis nibble pools, each basic Abis nibble is statically mapped on an Abis
timeslot. There are two 64k Abis timeslots reserved per TRE. This is important for CS
traffic because a TCH always uses the basic Abis nibble that was initially mapped on its
timeslot. For the extra Abis nibbles, a number of 64k Extra timeslots (EXTS) are defined
for each BTS.
Abis Resource Manager

The Abis resource manager handles the pools of basic and extra Abis nibbles associated
with a given BTS. There is one Abis resource manager per BTS. The manager acts upon
requested received from a higher-level transmission resource manager at GCH level. The
Abis resource manager is located in the MFS since the MFS must manage the Abis
nibbles in order to manage pre-emption due to CS traffic. Because there is a manager for
each BTS, the Abis resource manager for a given BTS is located on one unique GP in the
MFS. Abis nibbles are allocated to a TRE using the GSL-RSL interfaces. Abis nibbles are
identified in the BSS by a physical identifier. The Abis resource manager must be able to
address an Abis nibble at both the BSC and BTS sides. A physical identifier for the nibble
means that no BSC Abis nibble id-to-BTS Abis nibble id conversion is necessary. This
avoids complexity and BSC load-related problems.
Abis Nibble Pool Management

The Abis resource manager uses the following input messages to manage the Abis nibble
pools:

Cell State Response / Cell State Change messages (the contents of the two messages
are the same)
Extra Abis Pool Configuration messages, indicating the list of extra Abis timeslots
available for PS traffic in a BTS
RR Allocation Indication messages, indicating which radio timeslots are available for
PS traffic (i.e., which radio timeslots whose basic Abis nibbles can be used / can no
longer be used for PS traffic)
Cell Deletion messages.

Depending on the message and its contents, the Abis resource manager acts as described
below.
For a Cell State Change message:

When a PS capable TRE is removed, the corresponding basic Abis nibbles are
immediately removed from the Abis pool. The Abis resource manager triggers the
release of the current GCHs of the TRE and the release of the GCHs currently using
the basic Abis nibbles initially mapped to the TRE (if any). All the basic nibbles
associated with the TRE are de-allocated from the TREs using them. The Abis and
Ater nibbles of the concerned GCHs are then de-switched in the BSC.
When a PS capable TRE is added, the resource manager does nothing.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-34
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Dynamic Abis Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the basic Abis nibble-to-timeslot mapping for a TRE has changed, the old basic
Abis nibbles are immediately removed from the pool. The manager triggers the
release of the current GCHs of the TRE and of the GCHs currently using the old basic
Abis nibbles of the TRE (if any). The Abis and Ater nibbles of the impacted GCHs are
then de-switched in the BSC.
If some basic Abis nibbles used for the BCCH or the static SDCCH are no longer
present in the Cell State Change message, the corresponding basic Abis nibbles
are immediately removed from the Abis pool. The corresponding GCH links (if any)
are released.
If there are new basic Abis nibbles available for PS traffic due to BCCH / static
SDCCH channels in the Cell State Change message, these basic nibbles are
added to the Abis nibble pool.

Upon receipt of an Extra Abis Pool Configuration message, the resource


manager:

Deletes from the Abis pool any EXTSs indicated as removed from the list of available
EXTSs. The corresponding GCHs are released and the Abis and Ater nibbles are then
de-switched in the BSC.

Adds new EXTSs to the Abis pool. From that moment on, the new EXTSs are
available to any M-EGCH in the BTS.

Upon receipt of an RR Allocation Indication message, the Abis resource manager:

Pre-empts any basic Abis nibbles whose timeslots are no longer available for PS
traffic. The corresponding GCHs (if any) are released and Abis-Ater de-switching is
done in the BSC.
Adds any basic Abis nibbles whose timeslots are newly available for PS traffic to the
Abis pool.

When a Cell Deletion message is received by the MFS, the Abis resource manager
immediately removes all the basic nibbles of the cell (TREs BCCH, static SDCCH) from
the pool. All the GCHs using these nibbles are released (but they can be used in another
cell). Then Abis-Ater de-switching is done in the BSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-35
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Enhanced Transmission Resource Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Enhanced Transmission Resource Management


Overview

With the M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing and the Dynamic Abis Allocation features,
better management of transmission resources (Ater and Abis nibbles) is possible. This
reduces the consumption and waste of transmission resources. A dedicated transmission
resource manager operating at MFS / GP level is also added. This resource manager
handles both Abis and Ater resources at the GCH level.
The transmission resource manager is in charge of:

Creating and removing the M-EGCH links


Selecting, adding, removing and redistributing GCHs over the M-EGCH links
Managing transmission resource pre-emptions

Managing Abis and / or Ater congestion states


Optionally, monitoring M-EGCH link use, according to the (M)CS of their supported
TBFs (UL and DL).

Frequency Hopping
Overview

Frequency hopping improves the bit error rate and therefore contributes to overall
network quality. Frequency hopping, already provided for circuit-switched channels, is
extended to the packet-switched channels for GPRS implementation. The BSS sends the
hopping law when setting up a connection. All GPRS channels then use the same hopping
law in a synchronized scheme.
For more information about frequency hopping, refer to Chapter 5, Call Set Up.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-36
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

PCM Link Sharing

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PCM Link Sharing


Overview

Resource allocation is made easier by the use of a shared 2048 kb/s PCM link. GPRS
signaling and traffic channels can be multiplexed with circuit-switched traffic channels on
this link between the MFS and the BSC.
Traffic on the Ater Mux Interface between the MFS and the Transcoder is either
processed by the MFS as GPRS traffic, or passed transparently through the cross-connect
in the MFS to the BSC as circuit-switched traffic.

TBF Resource Re-allocation


Overview

Resource re-allocation is enabled using the EN_RES_REALLOCATION parameter. The


feature provides radio and transmission resources for a TBF following an uplink request
received from the mobile station, or following one or more downlink LLC-PDUs received
from the SGSN, when there is no established TBF for the mobile station. More than one
TRX can be allocated to GPRS services in any given cell. Resource allocation must be
prioritized, so priority is set on PDCH groups. The allocation is granted to the PDCH
group with the highest priority. This avoids PDCH groups in a congested state and PDCH
groups that are dual-rate capable.
The requested throughput is served by the:

Maximum number of slots allowed by the mobile station multislot class

GPRS service constraints (the operator gives the maximum number of allowed slots
for one GPRS connection)
Network constraints (resource availability).

The allocation strategy consists of maximizing the allocated PDCH(s) use and, if
necessary, requesting additional PDCH(s) from the BSC. EGPRS traffic has priority over
GPRS traffic. For example, TRXs with high throughput are used for EGPRS traffic.
Although GPRS throughput is optimized using TRXs with high throughput, this occurs
only when there is no conflict with EGPRS traffic.
The following table describes the four types of TBF re-allocations.
This type of
re-allocation...

Is used to...

T1

Maintain a TBF alive despite a pre-emption.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-37
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

TBF Resource Re-allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This type of
re-allocation...

Is used to...

T2

Re-allocate an ongoing TBF when establishing a concurrent TBF when:

T3

T4

A downlink TBF is established concurrent with an existing uplink TBF,


which is allocated with the maximum number of timeslots supported in
the direction of the bias, re-allocation cannot be given to the mobile
station

An uplink TBF is established concurrent with a downlink TBF.

Offer better throughput to ongoing TBFs when:

A TBF cannot be served with the maximum number of PDCHs it


supports,
because:
Of lack of resources at the time of the request
The EGPRS class is used to establish a GPRS TBF, where the GPRS
mobile station class allows a greater number of allocated PDCHs
with better PDCH allocation available to serve the TBF.

"Signaling traffic" becomes "data traffic"

An EGPRS TBF is served on a TRX which offers a higher throughput


(i.e., a better TRX class).
In this case, "Signaling traffic" becomes "data traffic", and an EGPRS
TBF is served on a TRX which offers a higher throughput (i.e., a better
TRX class).

Move an uplink GPRS TBF sharing one PDCH with a downlink EGPRS
TBF onto PDCHs which do not support a downlink EGPRS TBF. When one
PDCH is shared between an uplink GPRS TBF and a downlink EGPRS TBF,
the downlink EGPRS TBF is limited to GMSK (i.e., MCS4). Consequently,
after a T4 re-allocation the downlink EGPRS TBF is able to use 8-PSK (i.e.,
up to MCS9).
T4 re-allocation is not used with dual transfer mode mobile stations.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-38
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Additional GRPS Network Functions

Dynamic Allocation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Dynamic Allocation
Overview

When an uplink TBF is established for a mobile station, the network provides to the
mobile station the list of the uplink PDCHs assigned for that TBF and the list of the USF
identifiers of this TBF.
One unique USF is assigned per TBF per assigned PDCH. During the lifetime of the TBF,
the mobile listens to the downlink PDCHs corresponding to its uplink assigned PDCHs.
On one assigned PDCH, whenever the mobile station detects its USF (note that in this
example, there is only one TBF established per mobile station per direction, i.e. that there
is no "multiple TBF" feature), which means that it is allowed to transmit on the same
uplink PDCH in the next Block Period.

Extended Dynamic Allocation


Overview

The Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA) is an extension of the basic Dynamic


Allocation (E)GPRS MAC mode to allow higher throughput in uplink for type 1 mobile
stations (supporting the feature) through the support of more than two radio transmission
timeslots.
With EDA mode, the mobile station detects an assigned USF value for any assigned
uplink PDCH and allows the mobile station to transmit on that PDCH and all higher
numbered assigned PDCHs.
The mobile station does not need to monitor all the downlink PDCH corresponding to its
uplink PDCH allocated, which allows the type 1 mobile station to support configurations
with more uplink timeslots (and therefore with less downlink timeslots).
The feature is mainly used only whenever the mobile station relies on its own resources.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-39
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Traffic Load Management

Overview of Traffic Load Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Traffic Load Management


Overview of Traffic Load Management
Overview

Traffic load conditions affect PDCH allocation, as described in Congestion Control


(p. 3-41).
A PDCH can have one of four possible states, as shown in the following table.
State

Explanation

Empty

No established TBFs.

Active

At least one established TBF and the total number of established TBFs is
smaller than a defined threshold (O&M parameter N_TBF_PER_SPDCH).

Busy

The number of established TBFs is greater than or equal to O&M parameter


N_TBF_PER_SPDCH but smaller than the maximum allowed (O&M
parameter MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH).

Full

The number of established TBFs is equal to the maximum set by O&M


parameter MAX_UL/DL_TBF_SPDCH.

Smooth PDCH Traffic Adaption to Cell Load Variation


Overview

To avoid wasting GPRS traffic resources when entering a high load situation (with the
ability to allocate GPRS traffic on multiple TRXs, the gap between MAX_PDCH and
MAX_PDCH_HIGH_LOAD can be much bigger than in release B6.2), the BSC evaluates the
total (circuit and packet-switched) traffic per cell and indicates the number of PDCHs that
can be granted for GPRS traffic to the MFS.
The BSC notifies the MFS about any change in the number of available GPRS resources.
Therefore, the GPRS traffic is constantly adapted to the actual traffic situation in the cell.
The Load_EV_Period_GPRS parameter controls smooth PDCH traffic adaptation. It
calculates the number of load samples (calculated every TCH_INFO_PERIOD) for the
PDCH traffic adaptation load averaging algorithm.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-40
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Traffic Load Management

Congestion Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Congestion Control
Overview

Capacity on demand allows operators to both reserve a number of PDCH for GPRS traffic
and reserve other PDCH for shared traffic, according to the real traffic load in the cell at
any given moment. The actual GPRS traffic load is dynamically matched by allocating or
de-allocating PDCH after negotiation between the MFS and the BSC.
The BSC is the master in the negotiation process, which means if circuit-switched traffic
is heavy in a cell, there is no guarantee a GPRS mobile station can establish a call. To
ensure GPRS calls are possible at any time, the MIN_PDCH parameter can be set at the
OMC-R to define the number of PDCH permanently allocated to GPRS in a cell. Using
this parameter to set the minimum number of PDCH allocated to GPRS traffic also sets
the maximum number of radio timeslots allocated to circuit-switched traffic. For GPRS
calls, it is also necessary to get an Ater resource. The function "fast GPRS access" (at
least one PDCH always established in a cell) fulfills this requirement.

M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing


Overview

M-EGCH Statistical Multiplexing provides a means of sharing Ater and Abis nibbles
between the radio timeslots of a TRX. With this feature, transmission resources left
available by a PDCH can be re-used by other PDCHs belonging to the same TRX. This
avoids wasting transmission bandwidth on both the Ater and Abis interfaces.
The feature reduces the amount of GCH resources used, especially on the Ater. It
multiplexes the blocks of all the PDCHs of a TRX on a single transmission link, the
M-EGCH (Multiplexed-EGCH) link. This link is established between the MFS and the
BTS. M-EGCH links are defined per TRX (instead of as a single EGCH link per PDCH).
This allows the (M)CS variations of the TBFs mapped on a TRX to compensate each
other without requiring more transmission resources. With M-EGCH statistical
multiplexing, in the downlink, the TBF is selected first and then the PDCH.
For more information about the M-EGCH link, see GCH Interface (p. 3-16).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-41
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Traffic Load Management

GPRS Overload Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Overload Control


Overview

In multi-GP configuration instead of load-shering, the BSC maintains a cell/GP mapping


table and sends (when possible) the messages directly to the corresponding GP in MFS.
This will lead to a higher capacity per GP board and therefore a reduction of the number
of GP boards for the same packet capacity at network level.
To prevent traffic overload conditions, the SGSN and the BSS constantly exchange traffic
load information. This exchange of information, or flow control, regulates the downlink
traffic between the SGSN and the BSS. The BSS sends mobile station and BSSGP Virtual
Connection radio status information to the SGSN, which then regulates the output traffic
to the BSS when needed.
Flow control is therefore applied at two levels:

Mobile station, and

BVC.

Because more than one Network Service Virtual Connection can be used between the
BSS and the SGSN, the traffic load can be shared and smoothly distributed over the Gb
Interface. During data transfer uplink initialization, a Network Service Virtual Connection
is selected and the uplink bandwidth is reserved. If a Network Service Virtual Connection
is unavailable, traffic is then put on another Network Service Virtual Connection. The
reserved bandwidth on the Network Service Virtual Connection is released at the end of
the transfer. Load sharing allows different data transfers within the same cell to be carried
by different Network Service Virtual Connection.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-42
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Overview of Data Transmission

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Data Transmission
Overview of Data Transmission
Overview

This section describes the GPRS data transmission process, and explains Attach/Detach
procedures, Packet Data Protocol Context Activation/De-activation, and
mobile-originated and mobile-terminated data transfer.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-43
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Attach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Attach
Overview

To access GPRS services, the mobile station performs a GPRS Attach or combined
GPRS/IMSI Attach to the SGSN. For more information about the mobility feature IMSI
Attach-Detach, see IMSI Attach-Detach (p. 5-28)). This procedure establishes a logical
link between the mobile station and the SGSN, and allows the mobile station to be
available for paging from the SGSN and notification of incoming GPRS data.
This is shown in the following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-44
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Attach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

HLR

Home Location Register

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-45
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Attach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

In the GPRS Attach process:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends a GPRS Attach Request to the SGSN.


This request contains:

The mobile station identity (IMSI or P_TMSI)


The mobile station Routing Area Identity
The type of Attach procedure requested (GPRS Attach, or combined GPRS/IMSI
Attach)
The mobile station classmark.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN verifies the mobile station identity, sends a location update to the HLR, (if the
attach requested is a combined GPRS/IMSI Attach, the MSC/VLR is also updated), and
requests a subscriber data profile.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends a location acknowledgment back to the SGSN with the subscriber data
inserted.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN then assigns a P_TMSI to the mobile station.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station acknowledges the P_TMSI, and the Attach procedure is complete.
Result: Once the GPRS Attach procedure is performed, the mobile station is in

Standby and can activate Packet Data Protocol contexts.


E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-46
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation


Overview

A Point-To-Point GPRS subscription contains one or more Packet Data Protocol


addresses. Each Packet Data Protocol address is defined by an individual Packet Data
Protocol context in the mobile station, the SGSN, and the GGSN. Before a mobile station
can send or receive data, a Packet Data Protocol context must be activated. Only the
GGSN or a mobile station in Standby or Ready can activate Packet Data Protocol
contexts. The process for mobile-station originating activation and GGSN-originating
activation are described separately.
Mobile Station-Originating Activation

The following figure illustrates Mobile Station-Originating Activation.


Figure 3-3 Mobile Station-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-47
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MS

Mobile Station

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Procedure

For Mobile Station-originating Packet Data Protocol context activation:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends an Activation Request to the SGSN.


This request contains:

Transaction Identifier
Packet Data Protocol type
Packet Data Protocol address

Access Point Name


Quality of Service requested
Packet Data Protocol configuration options.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN verifies the mobile station subscriber data, creates a Tunnel Identifier (TID - a
logical bi-directional tunnel between the mobile station and the GGSN), and sends the
new Packet Data Protocol type and address to the GGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN creates a context, sends an acknowledgment to the SGSN, which sends an
acknowledgment to the mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN can now send data through the SGSN, and billing begins.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

GGSN-Originating Activation

The following figure shows the GGSN Packet Data Protocol context activation process.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-48
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 3-4 GGSN-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

HLR

Home Location Register

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-49
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context Activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

For GGSN-originating Packet Data Protocol context activation:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the GGSN receives data, it sends a message to the HLR requesting the mobile
station location.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends the GGSN location information and the current SGSN IP address.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN sends a PDU Notification Request to the SGSN, which indicates that a Packet
Data Protocol context needs to be created.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN returns a PDU Notification Response to the GGSN, and sends a
Request Packet Data Protocol Context Activation message to the mobile
station. This message contains the Packet Data Protocol type and address.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station then begins a Packet Data Protocol context activation procedure as
described above.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-50
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Data Transfer
Overview

When the mobile has data to transfer through the network, data transfers can be mobile
originated or mobile terminated. This section describes each transfer type.
Mobile-Originated Data Transfer

The following figure illustrates the data transfer process when it is mobile originated.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-51
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

LLC

Logical Link Control

MS

Mobile Station

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

RLC

Radio Link Control

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

TBF

Temporary Block Flow

UL

Uplink

Procedure

When the mobile station has data to send:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

An Uplink Temporary Block Flow is requested (either on the PRACH, if there is a master
PDCH, or on the RACH).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

An Uplink Temporary Block Flow is established.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Data is sent to the network through the Radio Link Control Protocol Data Units.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

RLC PDUs are acknowledged by the network.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

RLC PDUs are re-assembled into Logical Link Control PDUs and sent to the SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

On receipt of the last RLC PDUs, an acknowledgment is returned and the Uplink
Temporary Block Flow is released.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Mobile-Terminated Data Transfer

The following figure illustrates the data transfer process when it is mobile terminated, that
is, when the network originates the data transfer.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-52
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

DL

Downlink

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-53
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MS

Mobile Station

LLC

Logical Link Control

PCH

Paging Channel

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

PPCH

Packet Paging Channel

PS

Packet Switched

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

TBF

Temporary Block Flow

UL

Uplink

Procedure

When the network has data to send to the mobile:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN receives a downlink Packet Data Protocol PDU for a mobile station, and sends
a paging request to the BSS.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS sends packet paging requests to all the cells in the routing area, on the PPCH if
there is a master PDCH in the cell, or on the PCH.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station requests the establishment of an uplink TBF from the BSS.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The uplink TBF is established, which allows the mobile station to send a Logical Link
Control PDU to the SGSN in order to acknowledge the paging message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends the data LLC-PDUs to the BSS.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS establishes a Downlink TBF on receipt of the first LLC-PDU, and releases after
sending of the last LLC-PDU.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-54
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Delayed Downlink TBF Release

Delaying the release of downlink TBFs allows enhancement of the data throughput served
to mobile station end users. It also significantly reduces the GPRS signaling load. GPRS
RLC/MAC procedures were designed for non real-time data transfer where the data
arrives as one large block. However, the true nature of packet traffic is usually different
from this assumption. For example, TCP-based applications often send small packets
between peer entities before the actual data transfer starts. This leads to a high number of
TBF establishments and releases. Consequently, resource use is far from optimal and
transmission delays unnecessarily long. The problem can be avoided by delaying TBF
release for a short period (e.g., 0.5-2s) after the transmission buffer becomes empty.
Delayed downlink TBF release can occur in either of the following modes:

Acknowledged Mode
When the network wishes to delay the release of the TBF, it sends the last RLC data
block but does not set the Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit. The network only sets the
FBI bit when it wishes to permanently end the TBF. Once the network has sent the
RLC data block containing the last octets of the most recent LLC frame to the mobile
station, the network maintains the downlink TBF by occasionally sending dummy
downlink RLC data blocks to the mobile station, incrementing the BSN with each
dummy data block sent. When the network receives a new LLC frame, it begins to
transmit new RLC data blocks to the mobile station, beginning with the next available
BSN.
When the network wishes to poll the mobile station for a Packet Downlink Ack/Nack
when it has no LLC data to send, the network sends a dummy downlink RLC data
block. The dummy downlink RLC data block is formed by inserting an LLC Dummy
UI Command into a CS1 downlink RLC data block. The LLC Dummy UI Command
is an invalid LLC-PDU and is discarded by the LLC entity in the mobile station.
Unacknowledged Mode.
In RLC unacknowledged mode, the mobile station detects the end of the TBF by
detecting the Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit set to 1. The mobile station then
transmits a Packet Control Acknowledgement, acknowledging the end of the TBF.
The procedure for delayed release of downlink TBF in RLC acknowledged mode
applies except that no retransmission of data blocks is done.

Extended Uplink TBF Mode

In normal TBF release, a countdown procedure is used to release the TBF. Once the
countdown is started, PDUs received after the start of the countdown cannot be
transmitted in the current TBF. A new TBF must be requested and established, causing
release and establishment delays. Extended UL TBF Mode avoids these delays and
increase data throughput by extending the duration of an UL TBF. With Extended UL
TBF Mode, the existing TBF is maintained so data transmission can be quickly restarted
without having to re-establish a new UL TBF even though the countdown has started.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-55
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Extended UL TBF Mode allows the network to initiate the sending of data to the MS
without performing a DL TBF establishment on the CCHs. With this mode, the MS can
send data from newly-arrived LLC frames after the countdown procedure starts. In other
words, the MS can restart an existing countdown procedure when there is new data. In the
delayed state, the network occasionally allocates some radio blocks to the MS to see if the
MS has data to transmit. But if radio resources are requested by the BSC and this request
involves the PDCH carrying the PACCH of the TBF, then T1 allocation is performed. The
re-allocated TBF keeps the same mode it had before the re-allocation.
Extended UL TBF Mode is used whenever allowed by the MS capabilities. If an MS does
not support Extended UL TBF Mode, the BSS uses the normal TBF release procedure. If
the BSS does not know the MS capabilities at UL TBF establishment, the BSS can switch
to the new mode if the MS capabilities are received before the start of the UL TBF release
procedure.
TBF Establishment Time Improvement

TBF Establishment Time Improvement reduces the TBF setting duration in the following
ways:

Downlink TBF establishment protocol alignment, reducing downlink TBF


establishment on PACCH by about 160 ms
Immediate uplink TBF establishment to avoid waiting for the establishment of GCHs
before serving an incoming UL request. An UL TBF is established immediately if one
of the TRXs of the cell already owns an M-EGCH link.
Downlink TBF extension is an enhancement of the delayed downlink TBF release
feature (re-activation of the delayed downlink TBF release when an uplink TBF is
established)
Mobile station context handling (called handling of mobile station session/enhanced
mobile station context) to keep mobile station characteristics as long as possible
Modification of Dummy UI command period when a concurrent uplink TBF is
ongoing (to avoid the 10% throughput waste in the case of an uplink FTP transfer).

GPRS Fast Access

The M-EGCH resource guarantees fast access in a cell when combined with the
Immediate uplink TBF establishment feature (described in TBF Establishment Time
Improvement (p. 3-56)). By implementing both features, the first uplink TBF
establishment in a cell is sped up by 300 to 400 ms.
Initial M-EGCH resource establishment, combined with the Immediate uplink TBF
establishment, optimizes TBF establishment times. Initial M-EGCH resource
establishment guarantees that a first uplink TBF establishment request in a cell is served
immediately. It also guarantees the availability of minimum resources in a cell and speeds
up the first uplink TBF establishment time.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-56
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This ensures that a given cell always has at least one established TRX (i.e., a TRX with
an associated M-EGCH link) allowing the "Immediate uplink TBF establishment"
sub-feature to take full advantage of the initial reservation and perform well in all cases
(except congestion). Additionally, with a high packet-switched load, the blocking
probability because of unavailable Ater resources is reduced.
A flag in the OMC-R is set to guarantee, or not, at least one established Slave PDCH in a
given cell, usable for GPRS and EGPRS traffic.
The user chooses the best compromise between short access times and resource
consumption. Typically, a user reserves terrestrial resources for dense urban cells, where
there is often GPRS traffic, in order to minimize access times. In rural areas, the user can
chose to optimize the Ater consumption and not reserve any terrestrial resources.
When disabled, no M-EGCH link is established by anticipation for a TRX of the cell.
M-EGCH link establishment is done as soon as a TBF needs to be established. The
Immediate uplink TBF establishment does not show its best performance.
When enabled, one TRX is established (i.e., one TRX of the cell has an associated
M-EGCH link) even without GPRS traffic. The number of GCHs to be established is
indicated by N_GCH_FAST_PS_ACCESS. The need for TRX establishment is evaluated at
cell start, when EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS is set from disabled to enabled.
Accordingly, a TRX is then established or not.
A periodic background mechanism verifies every T_CANDIDATE_TBF_REALLOC seconds
that at least one TRX is established in the cell.
The EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS parameter is set according to overall system
dimensioning. These initial resources are statically established and cannot be pre-empted
for packing switching needs (intra-cell or inter-cell GCH pre-emption).
GSM-to-UMTS Cell Reselection

The three 3G-neighbor frequencies are set at cell level, enabling Network Operators to
declare different 3G neighborhoods per GSM cell. The Packet System Information is
updated in order to lighten mobile station processing, and de-activates 3G measurements
when the mobile station switches from PBCCH to circuit-switched dedicated mode. A
new feature, Improved 3G Cell Reselection is implemented to further reduce MS
processing time.
This feature contains the following improvements for broadcasting 3G FDD neighboring
cell information:

3G neighboring cell information broadcast in the SI2quarter message


Sending this information in an SI2quarter message allows the MS to receive and
refresh its knowledge of 3G neighboring cells more quickly. SI2quarter messages are
sent on the Extended BCCH, if enabled. Otherwise they are sent on the BCCH.
3G neighboring cell information instantiated at GSM cell level

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-57
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This improves 3G cell detection by the MS as only frequencies which are really
covered are broadcast. In addition to the 3G search parameters, instantiation includes
the 3G local cell ID.
Complete 3G neighboring cell description broadcast
When enabled, the cell description includes the Primary Scrambling codes and the
diversity parameter of the neighboring 3G cells, in addition to the UTRAN
frequencies. The operator can define the 3G cell so that when a scrambling code is
changed in that 3G cell, the code is also changed in all servicing cells with an adjacent
link to the 3G cell.
UTRAN frequencies instantiated at BSS level
To enable operators to keep their existing 3G cell planning, the UTRAN frequencies
can be instantiated at the BSS level instead of at cell level. However, only one
instantiation level is allowed. Therefore, the operator must choose either BSS level or
cell level.

Alcatel-Lucent BTS support these improvements.


The 3G search de-activation ensures that no 2G-to-3G cell reselection is triggered when
the mobile station is in Packet Transfer mode.
If NC2 or NC0 is activated, the mobile station cannot perform a cell reselection towards
3G or measure 3G signal strength during the transfer. The mobile station stops receiving
the declared 3G frequencies as soon as it receives the Packet Measurement Order
message, ceasing the search for 3G cells when in Packet Transfer mode.
MAC Algorithm

The following rules apply for MAC algorithm scheduling:

TBFs are ordered in queues


The TBF is selected, then a PDCH for this TBF
TBF round robin and PDCH round robin per TBF
Each time a TBF gets a block/USF scheduled on a PDCH, it is moved at the end of
the queue
A TBF which cannot get a block/USF scheduled remains at the same position in the
queue
RT TBFs are scheduled according to their credit, then NRT TBFs are scheduled
Credit management for RT TBFs (decrease, reset)
Extra scheduling of RT TBFs
TDM mode: scheduling of TBFs according to available MEGCH capacity (both in DL
and in UL)
T_MAX_FOR_TBF_SCHEDULING timer in RLC
The weight, a parameter to control scheduling of NRT TBFs: no more absolute
scheduling of NRT TBFs

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-58
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Reduce the number of TBF queues in MAC 5 queues instead of 16 queues for QoS
(P0 to P15)
As follows:
P0 for PNCD/PSCD messages
P1 for GMM signalling
P2: not used

RT (GBR traffic): note that this is not really real time traffic as there is no
constraint on the transfer delay to the mobile
NRT TBF: all NRT TBS in the same queue whatever the priority P4 to P15
Extra scheduling now applies to NRT TBFs also (with a small change in RT TBF
extra scheduling)
DL and UL TBFs are put in the same queue: no more separate scheduling processes
for the DL, then the UL TBFs
GPRS faulty management: no DL Dummy TBF created for UL GPRS TBF
The following rules now apply during the TBFs scheduling in each RT and NRT
queue:
A DL EGPRS block (whatever the MCS) can be scheduled on a PDCH if and only
if there is no UL GPRS USF already scheduled or reserved block on this PDCH in
this 20 ms period

An UL GPRS USF can be scheduled on a PDCH if and only if no DL EGPRS


block is scheduled on this PDCH in this 20 ms period
A PDDCB can be sent on a PDCH with an UL GPRS USF but no useful DL CS
block.

The main principles of MAC algorithm are as follows:

For any DL or UL TBF, RT or NRT TBF, there are two scheduling phases:
The:
Basic scheduling for which the credit or weight of the TBF must be greater or
equal to the basic_scheduling_limit (current assumption =1)
Extra scheduling for TBFs which credit or weight can be below the
basic_scheduling_limit
This leads to four scheduling phases for TBFs:
The:
RT basic scheduling
NRT basic scheduling

RT extra scheduling credit of RT TBF is decreased by 1 when scheduled in this


phase
NRT extra scheduling
A basic scheduling phase stops:

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-59
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Data Transfer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

When:
All resources (radio & transmission) are consumed, OR
All the RT (resp. NRT) TBFs have a credit (resp. weight) < scheduling_limit, OR

No RT (resp. NRT) TBF is schedulable anymore (e.g their (M)CS is higher than
the available transmission resources).
The scheduling of P0 to P2 TBF is not restricted by any credit nor weight (i.e still
absolute).

The following principles concerning the enhanced PDDCB solution apply:

All NRT UL and NRT DL TBFs are managed in the same TBF queue, which leads to
the TBF round robin applied between DL TBF and UL TBF
All the RT UL and RT DL TBFs are managed in another common TBF queue
No need to insert virtual dummy DL TBF for the UL GPRS TBF.

Weight management for NRT TBF:

The current_weight is initialized to the init_weight when the TBF is activated (or
re-activated)
The current_weight is decreased by 1 each time the corresponding TBF is scheduled
on one PDCH, unless the current_weight has reached the minimum limit
The current_weight is set to null when an UL NRT TBF enters the extended mode or
when a DL TBF enters the delayed mode
Reset of current_weight" means the following:current_weight = MIN (current_weight
+ init_weight, maximum_credit_weight)
Reset of DL NRT TBFs and UL NRT TBFs weights performed independently: reset of
DL current_weights is performed when all the conditions are verified for DL NRT
TBFs, even if the conditions are not satisfied for UL NRT TBFs; and vice versa
Reset conditions are checked at the beginning of every 20 ms period (e.g to take into
account the status change of a NRT TBF that may occur after the scheduling in the
previous block period).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-60
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation


Overview

Before a GPRS Detach procedure can be initiated, the Packet Data Protocol context must
be de-activated. The de-activation can be done by the mobile station or by the network.
Mobile-Originating De-activation

The following figure illustrates this process.


Figure 3-5 Mobile-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-61
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

For Mobile-originating Packet Data Protocol context de-activation:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends a De-activate Packet Data Protocol Context Request to the
SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Delete Packet Data Protocol Context Request to the GGSN, which
contains the TID.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN deletes the Packet Data Protocol context, and sends a Delete Packet Data
Protocol Context Response with the de-activated TID to the SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a De-activate Packet Data Protocol Context Accept


message to the mobile station, confirming the de-activation.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

SGSN-Originating De-activation

The following figure shows the network-originated Packet Data Protocol context
de-activation processes.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-62
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 3-6 Network-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation


Processes

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-63
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Procedure

For network-originated Packet Data Protocol context de-activation processes:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Delete Packet Data Protocol Context Request to the GGSN, which
contains the TID.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN de-activates the Packet Data Protocol context and sends a Delete Packet Data
Protocol Context Response to the SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a De-activate Packet Data Protocol Context Request to the mobile
station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station de-activates the context, and returns a De-activate Packet Data
Protocol Context Accept.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

GGSN-Originating De-activation

For GGSN-originating de-activation:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN sends a Delete Packet Data Protocol Context request to the SGSN, which
contains the TID.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a De-activate Packet Data Protocol Context Request to the mobile
station.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-64
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station de-activates the context and returns a De-activate Packet Data
Protocol Context Accept.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Delete Packet Data Protocol Context Response to the GGSN, which
deletes the context.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

Figure 3-6, Network-Originating Packet Data Protocol Context De-activation Processes


(p. 3-64) shows this process.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-65
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Suspend

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Suspend
Overview

The following figure shows the GPRS suspend processes.

Legend:

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Procedure

For the GPRS Suspend process:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends an RR Suspend (TLLI, RAI, suspension cause) message to the
BSC. This is sent as soon as possible after entering the dedicated mode. If the GPRS
suspension procedure was initiated during a GPRS transfer, the mobile station releases all
its GPRS resources.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-66
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Suspend

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC sends a Suspend (TLLI, RAI, suspension cause) message to the MFS, via the
GSL link. The BSC stores TLLI and RAI in order to be able to request the SGSN (via the
MFS) to resume GPRS services when the mobile station leaves dedicated mode. A timer
is not necessary to monitor the Suspend Ack reception. If this acknowledgment is not
received (i.e., no Suspend Reference Number (SRN) reception, see step Step 3), the
Resume will not be sent at circuit-switched call completion.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS sends a Suspend (TLLI, RAI) message to the SGSN.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS receives aSuspend Ack from the SGSN, in which there is a Suspend
Reference Number which is used in the GPRS resume process. The acknowledgment of
the SGSN is supervised by a timer (T3).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS sends a suspend acknowledgment to the BSC, with the Suspend Reference
Number information.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-67
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Resume

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Resume
Overview

The following figures shows the GPRS resume processes.

Legend:

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

RR

Radio Resource

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-68
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Resume

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

For the GPRS Resume process:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC determines that the circuit-switched radio channel must be released (typically
upon circuit-switched call completion). If the BSC is able to request the SGSN to resume
GPRS services (i.e., the suspend procedure succeeded and the BSC received the Suspend
Reference Number, and no external handover has occurred), the BSC sends a Resume
(TLLI, RAI, Suspend Reference Number) message to the MFS. After sending the Resume
message, the BSC starts a guard timer (T_GPRS_Resume) and waits for a Resume Ack
message from the MFS. The guard timer is set as short as possible, so as to be compatible
with the usual RR connection release procedure, and therefore not delay the procedure.
However, this message is not sent in the case of successful completion of an external
handover. In this case, the BSC deletes any stored data or suspend/resume context related
to that mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

On receipt of a Resume message from the BSC, the MFS sends a Resume (TLLI, RAI,
Suspend Reference Number) message to the SGSN, starts a guard timer (T4) and waits
for a Resume Ack message from the SGSN.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MFS receives a Resume Ack from the SGSN.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

On receipt of the Resume Ack from the SGSN, the MFS stops the guard timer (T4) and
sends a Resume Ack message to the BSC. If no Resume Ack is received from the
SGSN before expiry of the guard timer (T4), the MFS sends a Resume Nack to the BSC.
On receipt of the Resume Ack or Resume Nack message from the MFS, the BSC stops
the guard timer (T_GPRS_Resume).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC sends an RR Channel Release (GPRS Resumption) message to the mobile
station and deletes its suspend/resume context. GPRS Resumption indicates whether the
BSS has successfully requested the SGSN to resume GPRS services for the mobile
station, (i.e., whether the Resume Ack was received in the BSS before the
RR Channel Release message was transmitted). The mobile station then exits
dedicated mode. If the guard timer expired, or if a Resume Nack message was received
by the BSC, the Channel Release message includes the GPRS Resumption indication
equal to NOK.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station resumes GPRS services by sending a


Routing Area Update Request message in the following cases:

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-69
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Resume

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

On:

Reception of a Channel Release with GPRS Resumption = NOK

Reception of a Channel Release without GPRS Resumption IE


T3240 expiry.

E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-70
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Detach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS Detach
Overview

After the Packet Data Protocol Context is de-activated, the mobile station or the network
can perform a GPRS Detach procedure.
Whether the detach is initiated by the mobile station or the network, the results are the
same:

The mobile station leaves the Ready mode and enters the Idle mode

All Packet Data Protocol contexts are deleted


The mobile station returns to the circuit-switched system.

Mobile Station-Originating Detach

The following figure illustrates this process.

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-71
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Detach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Procedure

For the Mobile-originating GPRS Detach processes:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends a GPRS Detach Request to the SGSN.


This message contains:

The type of Detach (GPRS or GPRS/IMSI)


An indication if the Detach is due to a mobile station switch off.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN tells the GGSN to de-activate the Packet Data Protocol context.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN responds to the SGSN with a message that it has de-activated the Packet Data
Protocol context.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Detach Accept message to the mobile station.


E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Network-Originating Detach

The following figure shows the Network-originating GPRS Detach procedures.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-72
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Detach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Support Node

HLR

Home Location Register

MFS

Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server

MS

Mobile Station

PDP

Packet Data Protocol

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node

Procedure

A GPRS Detach can be initiated by both the SGSN and the HLR. An SGSN Detach is the
most common network Detach.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-73
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Data Transmission

GPRS Detach

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In this procedure:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN sends a Detach Request to the mobile station, which contains the Detach type.
The Detach type tells the mobile station if it needs to re-attach and re-activate the Packet
Data Protocol context previously used.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN tells the GGSN to de-activate the Packet Data Protocol contexts.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The GGSN responds to the SGSN with a message that it has de-activated the Packet Data
Protocol context.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends the Detach Accept message to the SGSN.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Procedure

If the Detach is requested by the HLR:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The HLR sends a Cancel Location message to the SGSN, which initiates the above
process.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SGSN confirms the Packet Data Protocol context deletion by sending a Cancel
Location Acknowledgment to the HLR.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-74
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

Overview of Location Services

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Location Services
Overview of Location Services
Overview

Location Services (LCS) provide mobile station geographical location (i.e., longitude,
latitude). LCS is applicable to any target mobile station whether or not the mobile station
supports LCS, but with restrictions on positioning method when LCS or individual
positioning methods are not supported by the mobile station.
LCS clients make requests to the PLMN LCS server for location information about one or
several target MSs with a set of parameters such as LCS Client Type, LCS Priority, LCS
Quality of Service (QoS), which includes requested position accuracy and allowed
response time. LCS clients reside in an entity (including the mobile station) within the
PLMN or in an entity external to the PLMN. The target mobile station is positioned by
the LCS. Depending on the positioning techniques, some LCS functions reside in the
mobile station.
LCS in the packet-switched domain is not supported.
Network Measurements Results (NMR) are not supported with LCS.
An LCS client can request location information for one or more target mobile station
from the LCS server, supported by the PLMN.
LCS is applicable to any target mobile station, whether or not the mobile station supports
LCS. However, restrictions apply to the choice of positioning methods when LCS, or
individual positioning methods, are not supported by the mobile station.
Several positioning methods are possible:

Time Advance (TA) positioning


Conventional GPS positioning, whereby the mobile uses GPS to provide its position
Assisted GPS (A-GPS) positioning, which provides two different A-GPS positioning
methods
It provides:
Mobile station-based A-GPS, where the mobile provides its position using A-GPS,
but with the help of assistance data provided by the network

Mobile station-assisted A-GPS, where the network provides both assistance data
to the mobile and also fixes the position (i.e. the mobile is fully "assisted" in this
positioning method).

An A-GPS server provides assistance data (and on request, fixes the position). This
A-GPS server is mandatory to get a position when using A-GPS positioning methods.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-75
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

Logical Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Logical Architecture
Overview

LCS Services support requires new network elements in the network subsystem and
optionally, depending on positioning techniques and network synchronization, on the
radio side.
These network elements are:

Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC)

Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-76
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

Logical Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

As depicted in the above figure:

The GMLC is the first network element for external Location Application (LA) access
in a GSM PLMN. The GMLC requests routing information from the HLR via the Lh
Interface. After performing registration authorization, it sends positioning requests to
the MSC or to the SGSN and receives final location estimates from the MSC or the
SGSN via the Lg Interface
The SMLC is the network element serving the mobile station. The SMLC manages
the overall co-ordination and scheduling of resources required to perform positioning
of a mobile station. It also calculates the final location estimate and accuracy. The
SMLC controls to obtain radio Interface measurements enabling mobile station
location in the service area. The SMLC is connected to the BSS (via the Lb Interface).
It dialogs with other SMLCs (via the Lp Interface) to obtain measurements managed
by another SMLC when the mobile station is at the border of the SMLC-covered area.

LCS Positioning Methods


Overview

In LCS, the SMLC, a functional network element in the BSS, is integrated in the MFS
and is configured by the OMC-R, if the MFS also provides the GPRS services to several
BSCs. The SMLC performs locations services for this set of BSCs. Location requests are
received on the A Interface from the NSS.
The LCS uses an Alcatel-Lucent proprietary interface, BSCLP, for signaling protocol
between the BSC and the SMLC.
LCS supports the following positioning methods:

TA Positioning
Conventional GPS Positioning
Assisted GPS (A-GPS) Positioning.

TA Positioning

TA Positioning delivers Cell ID, Timing Advance, and, optionally, Measurement Report
information to the SMLC. TA Positioning regroups several distinct methods, depending
on the availability and the relevance of the elementary information:

The Time Advance (TA)

Cell Id (CI), only in omnidirectional cells, the geographic co-ordinates of the BTS is
returned instead of the real mobile station position. The TA value is used to determine
the region as a circle or a ring
Cell Id + Timing Advance (CI+TA).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-77
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

LCS Positioning Methods

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

With the TA positioning method, no signaling exchange is required between the SMLC
and the mobile station. The TA positioning applies to all mobile stations, whether they
support LCS or not.
Conventional GPS Positioning

Conventional GPS Positioning is based on the GPS location estimate performed in the
mobile station and provided to the SMLC.
Assisted GPS (A-GPS) Positioning

Assisted GPS (A-GPS) Positioning is split into Mobile Station-Assisted A-GPS and
Mobile Station-Based A-GPS positioning methods, depending on where the location
calculation is processed: in the network or in the mobile station.
For Mobile Station-Assisted A-GPS, the mobile station receives GPS Assistance Data
from the SMLC, performs GPS measurements and returns the GPS measurements to the
SMLC. The SMLC provides these GPS measurements to the external GPS server, which
computes the mobile station location estimate.
For Mobile Station-Based A-GPS, the mobile station receives GPS Assistance Data from
the SMLC, performs GPS measurements and location calculation, and returns its location
estimate to the SMLC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-78
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

LCS Scenario in Circuit-Switched Domain

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

LCS Scenario in Circuit-Switched Domain


Procedure

In the circuit-switched domain, an LCS scenario is as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

An external LCS Client requests the current location of a target mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

This request is handled by the GMLC, which verifies the LCS Client identity and
authorizations, and determines the MSC of the target mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC receives the location request containing the type of location information
requested (current location, assistance data for the mobile station), the mobile station
subscriber's IMSI, LCS QoS information (accuracy, response time). In idle mode, the
MSC performs circuit-switched paging, authentication and ciphering to establish an
SDCCH with the mobile station. The mobile station subscriber is only aware of
circuit-switched paging when a GPRS mobile station in Packet Transfer Mode suspends
GPRS traffic to answer circuit-switched paging.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the mobile station is in dedicated mode (after a specific SDCCH establishment for
location, or during an ongoing call), the MSC sends the location request to the BSC in the
existing SCCP connection for the current call, which forwards it to the SMLC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The SMLC chooses a positioning method and triggers the appropriate procedure to locate
the mobile station. Some message exchanges take place between the SMLC and the BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC then sends a response to the GMLC. The LCS-related messages exchanged
between the BSC and the MFS are conveyed through current GSLs (same SAPI as for
GPRS-related messages).
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Physical Implementation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-79
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

Physical Implementation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview

The GP software supports both GPRS and SMLC, and is handled as a whole. For a BSC
connected to several GPs, the SMLC is supported by the pilot GP (the pilot GP is the GP
handling procedures at the BSS level). When the pilot GP is reselected, the SMLC
function restarts on the new pilot GP. The LCS-related configuration data is downloaded
from the control station to the new pilot GP. The former pilot GP clears all the
LCS-related telecom contexts as well as the LCS-related configuration data.

SMLC Functions
Overview

The SMLC performs the following functions:

Handles LCS protocols towards the BSC and the mobile station, and towards the
external GPS server
Manages call-related location context per mobile station
Selects a positioning method
Triggers the position calculation process for the TA positioning method and presents
the location estimate of the mobile station in a standard format. For Conventional
GPS or Mobile Station-Based A-GPS, the calculation is performed in the mobile
station
Requests and receives GPS Assistance Data destined for the mobile station, when
Mobile Station-Assisted and Mobile Station-Based A-GPS
Provides GPS measurements performed by the mobile station to the external GPS
server, for Mobile Station Assisted A-GPS, to retrieve the mobile station location
estimate
Uses O&M information present in the MFS or SMLC, provided by the OMC-R
Handles errors.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-80
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

BSS and Cell Configuration

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BSS and Cell Configuration


Overview

LCS is an optional feature of the Alcatel-Lucent BSS. It can be blocked by the


manufacturer, and enabled or disabled by the operator at the OMC-R level. For LCS cell
support, the user activates LCS on the BSS handling this cell, and also activates GPRS for
this cell. For example, setting MAX_PDCH to a value greater than zero is mandatory; the
cell is locked for GPRS if the operator does not want GPRS running on this cell. The user
configures the required transmission resources (Ater and Gb resources) on the GP(s)
connected to this BSC.
The O&M characteristics of the serving cell are:

Enabled LCS positioning method in the cell


Preferred GPS method when several GPS methods are candidates for the location
procedure

Configuration data availability


SMLC and GPS server interface state.

LCS O&M
Overview

The OMC-R provides LCS centralized management.


Two alarms are used:

An alarm indicating the concerned LSN.


This alarm's attributes are:
alarm label: "GPS server not reachable through LSN"

alarm type: communicationsAlarm


probable cause: lan error

perceived severity: minor.


An alarm
With the following attributes:
alarm label: "GPS server not reachable"
alarm type: QoS

probable cause: underlying resource unavailable


specific problem: alarmId translation, component translation (identifying Fabric)
perceived severity: major.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-81
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Location Services

LCS O&M

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The user correlates this information with the current router state and with the Ethernet
links state between GPs and hubs.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-82
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

HSDS Description

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

High Speed Data Service


HSDS Description
Overview

High Speed Data Service (HSDS) supports CS1 to CS4 in GPRS and supports EGPRS
with MCS1 to MCS9. The coding scheme and the radio modulation are modified to
increase the data traffic throughput of a given radio timeslot, resulting in an increase of
throughput on the Abis and Ater interfaces.

On the Ater Interface, several Ater nibbles are allocated dynamically by MFS telecom
to handle throughput higher than 16kbit/s
On the Abis Interface, a group of 16k nibbles is associated with each radio timeslot.
Depending on the coding scheme or the MCS, from one to five 16k channels are
necessary per PDCH between the MFS and the BTS.

The following table explains HSDS terminology.


Term

Explanation

M-EGCH

Set of n-associated multiplexed 16k channels used to transport PS traffic.


There is one M-EGCH per TRX (and not per PDCH).

GCH

Any of the n 16k channels composing an M-EGCH.

Nibble

16k channel.

Basic Abis nibble

16k Abis channel either used for circuit-switched or packet-switched traffic.

Extra Abis nibble

16k Abis channel exclusively used for packet-switched traffic.

PS capable TRX

TRX which can be used for packet-switched traffic, at least for GPRS traffic,
characterized by TRX_Pref_Mark = 0.

8-PSK capable TRX

TRX which is EGPRS capable and with n > 1. At least two GCHs are
necessary for 8-PSK (MCS5).

TRX class n

For a TRX class n, the MFS will use n GCHs to establish one M-EGCH.

TRX EGPRS capability

Possibility for the TRX to support EGPRS or not and if it is able to support
EGPRS, its maximum MCS.

Established TRX

The corresponding radio and transmission resources are allocated and the
corresponding M-EGCH is activated.

Allocated PDCH

The corresponding radio resource is allocated by the BSC, but no associated


Ater resources are allocated.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-83
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol


EGPRS

For HSDS, EGPRS enables data transmission support at a bit rate exceeding GPRS
capabilities and uses new modulation and coding schemes on the Air Interface. Data
throughput is optimized in concordance with radio propagation conditions (Link
Adaptation).
Modulation and Coding Schemes

Nine modulation and coding schemes enhance packet data communications (EGPRS),
providing raw RLC data rates ranging from 8.8 kbit/s (minimum value per timeslot, under
the worst radio propagation conditions) up to 59.2 kbit/s (maximum value achievable per
timeslot under the best radio propagation conditions). Data rates above 17.6 kbit/s require
that 8-PSK modulation are used on the A Interface, instead of GMSK.
Link adaptation changes Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS) according to radio
conditions. When radio conditions worsen, a protected MCS with more redundancy is
chosen, leading to a lower throughput. Inversely, when radio conditions improve, a less
protected MCS (less redundancy) is chosen for higher throughput.
The following table describes the three families of coding schemes and their unit
payloads.
This Family...

Contains...

Payload Unit

Family A

MCS3, MCS6 and MCS9

37 bytes

Family A padding

MCS3+padding, MCS6+padding and MCS8

34 bytes

Family B

MCS2, MCS5 and MCS7

28 bytes

Family C

MCS1 and MCS4

22 bytes

When a block is retransmitted with a given MCS, it can be retransmitted (if needed) via
ARQ with a more robust MCS of the same family.
Two selective ARQ mechanisms are used for the transfer of EGPRS RLC data blocks in
the acknowledged RLC/MAC mode:

Type I ARQ mechanism


With this mechanism, when a RLC data block is retransmitted, the same or another
MCS from the same family is selected.
Type II ARQ mechanism (also called Incremental Redundancy (IR)
In this case, a different "puncturing scheme" is applied to the same MCS, if an error is
detected.
IR and re-segmentation are activated on a per cell basis.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-84
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Note: Ensure that the two features are not activated at the same time.
Four Coding Schemes are used for GPRS (CS1 to CS4).
GPRS and EGPRS signaling always uses CS1.
MCS1 to MCS4 are based on GMSK modulation, while MCS5 to MCS9 are based on
8-PSK modulation. The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports MCS5-MCS9 in both the uplink
and the downlink direction.
Coding Scheme

Modulation

Maximum rate [kbps] per


radio timeslot basis

MCS9

8-PSK

59.2

MCS8

8-PSK

54.4

MCS7

8-PSK

44.8

MCS6

8-PSK

29.6

MCS5

8-PSK

22.4

MCS4

GMSK

17.6

MCS3

GMSK

14.8

MCS2

GMSK

11.2

MCS1

GMSK

8.8

CS4

GMSK

21.55 (UL)
20 (DL)

CS3

GMSK

15.75 (UL)
14.4 (DL)

CS2

GMSK

13.455 (UL)
12 (DL)

CS1

GMSK

9.2 (UL)
8 (DL)

Mobile Station Multislot Class Handling

With GPRS/EGPRS, an GPRS/EGPRS mobile station multislot class is introduced.


The multislot classes 30-33 are considered for GPRS and EGPRS:

PTM (Packet Transfer Mode): 30-33 classes mobile


DTM (Dual Transfer Mode): 31-32 classes mobile. Class 33 terminals are supported
as MS class 32 in DTM mode.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-85
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

GPRS CS3/CS4 and EGPRS Protocol

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The available throughputs are:

In PTM mode: Up to 5 DL PDCHS instead of 4 (5 + 1 vs 4 + 1)

In DTM mode: Up to 3 DL PDCHs instead of 2 (4 + 2 vs 3 + 2).

Incremental Redundancy in UL

With EGPRS, performance in terms of maximum user throughput decreases quickly when
the distance between the MS and the antenna increases. This means that for the end user
the quality of service depends on the position of the MS relative to the antenna.
Therefore, it is important to improve the maximum user throughput under these
conditions. By improving the decoding performances of the BTS with EGPRS,
incremental redundancy increase the maximum user throughput in the uplink, particularly
when the MS is far from the antenna. This is especially useful when the MS is at the
border of to cells.
Incremental redundancy uses a type II hybrid ARQ mechanism and is only used with
EPGRS data blocks sent in RLC acknowledge mode, using MCS1 to MCS9. Incremental
redundancy is not used with RLC unacknowledged mode.
Incremental redundancy is based on the reception of RLC data blocks coded with
different puncturing schemes. This lets the BTS enhance the decoding of the data blocks
using soft combining. By taking into account the erroneous RLC data blocks and
combining them with the retransmitted data blocks, the BTS increases the probability of
decoding the blocks correctly. This reduces the number of times the BTS uses a slower
coding scheme compared to situations where incremental redundancy is not used. As a
result, the average throughput is increased.
The BTS supports incremental redundancy with RLC data blocks transmitted with the
same MCS and with data blocks retransmitted with the following MCS combinations:

MCS7 / MCS5

MCS9 / MCS6
MCS8 / MCS6 with padding.

Incremental redundancy is enabled / disabled with the Enable_IR_UL parameter. By


default, the feature is disabled.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-86
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

Transmission Handling

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Transmission Handling
Overview

The following sections describe transmission handling.


TRX Hardware Configuration Management

The Abis timeslots are connected to the TCUs through the BIUA. The BTS connects each
radio timeslot to one Abis nibble. All the nibbles for circuit-switched traffic (basic
nibbles) for a given TRE are connected to the same TCU.
The extra 16k nibbles are connected to any TSU TCU carrying the primary Abis, or any
TSU TCU carrying the secondary Abis.
Logical Configuration Management and TRX/RSL Mapping

In standard configurations, TRXs are mapped to TREs using the current algorithm.
After mapping, the following adjustment occurs:

TREs are classified according to their packet switching capability and Full Rate/Dual
Rate usage, from the highest to the lowest priority: from G4 High Power Full Rate,
G4 High Power Dual Rate, G4 Medium Power Full Rate, G4 Medium Power Dual
Rate, Alcatel-Lucent 9100 Full Rate, and finally to Alcatel-Lucent 9100 Dual Rate
If PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = True (i.e., the BCCH TRX has the highest priority for PS
traffic), the TRX with BCCH is mapped to the highest priority TRE
TRXs with TRX_Pref_Mark = 0 are mapped to the TREs with the highest priority,
beginning with the TRXs which have the biggest PDCH-group size.

TRX Ranking

The BSC determines the ranking of packet switch capable TRXs for circuit-switched and
packet-switched calls to ensure consistent allocation. By this ranking, the TRXs selected
first by the BSC for circuit-switched calls are those selected last by the MFS for
packet-switched calls.
Packet switch capable TRXs are ranked according to the following criteria, from the
highest to the lowest:

TRX supporting the BCCH, if PS_Pref_BCCH_TRX = True

TRX capability (G4 High Power, then G4 Medium Power, and then Alcatel-Lucent
9100)
Dual Rate capability (Full Rate TRXs have a higher priority than Dual Rate TRXs)

The number of radio timeslots available for PS traffic.

Circuit switch only TRXs are not provided to the MFS.


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-87
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

Transmission Handling

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Connection of Extra Abis Nibbles to TREs in the BTS

Extra Abis nibbles are connected to the BTS TREs as follows, enabling a given radio
timeslot to be connected to n nibbles overall in the BTS:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC informs the BTS via the OML of the static mapping of each extra 16k nibble on
the Abis to each TRX.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC groups extra Abis nibbles so that 8 x (n-1) extra Abis nibbles are mapped on
BTS, on top of the already-mapped basic Abis nibbles ( n = 1 to 5).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Extra Abis timeslots are only mapped on a TCU supporting TRE Full Rate. A Dual Rate
TCU does not support extra Abis TS. The same constraint exists between Full Rate TRE
and Dual Rate TRE as between Extra Abis timeslot and Dual Rate TRE.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

To perform Full Rate TRE or extra Abis timeslot extension, the operator triggers a
compact reshuffling to group all Dual Rate TRE to free TCU for Full Rate TRE or extra
Abis timeslot.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Second Abis Link

When there are insufficient Abis timeslots on one Abis link, a second Abis can be
attached to the BTS.
In this case, the OML, RSL, and basic timeslots are always mapped to the first link and
extra timeslots for the TRX transmission pools are split over the two Abis links and the
second Abis link supports extra 16k nibbles for packet traffic.
This link does not carry circuit-switched traffic and cannot cross-connect on the
secondary Abis.
Only Alcatel-Lucent BTS with SUMA boards or Alcatel-Lucent 9110-E support the
second Abis link. Alcatel-Lucent BTS with SUMP boards must be upgraded.
An Alcatel-Lucent BTS can manage two termination points. It is therefore impossible to
do the following:

Connect a BTS in chain after a BTS with two Abis


Change the Abis from chain to ring if there is a BTS with two Abis

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-88
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


High Speed Data Service

Transmission Handling

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Attach a second Abis to a BTS that is not at the end of an Abis chain
Attach a second Abis to a BTS that is in an Abis ring.

Transmission Power

The three types of transmission power are:

GMSK Output Power


The BTS sets all TRE transmit GMSK output power to the same level, the minimum
value among the maximum TRE output power in a sector and in a given band.
8-PSK Output Power
For one given TRE, the maximum output power is lower in 8-PSK than in GMSK
because of the 8-PSK modulation envelope which requires a quasi-linear
amplification. The TRE transmit power in 8-PSK does not exceed the GMSK transmit
power in the sector and in the band. In 8-PSK, the applicable leveling aligns, when
necessary, the 8-PSK transmit power to the GMSK transmit power in the sector and in
the band.
Modulation Delta Power.
The Modulation Delta Power is the difference between the GMSK output power of
the sector for the TRE band and the 8-PSK output power of the TRE.
8-PSK High Power Capability is true if Modulation Delta Power is less than 3 dB,
else it is an 8-PSK Medium Power Capability type TRE.

Cell/GP Mapping Modification


Overview

The algorithm which maps the cells on the GPs takes into account the number of extra
Abis nibbles allocated per TRX. This avoids all cells having static GCHs, mapped on the
same GP and thus limits the risk of Ater blocking.
The cell/GP mapping process includes:

A new parameter (Nb_Extra_Abis_TS) per cell to the MFS in order to steer the cell
- GP mapping. Nb_Extra_Abis_TS is the number of auxiliary 64k channels in the
TRX Transmission pools of the cell
The number of GCHs used by the initial PDCH, when
En_Fast_Initial_GPRS_Access = True

As follows:
One GCH, if Nb_Extra_Abis_TS = 0

Two GCHs, if Nb_Extra_Abis_TS differs from 0.

After a change of pools configuration, the cell is "misaligned" and the operator must
resynchronize the MFS.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-89
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

GPRS in Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Gb over IP

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Gb over IP
Overview Gb over IP
Overview

With the introduction of GBoIP, the telecom traffic, towards/from the SGSN, goes
through the router from/in the MFS.
The following rules apply for a 9130 Evolution MFS:

O&M one LAN:


O&M/Telecom flows are using the same IP interface. This is the default topology.
O&M/Telecom flows use a different IP interface.
O&M two LAN:
The case of a same IP interface used for O&M/Telecom flows is not supported.
The case of different IP interfaces used for O&M/Telecom flows is not recommended.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
3-90
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

4oice services over


V
Adaptive Multi-user
channels on One Slot
(VAMOS)

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an overview of the VAMOS feature. It describes the downlink and
uplink operations, the new training sequences set and the impact on mobile stations.
Contents
VAMOS

4-2

VAMOS Overview

4-2

Downlink

4-3

Orthogonal SubChannels Concept

4-3

VAMOS Adaptive Symbol Constellation

4-4

Training Sequences Used in VAMOS

4-5

VAMOS Operation in DTX

4-6

Power Control in VAMOS

4-7

Associated Control Channels

4-8

Uplink

4-10

Burst Structure and Training Sequence Codes

4-10

Associated Control Channels

4-10

Reception of VAMOS SubChannels at the BTS

4-10

Mobile Station Types for VAMOS

4-11

Overview of Mobile Station Types for VAMOS

4-11

VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations

4-12

Overview of VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations

4-12

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


VAMOS Overview
Slot (VAMOS)
VAMOS
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

VAMOS
VAMOS Overview
Overview

Recently, the GSM network is seeing its greatest expansion due to the increased demand
for mobile voice services in emerging markets. Furthermore, most of these emerging
markets have densely populated cities and limited radio spectrum. Thus the increase of
voice capacity in the circuit switched domain in an evolutionary manner is a key issue for
operators in these markets.
To help operators in these scenarios to alleviate the strain on their networks, new
techniques are required to improve the voice capacity on the basis of reusing existing
network equipment and radio resource. As a result, 3GPP issued a feasibility study for the
study item MUROS (Multi-User Reusing One Slot).
The result of the feasibility study was a set of candidate techniques, out of which
VAMOS (Voice services over Adaptive Multi-User channels on One Slot) is the most
advanced and efficient.
VAMOS is based on the concept of OSC (Orthogonal SubChannels) and on the use, in
the downlink, of the QPSK modulation of which the symbol constellation can be
adjusted, AQPSK (Adaptive QPSK).
VAMOS aims at multiplexing on the same radio resources twice as many speech users per
channel mode, thus allowing on a single GSM time slot either:

up to four half-rate voice traffic channels


up to two half-rate voice traffic channels and one full-rate voice traffic channel
up to two full-rate voice traffi channels.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Orthogonal SubChannels Concept
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Downlink
Orthogonal SubChannels Concept
Overview

The OSC concept aims at multiplexing two users on the same radio resource, that is on
the same frequency and same time slot, by assigning each user onto a given sub-channel.
These sub-channels are then multiplexed by means of orthogonal sequences onto a
common carrier signal and transmitted. On the receiver side, each sub-channel can be
detected knowing which of the orthogonal sequences was used.
Figure 4-1 OSC baseband transmitter

The composite baseband signal is generated by multiplexing two user signals with
orthogonal TSC onto one baseband signal employing a quaternary modulation scheme
such as ordinary QPSK. On the receiver side, the signal detection applying the known
training sequence indexed by the user-specified Training Sequence Code, is executed.
Figure 4-1, OSC baseband transmitter (p. 4-3) depicts the baseband transmitter in
downlink using the OSC technique. The data from User A and User B are mapped onto
QPSK constellations where for each constellation symbol, the first bit is assigned to User
A, in the first subchannel OSC A, and the second bit is assigned to User B, in the second
sub-channel OSC B. Since the signal constellations are based on ordinary QPSK and are
always symmetric, the orthogonal subchannels are transmitted with equal power, that is
the I and Q branches have the same power.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


VAMOS Adaptive Symbol Constellation
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

VAMOS Adaptive Symbol Constellation


Overview

The modulation scheme applied for VAMOS is called Adaptive QPSK (AQPSK) and is
based on an -QPSK (alpha-QPSK) modulation, where "" adjusts the symbol
constellation and consequently the power of each subchannel in a flexible manner. OSC
can thus be seen as using -QPSK with a fixed equal to /4.
Figure 4-2, VAMOS baseband transmitter (p. 4-4) depicts the baseband transmitter in
downlink for the adaptive symbol constellation technique applied for VAMOS.
Figure 4-2 VAMOS baseband transmitter

The adaptability of the modulation scheme is achieved by the time-varying argument .


The value of can range between 0 and /2, these limits representing the BPSK signal
constellation points, that is either suppressing the second sub-channel (OSC B) on the Q
branch ( = 0) or the firs sub-channel (OSC A) on the I branch ( = /2). The value may
be changed on a burst-by-burst basis according to the requirements for power assignment
to both sub-channels. The power assignment is based on a continuous range, but can be
set discretely by the network. Like OSC, a rotation between symbols of /2 is then
applied.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Training Sequences Used in VAMOS
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Training Sequences Used in VAMOS


Overview

VAMOS applies to GSM normal bursts, keeping the burst structure unchanged. Only a
second Training Sequence is defined for the paired sub-channel. To allow multiplexing of
legacy mobile stations in the field, the first sub-channel carries by definition a training
sequence code out of the existing (legacy) eight TSCs. This legacy TSC set is referred to
as "TSC set 1".
The TSC applied to the paired sub-channel belongs to "TSC set 2" which is designed both
to have optimum autocorrelation properties and to achieve the lowest cross-correlation
with the Training Sequences of TSC set 1. The training sequence codes of this second set
can only be applied to the second sub-channel, that is when new VAMOS-aware mobiles
are served. The two TSC sets are depicted in Table 4-1, TSC Set 1 & 2 (p. 4-5).
Table 4-1
Training Sequence Code

TSC Set 1 & 2


TSC Set bits
TSC Set 1

(0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,1)

(0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1)

(0,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,0

(0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,0)

(0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,1)

(0,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,0)

(1,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1)

(1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,0)
TSC Set 2

(0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,1)

(0,1,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1)

(0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,0)

(0,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,0)

(0,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0)

(0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1)

(0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,1,0,1,1,1,0,1,0,1)

(0,1,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,1,0,1,0,0,1)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Training Sequences Used in VAMOS
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The multiplexing is done in such a way that a TSC pair is selected by taking the two TSC
with the same index in both sets. This TSC pairing applies if either a legacy mobile is
paired with a VAMOS-aware mobile or if two VAMOS-aware mobiles are paired.
VAMOS also includes a legacy mode, multiplexing two legacy mobiles. In this case, both
training sequences belong to TSC set 1.
In all cases, the TSC assigned is signaled to the mobile station in the channel assignment
message at call set-up or after handover.

VAMOS Operation in DTX


Overview

If DTX is activated in the downlink and one of the sub-channels enters DTX mode, only
the active sub-channel is transmitted. This allows the use of GMSK modulation with
linearized GMSK pulse shape as for legacy channels. This has the advantage that the
power of the GMSK transmission compared to AQPSK can be reduced during this period
by for example 3 dB, since the signal energy for the remaining active user doubles
compared to ordinary QPSK transmission when both users are active. Once the
sub-channel in DTX mode needs to transmit a silence indicator description (SID FIRST,
SID-UPDATE, ONSET, NODATA) or reenters the next speech activity period, the
AQPSK modulation scheme is selected.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Power Control in VAMOS
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Power Control in VAMOS


Overview

Power control in downlink for VAMOS is done in two successive stages:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Determination of the required transmit power levels for both mobile stations (MS_A and
MS_B) according to the radio link measurement reports (signal level - RXLEV and signal
quality - RXQUAL) received from these mobiles. The BSS determines the power level
P_MS_A required for MS_A in the first sub-channel and P_MS_B for MS_B in the
second subchannel.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Determination of the corresponding AQPSK signal constellation and output power for the
AQPSK signal. A control unit in the BTS computes a combination of output power P and
that gives the required combination of P_MS_A and P_MS_B in downlink.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

Both steps are part of the radio link control in the BSS. The procedure is depicted in an
exemplary implementation in Figure 4.4.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Power Control in VAMOS
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 4-3 Power control in VAMOS

Associated Control Channels


Overview

An important aim with VAMOS is to preserve the integrity of the associated control
channels (FACCH and SACCH), which in downlink direction identify the basis for
reliable neighboring cell descriptions, power control and timing advance commands for
uplink. Hence a balanced performance between traffic channels and associated control
channels is targeted. To achieve this, a metric has been defined such that the relative
performance between traffic channels and associated control channels should not degrade
in comparison to legacy traffic channels in non-VAMOS mode.
While a robust FACCH performance is achievable by transmitting a FACCH frame using
GMSK modulation, one of the drawbacks in VAMOS mode is that speech frames will
need to be stolen from both sub-channels simultaneously in order to transmit a FACCH
frame to one user. This will increase the FACCH signaling load and may lead to artifacts
audible in the speech. To minimize this impact, FACCH soft stealing may be employed,
whereby the power between two users sharing the same radio resource is apportioned in
favor of the user to which the FACCH is associated, but so that the other user's speech
frame is not entirely stolen. This is depicted in Figure 4-4, FACCH soft stealing for two
users sharing the same radio resource: TCH for both users A and B, FACCH for user B,
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Associated Control Channels
Slot (VAMOS)
Downlink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

FACCH for user A. (p. 4-9), where the first constellation shows equal power for two
users sharing the same radio resource, the second shows a power imbalance in favor of
user B and the third constellation shows a power imbalance in favor of user A.
Figure 4-4 FACCH soft stealing for two users sharing the same radio resource: TCH
for both users A and B, FACCH for user B, FACCH for user A.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Burst Structure and Training Sequence Codes
Slot (VAMOS)
Uplink
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Uplink
Burst Structure and Training Sequence Codes
Overview

In contrast to downlink, the physical layer is not changed for uplink. This means that two
independent uplink transmissions are simultaneously received at the BTS. The legacy
GMSK modulation and normal burst are used. Thus the transmitter side is the same as for
legacy GMSK-based voice traffi channels. The same TSC as applied in downlink is,
however, used in uplink.

Associated Control Channels


Overview

Since uplink power control is executed on a dedicated basis for both sub-channels, there
is no difference to the legacy non-VAMOS channel mode.

Reception of VAMOS SubChannels at the BTS


Overview

The BTS receiver needs to process signals from two mobiles on simultaneous
sub-channels with individual propagation paths, which may include time offsets of one or
two symbols. Hence the uplink for VAMOS can be seen as a 22 Multi User MIMO
system, where different propagation paths from two users provide the basis to fully utilize
the degree of freedom of two receive antennas in typical base station (BTS)
implementations

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Overview of Mobile Station Types for VAMOS
Slot (VAMOS)
Mobile Station Types for VAMOS
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile Station Types for VAMOS


Overview of Mobile Station Types for VAMOS
Overview

Legacy mobile stations are always assigned to the first sub-channel bearing legacy TSCs.
Two types of legacy mobile stations are considered, namely:

Legacy mobiles stations that support SAIC (otherwise named DARP Phase 1)
Legacy non-SAIC (non-DARP Phase 1) mobiles that support at least FR and HR
legacy speech channels.

VAMOS thus allows multiplexing between two VAMOS-aware mobiles and between a
VAMOS-aware mobile and a legacy mobile. It also supports multiplexing between two
legacy mobiles provided they both support SAIC (DARP Phase 1).
Two types of VAMOS-aware mobile stations are defined:

VAMOS Level 1: VAMOS-aware mobile stations that are SAIC capable and
implement TSC Set 2 (in addition to TSC Set 1). These mobiles need to comply with
performance requirements for VAMOS Level 1 mobiles.
VAMOS Level 2: VAMOS-aware mobile stations that are SAIC capable, implement
TSC Set 2 (in addition to TSC Set 1) and use an advanced receiver architecture to
comply with tighter performance requirements than for VAMOS Level 1 mobiles.

These new mobiles are designed to be multiplexed on VAMOS sub-channels. In addition,


multiplexing of these mobile stations with legacy mobile stations is foreseen.
The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports the following VAMOS pairings depending on the MS'
capabilities:
Subchannel #2
Subchannel #1

Legacy
non-SAIC

Legacy SAIC

VAMOS
Level 1

VAMOS
Level 2

Legacy non-SAIC

No

No

No

Yes

Legacy SAIC

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

VAMOS Level 1

No

No

Yes

Yes

VAMOS Level 2

No

No

Yes

Yes

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Overview
Slot (VAMOS)
VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations


Overview of VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
Overview

In the Alcatel-Lucent BSS Release B12, one timeslot can support the multiplexing
combinations presented in Figure 4-5, VAMOS Multiplexing Combinations per
timeslot (p. 4-13).
The non-VAMOS mode multiplexing combinations are:

FR
2 x HR
1 x HR.

There is a mixed mode multiplexing combination: 1x HR + 2 x VHR.


The VAMOS mode multiplexing combinations are:

2 x VFR
2 x VHR
4 x VHR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Overview of VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
Slot (VAMOS)
VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 4-5 VAMOS Multiplexing Combinations per timeslot

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Voice services over Adaptive Multi-user channels on One


Slot (VAMOS)

Overview of VAMOS Possible Multiplexing Combinations

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
4-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
5

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an overview of how a call is set up between the NSS and the mobile
station. It describes the various kinds of calls that can be set up. It also describes the type
of teleservice and bearer service required.
Contents
Call Set Up

5-3

Overview of Call Set Up

5-3

Call Types

5-3

Call Set Up Phases

5-4

Mobile-Originated Call

5-5

Overview of Mobile-Originated Call

5-5

Radio and Link Establishment

5-5

Authentication and Ciphering

5-15

Normal Assignment

5-16

Mobile-Terminated Call

5-24

Overview of Mobile-Terminated Call

5-24

Radio and Link Establishment

5-25

Authentication and Ciphering

5-26

Normal Assignment

5-26

Off Air Call Set Up

5-28

IMSI Attach-Detach

5-28

Paging

5-29

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview of Paging

5-29

Paging Control

5-31

Discontinuous Reception

5-34

Congestion

5-35

Overview of Congestion

5-35

Queueing

5-35

In-queue

5-36

Pre-emption

5-38

Classmark Handling

5-40

Overview of Classmark Handling

5-40

Classmark IE

5-41

Classmark Updating

5-43

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure

5-44

Authentication

5-47

Overview of Authentication

5-47

IMSI/TMSI

5-47

Authentication Procedure

5-49

Ciphering

5-51

Overview of Ciphering

5-51

Mobile Station Ciphering Capability

5-52

BSS Ciphering Capability

5-52

Ciphering Keys

5-53

Ciphering Process

5-54

Ciphering in DTM Mode

5-57

Tandem Free Operation

5-58

Overview of Tandem Free Operation

5-58

TFO Process

5-59

TFO Functional Architecture

5-60

TFO Optimization and Management

5-62

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Call Set Up

Overview of Call Set Up

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Set Up
Overview of Call Set Up
Overview

Call set up is required to establish communication between a mobile station and the NSS.
The NSS is responsible for establishing the connection with the correspondent. Different
types of calls require different teleservices. These teleservices are defined in the GSM
specifications. The type of teleservice and bearer service to be used is negotiated before
the normal assignment procedure. See Normal Assignment (p. 5-16) for more
information.

Call Types
Overview

The following table shows the three basic types of call.


Type of Call

Description

Mobility Management Calls

These calls, e.g., location update, are used by the system


to gather mobile station information. The exchanges are
protocol messages only; therefore, only a signaling
channel is used. Figure 2-4, Location Updating
(p. 2-23) illustrates the location update procedure.

Service Calls

These calls, e.g., SMS and SS calls, pass small amounts


of information. Therefore, only a signaling channel is
used.

User Traffic Calls

These calls, e.g., speech or data calls to a correspondent,


can pass large amounts of information. Therefore they
require greater bandwidth than a signaling channel.
These calls use traffic channels.

The channels used for calls are the SDCCH for signaling (static SDCCH), for traffic and
signaling (dynamic SDCCH), and the traffic channel for user traffic (see Air Interface
(p. 2-39) for more information). These channels are associated with FACCH/SACCH. An
SDCCH is always assigned for call set up, even if a traffic channel is later required for the
call.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Call Set Up

Call Types

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The role of the BSS in call set up is to assign the correct channel for the call, and to
provide and manage a communications path between the mobile station and the MSC.

Call Set Up Phases


Overview

The following table shows the phases involved in call set up.
Phase

Composition

Radio and Link


Establishment

Paging (for mobile-terminated calls only) informs the mobile station that it is being
called.
If attach_detach_allowed is activated, the mobile station IMSI_detach message
can eliminate the need for paging. See IMSI Attach-Detach (p. 5-28).
The immediate assignment procedure allocates a resource to the mobile station and
establishes a Radio Signaling Link between the BSS and the mobile station.
A Interface connection, to assign an SCCP signaling channel between the BSC and MSC
Assignment of a switching path through the BSC.

Authentication and
Ciphering

Classmark handling.
Authentication.
Ciphering.

Normal assignment

Teleservice/bearer service negotiation.


Channel allocation.
Physical context procedure.
Traffic channel assignment, if required.
Call connection.

For more information about the phases, refer to:

Mobile-Originated Call (p. 5-5)

Mobile-Terminated Call (p. 5-24).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Overview of Mobile-Originated Call

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile-Originated Call
Overview of Mobile-Originated Call
Overview

A call initiated by a mobile station can either be a subscriber call, where speech and/or
data is passed across the network, or a location update call from a mobile station in idle
mode. Location update information is passed on the signaling connection. Therefore, the
initial call set up procedure is similar to a subscriber call. The location update does not
require allocation of a traffic channel.

Radio and Link Establishment


Overview

When a connection with a mobile station is required, the following must happen:

A radio channel must be assigned to permit communication between the mobile


station and the BSS
A terrestrial link must be established in order to signal the presence of the mobile
station to the network.

The procedure for obtaining these initial connections is called radio and link
establishment.
The radio and link establishment procedure establishes signaling links between:

The BSS and the mobile station via the SDCCH channel
The BSS and the MSC via the SCCP link.

These links pass the information for call negotiation, and set up a traffic channel, if
required.
Figure 5-1, Radio and Link Establishment for Mobile-Originated Call (p. 5-7) shows
radio and link establishment for a mobile-originated call.
Note: A VGCS call initiated by a mobile station uses the same general call set up
procedures as a standard mobile call; any exceptions are described in the relevant
procedure descriptions below.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Channel Request

The mobile station initiates a call by sending a Channel_Request message, with an


REF. The REF includes an establishment cause and a RAND (used for authentication). It
is transmitted on the RACH channel. The RACH channel is associated with the CCCH
channel which the mobile station is monitoring while in idle mode.
The establishment cause field of the REF specifies:

An emergency call
Call re-establishment
Response to paging
Mobile station-originating speech call

Mobile station-originating data call


Location update

Service call (SMS, etc.).

The mobile station notes the random number and frame number associated with each
Channel_Request message. These are used by the mobile station to recognize the
response sent from the BSS. This response is sent on the AGCH, which can be monitored
by many mobile stations. The mobile station decodes all messages sent on this AGCH,
and only accepts a message with a random number and frame number matching one of
the last three requests sent.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 5-1 Radio and Link Establishment for Mobile-Originated Call

Legend:

cm

Classmark

ID

Mobile Station identity

power

Mobile Station power or BTS power

REF

Random access information value

RFN

Reduced frame number

SDCCH Description of the allocated SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel)


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SerInitial Layer 3 message


vice
Request
TA

Timing advance

UA

Unnumbered acknowledgment

The mobile station continues to transmit Channel_Request messages until it receives a


response.
If no response is received before the mobile station has transmitted a predefined number
of retries, the mobile station:

Displays a network error message for all calls except location updates

Performs automatic reselection for location update calls. This means that the mobile
station attempts random access on a different cell.

On receipt of the Channel_Request message from the mobile station, the BTS sends a
Channel_Required message to the BSC. This message contains the random number
sent by the mobile station, and the timing advance measured by the BTS.
Note: Under peak load conditions, resources may be over allocated due to this
process. See below for details on how the Immediate Assignment Extended feature
works to alleviate this problem.
In order to establish a radio connection on a VGCH between a mobile station which is in
group receive mode on that channel and the BTS, the mobile station sends an
Uplink_Access message with the Subsequent_Talker_Uplink_Request
parameter on the voice group call channel. The Uplink_Access message is similar to a
Channel_Request message but is sent only on the group call channel uplink.
The mobile station sends an Uplink_Access message when:

A subsequent talker uplink is required


The BTS performs any necessary contention resolution and grants the uplink to one
mobile station by sending a VGCS_Uplink_Grant message to the mobile station in
unacknowledged mode on the main signalling link. The BSS sends Uplink_Busy
messages on the main signalling link in all cells of the group call area.
There is a reply to an uplink access request.
Note: For emergency VGCS calls, the Channel_Request message contains the
Emergency_VGCS_Channel_Request parameter, which indicates that the fast call
set up procedure should be initiated. See Immediate Assignment (p. 5-10).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SDCCH Channel Activation

The BSC checks the Channel_Required message to ensure it can accept the request. It
allocates an SDCCH channel if one is available. The resource management software of
the BSC allocates the SDCCH on the basis of which traffic channel has the most available
SDCCHs. This ensures the load is spread between the traffic channels.
The BSC then sends a Channel_Activation message to the BTS. It also sets a timer to
wait for an acknowledgment from the BTS, indicating that it is ready to activate the
channel.
The Channel_Activation message contains:

A description of the SDCCH to be used

The timing advance


Mobile station and BTS power commands. The mobile station and BTS power are set
to the maximum allowed in the cell.

The BTS initiates the physical layer resources for the channel and sets the LAPDm
contention resolution ready for the first mobile station message on the SDCCH. It then
sends a Channel_Activation_acknowledgment message to the BSC. The BSC stops
its guard timer.
Note: Contention resolution prevents two mobile stations connecting to the same
SDCCH.
The following figure shows the Channel Activation procedure.

Legend:

power

Mobile Station power or BTS power

SDCCH Description of the allocated SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel)


TA

Timing advance

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

For emergency VGCS calls, the immediate call set up procedure is used. If the O&M flag
En_FAST_VGCS_SETUP is set to "disabled", when the BSC receives the
Emergency_VGCS_Channel_Request message, it ignores the message. If the O&M
flag En_FAST_VGCS_SETUP is set to "enabled", when the BSC receives the
Emergency_VGCS_Channel_Request message, it allocates the SDCCH. Once the
SDCCH is established, the mobile station uses it to send an Immediate_Set_Up
message to core network (this message is transparent for the BSS).
Immediate Assignment

The BSC builds and sends an Immediate_Assign_Command message repeating the


information given in the Channel_Activation message. This message also includes
the random number and frame number of the original mobile station request to which the
BSC is replying. It also instructs the BTS to inform the mobile station of the SDCCH
channel assignment. The BSC starts a guard timer for the mobile station to respond.
The following figure shows the Immediate Assignment procedure.

Legend:

REF

Random access information value

RFN

Reduced frame number

SDCCH Description of the allocated SDCCH (Standalone Dedicated Control Channel)


TA

Timing advance

The BTS sends the Immediate_Assignment message to the mobile station on the
AGCH.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station checks the random number and frame number in the
Immediate_Assignment message. If it matches those from one of its last three
Channel_Request messages, the mobile station switches to the indicated SDCCH and
sets its timing advance to the value indicated in the Immediate_Assignment message.
When a mobile station requires an emergency VGCS call, it sends an
Immediate_Setup message. When the BSC receives this message, it sends a
SCCP_Connection_Request message to establish the dedicated SCCP connection. The
user data field of this message contains the Immediate_Setup message.
The call is then set up as for a standard voice and/or data call and a
SCCP_connection_confirm message is sent, containing the Assignment_Request
message in the user field.
Immediate Assignment Reject

When there is congestion on the SDCCH, the mobile station can retry repeatedly without
success to access a channel.
This produces the following undesired effects:

Undesirable messages on the mobile station screen


The subscriber has to restart his call attempt manually
Repeated futile attempts to connect overload the RACH and Abis Interface
"Ping-pong" cell reselection by the mobile station.

Therefore, the system implements a special Immediate_Assignment_Reject message


when the following conditions are met:

The BSC flag EN_IM_ASS_REJ is set to true. This flag is set on a BSC basis, and can
be viewed but not modified from the OMC-R
All SDCCHs in the cell are busy
The BSC receives a Channel_Required message from the BTS
With one of the following establishment causes:

Emergency call
Call re-establishment

Mobile station-originating call


Location update
Service Calls.

The Immediate_Assignment_Reject message is contained in the information


element of the Immediate_Assign_Command message. This message starts a timer in
the mobile station which causes it to wait in idle mode until the timer expires, before
sending new Channel_Request messages. The length of the timer is dependent upon
the establishment cause, and can be set by the user.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

If an Immediate_Assign_Command message is received before expiration of the timer,


it has priority and the mobile station will respond to it, thereby connecting the call.
Note: This message cannot be used when the mobile station is responding to paging,
i.e., in the case of a mobile-terminated call.
For VGCS emergency calls, when all SDCCH sub-channels in the cell are busy, the BSC
sends an Immediate_Assignment_Reject message with "Wait Indication"
corresponding to the GSM timer T3122, the value of which depends on the establishment
cause in the Channel_Required message. The corresponding value for T3122 is
usually equal to 2 seconds (which is the same value as for the establishment cause
"emergency call" for the normal a point-to-point call).
Immediate Assignment Extended

Under peak load conditions, it is likely that the mobile station will send several
Channel_Request messages before receiving an Immediate_Assignment message
indicating that a channel is allocated to it. At this stage, the BSC is unable to identify the
mobile station which sent a given Channel_Request and so it will grant several
SDCCHs to the same mobile station, thus wasting resources and reducing throughput on
the AGCH.
If several Immediate_Assignment messages are queued on the AGCH, the BTS will
try to build an Immediate_Assignment_Extended message, passed to the mobile
station on the Air Interface, constructed from pieces of two Immediate_Assignment
messages as follows:

The first Immediate_Assignment message in the queue (i.e., the oldest)

The first of the remaining Immediate_Assignment messages in the queue, which


are able to be merged
According to one of the following criteria:

At least one of the two allocated channels is non-hopping


If both allocated channels are hopping, they share the same Mobile Allocation (see
Baseband Frequency Hopping (p. 6-10) for more information about Mobile
Allocation).

If there are several Immediate_Assignment messages in the AGCH queue, but the first
one cannot be merged with any other in the queue (using the above criteria), a "classic"
Immediate_Assignment message is sent on the Air Interface.
Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

The first Layer 2 frame sent on the SDCCH is a standard LAPDm type frame, known as
the Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode. This is equivalent to the Set Asynchronous
Balanced Mode Extended frame in the LAPD. On the Air Interface, it establishes the
LAPDm connection with the BTS. This frame can also contain Layer 3 messages.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Contention Resolution

The mobile station starts its LAPDm connection and sends a Layer 3 message in its first
frame. The BTS uses this message for contention resolution. The BTS sends an
acknowledgment to the mobile station containing the same Layer 3 message. Therefore,
only the mobile station that sent the message can accept the acknowledgment from the
BTS and consider itself connected.
The following figure shows the establishment of the connection for a mobile originated
call.
Figure 5-2 Connection for Mobile-Originated Call

Legend:

Classmark

cm

SerInitial Layer 3 message including the mobile station identity and classmark
vice
Request
Unnumbered acknowledgment

UA

For a mobile-originated call, the Layer 3 message from the mobile station contains:

An Information Element
Indicating:

CM service request (speech/data, SMS, emergency call)


Location updating request (location updating procedure)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CM re-establishment request (after a failure)


IMSI detach indication (mobile station power off - see IMSI Attach-Detach
(p. 5-28) for more information).
The mobile station identity (see Authentication (p. 5-47) for more information)
The mobile station classmark (see Classmark Handling (p. 5-40) for more
information).

The network uses this message to decide which call negotiation procedures are required
and whether to assign a traffic channel.
For VGCS calls, the BSS considers that there are three levels of contention resolution:

At cell level
The BTS immediately sends a VGCS_Uplink_Grant message as soon as it receives
the first correctly decoded Uplink_Access message. Further Uplink_Access
messages are ignored. The BTS sends only one Talker_Detection message to the
BSC.
At BSC level
The BSC sends an Uplink_Busy message to all BTS (except the BTS that sent the
first Talker_Detection message) in the BSC area involved in the VGCS call as
soon as the BSC receives the first Talker_Detection message, in order to prevent
too many incoming Talker_Detection messages.
If another BTS receives an Uplink_Access message between the time the
Talker_Detection message was received by the BSC and an Uplink_Busy
message was received by other BTS, then the BSC manages a queue with an initial
fixed size of 5. If the queue is full (the sixth Talker_Detection message is
received), an Uplink_Release message is immediately sent to the respective BTS.
The BSC sends an Uplink_Release message after the first Talker_Detection
message is received from any of the BTS. An Uplink_Release message is sent to
all the BTS that have a Talker_Detection message in the queue (possibly 0 to 4),
with the exception of the first BTS which sent the Talker_Detection message.
The BSC then sends an Uplink_Request_Confirmation message to the MSC.
At the network level
If uplink requests have been made by more than one BSC, the contention resolution is
performed by the MSC.

Establish Indication

The BTS sends an Establish_Indication message to the BSC to indicate that the
mobile station has connected. The BSC stops the guard timer, extracts the classmark
information, and initiates an SCCP connection with the MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Radio and Link Establishment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SCCP Connection

For standard calls:

The BSC sends an SCCP_Connection_Request message to the MSC

The MSC replies with an SCCP_Connection_Confirm message. This message can


contain a classmark request or a cipher mode command.
The signaling link is established between the mobile station and the MSC.

For VGCS calls:

The MSC sends a SCCP_Connection_Request message to the BSC establish the


VGCS call controlling SCCP connection. The user data field of this message contains
the VGCS/VBS_Setup message
When the BSC receives the SCCP_Connection_Request containing the
VGCS/VBS_Setup, it allocates the necessary resources for the requested call.
The BSC then sends a SCCP_Connection_Confirm message to the MSC. The user
data field of this message contains the VGCS/VBS_Setup_Ack message.
Note: When a mobile station makes an emergency VGCS call, it sends an
Immediate_Setup message. When the BSC receives this message, it sends a
SCCP_Connection_Request message to establish the dedicated SCCP connection.
The user data field of this message contains the Immediate_Setup message.

Authentication and Ciphering


Overview

The content of the classmark IE sent during radio and link establishment depends on the
type of mobile station. The classmark information is used for mobile station power
control and to set ciphering. The MSC can request a classmark update to ensure that it has
the correct information. Classmark procedures are described in Classmark Handling
(p. 5-40).
The authentication procedure:

Authenticates the mobile station identity


Checks the mobile station has the correct Individual Subscriber Authentication Key
value on the SIM for the ciphering procedure

Sends the Random Number for the ciphering and authentication procedures.

For more information about this procedure, refer to Authentication (p. 5-47).
Information passed on the Air Interface must be protected. The MSC can request that the
BSS set the ciphering mode before information is passed on the SDCCH. Ciphering is
described in Ciphering (p. 5-51).
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Normal Assignment
Overview

Figure 5-3, Channel Request (p. 5-18) shows the normal assignment process for a
mobile originated call.
Once the Radio and Link Establishment procedure is successfully completed, the mobile
station has a signaling link with the network. If the call requires a traffic channel to
communicate with a called party, the mobile station sends a setup message. This
indicates the teleservice and bearer service required, and the called party number. The
information is sent transparently through the BSS. This message can contain more than
one bearer service element, and a parameter indicating that the subscriber may request a
change of service (In-Call Modification) during the call. See In-Call Modification
(p. 6-5) for more information.
The MSC sends a Call_Proceeding message to the mobile station. This indicates that
the call parameters have been received, and that attempts to establish communication with
the called party are under way.
Channel Request

The MSC initiates the assignment of the traffic channel by sending the
Assignment_Request message and sets a timer to supervise the response from the
BSC.
The BSC checks the message which must contain a channel type (for a traffic channel this
is speech or data plus data rate). This message also contains the mobile station
classmark which the BSC uses if it has not received the classmark from the mobile
station.
The Assignment_Request message may contain a codec list, giving, in order of
preferences, the type of codec it prefers to use (for example, one that supports enhanced
full-rate speech). In this case, the BSC checks the list against those supported by the cell,
and chooses the preferred codec type that can be used by both the BTS and by the mobile
station.
If the BSC finds an error in the Assignment_Request message, it sends an
assignment_failure message. If no error is detected, it starts the normal assignment
procedure towards the mobile station.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 5-3 Channel Request

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

cipher

Encryption algorithm + ciphering key

cm

Classmark

DTX

Discontinuous transmission flags

TA

Timing advance

Traffic Channel Allocation

The BSC ensures that it is not running any other procedures for the mobile station and
then allocates resources for the traffic channel. The resources allocated are calculated
using an algorithm in the BSC. The BSC can receive an Assignment_Request message
in various situations.
Therefore, it has traffic channel resource allocation algorithms for:

Normal assignment
In-call modification

Intercell handover
Intracell handover
Directed retry
Concentric cells

Microcells.

In normal conditions (mobile-originated call, normal assignment), the normal assignment


algorithm is used. The BSC keeps a table of idle channels in which the channels are
classified by their interference level (1 = low, 5 = high).
The interference level of all free channels is monitored by the BTS. This information is
periodically sent to the BSC in the RF_resource_indication message. The BSC does
not automatically allocate a channel from the lowest interference level, as a number of
channels can be reserved for handover. After all reserved channels are accounted for, the
channel allocated is from the lowest interference level. If the number of reserved channels
exceeds the number of free channels, then the BSC allocates a channel from the highest
interference level. If no channels are available, the BSC sends an
assignment_failure message to the MSC indicating the cause of the failure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TCH Allocation for VGCS

A channel used for VGCS is referred to as VGCH. A VGCH is simply a normal TCH
timeslot that is used for VGCS. One VGCH channel is allocated by the BSS in each cell
involved in a VGCS call. If the MSC asks the BSC for immediate allocation of a VGCH,
allocation is performed just after the VGCS setup procedure and is based on the Resource
Controlling SCCP connection associated with the VGCH.
For VGCS calls, the BSS can allocate one VGCH for each cell involved in the VGCS.
If immediate allocation of a VGCH is required (for example, for an emergency call), then
VGCS allocation is performed immediately after call set up, and is based on the Resource
Controlling SCCP connection associated with the VGCH.
Traffic Channel Activation

The BSC sends a Physical_Context_Request message to the BTS, to find out the
current power and timing advance being used by the mobile station on the SDCCH. The
BTS responds with a Physical_Context_Confirm message, containing the relevant
information. If no channel is available, and queuing is enabled, the call is placed in the
queue. Refer to Congestion (p. 5-35) for more information about queuing.
The following figure shows the channel activation process for the traffic channel.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

cipher

Encryption algorithm + ciphering key

DTX

Discontinuous transmission flags

MS

Mobile Station

TA

Timing advance

TCH

Traffic Channel

The BSC sends a Channel_Activation message to the BTS.


This contains:

A description of the traffic channel to be used


The mobile station timing advance to be applied
The encryption algorithm and ciphering key (same as for SDCCH assignment)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A Discontinuous Transmission indicator for uplink (not used) and downlink (see
Speech Transmission (p. 6-13) for more information)
The mobile station power to be used (see Radio Power Control (p. 6-19) for more
information)
The BTS power to be used.

The BSC starts a timer, and waits for the BTS to acknowledge that it has activated the
channel.
The BTS initializes its resources for the traffic channel, sets the ciphering mode, sends
timing advance and power information to the mobile station on the SACCH associated
with the traffic channel, which is constantly monitored by the mobile station. At the same
time, the BTS sends a Channel_Activation_Acknowledgment message to the BSC.
The BSC stops its timer and sends an Assignment_Command message on the SDCCH to
the mobile station. This instructs the mobile station to change to the traffic channel.
When the mobile station receives the Assignment_Command message, it disconnects the
physical layer, and performs a local release to free the LAPDm connection of the
SDCCH.
For VGCS calls, when the BSC receives a Channel_Activation_Acknowledgment
message from the BTS, the BSC sends a VGCS_Assignment_Result message.
Traffic Channel Assignment

The following figure shows the channel assignment process for the traffic channel.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel


MS

Mobile Station

SABM

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

UA

Unnumbered Acknowledgment

The mobile station then establishes the LAPDm connection (via the SABM on the
FACCH) for the traffic channel. The BTS sends an Establish_Indication message
to the BSC. It also sets the Transcoder and its radio link failure detection algorithm. The
BTS sends a Layer 2 acknowledgment to the mobile station. The mobile station sends an
Assignment_Complete message to the BSC.
When the BSC receives the Establish_Indication message, it establishes a
switching path between the allocated Abis and A Interface resources. When it receives the
Assignment_Complete message, it sends an Assignment_Complete message to the
MSC and initiates release of the SDCCH (see Chapter 6, Call Handling for more
information).
For VGCS, a dedicated TCH is allocated:

To the first calling mobile station


To subsequent calling mobile stations

To listening mobile stations moving into a cell where a VGCH has not been allocated.

Connecting the Call

Once communication with the called party is established (but before the call is answered),
the MSC sends an alerting message to the mobile station. The mobile station generates
a ring tone.
When the called party answers, the MSC sends a connect message to the mobile station.
The mobile station responds with a connect_acknowledgment message. The call is
established.
The following figure shows the call connection process for a mobile originated call.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Originated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

Off Air Call Set Up

Off Air Call Set Up (OACSU) is a method available in the BSS whereby the network
assigns a traffic channel only when the called party has answered the call. This improves
the efficiency of traffic channel allocation as unsuccessful calls will not take up any
traffic channel resources. This feature is controlled by the MSC.
The Layer 3 alerting message is sent by the MSC just after the Call_Proceeding
message. The mobile station then enters the ringing phase. The Assignment_Request
message is not sent by the MSC until the called party answers. The rest of the Layer 3
exchanges between MSC and BSC take place after the mobile station sends the
Assignment_Complete message to the MSC.
When OACSU is in use, the mobile station may provide internally generated tones to the
user (in a Mobile-Originated call) during the ringing phase, as the traffic channel is not
yet available for tones or in-band announcements to be sent.
This feature increases the probability of an internal (SDCCH-to-SDCCH) handover being
initiated by the BSS while the Normal Assignment procedure is being initiated by the
MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Terminated Call

Overview of Mobile-Terminated Call

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile-Terminated Call
Overview of Mobile-Terminated Call
Overview

A call from the NSS to a mobile station can be either a call routed through the NSS from
a calling party, or it can be initiated by the NSS for mobility management.
A mobile-terminated call set up follows the same basic procedures as a mobile-originated
call. This section describes only those procedures which are different. The following
figure shows radio and link establishment for a mobile-terminated call.
Figure 5-4 Radio and Link Establishment for Mobile-Terminated Call

Legend:

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

MS

Mobile Station

PCH

Paging Channel

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Terminated Call

Overview of Mobile-Terminated Call

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

RACH

Random Access Channel

TMSI

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

Radio and Link Establishment


Overview

Before the BSS sets up a signaling link, the mobile station has to be paged. This
procedure is initiated by the MSC. It sends a paging message to the BSC controlling the
location area from which the mobile station last performed a location update.
This message is sent in connectionless mode and contains:

The mobile station identity (TMSI or IMSI of the mobile station to be paged)
A cell identifier list which identifies the cells where the paging request is to be sent.
This can be all cells or a group of cells.

The MSC sets a timer to wait for a Paging_Response message from the mobile station.
The BSC checks the Paging message and, if valid, calculates the mobile station paging
group and the CCCH timeslot for the paging group.
The BSC sends a Paging_Command message to each BTS, indicating the TMSI or IMSI,
the paging group and the channel number.
Each BTS formats the information and broadcasts a Paging_Request message on the
Paging Channel.
The mobile station listens to messages sent to its paging group. When it receives a paging
message with its mobile station identity, it sends a Channel_Request message on the
RACH to the BTS, indicating that the request is in response to a Paging_Request
message.
The BSS then performs the radio and link establishment procedure described in
Mobile-Originated Call (p. 5-5).
Note: When the mobile station sends the SABM, it indicates that the connection is in
response to a paging request. For more information about paging, see Paging
(p. 5-29).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-25
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Terminated Call

Authentication and Ciphering

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Authentication and Ciphering


Overview

The system handles authentication and ciphering for a mobile-terminated call in the same
manner as a mobile-originated call.
For more information, refer to:

Authentication and Ciphering (p. 5-15)


Classmark Handling (p. 5-40)

Authentication (p. 5-47)

Ciphering (p. 5-51).

Normal Assignment
Overview

The normal assignment procedure for a mobile-terminated call is initiated by the MSC.
This is shown in the figure below.
The MSC sends a Layer 3 Call Control Set_Up message to the mobile station, indicating
the bearer service and teleservice to be used for the call. The MSC can indicate more than
one bearer service.
The mobile station checks this message. If it can accept the call, it sends a
Call_Confirmation message which can contain a bearer capability parameter
indicating which bearer service is preferred.
The BSS performs the physical context and channel assignment. This is described in
Normal Assignment (p. 5-16). Once the traffic channel is assigned, the mobile station
alerts the user and sends an Alerting message to the MSC. When the mobile station
user answers, the mobile station sends a Connection message to the MSC. The MSC
sends a Connection_Acknowledgment message to the mobile station and connects the
call.
All these messages are Layer 3 Call Control messages, and are transparent to the BSS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-26
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Terminated Call

Normal Assignment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-27
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Mobile-Terminated Call

Off Air Call Set Up

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Off Air Call Set Up


Overview

If Off Air Call Set Up (OACSU) is in use, it is possible that at one moment the called
party may have answered the call, but the traffic channel is still not assigned by the
network (for example, the call is queued). In this case, the mobile station may supply
tones to the answering user, so that the user does not hang up before the Normal
Assignment procedure completes.

IMSI Attach-Detach
Overview

IMSI Attach-Detach is a mobility feature which primarily concerns the MSC and the
mobile station. Used together with the periodic location update procedure, IMSI
Attach-Detach allows the network to provide more efficient control and use of resources.
For example, if a mobile-terminated call arrives for a mobile station which is "detached",
the MSC knows that the mobile station is not active and does not need to start a paging
request. For the BSS, this can reduce load on the PCH.
Initiation of the IMSI Attach-Detach procedure is controlled by a parameter in the BSS,
Attach_Detach_Allowed. When this parameter is set, the BSS broadcasts system
information on all cells indicating that the network supports IMSI Attach-Detach.
Mobile stations which have successfully connected and logged themselves onto the
network are then obliged to perform IMSI Attach-Detach procedures.
Refer to documentation supplied with mobile stations which support this function.
For more information about the Attach_Detach_Allowed parameter, see the
Alcatel-Lucent Base Station Subsystem - BSS Configuration Handbook.
IMSI Attach-Detach is also used for other functions at the MSC. Refer to documentation
for your network's MSC equipment.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-28
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Overview of Paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Paging
Overview of Paging
Overview

Paging is the procedure by which the network contacts a mobile station. For example, if
the network needs to inform the mobile station of an incoming call, it pages the mobile
station to prompt it to request a channel. After the immediate assignment procedure, the
Service_Request message from the mobile station indicates that the connection is in
response to a paging message.
Paging messages are sent on the CCCH. The downlink CCCH carries the AGCH and the
PCH.
The PCH is divided into sub-channels, each corresponding to a paging group. To save the
mobile station from monitoring every occurrence of the PCH, each mobile station is
assigned a paging group calculated from the IMSI. Each mobile station calculates its
paging group and monitors only that PCH sub-channel. This saves mobile station battery
power.
The number of paging groups and the CCCH organization varies for each configuration.
The mobile station knows the CCCH organization from the information passed on the
BCCH (sys_info 3).
The AGCH sends the Immediate_Assignment message to the mobile station. A
number of blocks can be reserved for the AGCH using the BS_AG_BLKS_RES parameter.
If this parameter is set to 0, then the Immediate_Assignment message is sent on the
PCH. The following figure shows a TDMA frame with nine CCCH blocks, three of which
are reserved for the AGCH and the rest for the PCH. The parameter to reserve these
blocks is set to BS_AG_BLKS_RES = 3.
Figure 5-5 CCCH with Three Blocks Reserved for AGCH

Legend:

AGCH Access Grant Channel


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-29
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Overview of Paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

CCCH

Common Control Channel

PCH

Paging Channel

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

In the example shown in the figure above, BS_AG_BLKS_RES is set to three. Every
occurrence of the TDMA frame cycle carrying the CCCH has three AGCHs and six
PCHs. However, more than six paging groups can be defined by assigning a different
group of six PCHs to a number of TDMA multiframe cycles. This is specified using the
parameter BS_PA_MFRMS, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 5-6 Four TDMA Frame Cycles Providing 24 Paging Sub-channels

Legend:

AGCH Access Grant Channel


PGR

Paging Group

PCH

Paging Channel

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-30
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Overview of Paging

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Paging Control
Overview

The MSC has to initiate the paging procedure, as it holds the information on the last
mobile station location update.
The MSC sends the Paging message to the BSC(s) and sets a timer for the
Paging_Response from the mobile station, which is sent as part of the
service_request message after the immediate assign procedure.
The Paging message from the MDC contains a cell list identifier IE, identifying the cells
in which the Paging message is to be transmitted.
The BSC checks the cell identifier list and builds a Paging_Command message for the
relevant BTS. The following table shows the different cell identification lists and the
paging performed by the BSC.
Table 5-1

Cell List Identifier and Paging Performed

Cell List
Identifier

Paging Performance

No IE present

Paging performed in all cells controlled by BSC

IE indicates all
cells

Paging performed in all cells controlled by BSC

Error in IE

Paging performed in all cells controlled by BSC

IE indicated
specific cell(s)

Paging performed only in those cells specified

IE indicates
specific location
area(s)

Paging performed in all cells of each location area specified

The BSC calculates the paging group of the mobile station for each cell and the CCCH
timeslot. It then sends a Paging_Command message to each BTS, indicating the CCCH
timeslot number, mobile station paging group and the mobile station identity
(IMSI/TMSI).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-31
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Paging Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BTS builds a Paging_Request_Type_x message to send to the mobile station.


There are three types of paging request messages, as the BTS can page more than one
mobile station at a time. The following table shows the relationship between the paging
message type, the number of mobile stations to be paged and the mobile station ID used.
Table 5-2

Cell List Identifier and Paging Performed

Paging Request Message

Mobile Station Identification

Type_1, identifying up to two


mobile stations.

IMSI or TMSI (for one mobile station)

Type_2, identifying three mobile


stations.

TMSI, TMSI, TMSI or

Type_3, identifying four mobile


stations.

TMSI, TMSI, TMSI, TMSI

IMSI, IMSI or TMSI, TMSI or IMSI, TMSI (for two


mobile stations)
TMSI, TMSI, IMSI

By using a combination of paging message types, several mobile stations can be


simultaneously paged. This is done even if some mobile stations are paged using the
IMSI and others are paged using the TMSI.
The Paging_Request messages are stored in a buffer, while waiting to be sent on the
relevant PCH sub-channel. If this buffer becomes full, the next Paging_Command
message is discarded.
When the mobile station receives the Paging_Request message, it sends a
Channel_Request message to initiate the immediate assign procedure. The service
request message following the immediate assign procedure indicates that the
Channel_Request is in response to a Paging_Request message. This is shown in the
following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-32
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Paging Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

CCCH

Common Control Channel

IE

Information Element

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

MS

Mobile Station

REF

Random access information value

RFN

Reduced frame number

SABM

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

TA

Timing advance

TMSI

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-33
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Paging

Discontinuous Reception

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Discontinuous Reception
Overview

Discontinuous Reception adds to the power-saving abilities of the system, extending


mobile station autonomy under battery operation.
The DRX feature implements a receiver off/on ratio of 98 to 2. When the mobile station is
in idle mode, DRX allows the mobile station to switch off its receiver and data
processing. Instead of the mobile station listening continually on the Paging Channel
sub-channel of the CCCH for a paging message, it only listens to that part of the PCH
which corresponds to its paging group. The PCH is split into a number of paging
sub-channels, each of which serves the mobile stations of a particular paging group.
The mobile station calculates its paging group and the part of the PCH it has to monitor. It
gets the information from its IMSI, and from the Control Channel description sent on the
BCCH (sys_info 3). The paging information is transmitted at predefined regular
intervals. The mobile station only turns on its receiver to listen to its paging group and
then turns itself off again. This occurs cyclically, between 0.95 seconds and 4.25 seconds,
depending on the configuration of the cell.
Apart from listening to the PCH, the mobile station monitors the home cell's BCCH up to
once every 30 seconds, and the top six neighboring cells up to once every five minutes.
For more information about Paging, refer to Paging (p. 5-29).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-34
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Congestion

Overview of Congestion

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Congestion
Overview of Congestion
Overview

To prevent an Assignment_Request or an external Handover_Request message


from being rejected, the BSS allows queueing of traffic channel requests. Congestion
occurs when all traffic channels are busy for a particular cell and the message arrives at
the BSC. Queueing is allowed if indicated by the MSC in the request message.

Queueing
Overview

Queueing is used to achieve a higher rate of successful call set up and external handover
completion in the case of traffic channel congestion. This is achieved by queueing the
request for a defined period of time. During this time a traffic channel can become
available and the traffic channel assignment can then be completed.
When all traffic channels of a cell are busy, assignment and external handover requests
for traffic channel allocation can be queued, if:

Requested by the MSC


If the MSC allows queueing, this information and the priority of the request for
queueing are sent in the Priority Information Element of the request.
Configured in the BSC.
The BTS can perform queueing if specified in the BSC configuration. BTS queueing
can be enabled/disabled by an operator command through the OMC-R. Setting the
BTS_Queue_Length parameter to 0 disables queueing.

If either the MSC or BSC does not allow the request to be queued, the request is
immediately rejected and an Assignment_Failure message is sent to the MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-35
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Congestion

In-queue

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In-queue
Overview

If queueing is allowed, the request cannot be queued if one of the two queue limits is
exceeded. These limits are:

The maximum number of requests that can be queued per BTS if defined by the O&M
parameter BTS_Queue_Length. The range is from 1 to 64. This can be individually
set for each BTS
The global limit of 64 queued requests in the BSS. The sum of all BTS queue lengths
cannot exceed 64.

When one of the queue limits is exceeded, the request may still be queued if there is a
lower priority request in the queue. If the priority of the incoming request is higher than
the lowest in the queue, the incoming request is queued and the oldest lowest priority
request is then rejected.
Once a request is queued, the BSC informs the MSC by sending a
Queueing_Indication message.
A timer is activated when the request is queued. If the timer expires or the request is
preempted by a higher priority request, the request is rejected.
Once in the queue, the request waits to be either accepted or rejected due to one of the
following events: traffic channel availability or Forced Directed Retry.
Traffic Channel Availability

If another traffic channel disconnects within the cell, the request at the top of the queue is
assigned to the newly available traffic channel. The request is removed from the queue.
An Assignment_Complete message is sent to the MSC notifying it of the successful
assignment of a traffic channel.
Forced Directed Retry

The BSC detects that the call can be supported on another cell, and implements Forced
Directed Retry.
If the BSC detects the possibility of a handover for the queued request, it generates an
internal or external handover alarm and initiates the appropriate handover procedure. A
handover from an SDCCH in the serving cell to a traffic channel in a target cell is known
as directed retry.
On detection of the handover alarm, the BSC cancels the queued request, stops the timer,
and selects a neighbor cell in the target cell list.
The target cell must be able to support the ciphering requirements of the call if the mobile
station is older than Rel- 6.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-36
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Congestion

In-queue

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once a cell is selected, a traffic channel is chosen and a handover is attempted (SDCCH
to traffic channel). If the handover fails, another cell is chosen from the target cell list.
This procedure continues until a successful handover or the handover limit (number of
handover attempts allowed) is exceeded.
The MSC is notified of a successful handover by an Assignment_Complete message.
The direct retry finishes if the number of handover attempts is exceeded, or there are no
more cells left in the target cell list. Finally an Assignment_Failure message is sent to
the MSC indicating that there are no radio resources available.
Queue Pre-emption

If a higher priority request arrives in the queue, Queue Pre-emption is implemented.


If one of the queue limits is exceeded and the request is the oldest of the lowest priority
requests in the queue, the request is rejected. An Assignment_Reject message is sent
to the MSC indicating that there are no radio resources available.
Timer Expires

If the timer expires, the request is de-queued and rejected. An Assignment_Reject


message is sent to the MSC indicating that there are no radio resources available.
Fast Traffic Handover

Another possibility to save resources in the case of traffic peaks is to force handovers
toward neighbor cells which have less traffic. The fast traffic handover searches in the
whole cell for a mobile which can perform a handover to a neighbor cell with less traffic
if the received signal level of the BCCH is good enough. It is much more efficient than
the forced directed retry when the overlap of adjacent cells is reduced, e.g., in the case of
single layer networks, or for deep indoor coverage (if the umbrella cell does not overlap
totally the microcells). Fast traffic handover is enabled on a per cell basis, by setting the
EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO parameter to TRUE. Setting the EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO
parameter to False disables fast traffic handover for that cell.
Fast traffic handover is enabled when all of the following conditions are met:

A request is queued at the top of the queue. The request is of full-rate type for
assignment or emergency external incoming handover, and is not in the HOLD state
The parameter EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO is set to TRUE.

The queued request is an assignment. If it is an external incoming handover, it is an


emergency handover to trigger the algorithm; otherwise the algorithm is not triggered.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-37
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Congestion

Pre-emption

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Pre-emption
Overview

Pre-emption is an optional feature and is initiated during congestion periods. The feature
allows radio resources in a cell to be allocated to those calls which are deemed to be the
most important. The importance of the connection is given by the MSC to the BSC via
signaling on the A Interface. During congestion periods, the BSC ensures that high
priority transactions obtain the resources they require. The BSC performs a release of
radio resources in order to obtain the radio resource for the higher priority call.
For Phase 1 and Phase 2 GSM, the signaling for priority and pre-emption exists on the A
Interface. The setting of this data on the A Interface is controlled by the MSC. The
conditions under which the information is set is up to operator choices. For Phase 2+
GSM, the priority and pre-emption information is based on subscription data which is
stored in the HLR and downloaded to the VLR via MAP protocols. This information can
also be used by the MSC when setting the priority level and pre-emption attributes for the
call.
The pre-emption attributes of a call are defined by three bits:

pci: The pre-emption capability indication indicates if the transaction can pre-empt
another transaction
pvi: The pre-emption vulnerability indication indicates if the transaction can be
pre-empted
prec: The pre-emption recommendation. This is needed in order to defer pre-emption
until a suitable non-congested cell is found in the preferred cell list. The pre-emption
recommendation is used when the old BSS recommends that another connection be
pre-empted.

Pre-emption is applied to the TCH only. The pre-emption feature is optional and
controlled by the O&M parameter (EN_TCH_PREEMPT) on a per-BSC basis. The BSC
provides pre-emption of TCH radio resources. This takes into account the priority of the
call. The lowest lower priority call with the pvi bit set is pre-empted and thus released.
Directed retry and/or forced handover in order to avoid pre-emption is not supported.
eMLPP

Enhanced Multi Level Priority and Pre-emption (eMLPP) is a supplementary service that
allows a subscriber in the fixed or mobile network to initiate calls that have a priority and
pre-emption attribute known to all the network elements. The eMLPP standardization
provides the transportation of the subscription information for priority and pre-emption
on MAP. This subscription information is stored in the HLR and the GCR and is
transported to the VLR.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-38
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Congestion

Pre-emption

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This information is used for the following procedures:

Paging

TCH Assignment
TCH Handover.

Only TCH pre-emption is supported (i.e., only for circuit-switched services).


Pre-emption for VGCS is possible for both the VGCH, in transmit and receive modes,
and for the dedicated channel, in dedicated transmit mode.
Pre-emption Rules

An Assignment Request message with pci=1 and priority level=p1 will pre-empt an
ongoing call with pvi=1 and priority level=p2 (p2 is lower than p1). A
Handover Request message with pci=1 and priority level=p1 will pre-empt an ongoing
call with pvi=1 and priority level=p2, except if the prec bit is present and set to 0 (i.e., the
old BSS does not recommend the pre-emption of an ongoing call to be performed by the
target BSS).
In both cases, the call with the lowest priority level=p2 value is selected first, and if
several calls have the same lowest priority level=p2 value, one of them with the pci bit set
to 0 is preferred.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-39
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Overview of Classmark Handling

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Classmark Handling
Overview of Classmark Handling
Overview

The mobile station classmark contains information about the mobile station type and
capabilities. This information is used by the BSS when implementing procedures that
affect a mobile station, such as:

Handover
Power Control

Ciphering
Overload Control
Location Updating.

Mobile stations of different types have different capabilities within the network. It is
essential that the network recognizes the mobile station classmark when initiating
procedures for a specific mobile station.
There are three entities that provide classmark handling, as shown in the following table.
Entity

Classmark Handling

BSS

Performed by the BSC, which is responsible for collecting the classmark


data needed to perform procedures on the mobile station.

MSC

Indicates the mobile station classmark data to the BSC for MSC-initiated
procedures.

Mobile station

The BSS is informed of any classmark changes and information is sent on


request from the BSS.

Note: The BSS can receive mobile station classmark information from both the MSC
and the mobile station. The information from the mobile station overrides information
from the MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-40
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Classmark IE

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Classmark IE
Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports classmark 1, classmark 2 and classmark 3 IEs.


Classmark 1 IE is always sent to the BSS when the mobile station tries to establish
communication.

Classmark 1
The Classmark 1 IE contains:
The revision Level
The RF Power Level
Support of A5/1 Encryption.

Classmark 2
The Classmark 2 IE is defined in GSM to allow the coding of phase 2 capabilities
such as the A5/2, A5/3 ciphering algorithms and VGCS capability. The classmark
contains the same elements as Classmark 1 IE, plus support of A5/2 and A5/3
encryption. The A5/2 algorithm is not supported.
Classmark 3
The Classmark 3 IE is defined in GSM to allow multiband mobile stations to indicate
their capabilities. The classmark specifies the supported bands and the respective
power classes. The Ciphering Mode Setting Capability bit is supported in classmark
3.

Classmark IE Fields

The following tables describes the fields contained in a classmark IE.


This field...

Indicates...

Revision Level

Either a phase 1 or phase 2 mobile station. It does not distinguish between


phase 1 and phase 1 extended mobile stations. If there is an error in this field,
then a default phase 1 is assumed.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-41
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Classmark IE

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This field...

Indicates...

RF Power Level

the mobile station power capability.


For Alcatel-Lucent 900:

Class 2 = 8 W

Class 3 = 5 W

Class 4 = 2 W

Class 5 = 0.8 W

For Alcatel-Lucent 1800:

Class 1 = 1 W

Class 2 = 0.25 W

Class 3 = 4 W

The value is not permitted if there is an error in this field. The result of this is
that the mobile station power capability is assumed to be the same as the
maximum transmit power allowed in the cell.
Support of A5/1 Encryption

Whether the mobile station supports the A5/1 encryption algorithm. If the
A5/1 encryption algorithm is not supported, there is no indication of other
algorithms being supported.

Support of A5/2 Encryption

Whether the mobile station supports the A5/2 encryption algorithm. If the
A5/2 encryption algorithm is not supported, there is no indication of other
algorithms being supported.

Support of A5/3 Encryption

Whether the mobile station supports the A5/3 encryption algorithm. A5/3 is
used for circuit switched channels. A BSS and a TRX must be able to handle
no ciphering, A5/1 and A5/3 in parallel (on different calls).

Impact on BSS and MSC

The main difference between classmarks 1 and 2 for the BSS or MSC is the support of the
encryption algorithm. For procedures that require ciphering, the BSS and MSC cannot
recognize the mobile station ciphering capability if only Classmark 1 IE was received.
Therefore, there is a classmark updating procedure.
Similarly, for classmark 3, the BSS and MSC do not recognize the mobile stations
multiband capabilities if only a Classmark 1 IE was received. Therefore, a classmark
updating procedure is required.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-42
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Classmark Updating

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Classmark Updating
Overview

Further classmark information may be required by the BSS or MSC when initiating a
procedure which needs to encrypt information. The mobile station can also send updated
information if, for example, its power capability changes.
Therefore, updating of classmark information can be initiated from the:

Mobile station by sending a classmark_change message to the BSC which sends a


classmark_update message to the MSC.
BSC by sending a classmark_enquiry message through the BTS to the mobile
station. The mobile station responds with a classmark_change message.
MSC by sending a classmark_request message to the BSC. This prompts the
BSC to send a classmark_enquiry message to the mobile station which responds
with a classmark_change message.

The classmark_change message from the mobile station is passed through the BTS to
the BSC. The BSC stores the information for its own use and forwards the information to
the MSC. Depending on the network type and configuration, the classmark update is not
always required. Therefore, the BSS has a parameter in the BSC (parameter
Send_CM_Enquiry) which can be configured. The following table shows the possible
configurations.
Parameter
Value

Action

The classmark_enquiry message is never initiated by the BSC.

The BSC always initiates a classmark update when it receives a location


update request.

The BSC only initiates a classmark update on reception of a location update


request if A5/1 is not available. This is worked out from the classmark 1 IE.

If the system requests a classmark update to a phase 1 mobile station, the mobile station is
not able to respond. It considers the message an error and sends an RR_status message.
This message is ignored by the BSS and is not passed to the MSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-43
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure


Overview

If the mobile station is a phase 1 extended or phase 2 mobile station, it can send
classmark update information on request from the BSS or MSC. Because the BSS does
not know the mobile station ciphering capability from the classmark 1 IE, updating is
required. This is received when the mobile station establishes the LAPDm connection, as
shown in the following figure.

Legend:

cm

Classmark

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-44
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel


IE

Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

RACH

Random Access Channel

SABM

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel


SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel


TA

Timing advance

Procedure

For location updates with classmark updates:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station initiates a location update procedure by sending a Channel_Request


message on the RACH.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS performs the immediate assign procedure, as described in Mobile-Originated


Call (p. 5-5).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station establishes the LAPDm link and sends the location update request and
classmark 1 IE. The BTS sends an Establish_Indication message to the BSC,
containing the location update request and classmark 1 IE.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC uses the classmark to send mobile station power control information to the BTS
to start power control. It stores the classmark information and requests an SCCP
connection with the MSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the BSC receives an SCCP_Connection_Confirm message, it sends a


classmark_enquiry message to the mobile station.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-45
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Classmark Handling

Location Updating with Classmark Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station responds with a classmark_change message containing the


classmark 2 IE. This information is passed to the MSC in a classmark_updating
message. If the mobile station is a phase 1 mobile station, it responds with an RR_status
message which is ignored by the BSS. In this case, the BSS sets ciphering with the
information available from the classmark 1 IE.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC initiates the authentication procedure and on receipt of the authentication
response message, initiates the ciphering procedure. Refer to Ciphering (p. 5-51) for
more information about ciphering.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When ciphering is set, the MSC can accept the location update.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-46
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Authentication

Overview of Authentication

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Authentication
Overview of Authentication
Overview

The authentication procedure ensures that the subscriber identification (IMSI, TMSI) and
the IMEI are valid. The system behavior for non-valid identifications is at the discretion
of the Network Operator. The procedure also validates the Ki value in the mobile station,
and sends the random number RAND which is used to calculate the ciphering key.

IMSI/TMSI
Overview

When the subscriber accesses the network for the first time, the subscription is identified
by the IMSI sent in the Location_Updating_Request message. When the NSS has
performed authentication and set the ciphering mode, the VLR assigns a TMSI, in an
encrypted format over the Air Interface.
The next time the subscriber connects to the system, it uses the TMSI as its identification.
If the mobile station has changed location area, it includes the old Location Area Identity.
The new VLR interrogates the old VLR for the authentication information (IMSI and Ki
value). The new VLR then assigns a new TMSI. This is shown in the figure below.
New TMSIs can be assigned by the serving VLR at any time. The subscriber identity is
secure because the TMSI is always ciphered and changed regularly.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-47
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Authentication

IMSI/TMSI

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 5-7 Location Update with Mobile Station Sending Location Area Identity of
Previous VLR

Legend:

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity

Ki

Individual Subscriber Authentication Key

LAI

Location Area Identity

TMSI

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity

VLR

Visitor Location Register

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-48
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Authentication

Authentication Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Authentication Procedure
Procedure

The following steps describe the authentication procedure:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The authentication procedure is initiated by the NSS. It sends an


Authentication_Request message to the mobile station and sets a guard timer.
This message contains:

Parameters for the mobile station to calculate the response


A ciphering key sequence number.

The ciphering key is calculated from the authentication Key value assigned to the IMSI or
TMSI and the value RAND.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station responds using the RAND and the value authentication Key assigned
to its TMSI or IMSI.
For mobile-originated calls, the mobile station uses:

The TMSI, if available


The IMSI, if no TMSI is assigned.

For mobile-terminated calls, the mobile station uses the TMSI or IMSI as requested in the
Paging message from the network.
For emergency calls, the mobile station uses:

The TMSI, if available

The IMSI, if no TMSI is assigned


The IMEI, if there is no TMSI or IMSI. This can happen when there is no SIM in the
mobile station.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the mobile station sends the Authentication_Response message, the NSS
stops its guard timer and validates the response.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-49
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Authentication

Authentication Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the mobile station response is not valid, the network response depends on whether the
TMSI or IMSI was used:

If the TMSI was used, the network can request that the mobile station sends its IMSI
If this is a valid IMSI, but is different from the IMSI that the network associated with
the TMSI, the authentication procedure is restarted with the correct parameters
If the IMSI is invalid, the network sends an Authentication_Reject message to
the mobile station.

E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-50
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Overview of Ciphering

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ciphering
Overview of Ciphering
Overview

Ciphering is supported in the Alcatel-Lucent 900/1800 BSS to protect information


transmitted on the Air Interface.
This includes:

Subscriber information such as the IMSI


User data

SMS and SS data


Information such as called and calling party numbers.

Ciphering protects the information by using encryption. There are three different
ciphering modes, the use of which depends on the mobile station classmark, the capability
of the TRE and cipher mode activated at cell level.
These modes are:

Encryption using algorithm A5/1

Encryption using algorithm A5/3


No encryption A5/0.

The two encryption algorithms are defined in GSM. If either is to be used, both the
mobile station and BTS cell must have the same encryption capability.
The ciphering algorithms supported by the BTS TRE in TDM or IP modes are the
following:

A5/0+A5/1+A5/3 for G4/G5 TREs


A5/0+A5/1 for G3 TREs
All files related to the TREs and the ciphering algorithms supported by the BTS
(TDM or IP) are included in BTS Masterfile.

For a call segment, A5/3 is used if:

MS supports A5/3, as indicated in Classmark 2

TRX supports A5/3


The operator has enabled A5/3 support for the cell

NSS allows the use of A5/3


DTM is not enabled in the cell or DTM is enabled and the Ciphering Mode Setting
Capability of the MS bit is enabled.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-51
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Mobile Station Ciphering Capability

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile Station Ciphering Capability


Overview

The mobile station ciphering capability depends on whether it is a phase 1 mobile station,
a phase 1 extended mobile station, or a phase 2 mobile station. The following table shows
the different mobile station ciphering capabilities.
Mobile Station
Type

Capability

Phase 1

No encryption and A5/1

Phase 1
Extended

No encryption and A5/1 and A5/2

Phase 2

No encryption
No encryption and A5/1
No encryption and A5/2
No encryption and A5/1 and A5/2

Rel-6 or latter
version MS

No encryption and A5/1 and A5/3

Starting with phase 2, mobile stations can turn off ciphering or change the ciphering mode
during a channel change procedure such as a handover or call setup for different TRE (G3
and G4/G5) type.
The ciphering capability of a mobile station is signalled to the BSS in the mobile station
classmark.

BSS Ciphering Capability


Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent 900/1800 BSS supports both uniform ciphering network


configurations and mixed ciphering network configurations.
A cell can be configured to support one of the following:

No encryption (A5/0)
No encryption and the A5/1 algorithm (A5/0 + A5/1)
No encryption and A5/1 and A5/3 algorithms (A5/0 + A5/1+ A5/3).

A uniform ciphering network configuration is a network where all cells have the same
ciphering capability.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-52
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

BSS Ciphering Capability

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A mixed ciphering network configuration is a network where the cells have different
ciphering capabilities.

Ciphering Keys
Overview

The encryption used on the Air Interface is provided by the physical layer hardware. This
means that it does not distinguish between signaling and user traffic; therefore, the entire
bit stream is encrypted.
The encryption pattern added to the bit stream is calculated by the A5/1 or A5/3 algorithm
using a ciphering key.
For maximum security, the value of the Ciphering Key is not a fixed value. It is calculated
separately by the HLR, BSC and the mobile station for each call. This means that the
value Kc is never transmitted on the Air Interface.
The value Kc must be the same in the HLR, BSC and the mobile station.
It is calculated using:

A value Ki, which is assigned to the IMSI when the user subscribed to the service
A random number RAND, sent from the MSC during the authentication procedure.

The resulting value Kc is used to decipher the encrypted bit stream on the downlink, by
the mobile station, and on the uplink, by the BTS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-53
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Ciphering Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ciphering Process
Choosing the Ciphering Mode

The ciphering chosen by the BSC for a call depends on:

The algorithms that the Network Operator allows in the network. This information is
sent in the Permitted_Algorithm message from the MSC during ciphering or
external handover procedures.
The ciphering capability of the mobile station. This information is sent to the BSC in
the mobile station classmark.
The ciphering capability of the cell being used to set up the call.

The MSC gives in a bit field a set of permitted algorithms on call basis, e.g. in the
CIPHER MODE COMMAND message. The BSC always gives priority to A5/3 over A5/1, if

several ciphering algorithms are possible. If no ciphering algorithm is specified by the


MSC, the BSC uses A5/0 (No encryption).
Setting the Ciphering Mode

Set the ciphering mode as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Ciphering is initiated by the MSC by sending a cipher_mode command to the BSC.


This command contains the Permitted_Algorithm message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC compares the permitted algorithms with the mobile station ciphering
capabilities, the cell ciphering capabilities and the TRX ciphering capabilities. If they
match, the BSC sends an encryption_command message to the BTS containing the
value Kc and the algorithm to be used. If there is no match and no encryption is
permitted, the BSC sends the encryption_command to the BTS indicating
no encryption.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the cell and mobile station capabilities are not compatible and the MSC does not allow
the no encryption option, then the BSC sends a cipher_mode_reject message to
the MSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BTS sends the ciphering_mode command on the SDCCH to the mobile station,
indicating the algorithm or no encryption. If encryption is to be used, the BTS sets its
decryption mode ready to receive encrypted frames from the mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-54
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Ciphering Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Either:

Starts the encryption and sends an encrypted Layer 2 acknowledgment message to the
BTS. This prompts the BTS to start encryption mode for frames sent to the mobile
station.
Sends an unencrypted level 2 acknowledgment to the BTS.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station sends a ciphering_mode_complete message to the BSC. The BSC
sends a cipher_mode_complete message to the MSC.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

The following figure shows this process.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-55
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Ciphering Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

Ciphering During Handover

The BSS supports 2 encryption algorithms simultaneously. The choice of the algorithm to
be used is performed on a per call basis: the ciphering algorithm is decided at call setup,
and is changed after a handover in case the new TRX has different ciphering capabilities.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-56
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Ciphering

Ciphering Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Only phase 2 mobile stations can change ciphering mode during a handover. If a phase 2
mobile station using the A5/1 algorithm is handed over to a cell which supports A5/0 +
A5/1 + A5/3, the BSC gives priority to A5/3 over A5/1, instructs the target BTS to set the
new ciphering algorithm and sends the value Kc (Ciphering Key).
If a phase 1 mobile station using the A5/1 algorithm needs to be handed over, the target
cell must support A5/1, as the phase 1 mobile station cannot change ciphering mode. For
mixed ciphering networks, it is normal that the initial cipher_mode command from the
MSC only allows a phase 1 mobile station to use the 'no encryption' option, as this is
supported by all cells.

Ciphering in DTM Mode


Overview

Only 3GPP Release 6 MS can change the ciphering algorithm when the call is established
in DTM, this is indicated in the Ciphering Mode Setting Capability bit of the DTM MS.
Ciphering Mode Setting Capability bit is added in MS Classmark 3 to indicate whether
the MS supports or not ciphering changes in DTM.
The DTM capable mobile station requests packet resources and send the DTM Request
message to enter in dual transfer mode (DTM Assignment procedure). During the DTM
Assignment procedure, the BSC reallocates the CS resources and send to the MS the
DTM Assignment Command message that describes both the CS and packet resources.
During DTM Assignment procedure, if a reallocation of the CS resources is needed, the
BSC checks the Ciphering Mode Setting Capability bit:

If this bit is set to 1, there is no restriction: the most optimised algorithm can be
chosen at any time. If the A5 algorithm is changed, the BSC include the Ciphering
Mode Setting OIE (Optional Information Element) in the
DTM Assignment Command

If this bit is set to 0, whenever the MS enters in the DTM mode, it is not possible to
change the ciphering algorithm, the assignment fails because the MS is not able to
understand that the ciphering algorithm is changed. The BSC does not include the
Ciphering Mode Setting OIE in the DTM Assignment Command message.
Therefore, for a DTM capable MS whose Ciphering Mode Setting Capability bit is set
to 0, A5/3 is not used in cells where DTM is enabled. In this case a Cipher Mode
Setting IE is not sent in the DTM ASSIGNMENT COMMAND.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-57
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Tandem Free Operation


Overview of Tandem Free Operation
Overview

Tandem Free Operation (TFO) provides better voice quality by avoiding unnecessary
successive coding and decoding operations in the case of mobile-to-mobile calls. The
importance of TFO is always increasing, as the percentage of mobile-to-mobile calls
increases with the number of subscribers. Take the example of a call involving two
mobile stations, MS 1 and MS 2.
With the TFO feature, the same codec will be used on both BSS.
This improves the speech quality of mobile-to-mobile calls, and particularly when using
the half-rate codec.

Without TFO
One GSM coding and decoding scheme (codec), is used between MS 1 and
Transcoder 1, then A/law coding is used (at 64 kbit/s) between the two transcoders
and finally one GSM codec is used between Transcoder 2 and MS 2. This means a
loss of quality for the speech call.
With TFO.
The intermediate transcoding realized by the two involved transcoders is avoided. The
same codec is used on both BSS. This improves the speech quality of
mobile-to-mobile calls, particularly when using the half-rate codec. This allows a
wide use of the half-rate codec, with a good level of speech quality, in order to save
resources in BSS.
Note: As VGCS is point to multipoint on the downlink, it is not compatible with TFO.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-58
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

TFO Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TFO Process
Overview

TFO can be applied whenever the two mobile stations use the same codec. To satisfy this
condition, after TCH allocation, the two BSS negotiate at each side a common codec
(full-rate, half-rate or enhanced full-rate), by using an in-band protocol in the speech
frame. The following figure shows an example of TFO call establishment.
Figure 5-8 Example of TFO Establishment

Legend:

PCM

Pulse Code Modulation

TC

Transcoder

TFO

Tandem Free Operation

TRAU

Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-59
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

TFO Process

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

Referring to the figure above, the call establishment is as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

At call establishment, the BSC sends the Channel_Activation message to the BTS,
containing information related to TFO.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

TRAU frames are exchanged between the BTS and the Transcoder. PCM samples are
exchanged between the TRAUs. One TRAU frame is stolen from the BTS by the
Transcoder, to send TFO configuration information (in the con_req message).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

As soon as the TRAUs receive the information that TFO is enabled in the con_req
message, (and also the TFO configuration information), they send the tfo_req message,
within PCM speech samples, to indicate that the TRAUs are TFO capable. Meanwhile,
the TRAUs acknowledge the con_req message to the BTS with the dl_ack indication.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The TRAUs acknowledge that the tfo_req message is received by sending a tfo_ack
indication.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The same codecs are then used on both sides. The TRAUs can exchange TFO frames.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BTS are made aware of the exchange of TFO frames by tfo_on. The BSC is
informed via a tfo_report message on the Abis Interface.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

The Alcatel-Lucent TFO implementation is fully compliant with the GSM standard and
additionally provides:

As an operator choice, the Alcatel-Lucent BSS is able to force the distant BSS
(Alcatel-Lucent or not) to overcome ETSI codec choice rules, in order to optimize
voice quality and load management. This mechanism is patented by Alcatel-Lucent.
Codec optimization, to take into account that the two mobile stations may use the
same codec, but a better codec is available on both parts.

TFO Functional Architecture


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-60
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

TFO Functional Architecture

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview

The TFO procedure is defined between two TRAUs. When TFO is possible between two
mobile stations, TFO frames (similar to TRAU frames) are transferred between the two
TRAUs on the A Interface. These frames contain coded speech streams, and may also
contain embedded TFO messages. They are supported by a 0.5 kbit/s signaling channel
between two Transcoders, emulated during the TFO negotiation phase. This channel uses
one bit (Least Significant Bit) every 16 PCM samples, regularly stolen on the 64 kbit/s
circuit. Note that when TFO frames are transmitted, speech is nevertheless coded to
G.711 law and sent to the A Interface on the remaining MSB bits of the PCM samples.
This allows a faster reversion to normal operation mode if required. Moreover, lawful
interception in the MSCs is still possible. The Alcatel-Lucent solution avoids any Ater
supplementary links, because the BSC-Transcoder TFO messages are exchanged through
the BTS and the Abis Layer 3 protocol.
When the same codec is used on both sides, no TFO negotiation is needed between the
TRAUs.
When the same codec is not used on both sides, TFO negotiation is needed between the
TRAUs. In this case, TFO communication is possible between the two BSS, but the
TRAUs do not use the same speech codec. TFO negotiation and resolution by the BSS are
needed. When detecting the mismatch, each TRAU sends to the other (using TFO
messages) the codec locally used, and the list of possible codecs. At each side, the BSS
determines the matching codec. On each BSS, the same algorithm is implemented. This
algorithm attempts to find a matching codec using the information given by the TRAU. If
a common codec can be found, an internal intracell handover is performed to change the
speech codec used locally, and TFO exchange of the speech stream begins. A logical
parameter, configurable at the OMC-R, allows the BSC to ignore the load in the cell and
to force the handover in order to solve codec mismatch situations. If no common codec
can be found, or internal intracell handover is not possible, TFO mode is given up, and
the system reverts to normal mode.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-61
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

TFO Optimization and Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TFO Optimization and Management


Overview

TFO is managed by the OMC-R operator, on a per cell basis. Several functions are
introduced to provide full control of TFO optimization, load regulation, speech quality, or
Adaptive Multiple Rate (p. 8-10) codec support.
For TFO with AMR NB, HR_AMR and FR_AMR is a pre-requisite.
TFO Optimization

For a better speech quality, TFO optimization allows a new TFO negotiation on an
ongoing TFO mobile-to-mobile call, to find a better common codec, in terms of speech
quality. Therefore, enhanced full-rate coding is considered better than full-rate coding
which is considered to be better than half-rate coding. The Enable TFO Optimization
feature can be enabled or disabled per cell at the OMC-R.
In some cases, both sides may use the same codec, but a better codec is available at each
side and may be used (e.g., half-rate is used at both sides, but full-rate is possible). The
procedure is then the same as the modification of speech codec in mismatch status, except
that it takes place only when TFO frames are already exchanged. The TFO messages
exchanged between both TRAUs are then embedded in TFO frames.
TFO Negotiation Control

For better traffic load regulation, Alcatel-Lucent defined the function "Force TFO
half-rate when loaded" to give control of load regulation precedence over TFO to the
operator. This function can be enabled or disabled, per cell, at the OMC-R, and allows the
BSC to take into account the load in the cell while building the list of supported codec
types. If the cell is loaded, only half-rate (if possible) will be included in the list. If the
distant BSS supports TFO but not half-rate, the function "Force TFO half-rate when
loaded" allows the BSC in this case to recompute the list of supported codec types by
inserting full-rate and enhanced full-rate in the list.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-62
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up
Tandem Free Operation

TFO Optimization and Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Therefore, the function "Force TFO half-rate when loaded" leads to three different
behaviors, depending on three possible values of the corresponding flag:

TFO half-rate not forced. No filtering on the load is done. The load is not tested and
all the codec types supported by the call and by the cell are listed in the supported
codec type list
TFO half-rate only. Filtering is done on the load, half-rate is forced if the cell is
loaded and the mobile station supports half-rate, and if this codec type is authorized in
the cell. The list of supported codec types is restricted to the half-rate codec type. As a
consequence, if the distant side supports half-rate, then the distant side will do an
intracell handover to use half-rate, and TFO will go on with half-rate. If the distant
side does not support half-rate, TFO will not be possible
TFO half-rate preferred. Filtering is done on the load, but TFO is preferred to
half-rate. In the case of a load situation, only half-rate is sent in the list of preferred
codecs. But if the distant BSS does not support half-rate, a new list is computed,
without taking into account the load in the cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-63
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Set Up

TFO Optimization and Management

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
5-64
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
6

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an overview of Call Handling and describes the supervision of a
call in progress.
Contents
Overview of Call Handling

6-4

Overview

6-4

In-Call Modification

6-5

Overview of In-Call Modification

6-5

In-Call Modification Procedure

6-6

Circuit-Switched Group 3 Fax Data Rate Change

6-7

Error Handling

6-8

Frequency Hopping

6-9

Overview of Frequency Hopping

6-9

Baseband Frequency Hopping

6-10

Synthesized Frequency Hopping

6-12

Speech Transmission

6-13

Overview of Speech Transmission

6-13

Continuous Transmission

6-13

Discontinuous Transmission

6-13

Voice Activity Detection

6-14

BSS Discontinuous Transmission Towards Mobile Station

6-15

Mobile Station Discontinuous Transmission Towards BSS

6-16

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Radio Power Control

6-19

Overview of Radio Power Control

6-19

BTS Radio Power Control

6-19

Mobile Station Radio Power Control

6-20

Radio Link Measurements

6-20

Power Control Decision and Handover

6-21

Change Power Levels

6-23

Packet Downlink Power Control

6-25

Handover

6-26

Overview of Handover

6-26

Principal Handover Types

6-27

Radio Measurements

6-29

Handover Detection

6-31

Handover Detection Overview

6-31

Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover

6-32

Handover Detection Level Intercell Handover

6-34

Handover Detection Quality Intercell Handover

6-34

Handover Detection Quality Intracell Handover

6-34

Handover Detection Better Zone Handover

6-35

Handover Detection Better Cell Handover

6-36

Handover Detection Distance Handover

6-38

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

6-40

Handover Detection Multiband Handover

6-41

Target Cell Evaluation

6-42

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

6-45

Circuit-Switched Telecom Handovers

6-49

Overload Control

6-51

Overview of Overload Control

6-51

BTS Overload

6-51

BSC Overload

6-52

Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station

6-54

Overview of Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station

6-54

User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access Control)

6-55

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access Control)

6-55

Interference Reduction

6-58

Interference Reduction Using IRC & EIRC

6-58

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overview of Call Handling

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview of Call Handling


Overview
Overview

In order to provide effective management of calls in the BSS, it is necessary to ensure:

Maximum perceived signal quality with minimum perceived interference

Call continuity regardless of changes in propagation conditions or change of location


of the mobile station.

Given that spectrum is limited, this must be accomplished with maximum resource reuse.
Another important factor for the customer (and the operator as well) is power efficiency
to reduce overall power consumption and prolong the autonomy of the mobile station
under battery operation.
The supervision of calls in progress is provided by the Call Handling function. Call
Handling, with associated features, implements needed changes in the required teleservice
to maintain call quality and continuity.
Call Handling functions and features include:

In-Call Modification
Frequency Hopping
Discontinuous Transmission
Radio Power Control

Handover
Overload Control
Call re-establishment by the mobile station.
Note: A VGCS call uses the same general call handling procedures as a standard call;
any exceptions are described in the relevant procedure descriptions below.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
In-Call Modification

Overview of In-Call Modification

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In-Call Modification
Overview of In-Call Modification
Overview

In-call modification allows the teleservice to be changed during a call. This means that a
call does not have to be cleared, and a new call established, if more than one teleservice is
to be used.
The different types of in-call modification are:

Alternate between speech and a transparent data service

Alternate between speech and a non-transparent data service


Change from speech to a transparent data service
Change from speech to a non-transparent data service
Alternate between speech and transparent fax group 3

Alternate between speech and non-transparent fax group 3


Data rate change for transparent fax group 3
Data rate change for non-transparent fax group 3.

Calls requiring a change of service have to negotiate a 'dual-service' before the normal
assignment procedure. This is indicated in the Set_Up message, which is described in
Chapter 5, Call Set Up.
Note: Changing the data rate of a fax call is not a true in-call modification procedure,
as the teleservice is not changed (no dual-service negotiation).
The main difference between the in-call modification procedure and a change of data rate
for fax are as follows:

The in-call modification procedure is triggered by a message from the mobile station
The data rate change for fax is triggered by in-band signaling from the fax machine to
the MSC.

Both procedures use existing resources, therefore no new resources need to be allocated.
All full-rate traffic channels can be used for speech or data at any of the defined data
rates.
Both procedures use the mode 'modify procedure' to change the transmission mode. This
is basically a normal assignment procedure but instead of a new channel being assigned, a
new mode is assigned.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
In-Call Modification

In-Call Modification Procedure

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In-Call Modification Procedure


Overview

In-call modification is initiated from a mobile station. This can occur during a call to a
correspondent on the public telephone network or to a mobile station.
For a mobile-station-to-mobile station call, both mobile stations must negotiate a dual
service during call establishment.
Procedure

The process is as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station initiates the procedure by sending a Layer 3 Call Control modify
message to the MSC, indicating the new mode. If the data call direction is different from
the original call set up, then this message contains an indicator to reverse the call
direction. The mobile station starts a guard timer for the procedure.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC checks the modify message. If it can accept the mode change, it starts the
normal assignment procedure by sending an Assignment_Request message and
starting a guard timer. This message contains a channel type (speech or data plus
data rate).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSS handles the normal assignment procedure as if assigning a traffic channel during
call set up (described in Chapter 5, Call Set Up)
With the following exceptions:

When the BSC has checked and accepted the Assignment_Request message, it
does not assign a new traffic channel. This is because it already has a traffic channel
assigned for the transaction. The transaction is identified by the SCCP connection on
which the Assignment_Request message was received
The Channel_Activation and Channel_Activation_Acknowledge messages
are replaced by the mode_modify and mode_modify acknowledge messages.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the MSC receives the Assignment_Complete message from the BSC, it sends a
Layer 3 CC modify_complete message to the mobile station. This informs the mobile
station that the procedure is successfully completed, and the mobile station can start
transmitting in the new mode.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
In-Call Modification

Circuit-Switched Group 3 Fax Data Rate Change

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Circuit-Switched Group 3 Fax Data Rate Change


Overview

Group 3 facsimile equipment can change the data transmission speed to reduce the error
rate.
Fax data rates can be:

9600 bit/s
4800 bit/s
2400 bit/s

1200 bit/s.

The Alcatel-Lucent 900/1800 BSS supports both transparent and non-transparent fax
transmission.
The BSS supports the Group 3 fax data rate change by:

In-band signaling for non-transparent fax


For non-transparent fax transmission, the data rate change is handled within the BSS,
using in-band signaling. This means that the frame size is signalled in the frame by a
"frame delimiter" field. The Radio Link Protocol in the BTS uses this information to
control the data flow on the Air Interface. The BSS does not need to change the
channel mode
The mode modify procedure for transparent fax.
Transparent fax frames are passed transparently through the BSS. Therefore, in-band
signaling cannot be used within the BSS. The Group 3 fax equipment informs the
MSC of a data rate change using in-band signaling. The MSC then initiates a mode
modify procedure using the Assignment_Request message.
This procedure is the same as the mode modify procedure for in-call modification,
except that the MSC does not send a Layer 3 Call Control mode_modify_complete
message. This is because the procedure was not triggered by a Layer 3 CC modify
message from the mobile station. When the MSC receives the
Assignment_Complete message from the BSC, it sets the new data rate to the
correspondent.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
In-Call Modification

Error Handling

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Error Handling
Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent 900/1800 BSS tries to provide the highest level of service at all times.
In general, if errors occur during an in-call modification, the BSS tries to revert to the old
mode to keep the call active.
For example, if the mobile station does not reply to the channel_mode_modify
message from the BSC, it is assumed that it is still active but in the old mode. The BTS,
however, has set the new mode. The BSC sends a mode_modify message to the BTS
indicating the old mode. If the BTS acknowledges that it has reverted to the old mode, the
call is kept active.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Frequency Hopping

Overview of Frequency Hopping

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Frequency Hopping
Overview of Frequency Hopping
Overview

Frequency Hopping is a method to increase frequency reuse and improve the system's
ability to cope with adjacent channel interference.
The Frequency Hopping algorithm can be either random or cyclic. Associated (i.e.,
paired) uplink and downlink frequencies are always +/-45 MHz.
There are two major types of frequency hopping:

Baseband Frequency Hopping (p. 6-10)

Synthesized Frequency Hopping (p. 6-12).

Frequency Hopping improves BSS-mobile station performance by providing two types of


diversity:

Frequency diversity
Frequency diversity averages the effects of signal fading by using several frequencies
to improve transmission performance. Obstacles such as buildings produce fading by
reflecting the signal out of phase with the main signal. Each frequency is affected
differently by fading.
After error correction information is added to the data, it is encoded so that the data is
split into packets and the information is repeated. This creates redundant information
which is transmitted in bursts on the Air Interface. With Frequency Hopping, each
redundant information burst is transmitted on a different frequency. This enables the
original data to be reconstructed from the received flow, even if errors occur due to
fading.
In this way Frequency Hopping improves transmission performance.
Interference diversity.
Interference diversity spreads the co-channel interference between several mobile
stations. In high traffic areas, the capacity of a cellular system is limited by its own
interference; that is, the interference caused by frequency reuse. Interference Diversity
minimizes the time during which a given user on a given mobile station will
experience the effects of such interference.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Frequency Hopping

Baseband Frequency Hopping

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Baseband Frequency Hopping


Overview

A Mobile Allocation is a set of all the frequencies available for frequency hopping. When
the Frequency Hopping procedure is implemented, a group of mobile stations is assigned
to a Mobile Allocation.
When a traffic channel is set up in a cell where Frequency Hopping is active, the traffic
channel is assigned:

A particular timeslot
An FHS
An FHS is defined as the subset of frequencies within the MA to be used by a given
cell for Frequency Hopping.
A MAIO
The MAIO indicates the initial hopping frequency of the traffic channel within the
FHS. Use of the MAIO ensures that each traffic channel is assigned a different
frequency during hopping.
An HSN
The HSN supplies the identifying number of an algorithm which is used to calculate
the next frequency in the FHS on which the traffic channel transmits. There can be up
to 63 different HSN algorithms, all of which are pseudo random. Within a given FHS,
only one algorithm is used to avoid collisions. An HSN of zero means a cyclic use of
the frequencies.

An example of Frequency Hopping is shown in the figure below. Because HSN = 0,


hopping occurs in a sequential manner. With a non-zero HSN, each of the three traffic
channels would hop in a random fashion determined by the algorithm corresponding to
the HSN.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Frequency Hopping

Baseband Frequency Hopping

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

Frequency

FHS

Frequency Hopping System

TCH

Traffic Channel

MAIO

Mobile Allocation Index Offset

HSN

Hopping Sequence Number

TS

Timeslot

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Frequency Hopping

Synthesized Frequency Hopping

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Synthesized Frequency Hopping


Overview

Synthesized Frequency Hopping functions in a similar fashion to Baseband Frequency


Hopping, but is performed at a different location. Instead of switching each timeslot
between traffic channels, the channel assigned to a timeslot is assigned to a fixed Carrier
Unit (or TRE).
The Carrier Unit/TRE changes frequency with each TDMA frame in accordance with the
HSN algorithm selected, in the same manner as above. Therefore, instead of the channel
hopping from one fixed transceiver to another, the transceiver itself hops from one
frequency to another, in both cases, according to the algorithm and parameters selected.
Synthesized Frequency Hopping has the advantage of allowing an FHS to contain one
more frequency than the number of Carrier Units/TREs in the system. This is particularly
useful in some microcellular applications where only one transceiver is available for
Frequency Hopping.
Note: Normally, in both Frequency Hopping schemes (Baseband and Synthesized),
timeslot 0 (TS0) is not available for Frequency Hopping. This is because it carries the
BCCH, which must always be at maximum power and on a frequency known to
mobile stations in Idle mode in the cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

Overview of Speech Transmission

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Speech Transmission
Overview of Speech Transmission
Overview

Speech is transmitted over the air in the following ways:

Continuous transmission

Discontinuous transmission.

The system also uses Voice Activity Detection (VAD) when transmitting. The two
transmission types and VAD are described separately. In addition, discontinuous
transmission from the BSS to the MS and from the MS to the BSS is explained in detail.

Continuous Transmission
Overview

Sound is continuously encoded into digital information, even when no one is talking.
In normal conversation, only one participant at a time talks. This is used by the system to
its advantage, by transmitting only when someone is speaking.

Discontinuous Transmission
Overview

Discontinuous Transmission and VAD work together to decrease the average transmission
time on a channel. By transmitting only when actual speech is present, the system reduces
the interference level generated by the network in both the uplink and downlink directions
and saves power.
In tandem with Frequency Hopping, this improves spectrum efficiency without
jeopardizing the quality of the telephony service.
Only actual speech is digitally encoded and transmitted. During the non-speech phase
(silent periods), noise/comfort mode information is sent once every 480 ms instead of
once every 20 ms for speech.
In this way the system:

Improves spectral interference


Increases power savings.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

Discontinuous Transmission

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

By transmitting at a reduced rate of 1 in 24 during the silent phases, the power autonomy
of the mobile station improves.
Discontinuous Transmission does not occur during half-rate speech or data modes. It can
be activated for either the uplink or the downlink or both.
The receivers of Discontinuous Transmission information can automatically detect that
the transmitter is in Discontinuous Transmission mode by the reception of Silence
Indication (SID) messages.
During quiet periods SID messages are sent instead of speech bursts. SIDs carry noise
information about background noise. This information is used to:

Let the receiver know that the link is still open


Provide comfort noise. Users of telephones prefer to hear background noise rather
than silence. Complete silence disturbs the listener.

Provide measurements of the link quality and timing advance. If there are no bursts of
data over the Air Interface for a particular channel, no power level control and quality
can be performed.

To eliminate the noise side effects generally known as banjo noise, the operator can ban
Discontinuous Transmission on the downlink for all calls that are established on the
BCCH TRX, without hopping, for all types of BTS. This is achieved using the
FORBID_DTXD_NH_BCCH parameter. The parameter can be set to one of two values:

0. This is the default value, and allows Discontinuous Transmission on the downlink
for all calls that are established on the BCCH TRX

1. This bans Discontinuous Transmission on the downlink for all calls that are
established on the BCCH TRX.

Voice Activity Detection


Overview

Voice Activity Detection (VAD) is used to detect when there is speech, silence or just
background noise. The VAD device is located in the Transcoder. Once the VAD detects
speech, it starts transmitting speech bursts. After four bursts of detected silence, the VAD
goes back into silent mode, and SID information frames are transmitted (i.e., the comfort
noise generation is activated).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

BSS Discontinuous Transmission Towards Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BSS Discontinuous Transmission Towards Mobile Station


Overview

Downlink Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) is activated on a per BSS basis, on the


OMC-R level.
The Downlink DTX Flag, if provided by the MSC in the Assignment Request or
Handover Request message, is always ignored by the BSS.
The OMC-R operator can:

Prevent the use of downlink Discontinuous Transmission on a per BSS basis. In this
case, no downlink Discontinuous Transmission may be used on any channel within
the concerned BSS
Allow the use of downlink Discontinuous Transmission on a per BSS basis. In this
case, downlink Discontinuous Transmission will be used on any channel within the
concerned BSS.

The downlink DTX is controlled by means of the following parameters at the OMC-R
level:

FORBID_DTXD_NH_BCCH_F for calls on non-hopping TCH of the BCCH


frequency

DOWNLINK_DTX_ENABLE for FR and EFR TCH/FS channels


DOWNLINK_DTX_ENABLE_HR for HR TCH/HS channels
DOWNLINK_DTX_ENABLE_AMR_FR for AMR TCH/AFS channels

DOWNLINK_DTX_ENABLE_AMR_HR for AMR TCH/AHS channels


DL_DTX_AMR_WB_GMSK for AMR-WB TCH/WFS channels.

The BTS tells the Transcoder to perform Discontinuous Transmission by setting the
Discontinuous Transmission bit in the speech frame.
In the BSS, the Transcoder is responsible for Discontinuous Transmission operation.
Procedure

In the BTS, the information is processed in the FU in the following way:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the Transcoder detects voice activity it informs the FU, using in-band signaling.
The speech signaling flag is set in the speech frame.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Every 20 ms the FU receives either speech frames or SID frames containing background
noise characteristics.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

BSS Discontinuous Transmission Towards Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

At the end of the speech period (four bursts of detected silence) the FU sends a SID frame
over the Air Interface.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

During speech inactivity, the last received SID frame is sent at regular 480 ms intervals
rather than at 20 ms; otherwise, dummy bursts are sent.
These dummy bursts are:

Transmitted for traffic channels on the BCCH frequency, due to the need for constant
transmission on the BCCH frequency
Not transmitted for traffic channels on other frequencies.

E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

Note: The BTS uses the measurement_result message to inform the BSC that
Discontinuous Transmission is operating. The BSC compensates for Discontinuous
Transmission when calculating power control and handover.

Mobile Station Discontinuous Transmission Towards BSS


Overview

The OMC-R operator controls whether a mobile station can perform Discontinuous
Transmission towards the BSS per cell. This information is sent in cell options
information (sys_info 3, and sys_info 6 on the Air Interface). The following table
shows the available operator options.
Table 6-1

Operator Discontinuous Transmission Options

Option

Description

Will perform
Discontinuous
Transmission

This forces the mobile station to use Discontinuous Transmission.


It reduces the call quality but also reduces interference in the cell
and saves mobile station battery power. During silent phases only
1 in 24 bursts are sent, which greatly reduces interference.

Can perform
Discontinuous
Transmission

This allows the mobile station to choose either quality by not using
uplink Discontinuous Transmission, or power-saving by using
uplink Discontinuous Transmission.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

Mobile Station Discontinuous Transmission Towards BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Table 6-1

Operator Discontinuous Transmission Options

(continued)

Option

Description

Cannot perform
Discontinuous
Transmission

The OMC-R operator has decided, due to low interference, to have


improved speech and measurement control on the uplink side.

The Transcoder detects that the mobile station is in Discontinuous Transmission mode by
the reception of SIDs.
Note: There is a small quality reduction due to the fact that VAD only starts sending
speech when a user starts to talk. This can cut the start of each speech activity. Power
control and handover are also affected, as the BTS has fewer incoming messages with
which to calculate power and interference.
The following figure shows the different forms of transmission.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Speech Transmission

Mobile Station Discontinuous Transmission Towards BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 6-1 Different Forms of Discontinuous Transmission

Legend:

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Overview of Radio Power Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Radio Power Control


Overview of Radio Power Control
Overview

Radio Power Control operates independently, but in a co-ordinated manner with the
handover to provide reliable service to the user.
Both directions of the radio link between the mobile station and the BTS are subject to
continuous power adjustments. The power adjustment of the BTS and the mobile station
are under the control of the BSC (see Radio Measurements (p. 6-29)). RPC improves
spectrum efficiency by limiting intra-system interference. It also increases the autonomy
of the mobile station by saving battery power.
The reasons for changing the mobile station power level are:

Uplink power level too high or too low


Uplink link quality too low, or using power resources beyond quality requirements of
the call.

Similarly, the reasons for changing the BTS power control are:

Downlink power level too high or too low

Downlink link quality too low, or using power resources beyond quality requirements
of the call.

BTS Radio Power Control


Overview

The mobile station performs power measurements of radio signals being transmitted by
the BTS. The mobile station, via the SACCH, regularly sends a measurement_report
message to the BTS indicating the quality and strength of the downlink plus
measurements of neighboring cells. This information is combined with uplink
measurements taken by the BTS and sent to the BSC in the measurement_result
message.
The BSC then alters the BTS power, based on the measurement information it receives
from the mobile station. The maximum power level is limited by the maximum power of
the BTS, and also by the maximum power allowed in the cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Mobile Station Radio Power Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile Station Radio Power Control


Overview

The BTS measures the signal power transmitted by the mobile station. The resulting
measurements are combined with the measurement_report message from the mobile
station and are sent to the BSC in the measurement_result message. The BSC sends
commands to change the power level of the mobile station as needed. The maximum
power level is limited by the maximum power of the mobile station, and also by the
maximum power allowed in the cell.
Power control can be applied to traffic channels and Stand-Alone Dedicated Control
Channels.

Radio Link Measurements


Overview

Due to interference and signal quality problems on the Air Interface, the uplink and the
downlink transmissions are constantly measured to maintain maximum efficiency of the
air waves. A balance is maintained between the transmission power, which can interfere
with other cells using the same frequency, and the quality of the actual link.
The following table shows the measurements used to achieve this balance.
Measurement

Description

Signal strength

Signal strength is calculated on both active and inactive channels.


On active channels, this measurement is used to provide the actual
strength of the signal received from the transmitter.
Inactive channel strength provides measurement of interference
levels.

Signal quality

The signal quality of a channel is calculated on the average Bit


Error Rate on a particular channel. BER is a standard quality
calculation in radio transmission.

Absolute mobile
station-BS distance

This is estimated by measuring the Time Of Arrival (TOA) of the


received burst at the BTS for each allocated timeslot. The TOA is
based on transmission distance and not the actual ground distance
travelled. The calculation of one bit period (3.69 s) corresponds
to 550m.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Radio Link Measurements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The statistical parameters of signal level and quality are obtained over a measurement
period. This period is called the 'Reporting Period'. The reporting period for a traffic
channel is 104 TDMA frames (480 ms). The information is transmitted in the SACCH
frames.

Power Control Decision and Handover


Overview

At every measurement interval, the BSC receives:

Pre-processed power measurement information (uplink and downlink)


Timing advance (distance information)
Power level information about neighboring cells (only the best six are transmitted).

The BSC uses this information to perform power control by:

Lowering the power level in the uplink or downlink, as this has little effect on the
quality of the link
Increasing the power on the uplink or downlink if the link quality/level is low
Producing a handover alarm (refer to Handover Detection (p. 6-31) for more
information)
Taking no action, if the quality/level balance is acceptable.

The following figure illustrates the measurements described previously, as well as


power-control flow. Figure 6-3, Power Output Balancing Based on Received Quality and
Signal Levels (p. 6-23) shows how power control maintains optimum quality and power
levels.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Power Control Decision and Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 6-2 Power Output Balancing Based on Received Quality and Signal Levels

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

TX

Transmitter

Note: The signal and quality levels are converted into the ranges Received Signal
Level and Received Signal Quality respectively. Each range is classed from 0-63
(Received Signal Level where 63 is high) and 7-0 (Received Signal Quality where 7 is
poor).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Power Control Decision and Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 6-3 Power Output Balancing Based on Received Quality and Signal Levels

Legend:

RXQUAL

Received Signal Quality

RXLEV

Received Signal Level

Change Power Levels


Overview

The BSC controls the power levels of the BTS and the mobile station.
The BTS power level can be altered down from its maximum power. This is done by
defining the attenuantion in steps of 1dBm of the power to the maximum level. The BSC
informs the BTS of the new power level via a BS_power_control message.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Change Power Levels

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station power level can be altered in steps of 1dBm. The following table
shows the maximum and minimum power ranges of mobile stations.
Table 6-2

Mobile Station Maximum and Minimum Power Ranges

Mobile Station Phase GSM


850/900/1800/1900

Max Power

Min Power

Mobile station phase 1, GSM 900

43 dBm (20 W)

13 dBm

Mobile station phase 1, GSM 1800

30 dBm (1 W)

10 dBm

Mobile station GSM 850

39 dBm (8 W)

13 dBm

Mobile station phase 2, GSM 900

39 dBm (8 W)

13 dBm

Mobile station phase 2, GSM 1800

30 dBm (1 W)

4 dBm

Mobile station GSM 1900

33 dBm (2 W)

0 dBm

The maximum power setting of a mobile station is based on two factors: its classmark (its
physical maximum power rating), and the maximum mobile station power setting for the
cell.
Each cell can limit the maximum power level for all mobile stations in the cell. For
example, a 20 W mobile station can be limited to 5 W maximum power if that is the
maximum mobile station power level allowed in the cell. However, a 1 W mobile station
can never exceed 1 W, and can therefore never reach the 5 W maximum allowed in the
cell.
The BSC informs the BTS of the new power levels via the BS_power_control
message. The BTS in turn transmits a power_command to the mobile station over the
SACCH.
Changing power from one power level to another happens gradually. The power level
changes by 1dB every 60 ms, until the desired level is reached.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Radio Power Control

Packet Downlink Power Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Packet Downlink Power Control


Overview

The objective of Packet Downlink Power Control is to optimize the BTS output power
while maintaining quality in the ongoing packet connections.
The power reduction can be:

Constant, defined by a P0 parameter. The average power level used by PS traffic in a


cell can be decreased by the constant value P0, and therefore reduce the PS
contribution to the interference.
The value of P0 is configurable within a range of 030 db with a 2db step. The
constant downlink power control reduction is applicable to GMSK and 8PSK
modulations
Dynamic. The BTS limits its output power on blocks addressed to a particular MS
(USF or RLC blocks) to levels between (BCCH level - P0dB) and (BCCH level P0dB - 10dB)
The dynamic downlink power control is applicable to GMSK and 8PSK modulations
used in EGPRS. For a given PDCH shared by different TBFs, the power may change
every RLC/MAC radio block (i.e. every 20 ms).

Reduction of Transmitted PDDCB

Reduction of Transmitted PDDCB is a mandatory part of GPRS downlink power control.


The main goal of Reduction of Transmitted PDDCB is to only keep the useful PDDCB:

PDDCB (PR_mode_B) without USF (equivalent to USF = USFNE)


PDDCB (PR_mode_B) with USF
Other PDDCB with USF.

Except for the above useful PDDCB, the left useless PDDCB shall not be sent.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-25
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Overview of Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover
Overview of Handover
Overview

A handover changes an active call from one channel to another channel. The new channel
can be in the same cell or another cell.
The types of handover are:

Internal
External

Directed retry
Incoming emergency
Fast traffic
UMTS to GSM.

Handovers ensure a high level of call quality. They are performed when the BSS detects
that the call quality has dropped below a defined level, and the call can be better
supported by a different channel.
The call quality can drop due to problems in the cell, such as an interface or an equipment
problem. Call quality can also be affected simply because the mobile station has moved to
an area where the radio coverage from another cell is better.
The BSS detects the need for a handover by:

Measuring the Air Interface channel quality, mobile station and BTS power outputs
and the timing advance
Using an algorithm to see if the received information conforms to the criteria for
handover
Selecting a more suitable channel from a list of target cells and their available
channels.

If the BSS decides that a handover is required, the exact sequence of events depends on
the type of handover to be performed.
In all cases:

A new channel is assigned, ready to support the call


The mobile station moves over to the new channel

On successful completion of the handover, the system clears the resources for the old
channel.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-26
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Principal Handover Types

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Principal Handover Types


Overview

The following sections describe the principal types of handover.


Internal Handover

Internal handovers take place between cells controlled by the same BSC. This can include
channel changes within the same cell. For more information about these handover cases,
refer to Target Cell Evaluation (p. 6-42).
External Handover

External handovers take place between cells controlled by different BSCs. These can be
under the control of the same MSC or of different MSCs. For more information about
these handover cases, refer to Target Cell Evaluation (p. 6-42).
Directed Retry Handover

Handovers can also be performed when there is congestion in a cell. If congestion exists,
the traffic channel assignment can be queued. For more information about congestion
management, refer to Congestion (p. 5-35).
If there is no available traffic channel for the normal assignment procedure, a Directed
Retry can be performed. A Directed Retry is an attempt to assign a mobile station to a
traffic channel in a cell other than the serving cell.
There are two types of Directed Retry:

An Internal Directed Retry without queueing attempts to hand over the call to a traffic
channel of a neighbor cell controlled by the same BSC.

An External Directed Retry attempts to hand over the queued call to a traffic channel
of a neighbor cell which is controlled by a different BSC.

Secured Incoming Handover

The ability to keep free resources in a cell for incoming emergency and power budget
handovers is provided on a cell basis. When the resource threshold is reached,
assignments and other handover types are handled as if the cell was completely
congested. Once such a request is queued, a directed retry can be performed as usual. The
free resources can also be accessed in the case of a full-rate to half-rate handover for
AMR calls, because it allows half a resource (full-rate to half-rate) to be freed from the
cell point of view. The feature improves the quality of service, as it helps to limit the
number of lost calls.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-27
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Principal Handover Types

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Fast Traffic Handover

The fast traffic handover searches in the whole cell for a mobile which can perform a
handover to a not-loaded neighbor cell if the received signal level of the BCCH is good
enough. It is much more efficient than the forced directed retry when the overlap of
adjacent cells is reduced, e.g., in the case of single layer networks, or for deep indoor
coverage (if the umbrella cell does not totally overlap the microcells).
UMTS-to-GSM Handover

At the air interface level, UMTS itself is incompatible with GSM. UMTS phones and
UMTS data cards sold in Europe, the United States, much of Asia, and South Africa, are
UMTS/GSM dual-mode devices, hence they are backwards compatible with regular GSM
networks. If a UMTS customer travels to an area without UMTS coverage, a UMTS
phone will automatically switch to GSM (roaming charges may apply). If the customer
travels outside of UMTS coverage during a call, the call will be transparently handed off
to available GSM coverage.
For circuit-switched services, the BSS supports handover from UMTS to GSM. The
handover from GSM to UMTS is not supported in this release of the BSS. A hard
handover is performed from the UTRAN to the GSM BSS between a UMTS core
network and a 2G MSC. This handover is regarded by the BSS as a GSM inter-BSS
handover. The signaling procedures, from the BSS point of view, rely almost on the
normal GSM procedures.
For packet-switched services, the current 3GPP standard does not allow handover with
channel preparation. Therefore, the UMTS mobile station receives the 2G radio resource
cell change order Information Element from the UTRAN in the Inter System handover
message. The UMTS mobile station then performs an access request in the GPRS cell.
From a BSS point of view, the UMTS mobile station is regarded as a 2G mobile station
when it indicates that it has selected a GSM cell.
Load-Based 3G Handover Filtering

Load-Based 3G Handover Filtering lets the BSS reject an incoming 3G handover when
the G2 target cell is loaded and the MS is still within UTRAN coverage. The feature can
be activated and de-activated. Load-based handover filtering only applies to service or
traffic handovers. That is, handover requests with the cause "better cell", "traffic" or
"directed retry". A handover cause indicating a problem in uplink or downlink signal
quality or signal strength is considered an emergency handover request and is accepted.
When load-based handover filtering is enabled, the BSC regularly calculates the cell load
of the 2G cells to assess their 3G_HOReject_Load_State. The BSC compares the last
averages of the traffic load with an O&M threshold to determine cell load state. The BSC
uses the THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT parameter to set the load threshold determining
whether a 3G-to-2G handover request is rejected or accepted. If
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-28
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Principal Handover Types

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT is set to 100 %, the feature is de-activated. Note that even

if this feature is not activated, the BSC still calculates cell load, which is used for other
handover procedures as well.
Upon receipt of a 3G to 2G handover request:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC checks the target cell traffic load by comparing the current load to the threshold
in THR_CELL_LOAD_3G_REJECT.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the target cell is in 3G_HOReject_Load High State, the BSC checks the handover
cause IE given in the BSSAP handover request message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the handover cause IE does not indicate an emergency handover, the BSC rejects the
HO request. Otherwise the request is accepted.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

After rejecting the HO request, the BSC send a Handover_Failure message with the
cause indicating "no Radio resource available" and the Cell Load Information.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Radio Measurements
Overview

The BTS constantly monitors the radio link by:

Measuring the received signal strength for active channels


Measuring the received signal quality for active and inactive channels
Measuring the received signal timing for active channels
Collecting signal strength and quality measurements from the mobile station for the
active channel

Collecting adjacent cell BCCH signal strength measurements from the mobile station
(adjacent cell BCCH frequencies are sent to the mobile station in the sys_info 5
message on the SACCH).

The mobile station sends its measurements to the BTS in a Layer 3 Radio Resource
measurement_report message on the SACCH. The mobile station and BTS
measurements are passed to the BSC in a Layer 3 RR measurement_result message.
These messages are sent once per multiframe and are processed by the BSC.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-29
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Radio Measurements

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC uses this information to:

Perform power control for the BTS and mobile station

Calculate whether a handover is needed


Make traffic channel quality tables
Make the target cell list

Make a handover decision.

Power Control

For more information about BTS and mobile station power control, refer to Power
Control Decision and Handover (p. 6-21).
From a handover point of view, no handover decision is made due to signal quality until
the power levels have been set to maximum.
Need for Handover

The BSC calculates the need for a handover using an algorithm, the use of which is
described in Handover Detection (p. 6-31).
Target Cell List

A target cell list can be made by the BSC using the neighbor cell BCCH measurements
sent by the mobile station. This is used to evaluate whether a neighbor cell can provide a
better channel than the existing one.
Handover Decision

Handover decision is based on averaged measurements and the results are averaged over
a period of time. For example, the BSC detects the need for a handover, based on one
measurement that may have been caused by freak conditions changing the signal
propagation for a short period. This measurement is averaged with other measurements
and a handover decision may or may not result, depending on the other measurements.
Traffic Channel Quality Tables

The BSC uses the uplink idle channel measurements made by the BTS to make a table of
traffic channels, classified by interference levels. This table is used to select a channel for
assignment.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-30
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection
Overview

To follow Handover Description see:

Handover Detection Overview (p. 6-31)

Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover (p. 6-32)

Handover Detection Level Intercell Handover (p. 6-34)


Handover Detection Quality Intercell Handover (p. 6-34)

Handover Detection Quality Intracell Handover (p. 6-34)

Handover Detection Better Zone Handover (p. 6-35)

Handover Detection Better Cell Handover (p. 6-36)

Handover Detection Distance Handover (p. 6-38)

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover (p. 6-40)

Handover Detection Multiband Handover (p. 6-41)

Handover Detection Overview


Overview

Each time the BSC processes a set of Air Interface measurements, it checks whether a
handover is needed. If the need for a handover is detected, it triggers the target cell
evaluation process. See Target Cell Evaluation (p. 6-42) for more information.
If the handover algorithm in the BSC detects the need for a handover, it produces a
handover alarm. As the target cell evaluation is handled by the BSC, this alarm is also
handled internally by the BSC. The alarm includes a cause value used by the BSC to
evaluate which type of handover is required.
The basic types of handover are:

Quality and level


Better zone

Better cell (power budget)


Distance
Mobile velocity dependent

Preferred band.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-31
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover


Quality and Level Handover

These handovers are used to keep an active call connected when the signal quality falls
below a defined threshold. If a handover is not performed, a radio link failure may be
detected and the call cleared.
This type of handover can be caused by the following events:

Quality level too low on the uplink or downlink

Signal level too low on the uplink or downlink


Interference level too high on the uplink or downlink
Signal level too low on the uplink or downlink compared to low threshold (microcells
only)

Signal level too low on the uplink or downlink compared to high threshold
(microcells only)
Several consecutive bad SACCH frames received (microcells only)
Signal level too low on the uplink or downlink inner cell (concentric cells only).

For more information about microcell handovers, refer to Microcell (p. 9-13). For more
information about concentric cells, refer to Overview of Concentric Cell (p. 9-6).
If the received signal level or the received signal quality is too low, the BSC performs
BTS and mobile station power control to try and achieve the optimum level/quality ratio;
see Power Control Decision and Handover (p. 6-21).
The figure below shows a graph of received signal level and received signal quality. The
hatched areas show where power control is successful. The solid gray shaded areas show
where power control fails to achieve the desired level/quality ratio. These areas are where
the BSC detects the need for a handover.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-32
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Quality and Level Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-33
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Level Intercell Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Level Intercell Handover


Level Intercell Handover

The Level Intercell Handover area represents the range of measurements where the
received signal quality is acceptable, but the received signal level is too low. If the power
output levels are already set to the maximum allowed in the cell, the BSC generates a
handover alarm with a cause value indicating the reason for handover. Although the
quality of the signal is acceptable (and may be very good), the call is in danger of being
lost if the signal level drops rapidly, causing a radio link failure.
The handover is an intercell handover, as the serving cell cannot support the call at the
required power level. The call is handed over to a channel in a cell which can support the
call at the required level and quality.

Handover Detection Quality Intercell Handover


Quality Intercell Handover

The Quality Intercell Handover area represents the range of measurements where both the
receive signal quality and the received signal level are too low. If the power output levels
are already set to the maximum allowed in the cell, the BSC generates a handover alarm
with a cause value indicating the reason for the handover.
The handover is an intercell handover, as the serving cell cannot support the call at the
required quality and power level. The call is handed over to a channel in a cell which can
support the call at the required quality and level.

Handover Detection Quality Intracell Handover


Quality Intracell Handover

The Quality Intracell Handover area represents the range of measurements where the
received signal quality is too low, but the received signal level is acceptable. This
situation is caused by interference on the channel, so the call is handed over to another
channel in the same cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-34
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Better Zone Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Better Zone Handover


Better Zone Handover

This is used in concentric cell configurations when the mobile station moves into the
inner zone. If the inner zone has a free channel, an interzone handover is triggered. This
enables the mobile station to be supported on a channel requiring a lower power level,
therefore creating less interference in the cell. The detection of this type of handover is
performed on signal level measurements only (SACCH of serving cell, BCCH of adjacent
cells), as shown in the following figure. This type of handover can be caused by the signal
level being too high on the uplink and downlink outer zone (concentric cells only).

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-35
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Better Cell Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Better Cell Handover


Better Cell Handover

This feature is used to handover the mobile station to a cell that can support the call using
lower BTS and mobile station power levels. The algorithm in the BSC calculates the
power levels for the current cell, and the power levels required by adjacent cells from the
adjacent cell information sent by the mobile station. This is shown in the figure below.
This type of handover is often referred to as a power budget handover, as it uses the
Power Budget parameter to detect whether an adjacent cell can be used (see also
Multiband Power Budget Handover in Handover Detection Multiband Handover
(p. 6-41)). If the power budget for an adjacent cell gives a 'better' reading for a certain
amount of time (a defined number of SACCH frames), then a handover alarm is
produced.
This type of handover can be caused by the following events:

Power budget is greater than handover margin threshold


High signal level in neighbor microcell (macrocell to microcell handover).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-36
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Better Cell Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-37
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Distance Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Distance Handover


Distance Handover

This handover occurs when the propagation delay between the BTS and the mobile
station is considered excessive. The mobile station is considered to be too far from the
BTS and needs to be served by a closer BTS. This is shown in the figure below.
Under normal circumstances, as the mobile station moves away from a BTS, a Quality
and Level or Better Cell handover takes place. However, under certain conditions which
change the propagation qualities of a signal, a cell can provide a very high quality signal
outside of the normal operating range of the serving cell. These propagation qualities are
often due to climactic conditions which can change suddenly. If the high quality signal
'disappears' due to a change in the weather, the call would be lost. The distance handover
ensures that this does not happen by handing the mobile station over to a 'closer' cell once
a distance limit is exceeded. This type of handover is caused by too great a distance
between the mobile station and the Base Station.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-38
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Distance Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-39
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover


Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

In a hierarchical cell structure, where mini or microcells are overlaid by an umbrella cell
(macrocell), fast moving mobile stations are handled by the upper layer cell.
Discrimination of the speed of a mobile station is based on the dwell time of that mobile
station in a lower layer cell. Depending on the time elapsed in the serving cell, the call is
transferred to the lower layer cell or the umbrella cell.
If the dwell time in the serving cell is above the threshold, the mobile station is
considered slow moving and is sent to the lower layer cell that triggered the handover.
If the dwell time is below the threshold, the mobile station is considered fast moving. To
prevent a high number of handovers between the smaller lower layer cells, the call is sent
to the umbrella cell.
Dwell time is only calculated if there is a power budget handover from another lower
layer cell.
This is to avoid sending a call to the umbrella cell in the following cases:

A call initiated at the limit of the lower layer cell


A call transferred from the umbrella cell to the lower layer cell, just before reaching
the limit of that cell

After an external handover, when there is no information on the preceding cell and
handover cause.

Whatever the dwell time, any emergency handover sends the call to the umbrella cell,
which acts as the rescue cell.
The load on the umbrella cell is taken into consideration when determining the threshold
at which handovers are performed. Saturation of the umbrella cell can cause the loss of
calls, when a handover is required from another umbrella cell or a lower layer cell.
As the load on the umbrella cell increases, the dwell time threshold is increased, keeping
some mobile stations in the lower layer cells. When the load on the umbrella cell is very
high, speed discrimination is disabled, and priority is given to the load in the umbrella
cell. The following figure shows a graph of umbrella cell load and minimum dwell time.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-40
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 6-4 Umbrella Cell Load in Mobile Velocity Dependent Handover

Handover Detection Multiband Handover


Multiband Handover

There are two types of multiband handover: Preferred-band handover and Multiband
Power Budget handover. They are described below.

Preferred-Band Handover
Network capacity can be expanded by introducing multiband operation. This means
that an existing network (for example, GSM 900) is expanded by adding cells in a
different band (for example, GSM 1800). In such a network, the original band (GSM
900) is referred to as the first band. The new band (GSM 1800) is referred to as the
preferred band.
The existing monoband mobile stations, which use the first band, continue to do so.
However, multiband mobile stations are handed over to the preferred band, where
possible. This is done to free resources in the first band for use by monoband mobile
stations. Normal handovers (for example, better cell handover), hand over multiband
mobile stations to the preferred band.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-41
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Handover Detection Multiband Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

A new handover type, called preferred-band handover, hands over multiband mobile
stations immediately when a first-band cell reaches a specified congestion threshold.
This frees up resources for the monoband mobile stations in the cell.
For a preferred-band handover to occur, the following conditions must be met:
The first band cell's traffic load reaches a high threshold
Suitable neighboring cells in the preferred band are available

The preferred band handover facility is enabled.


Multiband Power Budget Handover
In certain networks, two different frequency bands can exist. For example, one
frequency band uses the GSM 900 frequencies, the other frequency band uses the
GSM 1800 frequencies. In this case, multiband power budget handovers can be
enabled between the two frequency bands using the EN_MULTIBAND_PBGT_HO
parameter:
Setting the EN_MULTIBAND_PBGT_HO parameter to True enables multiband
power budget handovers between two frequency bands
Setting the EN_MULTIBAND_PBGT_HO parameter to False disables multiband
power budget handovers between two frequency bands.
This parameter must be defined for each cell where multiband power budget
handovers are required.

Target Cell Evaluation


Overview

Cell evaluation is performed by the BSC. Once a handover alarm is detected within the
BSC, it evaluates the neighbor cells and compiles a list of possible target cells. The
serving cell can be on the target cell list.
The cells are evaluated and ranked by preference, calculated by one of the two
algorithms, ORDER or GRADE. The Network Operator chooses which algorithm is to be
used on a cell-by-cell basis.
The BSC tries to hand over to the most suitable cell. If this cell is controlled by the BSC,
the BSC handles the handover procedure. If the target cell is controlled by another BSC,
the serving BSC sends a Handover_Request message to the MSC.
Target Cell

The exact calculation performed to choose the target cell depends on the algorithm used
and the cause of the handover alarm.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-42
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Target Cell Evaluation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The target cell is selected, taking into account the following criteria:

Received signal level

Power budget
Number of free channels
Relative load on the traffic channel of the cell

Maximum power allowed in cell

Mobile station distance from target BTS

Handover cause.

HO_MARGIN parameter

The HO_MARGIN parameter is an O&M parameter set by the Network Operator. It is used
to prevent a call being continually handed over between two cells. For example,
following a power budget handover, the new cell immediately starts power budget
calculations for its neighbor cells. It may find that the original cell is giving a better
power budget reading and try to hand back immediately. This effect can be caused by
slight climactic changes which affect the propagation of signals. It is known as the
'ping-pong' effect. The HO_MARGIN parameter stops a call being handed back to a cell
from which it has just been handed over.
There is also an O&M parameter, W_PBGT_HO which can be set by the OMC-R operator,
to add a weighting for the power budget parameters of cells controlled by another BSC.
Refer to the Alcatel-Lucent Base Station Subsystem - BSS Configuration Handbook for
more information.
The target cell chosen also depends on the mobile station classmark (see Classmark
Handling (p. 5-40)) and its compatibility with the BTS's ciphering capabilities (see
Ciphering (p. 5-51)).
The procedures initiated to hand over a call depend on which cell is chosen as the target
cell.
Target Cell Handovers

Depending on which cell is chosen as the target cell, one of the following handovers takes
place.
This handover occurs...

If the target and serving cell are...

Internal: Intracell

The same, the call is handed over to a channel in the same cell. This is an
intracell handover. This type of handover is most commonly due to
interference in the cell. It is controlled by the BSC

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-43
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Target Cell Evaluation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This handover occurs...

If the target and serving cell are...

Internal (IntraBSS): Intercell

Not the same but are controlled by the same BSC, this is called an intercell
intraBSS handover. This handover is normally controlled by the BSC.
However, the Network Operator can specify that this type of handover be
controlled by the MSC

External (InterBSS): IntraMSC

Not controlled by the same BSC, but the two BSC are controlled by the same
MSC, this is called an interBSS intraMSC handover. This handover is
controlled by the MSC.

External (InterBSS): InterMSC

Controlled by different BSCs and the two BSCs are controlled by different
MSCs, this is called an interBSS interMSC handover. The control of this
handover is shared between the MSCs.
Handovers controlled by the BSC are called internal handovers. Handovers
controlled by the MSC are called external handovers.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-44
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover


Overview

The handover to the target cell can be synchronous or asynchronous. A synchronous


handover can be performed if the master clocks of the serving cell and the target cell are
synchronized.
This is the case when:

The serving cell and the target cell are the same cell

The BTS of the serving cell and the target cell are in a collocated configuration.

BTS in a collocated configuration take the clock pulse from one BTS in the configuration.
For a synchronous handover, the mobile station does not have to resynchronize with the
target BTS. Therefore, the physical context procedure for power levels and timing
advance does not have to be performed after the mobile station accesses the target cell.
For an asynchronous handover, the mobile station has to synchronize with the target cell
before transmitting any user traffic.
Asynchronous External Handover - Message Flow

This section describes the message flow for an asynchronous external handover. The
example in the figure below is for a handover of a traffic channel between two separate
cells controlled by two different BSCs.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-45
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-46
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

DTX

Discontinuous Transmission

FACCH

Fast Associated Control Channel

HO

Handover

MS

Mobile Station

SABM

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

SACCH

Slow Associated Control Channel

TA

Timing advance

Asynchronous External Handover Process

For Asynchronous External Handovers, the following process applies:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station and BTS take measurements on the Air Interface as described in the
previous procedure. The mobile station sends measurement information to the BTS in a
measurement_report message. The BTS sends mobile station and BTS measurements
to the BSC in a measurement_results message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC detects the need for a handover and creates a handover alarm indicating the
reason for the handover. The BSC evaluates possible target cells and creates a candidate
cell list.
To initiate the external handover procedure, the BSC sends a Handover_Required
message to the MSC including the candidate cell list. It also starts a timer to prevent it
sending the same cell list. It can only re-send the cell list when the timer times out, or if it
receives a Handover_Request_Reject message from the MSC.
The MSC chooses the target cell from the cell list. It sends a Handover_Request to the
target BSC to inform it that a mobile station is going to be handed over. This message
contains:

Channel type required


Cipher mode information
Mobile station classmark information
Serving cell identification
Target cell identification

Downlink Discontinuous Transmission flag


Handover cause.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-47
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The target BSC initiates the channel activation for the new channel with the
Channel_Activation message.
The target BTS sets its resources to support the new channel, starts sending the
SACCH/FACCH and sends a Channel_Activation_Acknowledgment message to
the target BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The target BSC builds a handover command. This command is sent to the MSC in the
Handover_Request_Acknowledgment message.
The handover command contains:

The new channel and its associated control channel


The target cell description
A handover reference

Any cipher mode information (phase 2 mobile stations can change cipher mode
during a handover procedure).

The MSC forwards the Handover_Command message to the serving BSC.


The serving BSC sends the Handover_Command message to the mobile station.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station releases its connection to the serving BTS. It synchronizes with the
target BTS using the FCCH and SCH information. Once synchronized, the mobile station
continually sends access burst on the uplink SACCH until it receives the
Physical_Information message on the FACCH from the target BSC.
When the target BTS receives an access burst, it checks the handover reference and
calculates the timing advance. This is sent to the target BSC in the Handover_Detect
message.
The target BSC informs the MSC of the handover detection and establishes a switching
path between the allocated Abis and A Interface resources.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the mobile station receives the Physical_Information message, it sends its
first frame on the new channel using the timing advance sent in the
Physical_Information message.
The target BTS acknowledges the mobile station's first frame and sends an
Establish_Indication message to the target BSC, and an acknowledgment to the

mobile station. On receipt of the acknowledgment, the mobile station sends a


Handover_Complete message on the uplink FACCH to the target BSC.
The target BSC informs the MSC that the handover is performed.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-48
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Synchronous and Asynchronous Handover

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC initiates the call clearing procedure towards the serving BSC.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Circuit-Switched Telecom Handovers


Overview

In order to optimize the regulation of circuit-switched traffic load, specific handovers may
be triggered, as described below.
Specific Handover

Description

Capture

A capture handover refers to a handover triggered only on the signal level


received from the neighbor cell, independently of the signal received from
the serving cell.

Power Budget

A power budget handover refers to a handover triggered on a power budget


criterion.
The power budget is a measure of the difference between the signal level
received from a neighbor cell and the signal level received from the serving
cell. The higher is the power budget, the more likely a power budget
handover is triggered.

Cause 14

Handover Cause 14 is used in hierarchical networks to unload the umbrella


cells by directing slow mobile station towards a lower or indoor layer cell.
Mobile station speed is estimated by measuring the residence time of the
mobile station in the indoor and lower layer cells. If this residence time is
below a certain threshold, the mobile station is deemed to move rapidly. If
the residence time is above another threshold, the mobile station is deemed to
move slowly.

Cause 21

In multiband networks, the operator defines a preferred band where


multiband mobile station are directed. Handover Cause 21 is triggered when
a mobile station in the non-preferred band receives a good signal level from a
neighbor cell where the traffic load is not high and which belongs to the
preferred band.

Cause 23

Handover Cause 23 reduces the serving cell size when it is high loaded
relative to a low loaded neighbor cell. The traffic handover enables better
distribution of traffic in the serving cell neighborhood. When the mobile
station moves away from the BTS, as the path loss increases, the power
budget increases and a traffic handover is triggered sooner. The power
budget is used to evaluate the difference between the signal levels received
from the neighbor cell and from the serving cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-49
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Handover

Circuit-Switched Telecom Handovers

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Specific Handover

Description

Cause 24

In hierarchical networks where cells use different frequency bands, a general


capture handover Cause 24 is required to manage, on a per cell adjacency
basis, the ability of the mobile station to be captured by a neighbor cell. This
allows capture from a macrocell to a microcell or from the same macrocell to
another cell in the preferred band. This general capture handover takes into
account the load in the serving cell and in the target cell.

Traffic Handovers in Multiband Mono-layer Networks

In some multiband networks, the radio coverage is ensured by GSM 1800 cells in one
geographical area and by GSM 900 cells in another geographical area. As these cells form
a multiband mono-layer network, the capture handovers between cells of different bands
are inefficient in regulating circuit-switched traffic load in the serving cell neighborhood.
The solution consists of allowing intra-layer traffic handovers (Cause 23) based on a
power budget evaluation between cells of different bands.
Inhibition of Capture Handovers for "Single Layer" Serving Cell

To avoid the ping-pong effect in multilayer or multiband networks, capture handovers are
inhibited. The T_INHIBIT_CPT timer controls the time during which the capture
handover Causes 14, 21, and 24 are inhibited. This timer starts when an emergency
handover is performed towards the serving cell, and the preceding cell does not belong to
the same layer or to the same frequency band as the serving cell. The timer
T_INHIBIT_CPT starts if the serving cell is in the upper or lower layer, but not if the
serving cell is in the single layer. This improvement extends the capture handover
inhibition mechanism.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-50
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overload Control

Overview of Overload Control

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overload Control
Overview of Overload Control
Overview

A lot of telecommunications signaling is required for the BSS to support communication


between mobile stations in the cells under its control and the MSC. Telecommunication
processors in the BTS or BSC can become overloaded.
To avoid a sudden loss of communication when a processor becomes saturated, the BSS
controls the load on these processors as follows:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Taking local action to reduce the load.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Taking global BSS action to further reduce the load.


E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

Note: The telecommunications processors of the MSC can also become overloaded.
However, MSC overload control is not the domain of the BSS.

BTS Overload
Overview

The BTS Frame Unit (TRE for a BTS 9100 or BTS 9110) handles all the
telecommunications signaling on the Air Interface. If the FU or TRE becomes saturated,
this can result in the loss of calls. Therefore, the BTS monitors the load and takes action
where appropriate. On initial detection of the overload condition, the BTS takes local
action to reduce the load. If the BTS local action does not reduce the load, the BTS sends
overload messages to the BSC, which can decide to take global action.
The different stages of BTS overload, from detection to resolution, are described below.
The BTS monitors the load on the FU or TRE by measuring the free time on the FU or
TRE's Signaling Control Processor and the free message space on the associated buffers.
If either of these passes a set threshold, a counter is incremented. If a threshold is not
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-51
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overload Control

BTS Overload

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

passed again within a given time, the counter is decremented. The counter has two
thresholds. If the first of these is passed, the BTS takes local overload action. If the
second of these is passed, the BTS sends overload messages to the BSC.
When local action is triggered in the BTS, it discards low priority messages such as the
Establish_Indication message to reduce the load on the SCP.

BSC Overload
Overview

The BSC provides two entities for handling telecommunications signaling:

The TCU handles telecommunications signaling for the Abis Interface

The DTC handles telecommunications signaling for the A Interface.

The following sections describe the different stages of BSC overload, from detection to
resolution.
BSC Overload Detection

For the BTS, overload is calculated on the processor free time and the free message space
of the associated buffers. As the BSC handles more signaling traffic than the BTS, the
detection of an overload, and whether to trigger local or global defense actions, is more
complicated. The BSC uses an algorithm that takes into account which processors are
affected, the level of overload, and which buffers are affected. Each processor has a local
overload controller. The BSC's centralized overload controller is responsible for global
overload defense actions.
BSC Local Overload Action

Local action in the BSC is taken by the local overload controller on each processor. Local
actions reduce the load on an individual board.
The local actions are:

TCU Action
The TCU discards a percentage of the measurement_result messages received
from the BTS. The percentage of discarded messages is increased and decreased in
steps, under the control of the local overload control. This only affects the handover
and power control algorithms, which still function but with less information.
DTC Action

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-52
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overload Control

BSC Overload

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the DTC detects an overload, its state is set to congested on the BSC database.
This means that it cannot be selected by the resource management software to provide
a new SCCP connection. Also, the DTC cannot send connectionless messages to the
MSC.
BSC Global Overload Action
The BSC controls global actions for the whole BSS. Global action reduces the amount
of telecommunications signaling traffic in the BSS by inhibiting new calls. The BSC
bars mobile station access classes either in one cell if the global action is requested by
a BTS or TCU, or in several cells if a DTC or MSC are overloaded.

Mobile Station Access Class Barring

When the BSC receives a request for global overload action from a BTS, from the MSC,
or from one of its local overload control processors, it checks the message for errors. If it
can accept the request, it builds new system information messages (1 to 4). These
messages are sent on the BCCH. They bar certain mobile station classes from sending
Channel_Request messages on the RACH.
If the overload condition persists, the BSC can change the system information messages
to bar more mobile station access classes from using the RACH.
When the BTS is barring access classes, its behavior can be modified from the OMC-R
by modifying the following parameters:

AUTO_BAR_CELL enables/disables the automatic barring of cells after all access

classes have been barred. This forces the mobile station to camp on another cell
AUTO_BAR_EC enables/disables the automatic barring of emergency calls
EN_BSS_OVRL_CLASS_BARR enables/disables the ability of the BSC to perform

global action for BTS-to-BSC overload conditions.


It is also possible to configure the number of access classes that can be barred and
unbarred in one step from the OMC-R.
Mobile Station Access Class Unbarring

When an overload message is received from the BTS or when an overload is detected in
the BSC, a timer is set. If no overload message is received from the BTS, or no overload
detected in the BSC during the period of the timer, the timer expires. When the timer
expires, the BSC unbars some access classes according to a defined algorithm.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-53
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station

Overview of Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station


Overview of Call Re-establishment by Mobile Station
Overview

The mobile station initiates call re-establishment when there is already a speech or data
call in a stable state (traffic channel path connected) and the mobile station detects a radio
link failure. The mobile station waits a predetermined time for a response from the
network. If there is no response, the mobile station performs a cell reselection procedure.
If the new cell allows the re-establishment procedure to be performed, the mobile station
initiates the channel request procedure RACH and awaits the Immediate_Assignment
message. The mobile station then performs the contention resolution procedure using the
cm re-establishment request message.
The radio and link establishment procedure continues as described in Mobile-Originated
Call (p. 5-5).
The network can block the mobile station from performing the channel request procedure,
due to inhibition of the mobile station access class broadcast in the sys_info 1 to 4
messages. If this is the case, the mobile station radio resource entity reports the failure of
the radio and link establishment procedure to the higher layer entities in the mobile
station.
When the MSC receives the cm re-establishment request message, it initiates the
procedures necessary to establish a new radio resource connection and continue the call
management connection.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-54
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card
User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access
Access Control)
Control)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card


Access Control)
Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card
Access Control)
Overview

Until now, the only possibility to configure the access classes was to manually set them
via edit cell actions.
This feature provides a fast mechanism to bar/unbar the access classes for a set of cells
(possibly all the cells of a BSC) according to the following requirements:

The mechanism is triggered within up to 10 seconds


Guaranteed access to VIP (Access Classes 11-15) and emergency calls (Access Class
10)
Fair access to low priority user (Access Classes 0-9)
Possibility to react to special events situations like overload.

This feature controls the traffic through partial access class 0-9 barring, managed by a
round robin algorithm according to the start position, the sliding windows (corresponding
to the number of Access Classes to bar) and the sliding speed parameters.
The feature is activated/deactivated at OMC-R using a new flag EN_ACC. When this flag
is set, the OMC-R automatically sends a start ACC sliding algorithm command to the
BSC containing the default ACC-Configuration, if such a configuration is defined.
In case of conflict between the existing/legacy ACC algorithms and the new ACC sliding
one, the ACC sliding algorithm has the higher priority.
The feature is supported on 9130 BSC Evolution only, is optional and controlled on a per
TRX quantity basis.
The user is allowed to define ACC-configurations characterized by the following
parameters:

friendly name
scope (the set of cells where the mechanism will be used)

sliding rate (the periodicity to bar/unbar the access classes 0..9)


sliding window (the size of the access classes group to be bared/unbarred at one
round)

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-55
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card
User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access
Access Control)
Control)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

sliding start position (the access class number from which the mechanism will start to
be used)
default flag.

Pre-defined ACC-configuration templates are available to ease the ACC-configuration


objects editing.
The following figure shows an example of the new round robin algorithm applied for an
ACC configuration:

Applicable scope is the entire BSS


ACC Sliding Rate is set on 1 minute
ACC Sliding windows size is set on 3

ACC Sliding start position is set on 2.

Figure 6-5 Example of the New Round Robin Algorithm Applied for an ACC
Configuration

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-56
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Overview of User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card
User Prioritized Action Based on SIM (SIM Card Access
Access Control)
Control)
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The following rules apply when defining an ACC Configuration:

The ACC Configurations defined for one BSC must have distinctive names

Two active ACC Configurations can not contain the same cell
When ACC_Sliding_Rate is set on 0:
the following settings must be performed:
ACC_Start_Position must be set on 0

ACC_Windows_Size must be set on 0 or 10

ACC_Conf_Status is set on One Run if the user has triggered the start upon the

aim configuration.
A cell can not be deleted if it is part of a running ACC Configuration defined at cell
level
There is no restriction about the number of active ACC configuration of a BSC at a
given moment, provided that their scopes are not partially overlapping.
It is not allowed to simultaneously activate 2 ACC configurations if they do not have
disjunctive scopes. It is however allowed to simultaneously activate one ACC
configuration X whose scope is the empty list (i.e. all the cells of the BSC) and one
ACC configuration Y whose scope is a list of cells. In this case, the BSC will apply
the parameters of Y on the cells in the scope of Y and the parameters of X on the rest
of the BSC cells.
The user is allowed to configure at most one ACC configuration per BSC as being the
default.

The user can:

Create ACC configuration


Modify ACC configuration

Delete ACC configuration


Activate/deactivate ACC configuration.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-57
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Handling
Interference Reduction

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Interference Reduction
Interference Reduction Using IRC & EIRC
Overview

In order to enhance the network quality by reducing the interferences, the support of IRC
(Interference Rejection Combining) and E-IRC (Enhanced-IRC) algorithms are required.
The EIRC algorithm is implemented for both GMSK and 8PSK modulations. To be able
to activate this feature the following parameters are being used:

EN_EIRC - which enables/disables the activation of the IRC/EIRC feature.

EIRC_Capability - which indicates whether the TRE is able to support EIRC


algorithms.

EIRC algorithm is launched in TRE having the hardware capability and mapped in a cell
where the EIRC feature is activated.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
6-58
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
7

Overview
Purpose

This section provides an overview of the Call Release process and describes the
procedures which ensure resource allocation to a call.
It also describes Remote Transcoder Alarms, and the processes used to break a connection
and disconnect the resources, depending on the nature of radio transmission.
Contents
Call Release

7-3

Overview of Call Release

7-3

Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

7-5

Overview of Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

7-5

Normal Release

7-6

Calls Terminated Following a Channel Change

7-15

Call Release - Special Cases

7-17

Overview of Call Release - Special Cases

7-17

Call Release Following Reset

7-17

BSC-Initiated Release

7-20

BSC-Initiated SCCP Release

7-22

BTS-Initiated Call Release

7-23

Mobile Station-Initiated Call Release

7-25

Remote Transcoder Alarms

7-27

Preserve Call Feature

7-29

Overview of Preserve Call Feature

7-29

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Normal Release

7-29

Abnormal Release

7-30

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release

Overview of Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Release
Overview of Call Release
Overview

The Call Release procedures ensure that resources allocated to a call are free for reuse
when they are no longer required by the current call.
Call Release procedures are required when:

A call is finished and either the called or calling party hang up


A mobile station is turned off

A call is handed over and the resources for the original call are released
A call is modified and the resources for the original channel are released
There is operator intervention, such as a channel being blocked
There is a failure

There is a radio link failure


The system detects an LAPDm failure.

If a call is terminated normally, the Call Release procedures are triggered automatically. If
the call is terminated abnormally, the system has to detect that the resources are no longer
required and release them.
For a complete Call Release, the following resources must be released:

A Interface resources

Abis Interface resources


Air Interface resources
MSC resources:
As follows:

BSC resources:
As follows:

Layer 3 for the A Interface


SS7 signaling for the A Interface
Layer 1 physical resources for the A Interface.

Layer 3 for the A, Abis and Air Interface


Layer 2 SS7 for the A Interface and LAPD for the Abis Interface
Layer 1 physical resource for the A and Abis Interface.

BTS resources:

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release

Overview of Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

As follows:
Layer 3 for the A, Abis and Air Interface
Layer 2 LAPD for the Abis Interface and LAPDm for the Air Interface

Layer 1 physical resources for the Abis and Air Interface.


Mobile station resources:
As follows:
Layer 3 for the Air Interface
Layer 2 LAPDm for the Air Interface
Layer 1 for the Air Interface.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Overview of Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Release Procedures in Normal Service


Overview of Call Release Procedures in Normal Service
Overview

The Call Release procedures, and the order in which they are triggered, depend on the
reason for the release.
This section describes the following Call Release scenarios, which occur during normal
service:

Normal Release (calls terminated by Call Management)

Calls terminated following a channel change.


Note: A VGCS call uses the same general call release procedures as a standard call;
any exceptions are described in the relevant procedure descriptions below.

For more information about special cases, including detailed behavior of the MSC, BSC,
BTS and mobile station, refer to Call Release - Special Cases (p. 7-17).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Normal Release
Overview

Call termination initiated by Call Management is considered to be a normal reason for


Call Release. In this type of Call Release, the MSC initiates the release. Before this can
happen, the mobile station must inform the MSC that it has disconnected the call. This is
done with Layer 3 messages passed transparently through the BSS between the mobile
station and MSC, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-1 Mobile Station Disconnecting a Call

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

When a mobile station disconnects a call:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once the MSC has confirmation that the mobile station wants to disconnect and no longer
requires the connection, it initiates the release procedure towards the BSC.
This procedure:

Releases the circuit (if applicable)


Releases the SCCP connection.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC responds to the MSC to clear the connection on the A Interface, and initiates the
Call Release procedure toward the BTS and mobile station. This procedure releases the
radio resources.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

This action triggers the mobile station to release the LAPDm connection (disc message)
and the BSC to release physical resources allocated to the call.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

This is shown in the following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-2 Normal Call Release

Legend:

LAPDm Link Access Protocol on the Dm Channel


MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel


SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

TC

Transcoder

UA

Unnumbered Acknowledgment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MSC Actions

Note: The MSC initiates Call Release at the end of the mobile station transaction. The
MSC can be informed of the end of the mobile station transaction:

By a level 3 disconnection message from the mobile station (Figure 7-1,


Mobile Station Disconnecting a Call (p. 7-6))
By a disconnection message from the Network Operator if the correspondent
terminates the call
At the end of a service call (i.e., SMS or location updating).

The normal release procedure of the MSC releases both the A Interface resources used for
the call, if any, and the SCCP connection used for the signaling which controls the
connection.
Figure 7-3 Initiation of Normal Release by MSC

Legend:

MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel


SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Procedure

When the MSC initiates a normal release procedure:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC initiates the release procedure by sending a Clear_Command message to the
BSC. This command can include a cause value in the Mandatory Information Element.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC accepts the command even if no cause value is included. It immediately releases
the A Interface resources for the call and replies to the MSC with a Clear_Complete
message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC initiates the release of the Abis and Air Interface resources. It also sets a timer to
ensure that the MSC releases the SCCP signaling resources. On receipt of the
Clear_Complete message from the BSC, the MSC releases the resources associated
with the A Interface and initiates the release of the SCCP signaling resources by sending
the SCCP_released message to the BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC stops its timer and sends the SCCP_release_complete message. The SCCP
resources are now released and can be used for another call. If the BSC timer expires
before the SCCP_released message is received, then the BSC force releases the SCCP
connection.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

The MSC also initiates two types of call release for VGCS calls:

Uplink release requested by the BSS


When the BSS detects that the mobile station is no longer connected, it sends the
MSC an Uplink_Release_Indication message containing the
Radio_Interface_Failure message. When the MSC receives this message, it
initiates the release of the radio and terrestrial resources associated with the call.
Uplink release requested by the MSC
The MSC initiates the release of the radio and terrestrial resources associated with the
call when it detects that the previous talking service subscriber is no longer talking, or
that the talker has left the group call area.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

When a mobile station belonging to another BSC area has successfully sized the VGCH,
the MSC informs the BSC. The BSS then notifies the other mobile stations that the
channel is busy.
BSC/BTS/Mobile Station Interactions

Note: The normal Call Release procedure towards the mobile station/BTS releases
the:

Radio resources associated with the call


Radio Frequency channel.

The call release procedure is as follows:


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC initiates the release of the radio resource


By sending:

A Channel_Release message to the mobile station via the BTS

A Deactivate_SACCH message to the BTS.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The Channel_Release message prompts the mobile station to send a disc message to
the BTS to release the LAPDm resource. When this is received, the BTS acknowledges
this with a ua message to the mobile station and sends a Release_Indication
message to the BSC. This procedure is supervised by a timer in the BSC.
The BSC considers the mobile station to be disconnected and starts the RF channel
release when:

The timer expires


The BSC receives the Release_Indication message and stops the timer.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the BTS receives the Deactivate_SACCH message, it stops sending SACCH
information and disables the remote Transcoder alarm detection. This stops the sending of
Transcoder alarms to the BSC when the Transcoder detects inactivity on the channel. This
is shown in the figure below. If the mobile station does not receive the
Channel_Release message, it considers the stopping of SACCH information as a radio
link failure and performs a local release.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-4 BSC/BTS/Mobile Station Interactions in Normal Call Release

Legend:

LAPDm Link Access Protocol on the Dm Channel


MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel


SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

TC

Transcoder

UA

Unnumbered Acknowledgment

Once the BSC considers the mobile station disconnected, it initiates release of the RF
channel from the BTS. In a normal Call Release procedure, this occurs following the
release of the mobile station from the Air Interface (as described earlier in this section).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Before releasing the RF channel, the BSC sends a physical_context message to the
BTS and starts a timer to supervise the response. The response from the BTS is a
physical_context_confirm message which contains the last LAPDm performance
measurements for the RF channel.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

On receipt of the physical_context_confirm message, or after the timer has timed


out, the BSC sends an RF_Channel_Release message to the BTS and starts a timer to
supervise the release. The BTS releases the level 1 and 2 resources for the channel and
replies with an RF_Channel_Release_ack message.
On receipt of the acknowledgment, the BSC releases all resources for the RF channel.
This is shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-5 Normal Release Final Steps

Legend:

MS

Mobile Station

UA

Unnumbered Acknowledgment

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Normal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the timer supervising the release times out, the BSC sends the RF_Channel_Release
message again and restarts the timer. If the timer times out again, the BSC releases all
resources locally. It also sends an O&M error report to the OMC-R with a cause value
indicating that the RF channel release procedure has failed.
Note: The RF channel can be released locally by the BTS and still be active. If the RF
channel is still active, it is released when the BSC attempts to assign it to another call
with a Channel_Activation message. The BTS replies with a
Channel_Activation_Nack and the BSC releases the channel (refer to Chapter 5,
Call Set Up for more information).
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

For VGCS calls, when the mobile station terminates the call, the VGCH is released and
other mobile stations can attempt to seize the VGCH in order to become the subsequent
talking mobile station in the VGCS call.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Calls Terminated Following a Channel Change

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Calls Terminated Following a Channel Change


Procedure

This section describes the Call Release procedure following a successful channel change
procedure. The case presented is an external intercell handover. For an internal channel
change, the serving and target BSCs are the same, and in some cases, the serving and
target BTS are the same.
For calls terminated following a channel change:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The target BSC receives confirmation of the successful handover from the mobile station
when the mobile station sends the Handover_Complete message. This message is
passed transparently through the target BTS. See Chapter 6, Call Handling for more
information about handovers.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The target BSC informs the MSC of the handover and initiates the Call Release procedure
towards the serving BSC, by issuing a Clear_Command message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The serving BSC issues a Channel_Release message to the mobile station and a
Deactivate_SACCH message to the serving BTS.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

Additional information

The normal Call Release procedure described in Normal Release (p. 7-6) continues
between the serving BSC, the serving BTS, the MSC and the mobile station. This is
shown in the following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release Procedures in Normal Service

Calls Terminated Following a Channel Change

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

FACCH Fast Associated Control Channel


MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Overview of Call Release - Special Cases

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Call Release - Special Cases


Overview of Call Release - Special Cases
Overview

Call Release can occur for reasons outside normal service.


This section treats the following special cases in which Call Release happens:

Call Release following Reset


BSC-initiated Call Release
BTS-initiated Call Release

Mobile station-initiated Call Release


Remote Transcoder alarms.

Call Release Following Reset


Overview

Resets are used in software/hardware failure situations, or when the database is corrupted
and recovery procedures have failed. The MSC can reset all calls within a BSC or an
individual circuit. For example, if the MSC loses dynamic information regarding calls
(i.e., preventing it from providing such services as accounting), it can send a reset or a
reset_circuit message to the BSC.
Reset

The MSC initiates Call Release when it has to release all calls associated with the BSS
(Reset).
The MSC sends a reset message containing a cause value to the BSC. The BSC then:

Sends an alarm to the OMC-R


Sends a block message to the MSC to block circuits

Starts to clear all calls in the BSS. For each call, the procedure in Normal Release
(p. 7-6) is repeated.

For each SCCP connection on the A Interface, the BSC can send an SCCP_release
message and release any A Interface resources associated with the SCCP.
A timer allocates a certain amount of time for the calls to clear. When the timer expires,
the BSC sends a reset_ack message to the MSC. Figure 7-6, Call Release Following
Reset (p. 7-19) shows the Call Release process after a reset is initiated.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Call Release Following Reset

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Reset Circuit

The reset circuit procedure is initiated from the MSC. The procedure informs the BSC
that an individual circuit is no longer active in the MSC. This triggers the call clearing
procedure if the circuit has an active SCCP connection.
The MSC sends a reset_circuit message to the BSC for each circuit to be reset.
Depending on the resources allocated, this can trigger the BSC to:

Release the A Interface resources


Initiate the release of the SCCP
Initiate Call Release towards the BTS and mobile station.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Call Release Following Reset

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-6 Call Release Following Reset

Legend:

LAPDm Link Access Protocol on the Dm Channel


....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Call Release Following Reset

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MS

Mobile Station

SCCP

Signal Connection Control Part

Note: If this procedure is invoked due to SCCP problems, then messages on the A
Interface may not be passed. The MSC and BSC locally release resources for the A
Interface connections. Refer to BSC-Initiated Release (p. 7-20) for more details.

BSC-Initiated Release
Overview

The BSC is involved in Call Release for both the A Interface and Abis/Air interfaces.
The BSC initiates Call Release on the A Interface when events internal to the BSS
terminate communication with the mobile station.
The Call Release towards the mobile station can already be in progress or have finished
when the BSC initiates a release on the A Interface. If the mobile station is still connected
when the BSC initiates a release on the A Interface, the release towards the MSC is
triggered by the Clear message from the MSC to the BSC.
Towards the MSC

The BSC initiates the release towards the MSC by sending a Clear_Request message.
It also starts a timer to supervise the procedure. The MSC releases resources for the A
channel and sends the Clear_Command message to the BSC. This command contains a
cause value indicating that the BSC initiated the release.
From this point, the Call Release follows the procedure described for normal Call Release
(refer to Normal Release (p. 7-6)). The procedure starts with the BSC releasing A
channel resources. It initiates the release procedure towards the mobile station (if still
attached), and returns a Clear_Complete message to the MSC. This sequence is shown
in the following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

BSC-Initiated Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-7 BSC-initiated Call Release Toward the MSC

Legend:

MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

Towards the Mobile Station/BTS

The Call Release procedure towards the mobile station/BTS releases:

The radio resources associated with the call


The RF channel.

The BSC initiates the release of the radio resource by sending:

A Channel_Release message to the mobile station via the BTS

A Deactivate_SACCH message to the BTS.

This is the Normal Release procedure described in Normal Release (p. 7-6).
Note: In this process, once the BSC considers the mobile station disconnected, it
initiates release of the RF channel from the BTS.
This can occur following:

The release of the mobile station from the Air Interface (as in the Normal Release
procedure)
A handover, when the BSC is sure that the mobile station has successfully
changed to the new channel. Refer to Calls Terminated Following a Channel
Change (p. 7-15).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

BSC-Initiated Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

An immediate assign procedure failure. This ensures that the SDCCH is available
for reuse as quickly as possible
A normal assignment failure or handover failure. This ensures that the traffic
channel is available for reuse as quickly as possible.

BSC-Initiated SCCP Release


Overview

The BSC initiates an SCCP release when a release procedure has failed or inactivity is
detected in the BSC SCCP entity.

Failed Release Procedure


If there are no resources allocated to a call and the normal release of the SCCP
connection has failed, the BSC forces the release of the SCCP connection:
Internally by sending a level 3 command to its SCCP entity
Externally by sending an SCCP_released message to the MSC.
The BSC does not wait for a reply from the MSC before releasing the SCCP
connection.
If the original failure is due to a problem on the SCCP connection or in the BSC
SCCP entity, the SCCP_released message may not be sent. If the message is sent,
the MSC replies with an SCCP_release_complete message and releases any
allocated resources.
Inactivity Procedure
The BSC performs an inactivity procedure for each SCCP connection. If the BSC
detects inactivity, it assumes that the associated transaction is no longer active and
therefore:

Performs Call Release on the Air and Abis interfaces


Initiates a reset circuit procedure if an A channel is active
Initiates the release of the SCCP connection.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

BTS-Initiated Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

BTS-Initiated Call Release


Overview

The BTS initiates a Call Release only if it detects a LAPD failure or when O&M requests
a restart of the BTS.
Otherwise the role of the BTS in Call Release is to:

Relay channel release messages to the mobile station


Deactivate the SACCH under control of the BSC
Send a release_indication message to the BSC when the mobile station releases
the LAPDm connection.

LAPD Failure

When the BTS detects a LAPD failure on a link between one of its frame units and the
BSC, it forces the release of all mobile stations on active channels associated with that
Frame Unit (TRE for a BTS 9100 or BTS 9110).
The BTS stops SACCH frames and sends a Layer 2 disconnect message to each
affected mobile station. It also starts a timer to supervise each LAPDm disconnection.
The LAPD connection cannot be re-established until the BTS receives an
acknowledgment, or the timer expires for each LAPDm connection.
If a mobile station sends an acknowledgment, the BTS releases the RF resources.
If a mobile station does not respond, the BTS continues to send Layer 2 disconnect
messages up to a predefined number. It then waits for the timer to expire and the BTS
releases the RF resources.
Note: If the maximum number of disconnect retries is reached, the BTS LAPDm
entity sends an error report to the BSC. This does not stop the timer supervising the
disconnection.
When all mobile stations are disconnected, the BTS attempts to re-establish the LAPD
connection. The BTS then sends an error report to the BSC with a cause value indicating
O&M intervention. This cause value indicates that the FU or TRE has cleared all calls.
The BSC re-initializes the link with the frame unit and starts Call Release for the affected
calls with the MSC. This sequence is shown in the following figure.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

BTS-Initiated Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-8 BTS-initiated Call Release following LAPD Failure

Legend:

FU

Frame Unit

LAPD

Link Access Protocol on the D Channel

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

BTS-Initiated Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel


TRE

Transmitter/Receiver Equipment

UA

Unnumbered Acknowledgment

O&M Intervention

The BTS initiates a Call Release if its O&M entity requests a restart of a Frame Unit
(TRE for a BTS 9100 or BTS 9110).
The FU or TRE's response to a restart request is to stop sending frames on the Air
Interface. The BTS starts a timer to supervise the disconnection of the mobile stations.
The timer allows enough time for the mobile stations to detect a radio link failure due to
the lack of SACCH frames. The BTS RF performs a local release.
The BTS resets the FU or TRE and waits for the timer to expire. When the timer expires,
the FU or TRE attempts to re-establish the LAPD link with the BSC. The BTS sends an
error report to the BSC with a cause value indicating O&M intervention.
The BSC releases the RF resources and initiates a Call Release with the MSC.

Mobile Station-Initiated Call Release


Overview

The mobile station can initiate a Call Release by:

Initiating a radio link failure


Disconnecting the LAPDm connection.

Mobile Station-Initiated Radio Link Failure

If SACCH frames are no longer received from the mobile station, the BTS starts to count
the number of missing frames. When the BTS has counted a certain number of missing
SACCH frames, it considers that the radio link has failed.
This happens when the mobile station 'disappears' from the Air Interface (caused by
adverse radio conditions, the mobile station is switched off, fatal error, etc.).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-25
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Mobile Station-Initiated Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Note: There is an optional feature where, after a number of missing SACCH frames,
the BSC sets both mobile station and BTS power to maximum in an attempt to regain
the Air Interface. If the BTS continues to register missing frames, the radio link fails
as described below.
The BTS sends a connection_failure_indication message to the BSC with a
cause value indicating that the radio link has failed. The BSC initiates Normal Call
Release procedures to the BTS by sending an RF_Channel_Release message to the
BTS and a Clear_Request message to the MSC. This is shown in the following figure.
Figure 7-9 Call Release due to Mobile Station-Initiated Radio Link Failure

Legend:

MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-26
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Mobile Station-Initiated Call Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Mobile Station-Initiated LAPDm Disconnection

If the mobile station has an error which unexpectedly terminates the call, it sends a
disconnect message to the BTS. The system reaction to the disconnect message in
this instance is the same as when the disconnect message from the mobile station is
prompted by a Channel_Release message from the BSC (as explained in
BSC-Initiated Release (p. 7-20)).

Remote Transcoder Alarms


Overview

If the Transcoder detects a break in communication with the BTS, it sets a timer. This
timer is defined by GSM standards. On expiration of this timer, the Transcoder sends an
alarm to the BTS. If the BTS remote Transcoder alarm detection is active, a
connection_failure_indication message is sent to the BSC with a cause value
indicating a remote Transcoder alarm.
If the BTS detects a break in communication with the Transcoder, it sends a
connection_failure_indication message to the BSC with a cause value indicating

a remote Transcoder alarm. See the figure below.


During an internal handover, this can cause remote Transcoder alarms to arrive at the
BSC, as the connection is still active but the call is handed over. The BSC ignores these
alarms for a guard period on new and old channels during handover.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-27
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Call Release - Special Cases

Remote Transcoder Alarms

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 7-10 Call Release Due to Communication Failure Detected by Transcoder

Legend:

MIE

Mandatory Information Element

MS

Mobile Station

TC

Transcoder

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-28
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Preserve Call Feature

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Preserve Call Feature


Overview of Preserve Call Feature
Overview

The Preserve Call feature avoids locking the cell before modifying its logical
configuration. The OMC-R marks the TRXs that are impacted by the modification and
the BSC shuts down traffic only on those TRXs, preserving the ongoing calls on other
TRXs.
The OMC-R provides the WTC in the Cell-Frequencies-Type group. This WTC is the one
which applies by default to cell shutdown.
Modifying a TRX means changing its baseband definition and/or its radio definition. The
radio definition of a TRX is the allocation of a frequency or of an FHS/MAIO. If the
definition of an FHS is changed, the TRXs which use this FHS must also be considered as
modified.

Normal Release
Overview

In Normal Release, Preserve Call is set to False if one of the following parameters is
modified:

attached-sector (PC=False on modified TRX)


ARFN (TRX-TS) (PC=False on modified TRX)
ARFN-Set (FHS) (PC=False on TRX using the concerned FHS)
MAIO (PC=False on modified TRX)

HSN (PC=False on modified TRX)


Channel-Type (PC=False on modified TRX)

Zone_Type (PC=False on modified TRX)


The OMC-R considers that the Zone_Type value for a single cell is Not Relevant.
When the transition from Not Relevant to another value is not triggered on the
concerned TRX, it remains set to False.
If the TS0 of the TRX which is carrying the BCCH frequency is impacted, all calls
must be shut down on the cell. In this case, the OMC-R marks all TRXs as impacted.
This is the case when there is a modification of the:

BCCH frequency
CBCH channel : combined <-> non-combined.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-29
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Call Release
Preserve Call Feature

Abnormal Release

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Abnormal Release
Overview

In the following cases, even if the Preserve Call flag is not set to False by the OMC-R,
calls are released at TRX or at cell level:

Add TRX in a cell and the BSC TCH-RM Entity managing this cell (Traffic Channel
Resource Manager) is full
Inside the BSC software, the TCH-RM entities manage the radio timeslot allocation
on a cell basis. A cell, mapped on a sector, is mapped on a TCH-RM entity. A
TCH-RM entity can manage several cells with a maximum capacity based on the total
number of TRX that is limited to 90.
If a cell is extended with one or several TRX, the TCH-RM entity managing the cell
takes into account the new TRX. If, adding the TRX, the limit of 90 is exceeded, the
concerned cell can no longer be managed by this entity.
This cell is mapped automatically by the BSC on another TCH-RM. In this specific
case, all calls are released on this cell
Due to the "adjust" algorithm, TRX(s) with Preserve Call set to true are disturbed in
remapping
Once the BSC has unmapped and remapped all TRX(s) with Preserve Call set to
False,
the BSC can be in one of the following situations:
There are more TRX than TRE configured
There are enough TRE configured but some are not available
In both cases, the BSC checks whether a recovery is performed to ensure the
availability of the TRX with the highest priority. The application of the recovery also
leads to the release of some TRE.

The OMC-R facility "Check Telecom Impact" related to PRCs is based on the "preserve
calls" parameter value. Consequently, in the three cases mentioned above, the result of the
check is not accurate.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
7-30
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

8 andling User Traffic


H
Across the Alcatel-Lucent
BSS

Overview
Purpose

This section describes the flow of speech and data traffic across the BSS.
Contents
User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

8-3

Overview of Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

8-3

Speech

8-4

Overview of Speech

8-4

Analog

8-5

Interleaving and Forward Error Correction

8-5

Speech Data Bursts

8-6

Digital Speech

8-6

Digital 64 kbit/s A-law Encoded Speech

8-7

Enhanced Full-Rate

8-8

Half-Rate

8-9

Adaptive Multiple Rate

8-10

Channel Mode Adaptation

8-14

VGCS

8-14

Circuit-Switched Data Modes

8-16

Overview of Circuit-Switched Data Modes

8-16

Transparent Mode

8-17

Non-Transparent Mode

8-18

Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

8-20

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Overview of Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

8-20

SMS-CB Operation

8-21

Phase 2+ Enhancements

8-21

Support of Localized Service Area

8-22

Overview of Support of Localized Service Area

8-22

PLMN Interworking

8-23

Overview of PLMN Interworking

8-23

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS

Overview of Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent


BSS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Overview of Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent
BSS
Overview

The BSS performs traffic handling in the uplink and downlink directions for speech and
data.
The BSS uses the BSC and BTS to perform the required radio transmission, control and
baseband functions of a cell and to control the BTS in its domain.
Transmission provides the efficient use of the terrestrial links between the BSS
components.
Together, these components perform the required encoding and rate adaptation
procedures.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Overview of Speech

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Speech
Overview of Speech
Overview

Speech is passed from the mobile station to the PSTN and from the PSTN to the mobile
station. This section describes how speech is encoded from the mobile station to the
PSTN, as shown in the following figure. Speech in the opposite direction follows the
reverse process and so is not described.
Figure 8-1 Encoded Speech Transmission Across the BSS with 9120 BSC

Legend:

Analog

A/D

Analog/Digital

BIE

Base Station Interface Equipment

CIM

Channel Encoded, Interleaved, and Modulated

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

SM

Submultiplexer

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Overview of Speech

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

TC

Transcoder

TCH

Traffic Channel

The scheme is similar in the BSS with a 9130 BSC, excepting the BIE and SM 9120 BSC
transmission components, which are supported by virtual processors.

Analog
Overview

The microphone converts speech to an analog signal.


The analog signal is encoded into a digital signal depending on the type of traffic channel
used:

13 kbit/s for a full-rate traffic channel (or enhanced full-rate)


6.5 kbit/s for a half-rate traffic channel.

It is then transmitted on a 16 kbit/s (8 kbit/s for half-rate) radio timeslot. 3 kbit/s and 1.5
kbit/s are used for signaling on full-rate and half-rate channels respectively.

Interleaving and Forward Error Correction


Overview

To pass speech over the Air Interface, error checking and redundancy are included to
make sure speech information is correctly transmitted. This ensures that valid continuous
speech is passed through the BSS.
Error correction is based on high redundancy with complicated parity and cyclic
redundancy methods. This is done to ensure that many types of parasitic and sporadic
errors are detected and to some degree, corrected. In the case of speech, there is cyclic
coding, convolutional and parity error encoding of the data. The speech data starts as 260
bits (112 bits) and, after forward error checking, is encoded as a 456 bit block (228 bit
block).
These blocks are then split into eight (four for half-rate), and interleaved with adjacent
blocks into TDMA frames to be transmitted as radio wave bursts. This means that if some
of the blocks are lost during transmission, there is a high chance that the other blocks hold
enough redundancy to still have a valid speech block.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Speech Data Bursts

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Speech Data Bursts


Overview

The interleaved blocks are transmitted over the Air Interface and are then reassembled in
the BTS. As described above, when the interleaved blocks are reassembled and checked
for parity errors, there is a high chance that the data can be recovered. In speech data the
most significant bits are heavily protected and are always transmitted at the start of a
TDMA frame. This ensures that even if the speech block cannot be reassembled, at least
the most significant speech data can be used to provide a close approximation.

Digital Speech
Overview

Speech bursts are returned to digital speech blocks in the BTS. They are sent to the
Transcoder as 13 kbit/s digital speech, plus 3 kbit/s for in-band signaling if they are
full-rate speech. The channels on the Abis and Ater interfaces are 64 kbit/s. The speech
blocks have to be multiplexed on to these links. This is shown in the figure below.
Half-rate speech is sent to the BSC on the Abis Interface as 6.5 kbit/s, plus 1.5 kbit/s
signaling. Two half-rate 8 kbit/s channels are associated together into a 16 kbit/s channel.
On the Ater Interface a 16 kbit/s submultiplexing scheme is used for all types of traffic.
The two paired 8 kbit/s Abis channels are independently switched by the BSC onto two
16 kbit/s Ater channels.
Figure 8-2 Multiplexed Ater Interface

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Digital Speech

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Legend:

SM

Submultiplexer

TC

Transcoder

This scheme corresponds to the 9120 BSC. For 9130 BSC, there is no SM or Ater
interface beside the BSC.

Digital 64 kbit/s A-law Encoded Speech


Overview

The Transcoder converts the 13 kbit/s digital speech to the 64 kbit/s A-law encoding. This
is a standard digital speech interface for ISDN and PSTN exchanges. The information
passes through the MSC and is sent to the PSTN.
The Transcoder performs rate adaptation in both directions.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Enhanced Full-Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Enhanced Full-Rate
Overview

Enhanced full-rate provides advanced speech encoding on a full-rate traffic channel, for
improved voice quality and user comfort. The feature uses a codec with ACELP coding.
Enhanced full-rate is enabled in the BSC, on a cell-by-cell basis, by the O&M parameter
EFR_ENABLED. When an enhanced full-rate call is set up, the following process occurs:
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The mobile station makes a call requiring speech, in which it announces its codec
preferences to the MSC in the Set_Up message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC passes appropriate Assignment_Request and Handover_Request


messages to the BSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC uses the codec list supplied by the MSC to choose the correct codec, based on
the support for the codec in the BTS and A Interface TRAU equipment.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC activates the selected channel in the BTS, giving the indication of codec type.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BTS configures itself to handle the correct channel coding, and starts sending TRAU
frames to the TRAU, in order to configure the TRAU.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC builds either an Assignment_Command message or a Handover_Command


message, indicating to the mobile station which codec it should use when accessing the
new channel.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once the mobile station is attached, the BSC reports the selected codec type to the MSC.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

In the case of subsequent handover, if the BSC has had to change the codec, the BSC
informs the MSC of the change.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Enhanced Full-Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Additional information

For more information concerning enhanced full-rate, refer to the Alcatel-Lucent Base
Station Subsystem - BSS Configuration Handbook.

Half-Rate
Overview

Half-rate speech channels allow the operator to save timeslots on the Air Interface when
the number of available frequencies is very limited. Half-rate uses a different encoding
algorithm than full-rate, in order to minimize any perceived loss of comfort by the
subscriber. Use of the half-rate feature does create extra overhead on the A Interface.
Half-rate is activated on a per-cell basis. In effect, the cell is capable of operating in Dual
Rate mode, permitting either half-rate or full-rate traffic channels to be allocated. VGCS
calls can be use either standard full-rate or half-rate channels.
Half-rate can be applied to BSSs with the following equipment:

BSC 9120
BSC 9130
G2 Transcoder
9125 Transcoder

Alcatel-Lucent BTS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Adaptive Multiple Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Adaptive Multiple Rate


Overview

Adaptive Multiple Rate (AMR) increases the quality of speech during conversations and
also increases the offered capacity due to the provision of half-rate channels.
When looking at current GSM codecs (full-rate, half-rate, and enhanced full-rate), each of
them answers only one facet of capacity and quality requirements:

Enhanced full-rate brings a higher speech quality than full-rate but with no noticeable
impact on capacity
Half-rate provides an answer to capacity requirement, but suffers from poor speech
quality in bad radio conditions, or mobile station-to-mobile station calls when TFO
(see Tandem Free Operation (p. 5-58)) cannot be used

AMR is a new technology defined by 3GPP which relies on two extensive sets of codec
modes. One is defined for full-rate and one for half-rate.
When used in combined full-rate and half-rate mode, AMR brings new answers to the
trade-off between capacity and quality:

Speech quality is improved, both in full-rate and half-rate

Offered capacity is increased due to the provision of half-rate channels. This allows
the density of calls in the network to be increased, with only a low impact on speech
quality.

The AMR technology also provides the advantage of a consistent set of codecs, instead of
the one-by-one introduction of new codecs.
Alcatel-Lucent offers two versions of AMR:

Full-rate mode only, for operators who do not face capacity issues and want to benefit
from the optimized quality of speech
Combined full-rate/half-rate mode, for operators who want to benefit from the above
defined trade-off between quality of speech and capacity.

Through these codec mode adaptations, AMR is able to adapt the sharing of speech
information and speech protection to current radio conditions, which can vary greatly,
depending on location, speed, and interference. Therefore, for any radio conditions, the
Alcatel-Lucent BSS is able to offer the best existing codec, thus the best existing voice
quality.
AMR functionality can be activated by configuration of the cells and the BTS radio
resources in all the network elements (OMC-R, BSC, BTS). The relevant algorithms are
activated on a call-by-call basis. On the radio interface, the AMR can only be used with
AMR mobiles. On the A Interface, the AMR can only be used if the NSS implements it.
The AMR capability is available on a cell-by-cell basis.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Adaptive Multiple Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

This feature is compatible with VGCS.


The AMR Wideband (AMR-WB) codec is developed as a multi-rate codec with several
codec modes like the AMR codec. Like in AMR, the codec mode is chosen based on the
radio conditions.
AMR Wide Band

AMR-WB family contains 4 codec types: FR_AMR-WB, OFR_AMR-WB,


OHR_AMR-WB and UMTS_AMR-WB (only available in 3G). The Alcatel BSS
supports FR_AMR-WB.
AMR-WB family contains 5 codec modes: 23.85 kbit/s, 15.85 kbit/s, 12.65 kbit/s,
8.85 kbit/s, 6.60 kbit/s
The FR_AMR-WB codec type uses the codec modes: 12,65 kbit/s, 8,85 kbit/s, 6,60
kbit/s.
AMR-WB is optional for the MS but a MS supporting AMR-WB shall support all
these modes.

AMR Narrow Band

AMR-NB family contains 5 codecs types: FR_AMR, HR_AMR, OHR_AMR,


UMTS_AMR, UMTS_AMR_2. The Alcatel BSS supports FR_AMR, HR_AMR
The FR_AMR codec type contains a set of 8 codec modes (4,75, 5,15, 5,90, 6,70,
7,40, 7,95, 10,20, 12,20 kbit/s) and the HR_AMR codec type contains 6 codec modes
(4,75, 5,15, 5,90, 6,70, 7,40, 7,95 kbit/s)
The codec mode HR_AMR 7,95 Kbit/s is not supported by the Alcatel BSS
AMR-NB is optional for the MS.

The following table refers to supported software versions versus hardware boards and
features.
Table 8-1

Software Version versus Hardware Board/Feature

HW Board/Feature

AMR NB
without
TFO NB

TFO NB

TFO FR, HR,


EFR

AMR WB incl
TFO WB

AMR NB incl
TFO NB

Legacy MT120

yes

no

yes

no

no

MT120-NB

yes

no

yes

no

yes

MT120-WB

yes

no

yes

yes

no

AMR Normal Assignment

AMR is controlled on a per call basis by the MSC.


...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The MSC sends an Assignment_Request message to the BSC.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-11
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Adaptive Multiple Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

In the Assignment_Request message, the MSC gives the Channel type IE, which
indicates:

In octet 4, if full-rate or half-rate is to be used and if the BSS is allowed to change


In octet 5 and above, octets indicate that AMR is allowed in half-rate or full-rate.

...................................................................................................................................................................................................

The BSC activates the channel in the BTS by sending a Channel_Activation


message, containing the IE Multirate configuration. It indicates the subset of codecs used
for full-rate (or half-rate, respectively) link adaptation, the threshold and hysteresis sent to
the mobile station for full-rate (or half-rate, respectively) link adaptation and, optionally,
the start mode (i.e., the initial codec mode).
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

If the initial codec mode is not given, the BTS chooses the default start mode depending
on the number of codec modes contained in the subset.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once the channel is activated within the BTS, the BSC sends all AMR relevant
parameters to the mobile station in the Assignment_Command message.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

When the speech path is established and synchronization is performed between the
Transcoder and the BTS, the BTS checks if the Request or Indication Flag (RIF) given in
the TRAU frame is coherent with the type of codec mode (Indication or Command) that
should be sent on the radio interface. If necessary, a CMI_CMR alignment command is
sent to the Transcoder.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

Once the BTS detects that downlink CMI/CMR is synchronized between the TRAU
frames and the radio interface, it starts codec mode adaptation.
E...................................................................................................................................................................................................
N D O F S T E P S

AMR O&M Management

The table below summarizes the main O&M configuration parameters that can be
changed by the operator from the OMC-R.
Parameter

Description

AMR_SUBSET_FR

Bitmap of 8 bits defining the codec subset for AMR full-rate (1 to


4 codecs out of 8), on a per BSS basis.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-12
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Adaptive Multiple Rate

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Parameter

Description

AMR_SUBSET_HR

Bitmap of 6 bits defining the codec subset for AMR half-rate (1


to 4 codecs out of 6), on a per BSS basis.

EN_AMR_CHANNEL_ADAPTATION

Flag on a per cell basis, used only for AMR calls, to enable or
disable intracell handovers for channel adaptation.

EN_AMR_HR

Flag on a per cell basis to enable or disable AMR. This flag is


used for AMR half-rate.

EN_AMR_FR

Flag on a per cell basis to enable or disable AMR. This flag is


used for AMR full-rate.

OFFSET_CA_NORMAL

Offset for the channel mode adaptation hysteresis under normal


load. It can take a value from 0.0 to 7.0 (step = 0.1) on a per cell
basis.

OFFSET_CA_HIGH

Offset for the channel mode adaptation hysteresis under high


load. It can take a value from 0.0 to 7.0 (step = 0.1) on a per cell
basis.

RXQUAL_CA_NORMAL

Threshold for channel mode adaptation under normal load. It can


take a value 0.0 to 7.0 (step = 0.1) on a per cell basis.

RXQUAL_CA_HIGH

Threshold for channel mode adaptation under high load. It can


take a value from 0.0 to 7.0 (step = 0.1) on a per cell basis.

AMR_THR_3,

Definition of thresholds on a per BSS basis.

AMR_THR_2,
AMR_THR_1
AMR_HYST_3,

Definition of thresholds and hysteresis, on a per BSS basis

AMR_HYST_2,
AMR_HYST_1

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-13
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

Channel Mode Adaptation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Channel Mode Adaptation


Overview

Channel mode adaptation is the change from one full-rate channel to an half-rate channel
and vice-versa. This adaptation is independent from the codec mode currently used.
This feature is available when the AMR half-rate option is installed. The operator has
direct operational control of it through the parameter EN_AMR_CHANNEL_ADAPTATION
used for both changes from full-rate to half-rate and from half-rate to full-rate.

Full-Rate Channel Adaptation Due to High Radio Quality


This channel adaptation involves ongoing AMR full-rate communications within cells
where half-rate is enabled. During any AMR call, the downlink radio quality is
reported by the mobile station through the RX_QUAL. At the same time, the uplink
radio quality is evaluated by the BTS through the RX_QUAL, and both are compared
to a load-dependent threshold. Indeed, in a cell heavily loaded, a half-rate channel will
be preferred, even if the quality is not optimal. Whenever both uplink and downlink
radio quality are higher than this threshold, then an intracell handover takes place
from a full-rate to a half-rate channel. To take into account the load, two different
threshold values are used. The change will also only be performed if the current
channel type is dual rate and it authorizes changes.
Half-Rate Channel Adaptation Due to Low Radio Quality
This channel adaptation involves ongoing AMR half-rate communications, using a
dual-rate channel type authorizing changes. During any such AMR call, the downlink
and uplink radio quality are evaluated with the same metrics as stated for the full-rate
channel adaptation, and the same threshold comparison is performed. If either uplink
or downlink radio quality are lower than this threshold, then an intracell handover
takes place from a half-rate to a full-rate channel. To take into account the load, two
different thresholds are also used but they differ from the ones used in full-rate
adaptation by an offset value which is also cell load dependent. This offset allows a
hysteresis to be introduced between full-rate and half-rate channels.

VGCS
Overview

Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) is a BSS feature that allows speech conversation for a
predefined group of up to 6 mobile stations in half duplex mode on the Air Interface.
VGCS enables a calling mobile station to establish a voice group call to destination
mobile stations belonging to a predefined group call area and group ID. VGCS typically
involves multiple group members in a small group call area, which is comprised of one
cell or a cluster of cells. Group call areas are predefined in the network by the service
provider, and co-ordinated by the Network Operator.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-14
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Speech

VGCS

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The calling and destination mobile stations are any mobile stations that have subscribed
to the related group ID or any dispatcher whose ID is pre-registered with the network.
Destination mobile stations are all mobile stations or groups of mobile stations identified
by the group ID which are currently located in the group call area, and pre-registered
dispatchers.
When a mobile station initiates a VGCS call, the group call area is uniquely identified by
the actual cell in which the mobile station resides at the moment of VGCS call
initialization, and by the group ID it sends. When a dispatcher initiates a VGCS call, the
dispatcher is connected to a related predefined group call area. The entitlement of the
dispatcher is checked by the MSC to verify the calling identity. Since a dispatcher may be
registered to more than one group call area and group ID, an indication of the wanted
group call area and group ID is given in form of a dedicated address called by the
dispatcher.
The service permits only one calling mobile station to talk at any moment, while up to
five dispatchers can be talking simultaneously at one time. Dispatchers will hear all
combinations of voices other than their own. Listening mobile stations will hear the
combination of all voices.
For more information about VGCS call set up, call management and call release, refer to:

Chapter 5, Call Set Up

Chapter 6, Call Handling

Call Release Procedures in Normal Service (p. 7-5).

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-15
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Circuit-Switched Data Modes

Overview of Circuit-Switched Data Modes

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Circuit-Switched Data Modes


Overview of Circuit-Switched Data Modes
Overview

There are two types of circuit-switched data modes:

Transparent

Non-transparent.

For more information, refer to:

Transparent Mode (p. 8-17)

Non-Transparent Mode (p. 8-18).

The following figure illustrates data transmission across the BSS.


Figure 8-3 Data Transmission Across the BSS

Legend:

Analog

A/D

Analog/Digital

BIE

Base Station Interface Equipment

CIM

Channel Encoded, Interleaved, and Modulated

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

SM

Submultiplexer

TC

Transcoder

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-16
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Circuit-Switched Data Modes

Transparent Mode

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Transparent Mode
Overview

Transparent data mode is based on the V.110 protocol. V.110 is an ITU recommendation.
It specifies how ISDN supports DTE. It also specifies the transport of
synchronous/asynchronous data over a synchronous link.
Data is packaged and sent to the Transcoder in the same way as speech. It is converted to
the 64 kbit/s ISDN format for data transmission. Error handling is dealt with by the Air
Interface.
Transparent mode implies that the following functions are performed by the BSS:

Interleaving and Channel Coding


Rate adaptation.

Transparent mode implies that the following functions are performed by the BSS:
Interleaving and Channel Coding

Interleaving for data is more complicated than for speech. The data block is split into 22
parts for interleaving 9.6 kbit/s and 4.8 kbit/s data rates. For 2.4 kbit/s, the interleaving is
the same as speech. The lower the data rate, the more space can be used for redundancy
and error detection. This lowers the error rate.
The Air Interface performs the error handling. The V.110 data packets are grouped
together and transmitted across the Air Interface exactly like speech. The table below
shows the data rate and error rate. A low data rate provides more space for a better
forward error correction scheme, in turn reducing the number of errors.
Rate Adaptation

Data is packaged differently in V.110 for different data rates. The bandwidth is reduced
and therefore the rate is lower. See the table below for the rate conversions. The
Transcoder plays the final role in the rate adaptation when the data stream is adapted to
64 kbit/s packets.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-17
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Circuit-Switched Data Modes

Transparent Mode

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

There is a difference between data and speech rate adaptation. Speech is encoded to
A-law, while data is transposed to the first bit and, if required, the second bit of a Pulse
Code Modulation (PCM) byte. PCM transmission is at 8 000 bytes (64 kbit/s). The 8
kbit/s and 16 kbit/s intermediate rates (before the Transcoder) are transposed as 1 or 2 bits
per byte respectively.
Table 8-2

Circuit-Switched Data Rate Conversions Across the Air Interface

User Rate

Intermediate Rate

Radio Interface

Error Rate (at


Full-Rate)

9600

16 kbit/s

12 kbit/s

0.3%

4800

8 kbit/s

6 kbit/s

0.01%

<=2400

8 kbit/s

3.6 kbit/s

0.001%

Non-Transparent Mode
Overview

Non-transparent data mode is similar to transparent data mode, although data is


transmitted as packets from the modem on the mobile station to the modem in the PSTN.
Error handling is handled end-to-end.
Non-transparent data mode is a data transmission protocol. It is based on sending RLP
packets as four V.110 frames. This is the same process used in transparent mode.
Interleaving and channel coding are still used, as they are in the transparent mode. The
RLP adds extra protection and also allows the retransmission. Packing RLPs in four V.110
frames ensures transparency over the network. RLP packet size is the same as a radio
block size, so it is transmitted as one radio block.
Non-transparent data mode uses a 12 kbit/s radio interface rate. Interleaving and channel
coding are at 9.6 kbit/s (the same as in transparent mode). The only difference between
transparent and non-transparent modes for the BSS is the processing of the four V.110
frames of an RLP packet.
Error handling and rate adaptation are handled as follows:

Error Handling
Non-transparent data mode has a better error rate as there is no forward error checking
or interleaving. Therefore, the size of packets remains small and less prone to errors.
There are however, some cyclic redundancy bytes and the protocol is very similar in
principle to LAPD.
Rate Adaptation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-18
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Circuit-Switched Data Modes

Non-Transparent Mode

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

There is no rate adaptation in non-transparent mode. The rate can only be adapted by
physically transmitting less than the full bandwidth available. The data rate is also
limited by the number of errors, as packets have to be retransmitted. The difference
between transparent and non-transparent mode data links is transparent to the
Transcoder, but not to the BTS. The Transcoder, as described in transparent mode,
puts the data in the first bits of a PCM byte.
The BTS must ensure that an RLP packet maps into four V.110 frames numbered 0, 1,
2, 3. These must be sent in one block on the Air Interface.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-19
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

Overview of Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast


Overview of Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast
Overview

There are two types of SMS:

Point-to-point SMS allows a short message to be sent to, or received from, a mobile
station
SMS-CB allows messages to be broadcast to the mobile stations (i.e., one way).

SMS-CB can be used for a number of reasons, for example, to transmit emergency
information, road traffic information, etc. An SMS-CB message can be transmitted to all
the cells connected to the BSC, or to selected cells only, as required.
The following figure shows the SMS-CB components.

Legend:

CBC

Cell Broadcast Center

HMI

Human Machine Interface

SMS-CB Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-20
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast

SMS-CB Operation

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

SMS-CB Operation
Overview

The SMS-CB is managed and operated from a separate CBC. The CBC is connected to
the BSC and the data needed to connect the BSC to the CBC is sent from the OMC-R.
The operator at the CBC inputs the cell broadcast message identifying the broadcast text
and the selected cell identities. Only one broadcast message per cell, or cells, is allowed.
Any subsequent message simply replaces the message being broadcast.
The message is sent from the CBC to the BSCs handling the selected cells. The BSCs
then send the message to the individual BTS of the selected cells.
On receipt of the transmission request message from the BSC, the BTS broadcasts the
message to the mobile stations in the cell over the Cell Broadcast Channel of the Air
Interface.
For SMS-CB, the BSC supports only the connection to an external CBC platform. The
SMS-CB implements all of the improvements of the phase 2+ recommendations.

Phase 2+ Enhancements
Overview

An external CBC can be connected directly to the BSC. This allows the BSC to send
information to the CBC, e.g., billing information.
Two types of connection can be used to connect the CBC to the BSC:

CBC-to-BSC via PSDN


This is the default connection. A BSC can be connected to one CBC.
CBC-to-BSC via MSC
The CBC and OMC-R must be connected to the same MSC.

In addition to the SMS-CB feature managed from CBC, the phase 2+ GSM
recommendation defines the following enhancements:

Greater throughput with a second CBCH channel (extended CBCH)


Better responsiveness when urgent data is to be broadcast due to the use of high
priority messages. Messages can be allocated a priority of high, normal, or
background.
Better service availability through the restart with recovery indication feature.

The feature also offers greater convenience with the support of multipage messages.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-21
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


Support of Localized Service Area

Overview of Support of Localized Service Area

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Support of Localized Service Area


Overview of Support of Localized Service Area
Overview

The aim of Support of Localized Service Area (SoLSA) is to link radio resources (cells)
with services such as specific billing or differentiated access rights. These services are
associated with LSAs (Localized Service Area). An LSA can be defined over several
cells, and a cell can belong to several LSAs. One possible use of this feature is to enable
the efficient deployment of dedicated corporate applications. The following description
uses this example.
In order to efficiently manage corporate LSAs, the Alcatel-Lucent BSS SoLSA
implementation:

Favors the camping of SoLSA mobiles on cells belonging to an LSA where they have
a subscription. These mobile stations will likely camp on the corporate cells, even if
they are not the best ones.

Informs the end user that he is camping on a cell belonging to a subscribed LSA and
thus that he can benefit from the LSA services. This is achieved through the Localized
Service Area Indication SoLSA service.

The localized service area concept gives the operator the basis to offer subscribers or
groups of subscribers different service features, different tariffs and different access rights
depending on the location of the subscriber. It is up to the operator to decide which
services features are required for a specific service.
The LSA can be considered as a logical subnetwork of the operator`s PLMN. This
subnetwork can be configured by the operator. A subscriber can have LSAs at several
PLMNs.
The following list shows examples of different types of localized service area:

Office indoors. The office cells are those that are provided by indoor base stations.
Home or office and its neighborhood. The localized service area can be broadened
outdoors. The neighborhood cells outdoors can be included in the local service area.

Industry area. A company with several office buildings may want to have a localized
service area that covers all its buildings and outdoor environments.
A part of a city or several locations.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-22
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


PLMN Interworking

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

PLMN Interworking
Overview of PLMN Interworking
Overview

A foreign PLMN is a PLMN different from the own PLMN to which the cells internal to
the OMC-R belong. Only cells external to the OMC-R can belong to a foreign PLMN. All
internal cells belong to the own PLMN.
Both OMC-R own cells and cells external to the OMC-R can belong to an own PLMN.
The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports:

Incoming inter-PLMN 2G-to-2G handovers


Outgoing inter-PLMN 2G-to-2G handovers (optional feature).
The operators are allowed to define handover adjacency links towards external cells
belonging to a foreign PLMN, i.e., handovers from a serving cell belonging to the
own PLMN towards a target cell belonging to a foreign PLMN.
Inter-PLMN 2G-to-2G cell reselection
The Alcatel-Lucent BSS allows the operator to define cell reselection adjacency
between two cells belonging to different own PLMN (which must therefore be owned
by two different BSCs).
Multi-PLMN (optional feature).
The Multi-PLMN feature allows operators to define several own PLMN in order to
support network sharing (Tool Chain, OMC-R, MFS, Abis transmissions - and also
BTS, via rack sharing). Inter-PLMN handovers and cell reselection between two
different own PLMN are supported. The BSC itself cannot be shared and thus remains
mono-PLMN (i.e., all BSC own cells belong to the same own PLMN).
The Alcatel-Lucent BSS supports several own PLMN (up to four, at least one). An
OMC-R thus manage at least one (own) PLMN and up to eight PLMN (four own +
four foreign). Both cell reselection and handover are allowed between two cells
belonging to different own PLMN.
The operator is allowed to define handover adjacency between two cells belonging to
different own PLMN (which must thus be owned by two different BSCs).
The OMC-R (and the Tool Chain) is by definition of the feature itself always shared
between the different own PLMN. On the other hand:
The MFS can be shared

The BSC cannot be shared


The BTS can be shared up to the rack sharing level (no radio part sharing)

The Abis transmission can be shared


The transcoder can be shared.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-23
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Handling User Traffic Across the Alcatel-Lucent BSS


PLMN Interworking

Overview of PLMN Interworking

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The outgoing inter-PLMN handover feature is a prerequisite for the multi-PLMN


feature.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
8-24
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
9

Overview
Purpose

This section describes the cell environments available in the Alcatel-Lucent 900/1800
BSS.
Contents
Cell Environments

9-3

Overview of Cell Environments

9-3

Rural and Coastal Coverage

9-5

Urban Coverage

9-5

Concentric Cell

9-6

Overview of Concentric Cell

9-6

Sectored Site

9-7

Overview of Sectored Site

9-7

Extended Cell

9-9

Overview of Extended Cell

9-9

Standard Extended Cell

9-10

Enlarged Extended Cell

9-11

PS in Extended Cell

9-11

Umbrella Cell

9-12

Overview of Umbrella Cell

9-12

Mini Cell

9-12

Microcell

9-13

Indoor Cell

9-16

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-1
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments

Overview

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cell Shared by Two BTS

9-18

Overview of Cell Shared by Two BTS

9-18

Logical Cell

9-19

Overview of Logical Cell

9-19

Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS Sector

9-20

Overview of Unbalancing TRX Output Power per BTS Sector

9-20

TRX Dynamic Power Saving

9-21

Overview of TRX Dynamic Power Saving

9-21

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-2
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Cell Environments

Overview of Cell Environments

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cell Environments
Overview of Cell Environments
Overview

The Alcatel-Lucent BSS provides coverage suited to the needs of urban, rural and coastal
areas by offering a variety of possible cell environments. The BSS supports a set of cell
configurations to optimize the reuse of frequencies. The operator may choose to deploy a
network using both GSM 900 and GSM 1800 bands.
The parameters to define cells are grouped into five types:

Cell dimension
This consists of:
Macro up to 35 km (can be up to 70 km with extended cell), and
Micro up to 300 meters.
Cell Coverage
There are four types of coverage:
Single
Lower
Upper, and
Indoor.
Cell Partition
There are two types of frequency partition:
Normal
Concentric.
Cell Range
The cell range can be:
Normal
Extended.
Cell Band Type. A cell belongs to either the GSM 900 or GSM 1800 bands, or both in
the case of a multiband cell.

For the cell name, it is possible to use any combination of the following characters in the
Name and Location Name fields: a-z, A-Z, 0 - 9, -, _ (hyphen, underscore).
Blank spaces are permitted. Use the rules fromAlcatel-Lucent 9153 Operation &
Maintenance Center Radio - O&M Parameters Dictionary.
The LAC and CI fields accept up to five numeric characters.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-3
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Cell Environments

Overview of Cell Environments

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

The following figure shows various configurations of the normal GSM 900 or GSM 1800
cell type. Each of the following sections explains the functional differences between the
cell described and the single cell configuration.
Figure 9-1 Example: Cell Configurations

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-4
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Cell Environments

Rural and Coastal Coverage

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Rural and Coastal Coverage


Overview

In a rural and coastal environment, coverage is principally a function of cell planning.


Standard cell layouts provide coverage of up to 35 km. Extended cells, which have two
collocated antennae, provide options covering traffic density and ranges up to 70 km.

Urban Coverage
Overview

In an urban environment the coverage is determined by the location of the BTS antennae.
Two types of cells are normally used:

Macrocells, where the antenna is located above the roof tops and propagation occurs
in all directions. These cells can be sectored by using specific antenna patterns.
Microcells, where the antenna is located below roof top level, on building facades or
street lights. Propagation occurs mainly as line of sight along the street, with strong
attenuation at street corners.
Indoor cells.

These three cell types can be used in a hierarchical cell environment where continuous
coverage is provided by the macrocell (umbrella cell) and locations of increased traffic
density are covered by dedicated microcells and indoor cells. See Umbrella Cell
(p. 9-12) for more information.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-5
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Concentric Cell

Overview of Concentric Cell

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Concentric Cell
Overview of Concentric Cell
Overview

The goal of concentric cells is to increase the frequency economy of the network. This is
done by reducing the interference levels of some BTS carriers. These carrier frequencies
can be reused for smaller distances.
The inner zone serves a high concentration of mobile station calls in a small area, with a
reduced maximum power output limit. The outer zone performs call handling for a greater
radius with a normal maximum power output limit.
The BCCH, CCCH and SDCCH in concentric cells are put on the outer zone frequencies.
Traffic channel assignment during call connection can be allocated to either the outer or
inner zones. It depends on the location of the mobile station at that time.
The inner and outer zones are part of the same cell, and a frequency carrier is assigned
either to the inner or outer zone. This is signalled by the zone_type flag of 1 or 0,
(1=inner, 0=outer).
The outer zone maximum power limit is the same as normal zones. The inner zone is
controlled by two maximum power limit values: one maximum power limit value for the
mobile station and one maximum power limit value for the BTS.
The micro concentric, mini concentric, indoor concentric cells must be multiband (the
allowed FREQUENCY_RANGE is PGSM-DCS1800 or EGSM-DCS1800). This
restriction does not apply to the external cells.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-6
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Sectored Site

Overview of Sectored Site

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Sectored Site
Overview of Sectored Site
Overview

A sectored site consists of one or more BTS. Each BTS hosts up to six antennae
illuminating up to six sectors, each sector covering a separate single macrocell. The figure
below shows a three-sector arrangement.
The BTS in a sectored site contains up to three transceivers which are each allocated to
different given sectors. Each sector and its associated cell are managed independently and
are seen functionally, by the OMC-R and BSC, as separate BTS connected in chain mode.
Within the physical BTS site, there is a master BTS and up to two slave BTS (for
Alcatel-Lucent 9100 BTS, each BTS can have three slaves using the Shared Cell feature;
see Overview of Cell Shared by Two BTS (p. 9-18) for more information). Each BTS
generates its own clock locally, but the slave BTS are synchronized to the master BTS.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-7
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Sectored Site

Overview of Sectored Site

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Figure 9-2 Sectored Site Configuration

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-8
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Extended Cell

Overview of Extended Cell

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Extended Cell
Overview of Extended Cell
Overview

An extended cell is made up of two cells, an inner and an outer, as shown in the figure
below. The inner cell handles calls up to a distance of 35 km (the same as a normal cell),
while the outer cell handles traffic from 33 km up to a maximum range of 70 km.
There are 3 extended cells allowed on BTS.
Figure 9-3 Example of Extended Cell Topology

There are two types of extended cell:

Standard Extended Cell (p. 9-10)

Enlarged Extended Cell (p. 9-11).

There are two types of extended cell:

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-9
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Extended Cell

Standard Extended Cell

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Standard Extended Cell


Overview

The inner and outer cells are covered by one Alcatel-Lucent BTS.
The reception (uplink) of the outer cell is delayed to correspond to a 33 km shift in range.
Radio continuity between the two cells is ensured by the overlap zone.
The inner cell uses two carrier units:

Carrier Unit BCCH Inner: at the inner cell BCCH frequency


Carrier Unit RACH Catcher: at the outer cell BCCH frequency, but with transmission
switched off.

Because the outer cell can have areas of strong signal within the inner cell's coverage
area, it is necessary to prevent a mobile station in such a region from camping on the
outer cell frequency. This can lead to sudden signal degradation as conditions change, and
eventual loss of the call.
The RACH Catcher receives Channel_Request messages from mobile stations which
are synchronized on the outer cell BCCH frequency, but are within 33 km of the BTS.
The BTS knows, from the timing advance sent by the mobile station, that it is actually in
the inner cell, and assigns the mobile station to an inner cell SDCCH frequency.
The outer cell uses one Carrier Unit with reception delayed by 60 bits. This effectively
shifts the logical position of a mobile station 33 km nearer than its actual position and
allows it to be handled in the standard GSM 0-63 bit timing advance range.
The handover procedure is controlled normally, with the settings ensuring that the
necessary distance is reached before handing a call over to the outer or inner cell.
Different types of coverage are possible depending on the type of antenna used for the
inner and outer cells. The example in the figure above shows an extended cell with an
omnidirectional inner cell and directional outer cell.

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Alcatel-Lucent BSS
9-10
9YZ-03803-1802-TQZZA B12
Issue 4 October 2012

Cell Environments
Extended Cell

Enlarged Extended Cell

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Enlarged Extended Cell


Overview

The enlarged extended cell is an extended cell designed to provide enlarged capacity for
areas where sustained traffic is high. It is especially well-suited for rural areas and dense
highways where more than one TRX is necessary to handle traffic.
The enlarged extended cell relies on the general principles of the extended cell: it is made
up of two sub-cells to handle calls up to a distance of 70 km. However, with the enlarged
extended cell, the two sub-cells are covered by one BTS, assuring a higher
synchronization rate.
The following telecom features are supported:

The TDMA frame timeslots can be used independently, providing any TRX with full
capacity
Inner cell mobile station access requests use the outer cell BCCH frequency
Handover between the two sub-cells

BCCH TRX recovery.

PS in Extended Cell
Overview

(E)GPRS is supported in extended cell:

NC2 mode is not offered