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#Definithons of semantics :

#Semantics: Is the study of meaning in language , The aim of serious semantics is to


explain and clarify the nature of meaing ..
#Word :It Can be applied to people who use language i.e to speakers (and authors) , in
roughly sense of "inted" . Ant it can be applied to words and sentences in a different
sense , roughly expressed as "be equivalent to ' .
#Speaker_meaning : Is what a speaker means when he uses a piece of language .
#Sentence_meaning__Word_meaning : Is what a sentence means i,e what it counts as the
equivalent of
in the language concerned .
#theroy : Is a precisely specified , coherent and economical frame-work of interdependent
statmements and definitions , constructed so that as large a number as possible of
particular basic facts can either be seen to follow from it or be describable in terms of it .
#Utterance : Is a stretch of talk , by one person , before and after which there is silence on
the part of the person .. It is the use by a particular speaker, on a particular occasion of a
piece of language , such as a sequance of sentences , or a single phrase , or even a single
word ..
Utterances may consist of a single word , a single phrase or a singe sentece . They may
consist of a sequance of sentences . It is not unusual to find utterances that consist of one
or more grammatically incomplete sentence-fragments . In short , there is no simple
relation of correspondence between utterances and sentences .
#Sentence : Is neither a physical event nor a physical object . It is conceived abstracly , a
string of words put together by the grammatical rules of language . A sentence can be
thought of as the ideal string of words behind various realization in utterances an
inscriptions . It is grammatically complete string of words expressing a complete
thought .
#proposition : Is that part of the meaning of the utterance of the declarative sentence
which describes some state of affairs . It is an abstraction that can be grasped by the mind
of an individual person . In this sense , a proposition is an abject of thought .
#Conceptual_meaing :Is widely assumed to be the central factor in linguistics meaning .
#Connotative_meaning :Is the communicative value an expression has by virtue of what
it refers to , over and above its purely conceptual content . to large extent , the notion of
'reference' overlaps with conceptual meaning .
#Social_meaning : Is a piece of language conveys about the social circumstances of its
use in part , we decode the social meaning of a text through our recognition of different
dimensions and levels of style within the same language . we recognize some words or
pronunciations as being dialectal , i,e as telling us something of geographical or social

origin of the speaker : other features of language tell us something of the social
relationship between the speaker and the hearer : we have a scale of status usage , for
example , descending from formal and literary English at one end to colloquial , familiar ,
and eventuay slang English at the other .
#affective_meaning :
Is often explicitly conveyed through the conceptual or connotative content of the words
used .
#Thematic_meaning :what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or writer
organizes the message in term of ordering , focus , and emphasis .
#presupposition :something which the speaker assumes before giving an utterance.
#presupposition_triggers : Are derive from syntactic structure and produce by a particular
words or constructions .