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While these phyla are soft-bodied. JAWEDFISHES Superclass Gnathostomata (includesall the groups below) Supercla55 Agnatha. page 536 . the other containing the bulk of animal phyla. In arthropods. These are grouped into two superdasses: jawless fishes and jawed fishes. our classificatory system is undergoing revision. There are a number of classification schemes for the fishes but one of the most widely accepted recent ones recognizes five classes of living species and three classes that are now extinct. such as shells in Mollusca and a jointed exoskeleton in Arthropoda. and many other phyla of worms. lobefinned fishes.. Furthermore. The division armored fishes. As a consequence.20 ANIMALS CLASSIFYING ANIMALS INVERTEBRATES FISHES Over 95 percent of all animals are invertebrates.rays. and certainly far from understanding their vital roles in the sustainability of ecosystems SubdivisionElopomorpha Eelsand allies PhylumPorifera Sponges SubdivisionClupeomorpha Sardinesand allies PhylumCnidaria Cnidarians(sea anemones. sharks. and allies ClassPycnogonida Seaspiders Superorder SuperorderAcanthopterygii Spiny-rayedfishes 525 SubphylumChelicerata rf-euceretes SubphylumMyriapoda Myriapods(centipedes. their early development.. particularly DNA. one leading through the Echinodermata to the Chordata. to move about by an hydraulic system driven by fluid pressure.etc. The five classes. and the acanthcoiens. page Supercrder Polymixiomorpha Beardfishes ClassArachnida Arachnids SuperorderLampridiomorpha Opahsarid allies ClassMerostomata Horseshoecrabs Paracanthopterygii Cod. Hence.snails. differing greatly in the range of habitats they occupy and their body forms and adaptations. While molecular SubclassElasmobranchii Sharks Raysand allies SubclassHolocephali Chimaeras BONYFISHES"Osteichthyes" ClassSarcopterygii Lungfishesand allies ClassActinopterygii SubclassChondrostei Bichirsand allies Subclass Elasmobranchii.. page 462 SubclassNeopterygii PrimitiveNeopterygii (gars and bowfin) PhylumChordata InvertebrateChordates SubphylumUrochordata Seasquirts Division reieoste SubphylumCephalochordata Lancelets SubdivisionOsteoqlossomorpha Bonytonguesand allies Subdivision 05teoglossomorpha. gars. page 520 analyses have confirmed many of our ideas about the course of evolution based on anatomy and development. through tissue formation (Cnidaria) to the development of organs (Platyhelminthes) The acquisition of a fluid-filled body cavity was a defining point in animal evolution that allowed animals. most biologists regard the term "fishes. Invertebrates are divided into about 30 phyla.corals. Annelida. lungfishes. rather than a closely defined taxonomic entity. others are protected and supported by various types of skeletons. anqlerfishes. page 472 Phylum enidaria.and allies early embryonic development divide many advanced phyla into two lineages. rays. page 453 CARTILAGINOUS FISHES"Chondrichthyes" ClassChondrichthyes Sharks. Their evolutionary relationships can be Any study of the fishes shows that they are an immensely diverse array of animals. are hagfishes.etc. sturgeons. feeding and locomotion. Details of '!l~!!!~~"!!::'''''''~~!!::S::i::i~ lAWLESSFISHES SuperclassAgnatha Lampreysarid haqfishes ' . and more recently from molecular analyses. whose classification is detailed below. such as Nematoda.) ~ ClassArachnida. lampreys..etc.jellyfishes. small true bony fishes with two long dorsal spines. that describes aquatic vertebrates such as haqfishes.squids. the jawed placoderms that were encased in bony plates. and ray-finned fishes. such as sensory perception. each displaying a distinct body form." as a convenient name. this has led to the development of segmental appendages that carry out specific functions. the continual identification of new species of invertebrates indicates that we are nowhere near their full inventory. The origin and form of these body cavities characterize different phyla. the genetic code. cartilaginous fishes.) Superoroer Stenopterygii Draqonfishes and allies PhylumAnnelida Segmentedworms Cyclosquamata Lizardfishesand allies PhylumArthropoda Arthropods Superorder Scopelomorpha Lanternfishes Supercrder Phylum Mollusca. and the advanced ray-finned fishes. The three extinct classes are the pteraspidomorphs-jawless inferred from their anatomy.) SubdivisionEuteleostei (includesall the groups below) PhylumPlatyhelminthes flatworms SuperorderOstariophysi Catfish and allies PhylumNematoda Roundworms SuperorderProtacanthopterygii Salmonsand allies PhylumMollusca Mollusks(bivalves. They are characterized by a structure that they all lack: a backbone or vertebral column.. lampreys. Features that define phyla include the organization of the body from a loose association of cells (Porifera). the phylum to which vertebrates belong. of the body into segments allowed for specialization of parts of the body.. there are a number of instances where they are at variance.