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Project Supervisor: Sir Muhammad Saeed

Project Coordinator: Sir Nauman Sultan

Submitted by:

Syed Haider, Raza B05101094

Muhammad Qureshi, Ouns B05101112
Danish, Uzair B04101066

Department of Computer Science

University of Karachi

A report submitted to the

Department of Computer Science

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Bachelor of Science


Computer Science


Muhammad Ouns Qureshi

Raza Haider

Uzair Danish

University of Karachi

Feb 7, 2010

The merits of our project depends only on the wide panorama of the people who have devoted their
precious time , and provided valuable suggestion as well as guidance to our project.

We are highly obliged to our SIR NAUMAN SULTAN and our SIR SAEED who passed our project at
its very initial stage of planning. Also he told us to work on our project at the starting of the year. Also he
told us to take the help of him if we want in our project.

We also express our gratitude towards our project guide NAUMAN SULTAN who has guided as well
as helped from the apex of our project. We also express our gratitude to our project co-guide SIR HAJI
FARHAN , FAISAL MASOOD KHAN and BADR SAMI whose comments has greatly helped us to
make our project more approachable towards the user.

The collection of the various ideas and the progress of our project depend upon the intellectual of all

Finally we would like to express our group members who have duly worked on the project and made it
successful by the time of submission.

Muhammad Ouns Qureshi

Raza Haider

Uzair Danish

Date Feb 7, 2010


Computerization is worldwide and requires only software to run huge industries and institution.

Here we present our project of BUSINESS REPORT SCHEDULAR. The aim of our project is to
acquaint our user with various detail of our system. Thus this report gives you the brief overview of
our project.

Our project report is divided into various chapters. In which the first chapter is introduction
which gives the introduction about the whole project what the project is what is the main content of
our project. The second chapter is about the aims and objective of the system means it gives us the
information about the operational behavior of the project..

The third chapter is about the language which we used in our project. And also the front-end
language which we used in our project. The fourth chapter is about the DFD OF OUR PROJECT.

THE fourth chapter deals with the detail explanation of our project. It describes the various forms
which we used in our project and what that forms means. The sixth and seventh chapter deals with
the advantage and the application of our project.
1 Introduction

2 Aims and Objective

2.1 Feasibility study

2.1.1 Operational

2.1.2 Technical

2.1.3 Cost/benefit analysis

2.2 Life-Cycle phase

2.3 System Analysis
2.4 System requirements.
2.5 Data-flow-diagram
2.5.1 Context DFD

2.5.2 DFD-Level- 1

2.5.3 DFD-Level-2

2.5.4 DFD-Level- 3

2.6 System design

2.7 Coding detail

2.8 System Testing

2.9 Maintenance

3 WHY C#

3.1 Overview of a C# language.

3.2 The several features of C#.

3.3 Connecting C# with backend SQL SERVER.


5 Detail Description of BRS





No, Business runs without reports .since reports enable the decision makers of an organizations
to take every possible measures for the growth of the company .Reports tells the top leader of a
company about the future sale of a company that how to invest & what to achieve from the
resources available to the company .Technology plays a vital role in this regard .usually in the
organizations the reports are generated upon request and manager need to go through them and
have them their signatures and then report sent to respective departments this is the usual
process. But this approach consumes organization’s time. The question is what needs to be
changed in the systems? The answer is the generation of reports should be automated in such a
way that it automatically generated from organization’s database and scheduled itself and send to
the respective departments. Managers need not to mention their signatures on the reports for
verifications since the signatures are verified by automated systems. So what we are doing
originally is to develop an application that automatically connect’s to organization’s database
and the fetch the reports from them sent automatically on specified date and time to the intended
recipients with an organization .A person who is responsible for reports building & generation
need not to be configured the reports every time he needs that reports but it will automatically be

2. Aims and Objectives

2.1. Aims

The project will investigate the resources availability and try to use these resources to bring out the best
possible outcome. In our context we mean that reports fetching process ,digital signatures & delivery of
email along with the reports should be error free ,easy to configure and secure too.

2.2. Objectives

The project will:

 Error free

 Easy Deployment process

 Easy Connectivity to company’s database to fetch the reports

 Easy to integrate to company’s current ERP running.

3. Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholder Interest / stake Importance


Report developers and other personnel in the Ability to reduce time &
organizations which are responsible for reporting. costs of company’s resources
for the prospect of company’s

End users Reports delivery is efficient , High

Securable & scheduled in its


Improved ways to reduce

report loading time costs and
Discovery and delivery service providers improve retrieval of database. high

Guidance on how to build

systems to support the above.

4. Standards
Name of standard or Version Notes

DDC (Dewey Decimal 22 The most widespread classification scheme,

Classification) freely available for research

UML 1.4 Most texts currently support version 1.4.

Version 2.0 has recently been released and
some literature is now available. It is under

SQL SQL Server This is a licensed

SQL Server version

5. Technical Development
The short duration of the project means that maximizing productivity is essential, while providing
software products that are of a high quality and may be used as the basis for further research.

As far as possible, the software is designed using the Unified Modeling Language (UML):

UML is the standard design language for software systems;

UML supports Use Case specification, architectural design and behavioral design.

A wide range of support resources are available including definitive OMG specifications, web
resources, texts, developer articles and journals.

The Desktop applications are being developed using Visual Studio.NET 2008

Visual Studio.NET 2008 provides rapid application development;

Visual Studio.NET 2008 provides a rich class framework;

SQL Server 2008 database system is being employed:

SQL Server 2008 is a multi-user, cross-platform product;

SQL Server 2008 is a fast database server accessed via robust, proven, Structured Query
Language (SQL). SQL is the de facto standard for database access;

SQL Server 2008 is a well proven product that meets all our expected database requirements

Crystal Reports 2008 is being employed:

Detailed Project Planning

. 6. Evaluation Plan

Timing Factor to Evaluate

Month 1

Research work regarding business process currently

running in the organizations and other research work in
understanding the scope of project and domain defined for
the project.

Month 2

Core Issues including designing of windows services,

automatic logon to database server for connectivity issues.

Month 3

Working of digital Signatures for the reports is the most

critical part of the application. We need to implement the
MD5 algorithm for this purpose.

Month 4

Final Demonstration, Presentation, Deployment issues will

be resolved with utmost care & work. Application testing is
also included in this phase but its system integration testing
throughout the product development component level
testing is also be done .


It deals with handling system problem. The feasibility study proposes one or more conceptual solutions
to the problem set for the project. The conceptual solutions give an idea of what the system will look like.
They define what will be done on the computer and what will remain manual. They also indicate what input
will be needed by the system and what output will be produced by the system. Also it tells that whether the
plan of the project is been made by the people. Here also it tells the timing of the project that whether it is
completed in time or not. They also indicate whether the input will be needed by the system and what
manual the output produced i.e. in feasibility study the analyst has to do evaluation of existing systems and
procedures. He has to present a number of alternative solutions to the user requirements.


This feasibility study deals with the operation of the project. Here we are going to explain the whole
operation of the project .In this project we have provide the ado connection which is useful for the
connectivity of the database. This will provide the connection so that with which we can open more than one
form due to this ado connection. This project is totally based on the visual basic language and in this visual
basic we have provided the connection and also we have used ms-access so that we can create a database
table. Here we have provided the user name and password facility so that there are some form which should
provide security purpose. A system development project is likely to be feasible if it meets user requirements,
needs, and expectation. User acceptance is an important determinant of operational feasibility. It requires
careful consideration. Here also there are several reports generated by the database access so that which will
be useful for entering the record of the employee.

This is a technical problem feasibility study. A system development project is likely to be feasible if it
meets the user requirement. Here we have decided to use technical language called C Sharp and SQL Server.
The purpose behind this is that we are more familiar with this language and it is easily access by the other
user. Also the code for writing this is very easy and we can get the information in many books. Also it deals
with knowledge of current and emerging technology solutions. Also there are several coding which we have
done that will be very useful in terms of technical term. It is concerned with the capacity of the proposed
system to meet initial performance expectation and accommodate new functionality over the medium term.


The cost of the project is less as compared to the other project. Also it is cheaper as compared to other
project. Here only software is used so there is no need of extra cost that the project might be damaged. It is
user friendly and can be interacted with other person. Also it can be used by any person if that person knows
C# language then can be easily handled. Also there is no need of having any high range pc it can work with
normal configuration pc.


In this life cycle phase there are several steps which are to be followed they are:-

1) System Engineering:-
This phase deals with the engineering part of the project. In system engineering work cannot be
established before the system requirements for allocating the needs and subset of the requirements. In this we
will be specifying that whether it will be easy to work with this project or not. Also we have here provided
the requirements like C# and SQL Server.

2) System Analysis:-
Analysis is a detailed of the various operation performed by the system and the relationship exist
between the system. In our project we analyzed the relationship that we will be using in our project. In
analysment we also decided how many module we will be including in our project. Also the brief overview of
how our project will look like was done in the analysment. We also decided what type of connectivity we will
be providing in our project was done. Also we referred some of the books of C# so that which will be useful
for writing the code of the project. In analysement also we analyze that in how many days we will be
completing our project so that it will be submitted in correct time as per the given schedule.

This is the most challenging phase of the System Development Life Cycle. In this phase we
decided how our project design will look like. We designed several forms in C# which were to be including
in our project. There were around 15 wed pages which were designed by us in which all the concepts was
included. This designing of forms was helped by our project guide. It also focused on four steps:-





Also these designing was done only in C# in which we designed all the form and there are also some form
which will be useful or entering the data so we designed that form in database and also there are two module.
This deigning finally was completed by us at the mid of the semester.

4) CODE:-
This coding is done by us by referring the books in C# and some information in internet.

It requires a normal pc configuration. It can work on a pc configuration like 20 GB HardDisk, 512 MB Ram.
FRONT END:- For this we have used C # 3.5.

BACKEND:- For this we have used SQL SERVER.


This are the various symbol used in data flow diagram. And we also had used this diagram to draw the data flow

Generate Code for

programmer C#



Code Information.dbf

2.5.2 DFD-LEVEL-1
Enter Access the user has
selected and then
Adminis valu
Display email
or report.

Administrat Select the

or employee id and

Access the employee

employe Enter the name

Send employee record
Reports detail of

Checks for
particular time and
sends reports

Give the bonus


In this we have explained what is the way that we have provided for writing the code. In this we have done
coding fully on visual basic language. We have used an ADO connection for writing the code of the project. This
ado is an active DirectX object it is basically used for making a connection with the database table and the C#
language. This is very much useful also for the data access purpose. Also we have used an ms-access so with that it
is easy to use the connection for the ADO. Also in our project we have used the table called RS which is used for
entering the value and also for the connectivity that is for storing the result of the two tables. Also in our project
there are various reserve keyword used for some database access purpose. Also we have used various comments in
our project which will be useful for disabling some of the statements which might not be useful in our project.
Hence there is various coding explanation which we have explained later in the complete explanation form. This is
all about the coding part of the project.


In this phase we have tested the project that we created. It basically sees the logical internals of the software
and the logical externals of the software. It took around a week to complete this testing because after making the
project we should to our guide who told to make several changes in the project. And also suggested to do the
coding part properly. So after making all this we gave our guide to test the project.


Software maintenance replies each of the preceding life cycle steps to an existing program. In maintenance
part there are also we have done the various steps for maintaining it properly so that it does not require any extra
maintaining part.
3 WHY C# ?


C sharp is a structured programming language and a complete application development tool for the MS
WindowsXP operating system. It is an efficient interactive environment for designing forms. Due to it’s an
integrated development environment (IDE), you can develop, run test & debug your application easily.

The imported feature that C# provides that it is Graphical User Interface Language. It relies on windows, iconic
representation of entities, put down menus or pop-up-menus & pointing devices are now common place on personal
computers & workstations. This type of interface demonstrates that the proverb “A picture is worth a thousand
word” has not lost its truth. Now-a-day, users presented with a desktop filled with icons & programs which are
helpful to user. Graphical User Interface is extremely helpful for the beginners. Therefore we decided to use Visual
Basic with which we can develop Graphical User Interface based application for our project. Also the main motive
behind using this language is that it is very user friendly and the student can easily interact with this system.

Also this language was taught to us in second year so we were having good hand in this language and so we
decide to take C# as a frontend language. Also for studying this language we also referred some of the books of it.
The C# language can be easily written and there is no difficult to understand the code syntax because if one knows
C and C++ then it will be very easy for him to study visual basic


1) MULTIPLE windows allowing different information to be displayed simultaneously on user screen, iconic
information representation. Sometimes icon represents file & sometime it represents processes.

2) Command selection via menus rather than a common language.

3) A pointing device such as a mouse for selecting choices from menu of indicating items of interest in a
4) This type of language in which during design time, you are able to see how your program will look
during runtime.
5) This is the great advantage over other programming language, because you are able to change and
experiment with your design until you are satisfied with colors, sizes, images etc. which are included in your
6) C# provides many readymade function & tool. This helps us to get the output in graphical form.
7) It provides the component MICROSOFT DATA REPORT DESIGNER C# that is useful in creating the
monthly report about the detail of any organization which we have used in our project to make the reports of the
8) The code of the C# can easily write. And the code syntax is same as that of the any other software
language. And this language code can be easily written by just seeing the books of the some C#.
9) Also there is a facility of providing the ado connection facility with the help of the C# code. For this we
have to enter the database value and the data table.
10) In visual basic it is also very useful to create an MDI form. Also there are very easy ways to create an
mdi form so then we will be very ways to design this form.


SQL Server 2005 supports a number of protocols for connecting client applications with the database
server. These protocols are TCP, Named Pipes (NP), Shared Memory (SM), VIA, and HTTP. Only TCP,
NP, and SM are supported in SQL Server Express.

By default, only SM is accessible for SQL Server Express on the local machine. This means that
connections from a remote machine to SQL Server Express will fail unless TCP and/or NP is enabled. If
you want to use TCP and NP, you must explicitly turn them on. Use SQL Server Configuration Manager
to explicitly enable TCP and NP for server and client. After enabling TCP and NP, you need to start the
SQL Browser service (See SQL Browser below).

If you are connecting remotely, you need to substitute "(local)" with the IP address of the server. You can
also use the server name instead of the IP address if DNS can resolve the name.

If you are connecting via a specific IP address, make sure you enable the connection for it. In SQL
Configuration Manager, expand the SQL Server 2005 Network Configuration node then select TCP/IP
Properties from the pane on the right. Select the IP Addresses tab and change Enabled to Yes for the
specific IP address.

SQL Server Configuration Manager

The SQL Server Configuration Manager in SQL Server 2005 and SQL Server Express replaces both
Client Network Utility and the Server Network Utility. It allows you to configure the protocols that SQL
Server listens to as well as the protocols that ADO.NET 2.0 application can use. However, to configure
client protocol for applications that use ADO instead of ADO.NET 2.0, you still need to use the Client
Network Utility. The Client Network Utility ships with ADO and is part of Windows 2000, Windows XP,
and Windows 2003.

To connect to SQL Server Express remotely, make sure that the server can listen to TCP connections.
From the SQL Server Configuration Manager, expand "SQL Server 2005 Network Configuration" and
navigate to "Protocols for SQL Server Express" then enable TCP. You need to restart the server for the
change to take effect.

If you are using Teratrax Database Manager, you can configure client protocols by clicking on the "Client
Network Utility" button in the connection dialog. Make sure that you meet the operating system
requirement for Teratrax Database Manager (Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows 2003).

SQL Server Browser

SQL Browser is a new service in SQL Server 2005 that is used to identify the ports that named instances
listen on. The SM protocol does not use this service. This service is turned off in SQL Server Express by
default. This means that the user will have to start this service so that remote access can work. You can
start the SQL Browser service from the Service Manager or by typing "NET START SQLBROWSER"
from the command line.

SQL Browser listens on UDP port 1434. However, pre-SP3 versions of SQL Server 2000 holding port
UDP 1434 may result in failure of SQL Browser name resolution, since they may refuse to give up the
port. The workaround is to upgrade all SQL Server 2000/MSDE instances on the machine to SP3 or

4.1 Database Diagram and Explanation:

When developing a database design, there are many elements that are confusing and difficult to decipher.
That is where an entity-relationship diagram (ERD) comes in. ERD’s are used to describe the data
requirements in a database system. They are used to describe the relationships between the entities . Entities
are anything which an organization needs to store data. A diagram is put into a picture for of the database
design. Understanding a database is easier by looking at a diagram. This tool serves as a communication
source between designers and users.

The Journal Entry Adjustment is the relationship of the entity. A database has more tables, which represent
entities. Links among database tables represent the relationship with other tables. In this database, the
relationship of a journal entry adjustment is with the entity “accounts to be adjusted.”

The entity of this database is “accounts to be adjusted.” Because; the entity is the characteristic of the
database, a description of the entity. The accounts which need to be adjusted are the main source of a
database table. The accounts needed to be adjusted will be related in other database tables. For example, to
build a report of adjustments made for a period that could be found in different reports. Payroll and open
accounts payable are examples of accounts that might need to be adjusted.

“Cardinalities are a notation showing the nature of a relationship among entities” . The relationship among
accounts being adjusted is, one-to-many. Normally, the accounts being adjusted are the same ones for the
end of an accounting period; one account, many times adjusted (1,N).

The amount adjusted and date of adjustment, is the foreign key. The foreign key is a data field; combines
information from tables to produce reports. In this case, when building a report with all the adjustment
made for a certain accounting.
Web Forms:

4.2 Login Control and Security:

The Login Control

The Login control displays a user interface for user authentication. The Login control contains text boxes
for the user name and password and a check box that allows users to indicate whether they want the
server to store their identity using ASP.NET membership and automatically be authenticated the next
time they visit the site.
The Login control has properties for customized display, for customized messages, and for links to other
pages where users can change their password or recover a forgotten password. The Login control can be
used as a standalone control on a main or home page, or you can use it on a dedicated login page.
If you use the Login control with ASP.NET membership, you do not need to write code to perform
authentication. However, if you want to create your own authentication logic, you can handle
the Login control's Authenticate event and add custom authentication code.
The LoginView Control
The LoginView control allows you to display different information to anonymous and logged-in users.
The control displays one of two templates: the AnonymousTemplate or the LoggedInTemplate. In the
templates, you can add markup and controls that display information appropriate for anonymous users
and authenticated users, respectively.
The LoginView control also includes events for ViewChanging and ViewChanged, which allow you to
write handlers for when the user logs in and changes status.
The LoginStatus Control
The LoginStatus control displays a login link for users who are not authenticated and a logout link for
users who are authenticated. The login link takes the user to a login page. The logout link resets the
current user's identity to be an anonymous user.
You can customize the appearance of the LoginStatus control by setting
the LoginText and LoginImageUrl properties.
The LoginName Control
The LoginName control displays a user's login name if the user has logged in using ASP.NET
membership. Alternatively, if your site uses integrated Windows authentication, the control displays the
user's Windows account name.
The PasswordRecovery Control
The PasswordRecovery control allows user passwords to be retrieved based on the e-mail address that
was used when the account was created. The PasswordRecovery control sends an e-mail message
containing a password to the user.
You can configure ASP.NET membership to store passwords using non-reversible encryption. In that
case, thePasswordRecovery control generates a new password instead of sending the original password to
the user.
You can also configure membership to include a security question that the user must answer to recover a
password. If you do, the PasswordRecovery control asks the question and checks the answer before
recovering the password.
The PasswordRecovery control requires that your application can forward e-mail message to a Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server. You can customize the text and format of the e-mail message sent
to the user by setting theMailDefinition property.

4.3 Welcome User Screen

5) Detail Description of BRS:

Choose from an exceptional range of quality business automation and report scheduler products
which have been designed to work with Crystal Reports, Microsoft Access and Microsoft SQL
Server Reporting Services. Our Business Process Automation Software uses real time business
events to remove common problems associated with manual actions, inefficient resource usage, and
lack of integration.

Our signature Windows applications - CRD, MARS and SQL-RD - don't just handle scheduling,
export and distribution of Crystal Reports, MS Access Reports and SQL Server Reporting Services
Reports, but offer a lot more. Take advantage of our superior experience in Business Automation
software, SQL Server Reporting Services, Crystal Reports Schedulers & Microsoft Access
Schedulers. Benefit from best-of-breed practices and software to leverage solutions that will
improve your business process management and maximize the return on your investment.

MARS (the scheduler for Microsoft Access) also allows the automation of Access query/queries,
Reports and Macros and can easily manage these across a number of Access databases. This
specialist tool for scheduling Microsoft Access offers a convenient way to manage your time.

SQL-RD (the scheduler for Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services - SSRS) gives you control
over multiple SSRS installations in one automation tool. Not to mention huge functionalities that
simply don't exist in Reporting Services. The scheduler for Microsoft SQL Reporting Services will
help you take insightful, timely decisions at a lower total cost of ownership.

CRD (the Crystal Reports Scheduler) takes Crystal Reports automation to a whole new level with
Dynamic, Event-Based and Data-Driven schedules. The report scheduler for Crystal Reports will
help you save time, as well as money.

All products come with embedded business process automation capabilities allowing you to
automate all aspects of your business without making any changes to your current infrastructure.

A timely and proactive approach to upgrades and enhancements will support and enhance your
businesses information flow, business process automation, data reporting and knowledge based
operations. All this being essential in today's fast moving commercial environments.
Whether you are a Small Business, a Medium-Sized Enterprise or a large Corporate, our products,
pricing and services are tailor-made to suit your current and future business needs and bring a new
level of business automation, business reporting, information flow and business intelligence to your


This is a module called report. In this we have provided the information about the report. Here we also have
provided the password facility so that any other user cannot access the information this can be only viewed by
the supervisor only. No employee can access this report. Here it has various option like emails, notifications ,
shifts and various other reports are generated by this form.

Here before opening this form the Administrator has to enter the password. As soon as the password is
entered it checks whether the password is correct or not and if the password is correct it will open him the form
SERVER. Also it contains information like the report of his shifts that is in which shifts he is working. The
employee might be working in a night shift or in morning shifts. Also the report of his product which he is
selling is been calculated in this report. Also the staff id of that person is been seen. This id is a unique for only
a single employee. This id will be not same for the entire employee. This is provided so that the supervisor
finds it easy to calculate the record of the employee. Also the staff name is provided because the supervisor
wants to calculate the record then it can be calculated easily. Also the final reading and the initial reading of the
employee can be calculated in this report. Also the total cost of the employee can be calculated by the
supervisor easily without maintaining the record. This total cost of the employee can be calculated just by
viewing some of the information in the table and thus table has provided the connectivity to the ado. There is
also a facility to calculate the liters sold of the employee. Means if the user wants to calculate the amount of the
report generated by the employee at the end of the day then he can view that information in this report.

Also there is a facility to view the report of the employee called instant notification in which the
notifications of the employee can be calculated and this can be viewed the report of the employee. This will be
very useful for the supervisor because if he wants to see the report of the employee that what is his server the
notifications the can be calculated by the supervisor just by clicking the information as given in the report.

As each project has its advantages other-wise without advantages it will not be useful. Because in now-
a-days company are growing in rapid form because of their several new forms. Also in our country there are
several industries which are getting developed by the software companies so for that we have to use such
explanation. The motive behind having advantage in our project is that if we want to get selected our project in
industries then there should be some features different then there are in other projects. Also there are several
advantages in our project like:-

1) It is very user friendly:- This means that these project can be handled without any much distortion.
Also there is no need to have to study this software and then to use it.
2) Cost effectiveness:- This project is very cheaper as they don’t require the hardware equipment. Means
this project can be completed in the low cast. Here you have to only use the software language like C# and
3) Easy to backup:- The back up of this project is very easy to handle. Also the record if deleted by
mistake be deleted permanently it will store in the database files.
4) Data security:- In our project we have provided the password facility so that each module can have
their data security. Here also the report module which cannot be opened without the password so for that we
have provided the security purpose.
5) Also in our project the coding part can be easily understand by the other person. Also the coding part of
our project is totally written in visual basic language because it is very user friendly.
6) The form of our project is also designed in full MDI form. This designing is useful for identifying the
which form is useful.
7) Finally the main advantage is that it can be used in any pump with only one pc and there is no need of
any type of the extra hardware requirements.

As all the project have their future expansion. All the projects may be changed in the future by the
other person. In the same way we also have our project future expansion. In future somebody might buy
this project. Also some might create a better project than this. And this project is easy to use. Means
that somebody might add some additional features to these projects and can expand this project. But these
project is not yet created in any of the college so we decided to make these project.

Also in future some industries might be interested in buying this project. And also we will be in future we
will try to make these project more interesting by adding some features in it.

Also this is developed in visual basic language but in future it can be developed in some other language but
it is very easy to develop in this language as it is user friendly. Also in this we have provided the ado
connection so somebody in future if expanding the project then he might use some other connectivity.