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BFC 4043

SITE INVESTIGATION PRACTICE


1.0

Introduction

To design a foundation that will support a structure, an engineer must


understand the types of soil deposits that will support the foundation.
Moreover, foundation engineers must remember that soil at any site
frequently is non-homogeneous; that is the soil profile may vary.
Soil mechanics theories involve idealized conditions, so the application of
the theories to foundation engineering problems involves a well judged
evaluation of site conditions and soil parameters.
To do this requires some knowledge of the geological process by which
the soil deposit at the site was formed, supplemented by subsurface
exploration.
Good professional judgment constitutes at essential part of geotechnical
engineeringand it comes only with practice.

1.1 Definition of Soil Exploration


The design of a foundation, an earth dam, or a retaining wall cannot be made
intelligently unless the designer has at least a reasonably accurate conception of
the physical properties of the soils involved. The field and laboratory
investigations required to obtain this essential information constitute the soil
exploration. Until about the 1930s soil exploration was consistently inadequate
because rational methods for soil investigation had not yet been developed. On
the other hand, at the present time the amount of soil exploration and testing and
the refinements in the techniques for performing the investigations are often quite
out of proportion to the practical value of the results. To avoid either of these
extremes, the exploratory program must be adapted to the soil conditions and to
the size of the job.
1.2

1.3

Purposes of Soil Exploration Programme


Selection of type and depth of foundation.
Evaluation of the load-bearing capacity of the foundation.
Estimation of the probable settlement of a structures.
Determination of the potential foundation problem.
Establishment of ground water table.
Prediction of lateral earth pressure.
Establishment of construction methods for changing subsoil condition.

Objectives of Site Investigations

The objectives of site investigation have been defined by the various Codes of
Practice (BS CP 2001:1950, 1957; BS 5930:1981). They can be summarized as
providing data for the following.
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i. Site selection.
The construction of certain major projects, such as earth dams, is dependent on
the availability of a suitable site. Clearly, if the plan is to build on the cheapest,
most readily available land, geotechnical problems due to the high permeability
of the sub-soil, or to slope instability may make the final cost of the construction
prohibitive. Since the safety of lives and property are at stake, it is important to
consider the geotechnical merits or demerits of various sites before the site is
chosen for a project of such magnitude.
ii. Foundation and earthworks design.
Generally, factors such as the availability of land at the right price, in a good
location from the point of view of the eventual user, and with the planning
consent for its proposed use are of over-riding importance. For medium-sized
engineering works, such as motorways and multistorey structures, the
geotechnical problems must be solved once the site is available, in order to allow
a safe and economical design to be prepared.
iii. Temporary works design.
The actual process of construction may often impose greater stress on the
ground than the final structure. While excavating for foundations, steep side
slopes may be used, and the in-flow of groundwater may cause severe problems
and even collapse. These temporary difficulties, which may in extreme
circumstances prevent the completion of a construction project, will not usually
affect the design of the finished works. They must, however, be the object of
serious investigation.
iv. The effects of the proposed project on its environment.
The construction of an excavation may cause structural distress to neighbouring
structures for a variety of reasons such as loss of ground, and lowering of the
groundwater table. This will result in prompt legal action. On a wider scale, the
extraction of water from the ground for drinking may cause pollution of the aquifer
in coastal regions due to saline intrusion, and the construction of a major earth
dam and lake may not only destroy agricultural land and game, but may
introduce new diseases into large populations. These effects must be the subject
of investigation.
v. Investigation of existing construction.
The observation and recording of the conditions leading to failure of soils or
structures are of primary importance to the advance of soil mechanics, but the
investigation of existing works can also be particularly valuable for obtaining data
for use in proposed works on similar soil conditions. The rate of settlement, the
necessity for special types of structural solution, and the bulk strength of the subsoil may all be obtained with more certainty from back-analysis of the records of
existing works than from small scale laboratory tests.

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vi. The design of remedial works.
If structures are seen to have failed, or to be about to fail, then remedial
measures must be designed. Site investigation methods must be used to obtain
parameters for design.
vii. Safety checks.
Major civil engineering works, such as earth dams, have been constructed over a
sufficiently long period for the precise construction method and the present
stability of early examples to be in doubt. Site investigations are used to provide
data to allow their continued use.

1.5

Site Investigations

The Four Major Steps or Components of a Sites Investigation. For a major


project (a tunnel, large bridge, tall building, etc., will require four phases for its
site investigation:
Phase 1: Literature Search.
This phase collects all the existing information of the site and the structure. For
the site, it involves aerial photos, surveys, previous geotechnical data, building
codes and adjacent structures. For the structure, it requires all the major
structural data of the building.
Phase II: Reconnaissance Sub-surface Exploration.
The site and the neighborhood is carefully studied. Test pits are excavated, soil
borings and penetrometers are driven, samples of soil at each strata are taken,
the ground water is established, percolation test are performed and in-situ testing
is completed.
Phase III: Laboratory Testing and Reports.
The samples are taken to the laboratory and engineering parameters are
determined, in order to calculate bearing capacities, settlements and special
solutions. All the data from these first three phases are summarized in a
Geotechnical and Foundation Recommendations Report.
Phase IV: Detailed Site Investigation.
Very large projects will require an expansion of the three phases above.
The site investigation works consists of planning, making some test boreholes
and collecting soil samples. It has been found that the best site investigations
involve a considerable number of activities, some of which may become relatively
unimportant in some cases, but should never be forgotten. An ideal order of
events might be as shown in Table 1.1.

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The site investigation works sequence can also be presented in flow chart shown
in Fig. 1.

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Fig 1 : Flow chart for SI works

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1.6

INVESTIGATION AND BORING METHODS

1.6.1 Introduction
Many different techniques are available for site investigation. The method
employed will depend on many factors such as depth required, area to be
covered, ease of access, etc. On large jobs preliminary borings are used to
furnish overall subsoil surveys followed by final borings so soil or rock profiles
may be determined at the most useful orientations. In general, exploration
contracts should be open ended so that intermediate borings may be added in
areas that prove to be critical.
1.6.2 Soil Drilling
A wide variety of equipment is available for performing borings and obtaining soil
samples. The method used to advance the boring should be compatible with the
soil and groundwater conditions to assure that soil samples of suitable quality are
obtained. Particular care should be exercised to properly remove all slough or
loose soil from the boring before sampling. Below the groundwater level, drilling
fluids are often needed to stabilize the sidewalls and bottom of the boring in soft
clays or cohesionless soils . Without stabilization, the bottom of the boring may
heave or the sidewalls may contract, either disturbing the soil prior to sampling or
preventing the sampler from reaching the bottom of the boring. In most
geotechnical explorations, borings are usually advanced with solid stem
continuous flight, hollow-stem augers, or rotary wash boring methods. These
methods are often augmented by in-situ testing .Assuming access and utility
clearances have been obtained and a survey base line has been established in
the field, field explorations are begun based on the information gained during the
previous steps. Many methods of field exploration exist; some of the more
common are described below.
1.6.3 Test Pits and Trenches
These are the simplest methods of inspecting subsurface soils. They consist of
excavations performed by hand, backhoe, or dozer. Hand excavations are often
performed with posthole diggers or hand augers. They offer the advantages of
speed and ready access for sampling. They are severely hampered by limitations
of depth and by the fact they cannot be used in soft or loose soils or below the
water table.

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1.6.4 Boreholes
Borings are probably the most common method of exploration. They can
be advanced using a number of methods, as described below. Upon completion,
all borings should be backfilled and in many cases this will require grouting.

Requirements for Boring Layout and Depth


Required minimum depth of the borings should be predetermined.
According to ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1972), the minimum
depth of boring (Db) shall be determined by the following: Net increase of stress () under a foundation (Figure 2)

Estimate the variation of the vertical effective stress (V') with depth.
1
Determine the depth (D) = D1. where q . Where q is estimation
10
of net stress on the foundation.

0.05 .
Determine the depth (D) = D2, where
v '
The smaller of the two depths is the approximate minimum depth of boring required; unless bedrock is encountered.

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Fig 2 :Determination of the minimum depth of boring


# For hospitals and office building:
For light steel or narrow concrete building;
Db(m) = 3S0.7 ....................(1)
Db(ft)-10S0.7.......................(2)
For heavy steel or wide concrete building;
Db (m) = 6S0.7 .....................(3)
Db (ft) - 20S 0.7 ....................(4)
# The depth of boring should be at least 1.5 times the depth of excavation.

# Spacing of boreholes can be increased or decreased depending on the subsoil


condition.

# While there are no set rules for boring depth and spacing is shown in Tables
1.2 and 1.3 give a guide to these requirements respectively.

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1.2

1.3

i.

Hand Auger Borings

The hand auger provides a light, portable method of sampling soft to stiff soils
near the ground surface. At least six types of auger are readily available:
posthole or Iwan auger;
small helical auger (wood auger);
dutch auger;
gravel auger;
barrel auger; and
spiral auger.

Fig. Selection of hand-operated augers.

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Hand augers are used by one or two men, who press down on the cross-bar as
they rotate it thus advancing the hole. Once the auger is full, or has collected
sufficient material, it is brought back to the surface and the soil removed.
Although the method is cheap because of the simplicity of the equipment, it does
suffer from several disadvantages.
The most commonly used auger for site investigation is the Iwan auger. This is
normally used at diameters of between 100 and 200 mm. Small helical augers
are quite effective in stiff clays, but become difficult to use once the water table is
reached.
Barrel augers are now rarely seen, but were formerly used with the light
percussion rig when progress through clays was made using a shell. They
allowed the base of the borehole to be very effectively cleaned before sampling
took place. Because they are heavy they require a tripod for raising and lowering
them in the borehole. When lowered to the bottom of the hole they were turned
by hand.
In stiff or very stiff clays, hand-auger progress will be very slow, and the depth of
boring may have to be limited to about 5 m. When such clays contain gravel,
cobbles or boulders it will not normally be possible to advance the hole at all. In
uncemented sands or gravels, it will not be possible to advance the hole below
the water table, since casing cannot be used and the hole will collapse either on
top of the auger (which makes it difficult to recover the auger from the hole) or
when the auger is being removed. Only samples of very limited size can be
obtained from the hole. In addition, it will not be possible to carry out standard
penetration tests without a frame to lift the trip hammer and weight, so that no
idea of the relative density of granular deposits can be obtained.
Despite these difficulties, where access for machinery is impossible the hand
auger may give valuable information.
ii.
Auger Borings
Rotating an auger while simultaneously advancing it into the ground; the auger is
advanced to the desired depth and then withdrawn. Samples of cuttings can be
removed from the auger; however, the depth of the sample can only be
approximated. These samples are disturbed and should be used only for material
identification.
This method is used to establish soil strata and water table elevations, or to
advance to the desired stratum before Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) or
undisturbed sampling is performed. However, it cannot be used effectively in soft
or loose soils below the water table without casing or drilling mud to hold the hole
open. See ASTM D 1452 (AASHTO T 203).
iii.

Mechanical Auger

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A large variety of size and type are available. Basic types are:
(a) Plate Auger.
Used in strata which will stand unsupported. It is necessary to pull out every foot
to examine cuttings. Depth limited by length of kelly bar (generally 6 m).

(b) Continuous Flight Auger.


A spiral continuous flight is used to transfer the soil to the surface. Identification
of strata changes is difficult. Useful in proving known strata.

(c) Hollow Flight Auger.


A continuous spiral around a tube is used to transfer cuttings to the surface. A
plug and spade auger device can be used to drill soil below the control tube, or a
continuous sample can be taken in a central sampling barrel, or undisturbed
samples driven ahead through the tube.

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SPT and undisturbed samples are obtained through the hollow drill stem, which
acts like a casing to hold the hole open.
This is frequently a slow process, and due to the very great torque required to
drive the auger may be uneconomic. This method is largely experimental at the
moment.

Figure 2.5 Hollow Stem Auger.

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(d) Bucket or Grab Auger.
This type of auger drills a large diameter hole, with or without casing. A large
plant is involved, and it is infrequently used in investigation work.

iv.

Wash Borings

In this method, the boring is advanced by a combination of the chopping action of


a light bit and the jetting action of water flowing through the bit. This method of
advancing the borehole is used only when precise soil information is not required
between sample intervals. Borings can be made in most alluvial strata by a wash
boring technique. A shopping bit on a string of rods is used inside a casing, soft
strata being washed out below the casing and carried to the surface by a jet of
water passing through the rods and bit, and returning inside the casing. Firmer
materials are penetrated by chopping with the bit, and chopped particles being
carried to the surface by the flow of water. The casing can usually be agitated

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down by turning, as boring proceeds,
but it may be necessary to drive it.
Samples can be obtained and in situ
tests made through the casing from
time to time. In this method of boring,
unless continuous samples are
taken, which defeats the main object
of the technique, speed, the only
evidence of the strata being
penetrated is the very fine soil
particles being carried to the surface
by the flow of water. Wash borings
are normally made using casing
between 50 mm and 150 mm
diameter, above this size, the pump
unit required is generally too large.
The technique is generally used as a
fast and consequently cheap method
of
supplementing
information
obtained from a series of dry sample
borings. It is particularly useful for
obtaining samples or carrying out in
situ tests at some depth in know
strata, e.g. in a clay layer, below a
sand stratum. Disturbance of the ground by the water jet may in some cases
extend two feet or more below the casing, and care should be taken in sampling
and testing to ensure that this is not carried out in the disturbed area. The use of
wash boring without adequate dry sample boring control should be avoided.

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1.7

SAMPLING

There are 2 types of soil samples, there are disturbed and undisturbed.
1.7.1 Disturbed Sampling
Disturbed samples are generally obtained to determine the soil type, gradation,
classification, consistency, density, presence of contaminants, stratification, etc.
The methods for obtaining disturbed samples vary from hand excavating of
materials with picks and shovels to using truck mounted augers and other rotary
drilling techniques.
These samples are considered .disturbed. since the
sampling process modifies their natural structure.
1.7.2 Undisturbed Sampling
Undisturbed samples are used to determine the in place strength,
compressibility (settlement), natural moisture content, unit weight, permeability,
discontinuities, fractures and fissures of subsurface formations. Even though
such samples are designated as .undisturbed, in reality they are disturbed to
varying degrees. The degree of disturbance depends on the type of subsurface

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materials, type and condition of the sampling equipment used, the skill of the
drillers, and the storage and transportation methods used.
1.7.3 Common Types of Samplers
The cuttings or washings from exploratory drill holes are inadequate to furnish a
satisfactory conception of the engineering characteristics of the soils
encountered, or even of the thicknesses and depths of the various strata. On the
contrary, such evidence more often than not is grossly misleading and has been
responsible for many foundation failures.
Proper identification of the subsurface materials requires that samples be
recovered containing all the constituents of the materials in their proper
proportions. Moreover, evaluation of the appropriate engineering properties, such
as the strength, compressibility, or permeability, may require the performance of
laboratory tests on fairly intact or even virtually undisturbed samples.
The expenditure of time and money increases rapidly as the requirements
become more stringent with respect to the degree of disturbance that can be
tolerated and with increasing diameter of sample. Therefore, on small projects or
in the initial exploratory stages of large or complex projects, it is usually
preferable to obtain relatively inexpensive, fairly intact samples from the
exploratory drill holes.
On the basis of the information obtained from these samples, the necessity for
more elaborate sampling procedures can be judged.
Types of Soil Sampler

A wide variety of samplers are available to obtain soil samples for


geotechnical engineering projects.
These include standard sampling tools which are widely used as well as
specialized types which may be unique to certain regions of the country to
accommodate local conditions and preferences.
General guidelines to assist geotechnical engineers and field supervisors
select appropriate samplers, but in many instances local practice will
control.
Common types of samplers used.

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i.

Split Barrel Sampler

Used to obtain disturbed samples in all types of soils.


Typically used in conjunction with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT),
The sampler is driven with a 63.5-kg (140-lb) hammer dropping from a
height of 760 mm (30 in). (AASHTO T206 and ASTM D1586),
Available in standard lengths of
457 mm (18 in) and 610 mm (24in)
Inside diameters ranging from 38.1 mm (1.5 in) to 114.3 mm (4.5
in) in 12.7 mm (0.5 in) increments (Figure 3-7a,b).
The 38.1 mm (1.5 in) inside diameter sampler is popular because
correlations
High area ratio disturbs the natural characteristics of the soil being
sampled, thus disturbed samples are obtained.
This corresponds to a relatively thick walled sampler with an area ratio
(Hvorslev, 1949).

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Figure 3-7: Split-Barrel Samplers: (a) Lengths of 457 mm (18 in) and 610
mm (24 in); (b) Inside diameters from 38.1 mm (1.5 in) to 89 mm (3.5 in).

As shown in Figure 3-8a, when the shoe and the sleeve of this type of
sampler are unscrewed from the split barrel, the two halves of the barrel
may be separated and the sample may be extracted easily.
The soil sample is removed from the split-barrel sampler it is either placed
and sealed in a glass jar, sealed in a plastic bag, or sealed in a brass liner
(Figure 3-8b).
Separate containers should be used if the sample contains different soil
types.
Alternatively, liners may be placed inside the sampler with the same inside
diameter as the cutting shoe (Figure 3-9a).
This allows samples to remain intact during transport to the laboratory.
In both cases, samples obtained with split barrels are disturbed and
therefore are only suitable for soil identification and general classification
tests.

Figure 3-8: Split Barrel Sampler: (a) Open sampler with soil sample and cutting
shoe; (b) Sample jar, split-spoon, shelby tube, and storage box for transport of
jar samples.
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Figure 3-9: Split Barrel Sampler.


(a) Stainless steel and brass retainer rings (b) Sample catchers.

ii.

Thin Wall Sampler (Shelby)

To obtain relatively undisturbed samples of cohesive soils for strength and


consolidation testing.
Commonly, it has a 76 mm (3.071in) outside diameter & a 73 mm (2.875
in) inside diameter,
Resulting in an area ratio of 9 percent. (Figures 3-10)
Vary in outside diameter between 51 mm (2.0 in) and 76 mm (3.0 in)
typically come in lengths from 700 mm (27.56 in) to 900 mm (35.43 in),
(Figure 3-11).
Larger diameter sampler tubes used when higher quality samples are
required and sampling disturbance must be reduced.
The thin-walled tubes are manufactured using carbon steel, galvanizedcoated carbon steel, stainless steel,and brass.
Carbon steel tubes
the lowest cost tubes but are
unsuitable if the samples are to be stored in the tubes for more than
a few days or if the inside of the tubes become rusty,
significantly increasing the friction between the tube and the soil
sample.
Galvanized steel tubes
preferred in stiff soils
carbon steel is stronger,
less expensive
galvanizing provides additional resistance to corrosion.
Stainless Steel tubes
preferred for offshore bridge borings,
salt-water conditions, or
long storage times

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Manufactured with a beveled front edge for cutting a reduced-diameter


sample [commonly 72 mm (2.835 in) inside diameter] to reduce friction.
Can be pushed with a fixed head or piston head.
The following information should be written on the top half of the tube and
on the top end cap: project number, boring number, sample number, and
depth interval.
We should also write on the tube the project name and the date the
sample was taken.
Near the upper end of the tube, the word "top" and an arrow pointing
toward the top of the sample should be included.
Putting sample information on both the tube and the end cap facilitates
retrieval of tubes from laboratory storage and helps prevent mix-ups in the
laboratory when several tubes may have their end caps removed at the
same time.
Both ends of the tube should then be sealed with at least a 25 mm (1 in)
thick layer of microcrystalline (nonshrinking) wax after placing a plastic
disk to protect the ends of the sample (Figure 3-12a).

Figure 3-12: Shelby Tube Sealing Methods.


(a) Microcrystalline wax (b) O-ring packer.

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iii.

Piston Sampler

Also known as an Osterberg or Hvorslev sampler.


Particularly useful for sampling soft soils where sample recovery is
often difficult although it can also be used in stiff soils.
The piston sampler (Figure 3-13) is basically a thin-wall tube
sampler with a piston, rod, and a modified sampler head.

Figure 3-13: Piston Sampler.


(a) Picture with thin-walled tube cutout to show piston, (b) Schematic
(After ASTM D4700).

The quality of the samples obtained is excellent


Probability of obtaining a satisfactory sample is high.
Advantages are that the fixed piston helps prevent the entrance of excess
soil at the beginning of sampling, thereby precluding recovery ratios
greater than 100 %.
Helps the soil enter the sampler at a constant rate throughout the
sampling push.
The head used acts creates a better vacuum which helps retain
the sample better than the ball valve in thin-walled tube (Shelby)
samplers.

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iv.

Pitcher Tube Sampler

Used in stiff to hard clays and


soft rocks, and is well adapted to
sampling deposits consisting of
alternately hard and soft layers.
This sampler is pictured in Figure
3-14
and
the
primary
components shown in Figure 315a and these include :
an outer rotating core
barrel with a bit and an
inner stationary,
Figure 3-14: Pitcher Tube Sampler.
spring-loaded,
thin-wall sampling tube that leads or trails the outer barrel drilling
bit, depending on the hardness of the material being penetrated .

Figure 3-15: Pitcher Sampler. (a) Sampler Being Lowered into Drill Hole; (b)
Sampler During Sampling of Soft Soils, (c) Sampler During Sampling of Stiff or
Dense Soils. (Courtesy of Mobile Drilling, Inc.)

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v.

Denison Sampler

Is similar to a pitcher
sampler except that the
projection of the sampler
tube ahead of the outer
rotating barrel is manually
adjusted
before
commencement of sampling
operations,
rather
than
spring-controlled
during
sampler penetration.
The basic components of the
sampler (Figure 3-16) are :
an outer rotating core
barrel with a bit,
an inner stationary
sample barrel with a
cutting shoe,
inner and outer barrel
heads,
an inner barrel liner,
and
Figure 3-16: Denison Double-Tube
an optional basketCore Barrel Soil Sampler
type core retainer.
(Courtesy of Sprague & Henwood,
The coring bit may either be
Inc.)
a carbide insert bit or a
hardened steel saw tooth bit.
The shoe of the inner barrel has a sharp cutting edge.
The cutting edge may be made to lead the bit by 12 mm (0.5 in) to 75 mm
(3 in) through the use of coring bits of different lengths.
The longest lead is used in soft and loose soils because the shoe can
easily penetrate these materials.
The minimum lead is used in hard materials or soils containing gravel.
Used primarily in stiff to hard cohesive soils and in sands, which are not
easily sampled with thin-wall samplers owing to the large jacking force
required for penetration.
The sampler is also suitable for sampling soft clays and silts.

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vi.

Block sampling

Block sampling has traditionally involved the careful hand excavation of soil
around the sample position, and the trimming of a regular-shaped block. This
block is then sealed with layers of muslin, wax and clingfilm, before being
encased in a rigid container, and cut from the ground. The process is illustrated
in Fig. 6.5. A similar process can be carried out in shafts and large-diameter
auger holes.
Trial pits are normally only dug to shallow depths, and shafts and large-diameter
auger holes tend to be expensive. Therefore block samples have not traditionally
been available for testing from deep deposits of clay. In the past decade,
however, there has been an increasing use of rotary coring methods to obtain
such samples. When carried out carefully, without displacing the soil, rotary
coring is capable of producing very good quality samples. When the blocks are
cut by hand then obviously the pit will be air-filled, but when carried out in a
borehole it will typically be full of drilling mud.
During the sampling process there is stress relief. At one stage or another the
block of soil will normally experience zero total stress. This will lead to a large
reduction in the pore pressures in the block. The soil forming the block will
attempt to suck in water from its surroundings, during sampling, either from the
soil to which it is attached, or from any fluid in the pit or borehole. This will result
in a reduction in the effective stress in the block.
In addition, where block sampling occurs in air, negative pore pressures may
lead to cavitations in any silt or sand layers which are in the sample. Cavitation in
silt and sand layers releases water to be imbibed by the surrounding clay, and
the effect will be a reduction in the average effective stress of the block.
Block sampling is an excellent method of ensuring that the soil remains
unaffected by shear distortions during sampling, but samples obtained in this way
may not (as a result of swelling) have effective stresses that are the same as
those in the ground. Therefore the strength and compressibility of the soil may be
changed. This should be allowed for either by using appropriate reconsolidation
procedures, or by normalizing strength and stiffness, where appropriate, with
effective stress.

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Table 7 : Types of sampler generally used in Malaysia

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1.8

COMMON LABORATORY TEST FOR SITE INVESTIGATION

1. Soil Classification Tests: BS 1377: Part 2: 1990


Moisture content,
Liquid limit,
Plastic limit,
Plasticity index,
linear shrinkage,
particle size distribution.

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(These tests are from disturbed samples such as split spoon samplers (SPT),
bulk samples, etc.).
2. Chemical & Electro-chemical Tests: BS 1377 Part 3: 1990
Organic matter content,
Mass loss on ignition,
Sulphate content of soil and ground water,
Carbonate content,
Chloride content,
Total dissolved solids,
pH value,
3. Compaction-related (tests from bulk samples) Tests: BS 1377: Part
3.1 Dry density - moisture relationship (2.5 kg/4.5 kg hammer)
- Soil with some coarse gravels
- vibrating method
3.2 Moisture condition value (MCV)
3.3 CBR tests
4. Compressibility, Permeability and Durability Tests: BS 1377: Part 5
4.1 1-D consolidation test
4.2 Swelling and collapse tests
4.3 Permeability by constant head
4.4 Dispersibility
5. Consolidation & Permeability Tests in Hydraulic Cells & with pore pressure
measurements: BS 1377: Part 6
5.1 Consolidation Properties using hydraulic cell
5.2 Permeability in hydraulic consolidation cell
5.3 Isotropic consolidated properties using triaxial cell
5.4 Permeability in a triaxial cell
6. Shear Strength Tests (Total Stress) BS 1377: Part 7
6.1 Lab vane shear
6.2 Direct shear box (small)
6.3 Direct shear box (large)
6.4 Residual strength
6.5 Undrained shear strength (UU)
6.6 Undrained shear strength (multi loading)
7. Shear Strength Tests (Effective Stress) BS 1377: Part 8
7.1 CIU with pore pressure measurement
7.2 CD with pore pressure measurement

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1.9

IN-SITU TEST / FIELD TEST

Several in-situ tests define the geostratigraphy and obtain direct


measurements of soil properties and geotechnical parameters. The common
tests include: standard penetration (SPT), cone penetration test (CPT),
piezocone (CPTu), flat dilatometer (DMT), pressuremeter (PMT), and vane shear
(VST).
Each test applies different loading schemes to measure the
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corresponding soil response in an attempt to evaluate material characteristics,
such as strength and/or stiffness. Figure 5-1 depicts these various devices and
simplified procedures in graphical form. Details on these tests will be given in the
subsequent sections.

Figure 5-1. Common In-Situ Tests for Geotechnical Site Characterization of


Soils
Boreholes are required for conducting the SPT and normal versions of the PMT
and VST. A rotary drilling rig and crew are essential for these tests. In the case
of the CPT, CPTU, and DMT, no boreholes are needed, thus termed .directpush. technologies. Specialized versions of the PMT (i.e., full-displacement type)
and VST can be conducted without boreholes. As such, these may be
conducted using either standard drill rigs or mobile hydraulic systems (cone
trucks) in order to directly push the probes to the required test depths.
The truck-mounted and track-mounted systems commonly used for
production penetration testing.
The enclosed cabins permit the on-time
scheduling of in-situ testing during any type of weather. A disadvantage of
direct-push methods is that hard cemented layers and bedrock will prevent
further penetration. In such cases, borehole methods prevail as they may
advance by coring or noncoring techniques. An advantage of direct-push
soundings is that no cuttings or spoil are generated.

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Table below shows common field tests practice in Malaysia.

1.9.1 STANDARD PENETRATION TEST


The standard penetration test (SPT) is performed during the advancement of a
soil boring to obtain an approximate measure of the dynamic soil resistance, as
well as a disturbed drive sample (split barrel type).
The test was introduced by the Raymond Pile Company in 1902 and remains
today as the most common in-situ test worldwide. The procedures for the SPT
are detailed in ASTM D 1586 and AASHTO T-206.
The SPT involves the driving of a hollow thick-walled tube into the ground and
measuring the number of blows to advance the split-barrel sampler a vertical
distance of 300 mm (1 foot). A drop weight system is used for the pounding
where a 63.5-kg (140-lb) hammer repeatedly falls from 0.76 m (30 inches) to
achieve three successive increments of 150-mm (6-inches) each. The first
increment is recorded as a .seating., while the number of blows to advance the
second and third increments are summed to give the N-value ("blow count") or
SPT-resistance (reported in blows/0.3 m or blows per foot).
If the sampler cannot be driven 450 mm, the number of blows per each 150-mm
increment and per each partial increment is recorded on the boring log. For
partial increments, the depth of penetration is recorded in addition to the number
of blows. The test can be performed in a wide variety of soil types, as
well as weak rocks, yet is not particularly useful in the characterization of

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gravel deposits nor soft clays. The fact that the test provides both a sample and
a number is useful, yet problematic, as one cannot do two things well at the
same time.

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1.9.2 VANE SHEAR TEST (VST)


The vane shear test (VST), or field vane (FV), is used to evaluate the inplace
undrained shear strength (suv) of soft to stiff clays & silts at regular depth
intervals of 1 meter (3.28 feet). The test consists of inserting a four-bladed vane
into the clay and rotating the device about a vertical axis, per ASTM D 2573
guidelines. Limit equilibrium analysis is used to relate the measured peak torque
to the calculated value of su. Both the peak and remolded strengths can be
measured; their ratio is termed the sensitivity, St. A selection of vanes is available
in terms of size, shape, and configuration, depending upon the consistency and
strength characteristics of the soil. The standard vane has a rectangular
geometry with a blade diameter D = 65 mm, height H = 130 mm (H/D =2), and
blade thickness e = 2 mm.m The test is best performed when the vane is pushed
beneath the bottom of an pre-drilled borehole.
For a borehole of diameter B, the top of the vane should pushed to a depth of
insertion of at least df = 4B. Within 5 minutes after insertion, rotation should be
made at a constant rate of 6/minute (0.1/s) with measurements of torque taken
frequently. Figure 5-9 illustrates the general VST procedures. In very soft clays, a
special protective housing that encases the vane is also available where no
borehole is required and the vane can be installed by pushing the encasement to
the desired test depth to deploy the vane. An alternative approach is to push two
side-by-side soundings (one with the vane, the other with rods only).
Then, the latter rod friction results are subtracted from the former to obtain the
vane readings. This alternate should be discouraged as the rod friction readings
are variable, depend upon inclination and verticality of the rods, number of
rotations, and thus produce unreliable and questionable data.

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The general expression for all types of vanes including standard rectangular
(Chandler, 1988), both ends tapered (Geonor in Norway), bottom taper only
(Nilcon in Sweden), as well as rhomboidal shaped vanes for any end angles is
given by:

where iT = angle of taper at top (with respect to horizontal) and iB = angle of


bottom taper, as defined in Figure 5-11.

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Fig.5-10 : Selection of
Vane Shear Blades
Vane Results

Fig. 5-11 : Definitions of Vane


Geometries for Tapered &
Rectangular Blades.

A representative set of shear strength profiles in San Francisco Bay Mud derived
from vane shear tests for the MUNI Metro Station Project are shown in Figure 512a. Peak strengths increase from suv = 20 kPa to 60 kPa with depth. The
derived profile of sensitivity (ratio of peak to remolded strengths) is presented in
Figure 5-12b and indicates 3 < St < 4.

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1.9.3 FLAT PLATE DILATOMETER TEST (DMT)


The flat dilatometer test (DMT) uses pressure readings from an inserted plate to
obtain stratigraphy and estimates of at-rest lateral stresses, elastic modulus, and
shear strength of sands, silts, and clays.
The device consists of a tapered stainless steel blade with 18 wedge tip that is
pushed vertically into the ground at 200 mm depth intervals (or alternative 300mm intevals) at a rate of 20 mm/s.
The blade (approximately 240 mm long, 95 mm wide, and 15 mm thick) is
connected to a readout pressure gauge at the ground surface via a special wiretubing through drill rods or cone rods. A 60-mm diameter flexible steel
membrane located on one side of the blade is inflated pneumatically to give two
pressures: .A-reading.
That is a lift-off or contact pressure where the membrane becomes flush with the
blade face (* = 0); and .B-reading. That is an expansion pressure corresponding
to * = 1.1 mm outward deflection at center of membrane. A tiny spring-loaded pin
at the membrane center detects the movement and relays to a buzzer /
galvanometer at the readout gauge.
Normally, nitrogen gas is used for the test because of the low moisture content,
although carbon dioxide or air can also be used. Reading .A. is obtained about
15 seconds after insertion and .B. is taken within 15 to 30 seconds later. Upon
reaching .B. the membrane is quickly deflated and the blade is pushed to the
next test depth.
If the device cannot be pushed because of limited hydraulic pressure (such as
dense sands), then it can be driven in place, but this is not normally
recommended.

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Procedures for the Flat Plate Dilatometer Test

Flat Plate Dilatometer Equipment

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1.9.4 FLAT PLATE DILATOMETER RESULTS
The two DMT readings (po and p1) are utilized to provide three indices that can
provide information on the stratigraphy, soil types, and the evaluation of soil
parameters:

Material Index: ID = (p1 - po)/(po - uo)


Dilatometer Modulus: ED = 34.7(p1 - po)
Horizontal Stress Index: KD = (p1 - po)/vo

where uo = hydrostatic porewater pressure and vo = effective vertical


overburden stress.
For soil behavioral classification, layers are interpreted as clay when ID < 0.6,
silts within the range of 0.6 < ID < 1.8, and sands when ID >1.8.
Example results from a DMT conducted in Piedmont residual soils are presented
in Figure 5-16, including the measured lift-off (p0) and expansion (p1) pressures,
material index (ID), dilatometer modulus (ED), and horizontal stress index (KD)
versus depth. The soils are fine sandy clays and sandy silts derived from the in
place weathering of schistose and gneissic bedrock.

Figure 5-16. Example DMT Sounding in Piedmont residual soils (CL to ML) in
Charlotte, NC.

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Example on dilatometer test


Notes :
From McCarthy (2007) :
Dilatometer modulus, E D 34.7p

E
; where E soil modulus of
1

elasticity and is Poisson ratio


Material index, I D

p
; where u0 pore water pressure at test
p0 u 0

depth and p p1 p0 ; p the difference initial and final dilatometer


pressure.
Given :
Dilato testing is performed at a planned construction site as part of
the subsurface insvestigation. The dilatometer instrument gauge
indicates pressure in bars.
At one location and depth, the corrected dilatometer test pressure
readings are :
p0 = 5.30 bar (530 kPa)
p1 = 11.8 bar (1180 kPa)
p2 = 0.15 bar (15 kPa) pore pressure
Required :
The soil classification and the approximate soil unit weight
Solution :
ED 34.7p 34.711.8 5.3bar 225.55
11.8 5.3 1.26
p
ID

p0 u0 5.3 0.15

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Use the following figure :

From the figure : with ID=1.26 and ED=225.55


soil
1.95
w

The soil type is sandy soil with soil 1.95 9.81 19.1kN / m 3
121lb / ft 3

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1.9.5

PRESSUREMETER TEST (PMT)

The pressuremeter test consists of a long cylindrical probe that is expanded


radially into the surrounding ground. By tracking the amount of volume of fluid
and pressure used in inflating the probe, the data can be interpreted to give a
complete stress-strain-strength curve. In soils, the fluid medium is usually water
(or gas), while in weathered and fractured rocks, hydraulic oil is used.
The original pressiometer was introduced by the French engineer Louis Menard
in 1955. This prototype had a complex arrangement of water and air tubing and
plumbing with pressure gauges and valves for testing. More recently, monocell
designs facilitate the simple use of pressurized water using a screw pump.
Procedures and calibrations are given by ASTM D 4719 with Figure 5-17 giving a
brief synopsis. Standard probes range from 35 to 73 mm in diameter with lengthto-diameter ratios varying from L/d = 4 to 6 depending upon the manufacturer.

There are four basic types of pressuremeter devices:


1. Prebored (Menard) type pressuremeter (MPMT)
is conducted in a borehole, usually after pushing and removing a thinwalled (Shelby)
tube. The MPMT is depicted in Figure 5-17. The
initial response reflects a recompression region as probe inflates to meet
walls of boring and contact with soil.
2. Self-boring pressuremeter (SBP)
is a probe placed at the bottom of borehole and literally eats its way into
the soil to
minimize disturbance and preserve the Ko state of stress in
the ground. Either cutter teeth or water jetting is used to advance the
probe and cuttings are transmitted through its hollow
center. The
probe has three internal radial arms to directly measure cavity strain,
,c = dr/ro, where ro = initial probe radius and dr = radial change.
Assuming the probe
expands radially as a cylinder, volumetric strain
is related to cavity strain by the expansion: ()V/Vo) = 1 - (1 + ,c)-2

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3. Push-in pressuremeter (PIP)


consists of a hollow thick walled probe having an area ratio of about 40
percent. Faster than prebored and SBP above, but disturbance
effects negate any meaningful Ko
measurements.
4.

Full-displacement type (FDP):


Similar to push-in type but complete displacement effects. Often
incorporated with a conical point to form a cone pressuremeter (CPMT) or
pressiocone.

Procedures for Pressure meter test

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Pressure Meter Test Results


The pressuremeter provides four independent measurements with each test:
1. Lift off stress, corresponding to the total horizontal stress, Fho = Po;
2. An "elastic" region, interpreted in terms of an equivalent Young's modulus
(EPMT) during the initial loading ramp. An unload-reload cycle removes some of
the disturbance effects and provides a stiffer value of E. Traditionally, the elastic
modulus is calculated from:
where : V = Vo + V = current volume of probe, Vo = initial probe volume, P =
change in pressure in elastic region, V = measured change in volume, and =
Poissons ratio. Alternative procedures are available to directly interpret the shear
modulus (G), as given in Clark (1989).
3. A "plastic" region, corresponding to the shear strength (i.e., an undrained
shear strength, suPMT for clays and silts; or an effective friction angle for
sands).
4. Limit pressure, PL (related to a measure of bearing capacity) which is an
extrapolated value of pressure where the probe volume equals twice the initial
volume (V = 2Vo). This is analogous to V = Vo. Several graphical methods are
proposed to determine PL from measured test data. One common extrapolation
approach involves a log-log plot of pressure vs. volumetric strain (V /Vo.) and
when log(V /Vo.) = 0, then P = PL.

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Figure 5-19 shows a representative curve of pressure versus volume from
a PMT in Utah. The recompression, pseudo-elastic, and plastic regions are
indicated, as are the corresponding interpreted values
of parameters.

Figure 5-19. Menard-type Pressure meter Results for Utah DOT Project.

1.9.6 CONE PENETRATION TESTING (CPT)


The cone penetration test is quickly becoming the most popular type of insitu test because it is fast, economical, and provides continuous profiling of
geostratigraphy and soil properties evaluation. The test is performed according
to ASTM D-3441 (mechanical systems) and ASTM D 5778 (electric and
electronic systems) and consists of pushing a cylindrical steel probe into the
ground at a constant rate of 20 mm/s and measuring the resistance to
penetration.
The standard penetrometer has a conical tip with 60 angle apex, 35.7-mm
diameter body (10-cm2 projected area), and 150-cm2 friction sleeve. The
measured point or tip resistance is designated qc and the measured side or
sleeve resistance is fs. The ASTM standard also permits a larger 43.7-mm
diameter shell (15-cm2 tip and 200-cm2 sleeve).
The CPT can be used in very soft clays to dense sands, yet is not particularly
appropriate for gravels or rocky terrain. The pros and cons are listed below. As
the test provides more accurate and reliable numbers for analysis, yet no soil
sampling, it provides an excellent complement to the more conventional soil test
boring with SPT measurements.

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Most electric/electronic cones require a cable that is threaded through the rods to
connect with the power supply and data acquistion system at the surface. An
analog-digital converter and pentium notebook are sufficient for collecting data
at approximate 1-sec intervals.
Depths are monitored using either a potentiometer (wire-spooled LVDT),
depth wheel that the cable passes through, or ultrasonics sensor. Systems can
be powered by voltage using either generator (AC) or battery (DC), or
alternatively run on current. New developments include: (1) the use of audio
signals to transmit digital data up the rods without a cable and (2) memocone
systems where a computer chip in the penetrometer stores the data throughout
the sounding.

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Figure 5-6.
Geometry and Measurements Taken by Cone and Piezocone
Penetrometers.
Procedures for the Cone Penetration Test

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Piezocone Results

Example on cone penetrometer


Given :
The CPT reading at the depth of 8m is shown below. Groundwater is
found at 3m. The soil unit weight is 16kN/m3. Geometrical cone
friction sleeve, a=0.75
Cone tip resistance, qc = 600kPa
Friction sleeve resistance, fs = 30kPa
Pore water pressure, u0 = 9.8kN/m3(5m) = 49kPa
Cone pore pressure, u2 = 90 kPa
Required :
Type of soil on site
Solution :

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Total overburden pressure,


t = 8m(16kN/m3) = 128kPa
Effective overburden pressure,
v = 3m(16kN/m3) + 5m(16-9.81kN/m3) = 48 + 31=79kPa
Unit cone tip resistance,

qt qc u 2 1 a

600kPa 901 0.75 622.5kPa

Parameter qt t 622.5kPa 128kPa = 494.5kPa


Normalized cone tip resistance, Qcone tip
Normalized friction ratio, Fr

qt t
'v

494.5kPa
6.25
79

fs
30kPa
100%
100% 6.1%
qt t
494.5kPa

From Figure: (SBT)Fr=Type 3 (clay, silty clay)

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1.10 GEOPHYSICAL METHODS


There are several kinds of geophysical tests that can be used for stratigraphic
profiling and delineation of subsurface geometries.
These include the
measurement of mechanical waves (seismic refraction surveys, crosshole,
downhole, and spectral analysis of surface wave tests), as well as
electromagnetic techniques (resistivity, EM, magnetometer, and radar).
Mechanical waves are additionally useful for the determination of elastic
properties of subsurface media, primarily the small-strain shear modulus.
Electromagnetic methods can help locate anomalous regions such as
underground cavities, buried objects, and utility lines. The geophysical tests do
not alter the soil conditions and therefore classify as nondestructive, and several
are performed at the surface level (termed non-invasive).

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1.10.1 Seismic Refraction (SR)


Seismic refraction is generally used for determining the depth to very hard layers,
such as bedrock. The seismic refraction method involves a mapping of Vp
arrivals using a linear array of geophones across the site, as illustrated in Figures
5-22 and 5-23 for a two-layer stratification. In fact, a single geophone system
can be used by moving the geophone position and repeating the source event.
In the SR method, the upper layer velocity must be less than the velocity of the
lower layer. An impact on a metal plate serves as a source rich in P-wave
energy. Initially, the P- waves travel soley through the soil to arrive at geophones
located away from the source. At some critical distance from the source, the Pwave can actually travel through soil-underlying rock-soil to arrive at the
geophone and make a mark on the oscilloscope. This critical distance (x c) is
used in the calculation of depth to rock. The SR data can also be useful to
determine the degree of rippability of different rock materials using heavy
construction equipment. Most recently, with improved electronics, the shear wave
profiles may also be determined by SR.

Procedures for the Seismic Refraction Survey

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The velocity of P-wave given by :

1
1 2 1
E


g
Where :

E modulus of elasticity of medium


- unit weigh of the medium
g gravity acceleration
Poissons ratio

Need to find the value of velocity, v and the thickness of each layer, Zi
Procedures :
1. Times of first arrival; t1, t2, t3, .. at various points x1, x2, x3,
.. from point of impact
2. Plot graph of time,t vs distance x
3. Determine slopes ab, bc, cd, .
Using slopes = 1/v, find value of v
4. Determine thickness of top layer
v 2 v1
1
xc
Using thickness, Z 1
2
v 2 v1
5. Determine thickness of second layer
Using z 2

1
Ti 2 2 Z 1
2

v32 v12

v3 v1

v3 v 2
v32 v 22

6. Note that the value of xc, Ti1 and Ti2 can be estimated from
Figure 1.19(b)

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Figure 1.19 Seismic refraction survey

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Example 2.2
The results of a refraction survey at a site are given in the following table.
Determine the P-wave velocities and the thickness of the material encountered.
Table Example 2.2
Distance from the
source of disturbance (m)
2.5
5
7.5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
50

Time of first arrival


(sec x 10-3)
11.2
23.3
33.5
42.4
50.9
57.2
64.4
68.6
71.1
72.1
75.5

The figure is time of first arrival vs distance (x)


The plot has three straight line; 0a, ab and bc.
Slope of each straight line is inverse velocity, 1/v.

Slope 0a =

1
time
23 10 3

.or
v1 dis tan ce
5.25
v

Slope ab =

5.25
228m / sec(toplayer )
23 10 3

1 13.5 10 3
11

; v2
814.8m / sec( middlelaye r )
v2
11
13.5 10 3

1 3.5 10 3

; v3 4214m / sec(thirdlayer )
Slope bc =
v3
14.75
Thickness of layer 1 :
With xc = 10.5 (Figure Example 2.2)

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Z1

1 814.8 228
10.5 3.94m
2 814.8 228

Thickness of layer 2 :
With Ti2 = 65 x 10-3 sec (Figure Example 2.2)
2
2
23.94 4214 228
4214814.8
1

Z 2 65 10 3
4214228
2
42142 814.82

1
= 0.065 0.0345830.47 12.66m
2
Therefore rock layer lies at a depth of Z1 + Z2 = 3.94 + 12.66 =16.60 m
measured from ground surface

Figure Example 2.2


Or other method : X1=10.5m; X2=30m Where :
X1 = the distance at which the V1 and V2 lines intersect on the travel-time
graph.
X2 = the distance at which the V2 and V3 lines intersect on the travel-time
graph.
X
Z1 1
2

V2 V1 10.5 814.8 228

3.94m

V2 V1 2 814.8 228

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X V V2
Z 2 0.85Z1 2 3
2 V3 V2

0.853.94 30 4214 814.8 15.68m

2 4214 814.8

Table 1.7 Range of P-wave velocity in various soils and rocks


P-wave velocity
m/sec
Ft/sec

Type of soil or rock


Soil :
Sand, dry silt, and fine-grained top soil
Alluvium
Compacted clays, clayey gravel, and
dense clayey sand
Loess
Rock :
Slate and shale
Sandstone
Granite
Sound limestone

200-1,000
500-2,000
1,000-2,500

650-3,300
1,650-6,600
3,300-8,200

250-750

800-2,450

2,500-5,000
1,500-5,000
4,000-6,000
5,000-10,000

8,200-16,400
4,900-16,400
13,100-19,700
16,400-32,800

1.10.2 Cross-Hole Seismic Survey


The velocity of shear waves created as the result of an impact to a given layer of
soil can be effectively determined by the cross-hole seismic survey (Stokoe and
Woods, 1972). The principle of this technique is illustrated in Figure 2.36, which
shows two holes drilled into the ground a distance L apart. A vertical impulse is
created at the bottom of one borehole by means of an impulse rod. The shear
waves thus generated are recorded by a vertically sensitive transducer. The
velocity of shear waves can be calculated as

vs

L
t

Where t = travel time of the waves


The shear modulus Gs of the soil at the depth at which the test is taken can be

Gs
v

determined from the relation s


/ g or

vs2
Gs
g

vs = velocity of shear waves,


= unit weight of soil ,
g = acceleration due to gravity
the shear modulus is useful in design of foundations to support vibrating
machinery and the like.
Where

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Procedures for the Cross holes seismic survey

1.10.3 Resistivity Survey


Another geophysical method for subsoil exploration is the electrical resistivity
survey. The electrical resistivity of any conducting material having a length L and
an area of cross section A can be defined as

where R = electrical resistance

The unit of resistivity is the ohm-centimeter or ohm-meter. The resistivity! various


soils depends primarily on their moisture content and also on the COM: tration of
dissolved ions in them. Saturated clays have a very low resistivity; drysci. and
rocks have a high resistivity. The range of resistivity generally encountered:
various soils and rocks is given in Table 2.9.

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The most common procedure for measuring the electrical resistivity of a soil
profile makes use of four electrodes driven into the ground and spaced equally
along a straight line. The procedure is generally referred to as the Wenner
method (Figure 2.37a). The two outside electrodes are used to send an electrical
current I (usually a dc current with nonpolarizing potential electrodes) into the
ground. The current is typically in the range of 50-100 milliamperes. The voltage
drop, V, is measured between the two inside electrodes. If the soil profile is
homogeneous, its electrical resistivity is :

In most cases, the soil profile may consist of various layers with different rest
tivities, and equation above will yield the apparent resistivity. To obtain the actual
resistivity of various layers and their thicknesses, one may use an empirical
method that involves conducting tests at various electrode spacings (i.e., d is
changed). The sum of the apparent resistivities, Sp, is plotted against the
spacing d, as shown in Figure 2.37b. The plot thus obtained has relatively
straight segments, the slopes of which give the resistivity of individual layers. The
thicknesses of various layers can be estimated as shown in Figure 2.37b.
The resistivity survey is particularly useful in locating gravel deposits within a
fine-grained soil.

Figure 2.37 Electrical resistivity survey: (a) Wenner method; (b) empirical method
for determining resistivity and thickness of each layer

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Fig Resistivity Equipments

Fig Arrangement of electrode


1.12

SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT

Information on subsurface conditions obtained from the boring operation is


typically presented in the form of a boring log (boring record). A continuous
record of the various soil or rock strata found at the boring is developed.
Description or classification of the various soil and rock types encountered and
changes in strata and water level data are considered the minimum information
that should constitute a log. Any additional information that helps to indicate or
define the features of the subsurface material should also appear on the log,
Items such as soil consistency and strength or compressibility can be included.
"Field" logs typically consist of the minimum informationclassification, stratum
changes, and water level readings.
Information to be recorded on the borehole logs

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1.
General information
The essential information which needs to be recorded on the log is as follows:
a.
Borehole number:
This should be unique to the site and kept as simple as possible without
extraneous ciphers.
b.

Location:
Site, including project name, town country or state name where
necessary
(ii)
Grid Reference which should always be stated to at least 1 Om
accuracy. Appropriate local co-ordinate systems should be applied
(iii)
Elevation relative to C.O. for the ground level at the borehole site to an
accuracy of 0.05m.
(iv)
Orientation of the borehole given as an angle to the horizontal (-ve
upwards, +ve downwards) and azimuth (0 to 360 clockwise relative
to Grid North).
(i)

c.
Drilling technique:
The following should be stated
(i)
The method of penetration and flush system
(ii)
The make of machine with the model number
(iii)
The type of core barrel and bit
d.
Contract details:
The following should be noted (with the agreement of the client)
(i)
Name of site investigation contractor
(ii)
Name of client or authority
(iii)
Job reference number
(iv)
Name and profession of logger
e.
Miscellaneous:
There should be an opportunity for relevant miscellaneous information to be
included in the log.
2.

Drilling progress

The following data need to be recorded:a.


Rate of drilling:
The depth of the borehole at the completion of each day or shift and the limits of
each run of the core barrel should be recorded. The actual penetration rate for
each run or part of a run should be measured. Core diameter and changes of
core size (recorded by reference to B.S. 4019 or as metric dimension).

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b.
Casing:
It is essential that the progress of installation of the casing be recorded relative to
the depth of the borehole; the diameter of the casing need not be recorded
except where relevant to interpretation of the data.
c.
Flush returns:
The character and proportion of the circulation medium returning to the surface
should be recorded.
d.
Standing water level:
This should be recorded before and possibly after each drilling shift.

3.

Descriptive geology

The following factors have to be incorporated in a log for adequate engineering


geological description: (i)
systematic description
(ii)
alteration weathering state
(iii)
structure and discontinuities
(iv)
assessment of rock material strength
(v)
other features, including stratigraphy

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Figure 10a : Example of boring log

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Tutorial 1

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QUIZ NO.1
Given a site that is proposed for the development of a housing area
that consist of two major types of soil :
Part A : hilly area that most soil are residual granite that
contain mostly of granular type of soil.
Part B : valley part that mostly covered by marin clay
Suggest a list of procedures that would be practical to implement the
soil investigation in both parts.
(20 marks)

Vibro-Replacement extends the range of soils that can be improved by vibratory


techniques to include cohesive soils. Reinforcement of the soil with compacted granular
columns or "stone columns" is accomplished by the top-feed method

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Figure 10b : Example of Summary of laboratory test results

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Figure 10c : Example of Summary of fieldwork performed

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