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MAINTAINING BOIL-OFF

GAS COMPRESSORS

january-february 2015

EVOLUTION OF

LNG PLANTS

EPA TOUGHENS

METHANE LEAK REPORTING

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Customer:

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Challenge:

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Result:

LNG producers throughout the world.

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..................S.. Halliburton has anted up 1000 layoffs in the Eastern Hemisphere..... Korea 100-648 Telephone: +82 2 391 4254 Fax: +82 2 391 4255 Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications President & CEO . Not to be left out.. Amanda J. Some big firms are already cutting capital budgets.. Field Editor/Business Manager Dunderbacksvagen 20 612-46 Finspong.... Supported by OPEC..” Shortly thereafter...... The days of US$100 bbl oil may be long gone...46 million last year............. Suite 225 Houston.... Derbyshire..... for example.42 MMbbl/d in 2015. Pyungchang-dong............ Regional Manager/Editor Linda Cameron...... Angela Jarrell Executive Editor ..... United Kingdom Telephone: +44 20 31 79 29 79 Fax: +44 20 31 79 29 70 ITALY Roberto Chellini...... Alyssa Loope PUBLICATION HEADQUARTERS 20855 Watertown Road.. Sweden Telephone: +46 70 2405369 Fax: +46 122 14787 JAPAN Akiyoshi Ojima. Burbach Graphic Artist . Jack Burke Associate Editor ... The laws of supply and demand have done the rest.. folks are reaching category-three panic.... More layoffs will follow... DJ Slater Deputy Editor . Michael J............... Germany Telephone: +49 711 3416 74 0 Fax: +49 711 3416 74 74 UNITED KINGDOM Ian Cameron.. in addition to jobs......Roberto Chellini Managing Editor .Page 4 CT2 Founder . Marisa J...... Hong Kong Telephone: +852 31187930 Fax : +852 23321565 KOREA Myung-Shin Lee........ Jerry Karpowicz Prepare For The New Norm Digital Content Manager..... which will ultimately affect the entire oil and gas industry.Carla D....................Sheila Lizdas Production Manager .. Roberts Graphic Artist ....com ............. in response to lower oil prices. Managing Editor Mark Thayer. CT2 Brent Haight.A.... 9 73760 Ostfildern....... according to Energy Information Administration reports. Mok. Production cuts by Saudi Arabia to shore up prices would only result in losing more market share......... Lemke Graphic Artist ..................... Sales Manager 191-1.......... 231-0824 Japan Telephone: +81 45 624 3502 Fax: +81 45 624 3503 CHINA S.......... Michael J.. Brent Haight Associate Publisher .. announced in mid-January that it would cut 9000 jobs.. DE6 1LH....Chad Elmore Associate Editor ........ The low price of oil will definitely impact high-cost producers..... Via Delle Forbici I-50133 Firenze. Publisher Angela Jarrell. Texas HOUSTON....... but prepare for a new norm... Sunbeam Commercial Building 469-471 Nathan Road Kowloon..... A leading contributor to falling oil prices has been increased production in non-OPEC countries such as the United States and Canada.............. Sarah Yildiz Circulation Manager ... Brazil Patrick Crow – Austin..Art Aiello Copy Editor ..... using a SaffirSimpson-inspired scale. Osenga Executive Vice President ...... Ryan Graphic Artist . Fueling the panic are “preemptive measures” by industry-leading companies looking to protect their profit margins....... Deputy Editor 12777 Jones Road.... Italy Telephone: +39 0464 014421 Fax: +39 0464 244529 SWEDEN Bo Svensson.. as low oil prices are here for the foreseeable future thanks to a standoff between OPEC and non-OPEC nations over who will curb production first...... In Houston.. Kane COMPRESSOR A Member of the Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications Group PUBLICATION STAFF Publisher ..... crude oil production surpassed 8....... 21a I-38062 Arco...... Texas 77070 Telephone: (281) 890-5310 Fax: (281) 890-4805 GERMANY Lisa Hochkofler.. Joseph M.. citing “lower commodity pricing and anticipated lower exploration and production spending in 2015.... Michael J. that’s not going to happen.. The degree of panic setting in depends largely on where you live and how much of your income is derived from the oil and gas industry..5 MMbbl/d in 2014.Brenda L.... Advertising Manager Gabriele Dinsel.... As a result.. bringing oil prices to historic lows..... Baker Hughes announced plans to cut 7000 jobs in the first quarter of 2015 amid a crude oil price slump and drilling slowdown it expects to deepen.S.. negatively impacting nations such as Saudi Arabia..... Branch Manager 51-16-301 Honmoku Sannotani.. So what’s next? Saudi Arabia is giving up billions of dollars of revenues in the short term in an effort to retain market share in the long term. Wisconsin 53186-1873 Telephone: (262) 754-4100 Fax: (262) 754-4175 CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Norm Shade – Cambridge.............. Brezonick Associate Editor ... Naka-ku Yokohama.. Chongno-ku Seoul..... Associate Publisher 44... U...... up from 7.............. Ohio Mauro Belo Schneider – Rio Grande du Sul. In Canada... Suite 220 Waukesha.... The total number of wells drilled in Western Canada is projected to drop 30% to 7350........... Advertising Manager Niemöllerstr. New technologies have allowed these countries to access previously untapped shale oil and gas that has led to a steady rise in production............................ It is betting that a period of low prices will break some high-cost producers and is willing to run up a US$39 billion budget deficit in 2015.. Italy Telephone: +39 055 50 59 861 Fax: +39 055 57 11 55 Roberta Prandi Via Fitta.........H...... Schlumberger........ Advertising Manager 40 Premier Avenue Ashbourne.... Branch Manager Rm 1903A................. The market will stabilize eventually..... publisher bhaight@dieselpub........... Brezonick O il prices continue to drop.... 19/F..... In the U.. the most since 1972. Mark Thayer Senior Editor ....... OPEC’s share of the global oil market has fallen...... Ours is a boom and bust industry..... Output is projected to climb to 9... analysts report that spending on conventional oil and gas will fall nearly 25% in 2015 and expenditure on oil-sands projects will decline by 40%.. Brent Haight.. the world’s largest oil-services company by market cap...Catrina Boettner Advertising Manager ....

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A. All Rights Reserved. WI 53186-1873 U.compressortech2.com 48 Monitoring System Keeps Small Fault From Becoming Catastrophic 60 Avoiding Liquid Carryover Problems In Recip Compressors 66 Maintaining Boil-Off Gas Compressors TECHCorner 54 A Wear Map For Reciprocating Compressors Departments 4 Page 4 — Prepare For The New Norm 8 Global Perspective — Middle East Bucks Supply And Demand 10 Meetings & Events 12 About The Business — Compression Market Slowing Just As Feds Plan More Regulations 14 Monitoring Government — EPA Toughens Methane Leak Reporting Follow Us @Compressortech 2 46 Prime Movers 64 Featured Products 68 Scheduled Downtime MEMBER OF … 69 Marketplace 70 Advertisers’ Index 72 Cornerstones Of Compression — Cooper-Bessemer GMX Integral Gas Engine Compressor 80 celebrating years MEMBER OF BPA WORLDWIDE® PRINTED IN THE U. December) by Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications. U. Copyright © 2015 Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications. November.00 per copy worldwide. Box 456.S. Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: P. ON L2E 6V2. August-September. www. July. .S. 20855 Watertown Road. WI 531861873.00 per year/$10. Periodicals postage paid at Waukesha.A. Niagara Falls.S. Suite 220. June. Waukesha. March.January-February 2015 Featured Articles 16 Two-Shaft Microturbine Introduced 20 Evolution Of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Plants 24 Hicor Technologies’ New Compressor Ready For Field Trials 28 Upscale For Shale 30 Challenges With Surge Control Studies 38 The Impact Of Natural Gas Engine Oil Cover Designed By Amanda Ryan 42 Lubrication Rate Reduction In Engines And Compressors Compressortech2 (ISSN 1085-2468) Volume 20. October.S. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Circulation Man­ager. May.com. April. 20855 Watertown Road. 1 — Published 10 issues/year (January-February. E-mail: slizdas@dieselpub. No. Canada.O. Unauthorized duplication and publication is expressly prohibited. Canadian Publication Mail Agreement # 40035419. WI 53186 and at additional mailing offices. Materials protected by U. Subscription rates are $85.A. and international copyright laws and treaties. Compressortech2. Waukesha.

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progress with gas projects has been slow and lower oil prices could see even less incentive to invest in gas. which could produce in excess of 5.9 x 1010 cu. Israel is close to beginning development on its vast Leviathan field. (5. rising from 2. with an increase of as much as 1 million bbl/d over the next four to five years. Gas reinjection is also increasing to boost production from declining oil fields. Many countries in the Middle East do not have separate regulations governing associated gas production.8 x 1010 cu. with oil output increasing from an estimated 26. Phase 12 development of the South Pars field was successfully brought online in 2014.6 x 1011 m3) to 2. This could add as much as 500. Expansion phases on major oil fields are expected to be delayed at least until the security situation and price environment improve. BMI forecasts gas consumption to increase from an estimated 1.000 bbl/d of oil to international markets. while some gas power facilities are idle or working at low capacity due to undersupply.1 x 1010 cu. (1.9 x 106 bbl/d in 2014 to 29. Driving consumption growth will be the region’s burgeoning downstream sector and reorientation of the Middle East power sector toward gas-fired generation. Lower oil prices could also put added pressure on Iran to broker a deal regarding its alleged nuclear program. Kuwait has reaffirmed its US$40 billion investment in the oil sector and is committed to increasing its production capacity to 4 million bbl/d by 2020. it should also be noted that some of these growth targets might be delayed or curtailed if OPEC decides to cut its production quotas over the coming years.ft. because of the lack of a clear reward for monetizing gas. raising liquids exports. Phases 15 and 16 are expected in 2015/2016 with further stages planned over the next six years.5 x 1011 m3) by 2023. many of the producers able to increase output.ft.Global Perspective By Roberto Chellini Associate Publisher Middle East Bucks Supply gas production increasing And Demand > Oil. A lifting of sanctions on oil exports after the next meeting in mid-2015 could quickly add around 300.ft. BMI forecasts natural gas production in the Middle East to increase 36% from 2014 to 2023. to support these developments.6 x 108 cu.000 bbl/d in new exports from 2015 and opens up the potential to export even more.6 x 1010 cu. Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Iran remains a wildcard. The UAE has not held back its efforts to reach its 3. adding as much as 3.6 x 1010 m3) per year by 2020. However.ft. (1 x 1011 m3) of new output by 2023. On the natural gas side. oil and gas production is forecasted to grow in the Middle East region. with increased gas output boosting its condensate production. are doing so in the short term to support falling revenues from oil.5 x 1010 cu. While a strong growth in gas production is expected. Flaring continues to be used heavily to deal with associated gas and is particularly abundant in Iran.000 to 500. (7.8 x 1011 m3). Despite the hindrance of sanctions on Iran’s oil and gas sector. and few countries have developed sufficient infrastructure to collect and transport this resource to demand centers. Iraq has restarted exports through Turkey via a pipeline link through the region of Kurdistan. Oil continues to be used in some dual-fuel power plants due to insufficient gas production. particularly in Iran. BMI forecasts gas consumption to increase at an even stronger rate.5 x 107 bbl/d target by 2019. This is intended JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 8 Compressortech2 . (58. the Middle East gas production is set for growth. Non-associated gas will be the largest contributor to new gas output. Over the longer term many of the big producers in the Middle East are sticking to their production development plans. as the region looks to substitute the more costly and less efficient use of oil with gas. Much of the gas in the Middle East is associated with oil. while Saudi Arabia continues to pump at near-record levels. and to a lesser extent Israel and Iraq. CT2 ccording to Business Monitor International (BMI).ft. However. which could see exports to Turkey by 2017.ft. However. a major constraint on gas production growth. (79. The 13% increase comes despite the precipitous fall in oil prices over the second half of 2014 and the expected new era of lower oil prices.26 x 108 m3) in 2014 to around 2. such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq. despite low prices A to free up more oil for export. The Kurdistan region of Iraq is progressing with a number of gas projects.9 x 106 bbl/d by 2023. BMI has downgraded Iraq’s long-term oil output based on curbed enthusiasm about the operating environment and profitability of the developments in Southern Iraq. In fact.

We have a full range of reciprocating compressor systems that support beyond fit-for-offshore applications.de Direct line: +49 2451-481-446 NEA GROUP Headquarters in Germany BLUESTROKE COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS .neuman-esser. LNG and FLNG or vent gas recovery on a rig are our strengths. oil exploration. Customized engineering and service expertise for seismic survey.com Contact me for requests worldwide: Arno Thomas Product Manager arno.THINK GERMAN. Worldwide. ACT LOCAL.thomas@neuman-esser. NEUMAN & ESSER GROUP www. We provide innovative solutions where others give up. OFFSHORE EXPERTISE NEEDED WHEN THE PRESSURE IS ON? WE SUPPLY HIGH PRESSURE PROCESS GAS BELOW AND ABOVE THE SURFACE.

cwcnog.com March 18-19 Turkish International Oil and Gas Conference Ankara.org March 23-24 *European Gas Transport & Storage Summit Munich +44 20 7202 7690 www. Italy +39 0544 219418 www. 22-25 Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference Norman.com MARCH March 11-13 Australasian Oil & Gas Conference January-february 2015 Perth. Malaysia +44 (0) 1992 656 651 http://10times.ciooe. Kazakhstan +44 207 127 4501 www.com 10 March 25-27 *Offshore Mediterranean Conference Ravenna.cn/2014/en/ March 31-April 2 Offshore Asia Conference & Exhibition Kuala Lumpur.edu/outreach/engr/lrgcc_ home.gaselectricpartnership. Georgia + 44 207 596 5000 www.com Feb. U.html Feb.aogexpo.giogie.E.com Meetings & Events Hoerbiger.E im www. Western Australia +61 3 9261 4500 www. Tel: +971 2 674 4040 Web: www. 15-18 *Middle East Turbomachinery Symposium Doha.gtsevent.omc.it March 25-26 Georgian International Oil. Oklahoma +1 (405) 325-3891 www. Texas +1 (713) 529-3216 www. Nigeria +234 706 911 7347 www. 18-19 *Gas/Electric Partnership Conference Cypress.com/offshore-asia APRIL April 12-15 *Gas Processors Association Annual Convention Compressortech2 .sogat.indd 1 1/20/15 10:24 AM *Indicates shows and c ­ onferences in which Compressortech2 is participating FEBRUARY Feb.com March 26-28 *China International Offshore Oil & Gas Exhibition Beijing +86 10 5823 6555 www.turoge.tamu.kazakhstanogs.A. 23-24 Kazakhstan Oil & Gas Summit Almaty. Turkey 44 020 7596 5000 www. Infrastructure & Energy Conference Tbilisi.au March 16-19 Nigeria Oil & Gas Conference Abuja.com March 22-26 *Sour Oil & Gas Advanced Technology Abu Dhabi. Gas.edu Feb.ou.com. Qatar +1 (979) 845-7417 http://middleeastturbo.hoerbiger.com.

otcnet.sensor-test.indd 2 1/20/15 10:24 AM For a complete listing of upcoming events. Uzbekistan +44 207 596 5144 www. Germany +49 5033 9639-0 www. Germany +49 69 7564-100 www. Texas +1 (972) 518-0019 www.wgc-paris2015.egcr.gascompressor.com Oil & Gas Uzbekistan Tashkent.org/TE2015/ 11 Compressortech2 .com/events/ San Antonio +1 (918) 493-3872 www.org April 27-30 *Gulf South Rotating Machinery Symposium Baton Rouge.org April 28-30 *Southwest Energy Institute Liberal. Louisiana +1 (225) 578-4853 www.oguzbekistan.com June 15-19 *ASME Turbo Expo Montreal +1 (404) 847-0072 http://www.com May 19-21 *Sensor+Test Nuremberg.org January-february 2015 May 12-14 June 9-11 *Power-Gen Europe Amsterdam +44 1992 656 617 www.asmeconferences.org April 20-22 *Gas Compressor Association Expo & Conference Galveston.com/ June 15-19 *Achema 2015 Frankfurt am Main.de June 2-5 Caspian Oil & Gas Baku.com May 19-21 *Eastern Gas Compression Roundtable Pittsburgh +1 (412) 372-4301 www.the unique pressure packing for reciprocating compressors offers you: „ Compliance with environmental legislation „ Increased reliability „ Reduced operating costs Hoerbiger. please visit our website at www.powergeneurope. Canada +1 (403) 209-3555 http://globalpetroleumshow.com/sensors-expo JUNE June 1-5 *WGC World Gas Conference 2015 Paris www.swenergyinstitute. Kansas +1 (620) 417-1170 www.sensorsmag.caspianoil-gas. Azerbaijan +44 207 596 5000 www.org/ MAY May 4-7 *Offshore Technology Conference Houston +1 (972) 952-9494 www. Alberta.gpaglobal. XperSEAL .org June 9-11 *Global Petroleum Show Calgary.achema.mission possible.gsrms.de June 9-11 Sensors Expo & Conference Long Beach.compressortech2. California +1 (617) 219-8375 www.

Some drillers have already reduced budgets for 2015. among other things. This comes just as Gulf of Mexico production was beginning to recover. The low prices will reduce demand for compressors for upstream wellhead and some midstream gas processing applications. On Nov. Production of natural gas liquids is also below demand levels. dipping below US$3/MMBtu. One that will directly impact the gas compression industry is the initiative to increase compressor efficiency. One report showed new well permits on 12 major shale plays fell by 15% in October. but the industry needs to stay engaged to ensure that any regulations are practical and not cost-prohibitive. 12. most analysts are now predicting oil prices will stay below US$60/bbl through most of 2015. said an early January report by Bloomberg. as average daily field condensate output has grown 166% since 2009. The impending rules would regulate methane emissions. with Eagle Ford down 22%. are down more than 50% in the last six months. Crude oil prices. Does this mean that the demand for gas compression will fall off the cliff? None of the indicators are encouraging. A 45-year veteran of the gas compression industry. and it could significantly change the way the compression industry operates. DOE held a public meeting on the potential Energy Conservation Program for Gas Compressors. the oil and gas industry is suffering from its outstanding success in developing shale resources as prices plummet. but are losing money. Ohio. DOE would also use the established test procedure to subsequently verify the performance of covered equipment. If standards are adopted. And gas storage levels. the lowest price in two years. the U. Moving quickly but without wide publicity within the gas compression industry. gas and natural gas liquids grew much faster than demand throughout 2014. With current prices below US$50/bbl in mid-January. The most current Texas Railroad Commission report showed new drilling permits in November were down 46% for gas and 57% for oil from October. if any. CT2 january-february 2015 12 Compressortech2 . if any.S. compressors could be regulated. of Cambridge. Adding to the angst. however. gas and liquids prices Regulations > Depressed and potential new regulations dampen 2015 outlook P roduction of domestic oil. processing. DOE is exploring the energy-savings opportunities for natural gas compressors and is trying to establish which. Department of Energy (DOE) was to determine what. Improving efficiency is a commendable objective. Just before the holidays on Dec. 2015. transmission and storage. The Wall Street Journal reported at year-end that at least nine federal regulations governing the oil and natural gas industry are expected to be issued by the Obama administration in the coming months. It is also investigating energy-saving opportunities throughout the natural gas supply chain — gathering. Arctic drilling. hydraulic fracturing. Drilling was slowing down even before prices fell to US$70/bbl. test procedures and labeling requirements for gas compressors. regulations should be recommended. caught up with the fiveyear average in early January. Accordingly. Norm Shade is senior consultant and president emeritus of ACI Services Inc. 5. The DOE maintains that this program authorizes them to issue standards. The DOE initiative is progressing rapidly.About The Business By Norm shade Compression Market Slowing Just As Feds Plan More oil. Natural gas prices are down 36% in the same period. much of which focused on compressors. manufacturers must use a DOE-prescribed test procedure to establish compliance and make representations of energy efficiency for gas compressors. further comments were invited by a Jan. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 established an energy conservation program for certain commercial and industrial equipment. it may not affect the demand for pipeline compressors unless prices stay low for an extended period. deadline. he has written numerous papers and is active in the major industry associations. to the lowest level in six years. the DOE held a Workshop on Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation. Now. which affect the demand for gas lift compressors. 17. while others have borrowed for expansion. By the end of 2014. DOE issued a request of information on Aug. 2014. which had been tracking well below average for more than a year. and received comments from interested parties (who were aware of the request). oil-by-rail transportation and offshore drilling technology. 12-13. The industry enters 2015 with more uncertainty than it has experienced since 2009. In December. a Wood Mackenzie report said that new exploration and production initiatives will be cut by at least 37% compared to 2014. At that meeting.

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In the Permian and Gulf Coast basins.F. The agency will consider public comments on the planned regulation and issue a final rule on Jan.R.” API said. 98. p. not only would provide greater flexibility but also reduce the reporting burden on industry — while improving the clarity of the calculation and reporting requirements. Under the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP).” Santa said. Now the EPA has attacked the methane leak issue from another angle. Substantial reductions have also been achieved in Texas. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have initiatives underway that would impact the compression sector. citing a study showing that the transmission industry had reduced the number of leaks 94% over the past three decades. and these additions to the subpart W reporting program could help. October 2014. 12). companies must detail their emissions. The San Juan Basin — an area that anti-fracking activists have claimed has rising emissions — actually reduced methane emissions by 6%. API said methane emissions requirements should not be changed until existing rules can be fully implemented and measurements can reflect tighter standards. they need to ensure they do not compromise safety and can be achieved cost effectively with adequate lead times.Monitoring Government EPA Toughens Methane rules would improve data Leak Reporting > New on greenhouse gas emissions BY PATRICK CROW B noted that its members have made great strides in reducing methane releases. Separately.S. EPA just effectuated a rule that revises 40 C. which it depicted as technical or clarifying. “We believe it’s important for EPA and all parties to get a better idea of both the volume of methane being released in the atmosphere and the sources of those releases. Energy in Depth — a public outreach campaign sponsored by the Independent Petroleum Association of America — said GHGRP data show that methane emissions from some of the most prolific shale plays plunged between 2011 and 2013. companies would report methane leaks from gas gathering and boosting systems that move gas from the wellhead to a pipeline or processing plant. 12). 1. flares and separation and processing equipment. companies now must also prepare separate reports for methane. The agency said the revisions. Rather than just report their cumulative greenhouse gas emissions in carbon dioxide equivalent units. boilers. The reportable emissions would include those from engines. respectively. in the basins that include the Utica and Marcellus shales. subpart W. The Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA) JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 14 Compressortech2 . ordering tighter compliance in the reporting of emissions. “For example. For the first time. He said the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration should reduce the number of occasions when pipeline inspection requirements necessitate blowdowns. As part of an effort to cut greenhouse emissions. which is leading the United States in oil and gas production. methane emissions decreased by 9 and 18% respectively. “In the Anadarko Basin — which includes portions of western Oklahoma.” CT2 oth the U. 2016. INGAA President and CEO Don Santa stressed that blowdowns are a critical and necessary component of pipeline construction and maintenance activities. and emissions from pipeline blowdowns between compressor stations. EPA disclosed a proposed rule that would mandate the reporting of even more GHGRP data. heaters. The American Petroleum Institute (API) said GHGRP data show that methane emissions from gas systems fell 17% from 1990 to 2012 while gas production grew 37%. methane emissions fell by 55 and 10%. one of the top oil and gas producing states — methane emissions decreased by 34%. p. It requires companies to use more standardized monitoring methods and retires the use of some “best available monitoring methods” that critics had claimed were unreliable.” it said. carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The revisions would allow the use of optical gas imaging to detect compressor leaks. EPA has been exploring how it could reduce methane emissions by requiring improved vapor recovery and the periodic replacement of piston rod packings (COMPRESSORtech2. July 2014. “If any changes are made. The DOE is planning a regulation to establish energy efficiency standards for new gas compressors and mandate the upgrading of inefficient ones (COMPRESSORtech2. depending on the methodology by which EPA collects that information.

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january-february 2015 Combustor Air Gasifier Turbine Power Turbine Gear 60 Hz Generator n Figure 2. He designs. etc. since the perceived market was solely for electrical generation. The single-shaft microturbine.. a recuperator and an electrical generator. drove the generator. A recuperator is a heat exchanger that uses exhaust gas to heat compressor discharge air. were not released. Combustor Recuperator High-Frequency Generator Compressor Turbine Air n Figure 1. micro combined heat and power and electrical generation markets. The two-shaft generator was of the conventional type.com. This type is shown schematically in Figure 2. The engineering community considers any turbine less than 300 hp (224 kW) to be a microturbine. If a use can be found for the high exhaust gas temperature microturbine. Direct-drive versions of these units to drive compressors. Another configuration featured a two-shaft design with one of the shafts driving a gear reducer which. the combined heat and power application was identified. This paper describes the advantages of the two-shaft microturbine for direct-drive applications. 16 Compressortech2 . Meanwhile. Contact him at: engineering@ ronporterllc. However. This microturbine will be called the single-shaft microturbine to distinguish it from the two-shaft configuration. The original microturbine was introduced in the late 1980s. gas turbines have become more common in these markets. It featured a low-pressure ratio. In the last 50 years. This is another market that has been slow in developing. overall efficiencies can approach 80%. It also features an annular combustor and an annular recuperator pack- Recuperator Exhaust Compressor Ronald Porter is a rotating machinery and equipment consultant in business as Ron Porter LLC. One configuration is with the compressor. in turn. In searching for an alternate market. In recent years. Electronic inverters are used to convert the single-shaft. the microturbine has gained a toehold as an electrical generator. Porter has bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Kentucky. Product definition The original microturbines were designed to address the distributed generation electricity market. It is shown schematically in Figure 1. this market has been slow in developing due to delays by electric utilities in allowing hookups to their electrical systems. a radial-inflow turbine. single-stage centrifugal compressor. high-frequency electricity to 60 Hz. the many companies that had developed microturbines for the distributed generation market were continued on page 18 H istorically.Two-Shaft Microturbine seen for gas Introduced > Advantages compressor applications By Ronald Porter Exhaust aged around the rotating machinery. a combustor. compressor and pump units in the oil and gas industry have been driven by reciprocating internal combustion engines of many types. develops and manufactures microturbines for the gas compression. turbine and a high-frequency generator on a single shaft. The two-shaft microturbine. Increasing the air temperature eliminates the fuel required to bring the compressor discharge air to combustion temperature.

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The second arrangement is a simple cycle with a higher compressor pressure ratio without recuperator to achieve good thermal efficiency without the added expense of the recuperator. Several microturbine sizes are available in the given horsepower range so that the units can be substituted for existing reciprocating engines. such as oil pressure. a gauge panel showing key parameters. some losses are incurred in converting mechanical power to electrical power and then back to mechanical power. CT2 january-february 2015 18 Compressortech2 . Point Allowable microturbine fuel regions. respectively. It can use either natural gas or liquids for fuel. it is driven directly by the power turbine output shaft at high rpm. Both of these cycles can operate on liquid or gaseous fuels depending on the composition of the fuel. direct-drive microturbine described here is available from 30 to 150 hp (22. blowers and combined heat and power. The two-shaft arrangement has a key advantage for compression. pumps and generators. The lubrication system features a stainless-steel tank. An electrical system is required to connect the current microturbines to the driven equipment. The unit uses a two-stage output drive arrangement that allows output speeds from 1200 to 10. including gas compressors. Centrifugal compressors and radial inflow turbines are used for the gasifier section of the microturbine.000 rpm. pumps. foundering due to lack of sales. In addition. pump or any other device requiring shaft power. with a quarter of the weight and half the volume of natural gas engines. Gas fuels must be a minimum of 50°F (10°C) above the fuel dew point. This is why the two-shaft arrangement dominates the machinery drives whereas the singleshaft arrangement is used primarily for electrical generation. Liquid fuel temperature must be 100°F (38°C) below the fuel bubble point. The second of the two shafts is solely responsible for producing power to drive a load. it only includes the compressor and the turbine required to drive the compressor. A gas analysis is required to determine if liquid or vapor is the appropriate choice of fuel. The firststage speed reducer has a fixed ratio while the secondstage speed reducer is a quick-change unit. Emissions are low. The digital control system is of the full authority type. There is an apparent need for a two-shaft. The unit promises long service life. Advantages The microturbine has many applications. less than 25 ppm NOx at 15% O2. In addition. pump and other direct-drive applications. the industry has consolidated to just a handful of manufacturers worldwide. The load can be a compressor. The explanation is that the first of the two shafts sole responsibility is to generate hot gas. is provided. The first arrangement uses a low compressor pressure ratio and a recuperator.500 Safe Liquid Operation Fuel Temperature °F 400 300 Unsafe Two-Phase Operation 200 100 Safe Gas Operation 0 0 -100 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Microturbine Pressure Ratio Bubble Point Margin Dew Pointoperational Dew Point Margin n FigureBubble 3. In recent years. with the advent of fracking and increased natural gas production. The operator only has to change the air filter. The fuel either must be heated or cooled to stay in a safe singlephase operation regime. which is easy to attenuate. It develops its peak torque when the power turbine is at rest whereas the single-shaft arrangement does not develop its peak torque until rated speed is reached. Therefore. A phase diagram similar to the example shown in Figure 3 must be created for each fuel to determine whether the liquid or gas phases of a specific fuel hydrocarbon mixture can be used as fuel. Therefore.4 to 112 kW) with plans to grow the unit to 300 hp (224 kW) as the need arises. These two shafts are called the gasifier turbine shaft and the power turbine shaft. However. the microturbine has found a home as a source of electricity in the oil and gas industry. If a centrifugal compressor is used. The noise is high frequency. high reliability (since there are fewer moving parts). On a single-shaft generator the load is not applied until the unit is at full speed. igniter and oil periodically. reliable starting and low vibration. This unit is similar to that shown in Figure 2. This requires additional expense for the equipment user in the form of an electric motor to drive the load and wiring to connect the generator and the load. Hydrodynamic bearings are used throughout the unit. direct-drive microturbine for the oil and gas market. As a result. Operation of the microturbine is not allowed in the two-phase fuel regime. maintenance is greatly reduced compared to a reciprocating engine. continuous operation and shutdown. Description The two-shaft. except the generator is replaced with a directly driven load. It automatically controls startup. The unit delivers high power per pound. Since there are no metal-­ to-metal rubbing parts. The unit will be packaged with all types of compressors. the current equipment cannot drive the equipment directly per historical practice. the unit can be remotely located from power lines. Two performance-cycle arrangements are available. The unit includes an onboard battery and a power turbine shaft driven alternator to provide black start capability. It promises improved operations. The power turbine section uses a radial inflow turbine.

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by adopting the gas turbines in generation mode continued on page 22 Compressortech2 . large liquid natural gas (LNG) plants feature gas turbine-driven refrigerating compressor trains. Gas turbines dictate an LNG plants’ capacity. the bottleneck toward the all-electrical solution has vanished. Considering the whole LNG plant. a traditional gas turbine-driven cycle performs at 25 to 30% of efficiency. with the development of reliable high-power/high-speed variablespeed drive systems (VSDSs). and they have more flexibility and can be selected according to plant needs. Also. near the Arctic Circle. T raditionally. while an eLNG (electric LNG) operates at about 40%. a shift toward the electrical solution. January-February 2015 Now. These VSDSs are composed of large variablefrequency drives (VFDs) that allow speed variation of high-power/highspeed motors (up to 134. The electrical solution has the additional environmental advantage of having no NOx emissions. whereas VFD electric motors allow a wider speed variation than that required by the driven compressors. A gas turbine’s efficiency seldom reaches 40%.Evolution Of Liquid Natural gas turbine to Gas (LNG) Plants > From electric motor drives By Roberto Chellini n Pictured is an 81. The only plant in operation pioneering the electric solution is at Hammerfest on the Norwegian Isle of Melkøya. for both offshore (floating liquefied natural gas [FLNG]) and land-based plants is to be expected.802 hp (61 MW) motor at the GE Power Conversion facility in Paris. electric motors can be built to match any power requirement. since only certain sizes are available on the market. including the power generation. However. at the beginning of the heavy-duty type then paralleled with aeroderivative units. but VFDs can go over 90% with consequent pollution reduction. However. The selection of gas turbine drives. 20 Gas turbines have to be operated at rated speed (±5%). France. was mainly dictated by the lack of a referenced alternative solution due to the unitary power requested by the refrigerating compressor trains.102 hp [100 MW]) directly coupled to the main refrigerant compressors.

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GE Oil & Gas has leveraged the huge experience gained along these 35 years. which has tailored its refrigerating compressors to better match the variable speed motors.n GE Oil & Gas testing facilities in Massa. Controls of an eLNG are simplified and operating flexibility is increased. it is the most effective in terms of pollution reduction.576 hp (75 MW) electric motors and VFDs built for the Freeport eLNG are the largest built to date in the oil and gas industry. (fixed speed. subsynchronous torsional interaction [SSTI]). assembled in a parallel arrangement. January-February 2015 22 Compressortech2 . In round figures. Such a package can be transported fully assembled and can be installed easily on site. Through the years. claims GE Oil and Gas.2 MTA. if a gas turbinedriven LNG plant of 5 MTA can produce down to 4. flexibility and reliability are greater in an eLNG than in a conventional gas turbine-driven LNG plant. What appears to be the real breakthrough is the development of high-power drives (VFDs). • Very large performance curves guarantee a high level of operability. as well as its oil and gas division. Key elements for the success of these machines are as follows: • Aerodynamic design and top performance are provided even in the presence of very large side streams (and associated flow distorsions) and high Mach numbers. Development of the refrigerating compressors Main refrigerant compression trains developed by GE Oil & Gas have been designed by making use of the very large experience gained in the last 35 years done with all existing liquefaction processes and drivers: from gas turbines to steam turbines and electric motors. The 100.8 MTA with the speed variation allowed by the motor-driven compressors. These high-power VFDs can be assembled in a so-called E-house formed by a cabinet containing the switchgear and the motor control center (MCC).802 hp (61 MW) electric motor from GE Power Conversion. Development of the electric hardware GE Oil & Gas has been involved in the Freeport eLNG project with its power conversion division. Gas turbines have to be stopped for maintenance at well-defined intervals (every two years) while an electric motor can run continuously for five to six years. The all-electric solution eliminates the use of a starting/helper motor. which.102 hp (100 MW). even in the presence of very limited speed variation (like with heavy duty gas turbines). The refrigerating trains can also be started up at the settling out pressure without any addition to the plant blowout preventer (BOP). Construction of a motor is derived from the construction of a turbogenerator of the same size. On the compressor side. allow electric motors to be powered up to 134. GE Oil & Gas has developed and tuned its codes to predict the dynamic behavior of these trains both on the gas side and with mechanical interaction. This is particularly important for electric motor-driven compressors (either as main drivers or as helpers) for the well-known interharmonic effects generated by the motor and the possible mechanical excitations resulting on the train (subsynchronous interaction [SSI]. Italy. which has implemented the electric part. The key to success for these LNG plants is the integration of the different components and the capability to predict how each of them is going to interact mutually. where an LNG compressor is driven by an 81. Also operability. close to the full power level). From the motor design point of view the solution was very easy. Maintenance cost of a gas turbine is at least 10 times greater than a variable speed electric motor. Another important feature is the start/ stop sequence. it is possible to operate the plant down to at least 4.

reduce fuel consumption. The The ACI ACI team team of Compression Experts of of Compression Compression Experts Experts developed new. new. with proven experience at impeller diameters close to 78 in. the Freeport LNG Expansion LP (Freeport LNG) site has been selected as the eLNG solution for its three Freeport 4.• Top predictability of performance has been continuously tuned for 35 years. BP Energy Co. and SK E&S LNG LLC (a subsidiary of SK Holdings Co. Call Call the the ACI ACI Compression Experts today for Compression Compression Experts Experts today today for for more information information on the the next more more information on on the next next generation valve technology. • There is full agreement between drawings and manufactured pieces: single piece numerically controlled processes. leveraging either string tests or field data. and the customer considered the analysis of the grid stability issue as an added value to the supply. dollars saved. The electric power is sourced from the grid. All these were done to ensure that the production schedule of the eLNG plants would not be interfered. The risk assessment was done in conjunction with the customer in a very transparent way. revenue.ACIServicesInc. GE Power Conversion will provide the whole electrical equipment including the motors. diaphragms and casings are well designed and manufactured (either horizontally split or barrel type). • Robust rotordynamics are provided by a long shaft and very large powers (above 134. consumption. • No leakage is ensured from casings even on horizontally split configurations and with no gaskets. Ltd. Ltd. Call the ACI overall overall revenue. infrastructure... A full torsional analysis of the shaft lines was also performed. (2000 mm) and casing diameters up to 141 in. Toshiba Corp. Freeport LNG awarded contracts to a joint venture between CB&I and Zachry Industrial to construct the initial two trains of the liquefaction project. The ACI team dollars saved. lower emissions and increase lower lower emissions emissions and and increase increase overall revenue. Services. GE Oil & Gas have been awarded with the supply of the propane and mixed refrigerant centrifugal compressor trains. (3600 mm). technology technology to to manage manage capacity.com •• (740) (740) 435-0240 435-0240 ACI Services. •• Cambridge. the variable frequency drives and all the control systems.). In particular. radial poppet poppet developed developed new. the integration of the eLNG plant with the grid.64 MTA LNG lines. • Large impellers. reduce reduce fuel fuel consumption. Air Products and Chemicals Inc. will provide the process license as well as two main coil wound heat exchangers and the associated equipment and technology. generation generation valve valve technology. technology. Inc. Inc. • Cambridge. Ohio Ohio •• www. The two GE businesses are working in close cooperation to obtain the best match between the two main components of the refrigerating trains. radial radial poppet valve and capacity control valve valve and and capacity capacity control control technology to manage capacity. CT2 Rotavator™ Rotavator™ Rotavator™ Radial Valves Radial Radial Valves Valves Radial Deactivator Radial Radial Deactivator Deactivator ACI ACI Services.102 hp [100 MW]).512 hp (110 MW). Cambridge.ACIServicesInc.com • (740) 435-0240 Single Deck Valves Single Single Deck Deck Valves Valves .ACIServicesInc. • Unique testing capability provides performance at type one string tests above 147. Inc.com www. GE Power Conversion has con- sulted GE Power & Water to analyze grid properties and suppression of all harmonics produced by the VFD that otherwise could create serious issues to the surrounding plants.. The Freeport plant is located near a petrochemical complex and not far from a nuclear power plant. Freeport eLNG For the earlier-mentioned reasons and the presence of adequate electric Higher efficiency means Higher Higher efficiency efficiency means means dollars saved. Ohio • www. the evaluation and mitigation of the pollution and the SSTI risk of the entire electromechanical system were assessed. Chubu Electric Power Co. capacity. The whole production capacity of the three liquefaction trains has been contracted under use-or-pay liquefaction tolling agreements with Osaka Gas Co.

preventing pooling. Liquid can be processed as either a small slug of liquid or as an even distribution in the gas stream. Pedro Santos. “The design is capable of efficiently and cost-effectively compressing both wet and dry gas. special nozzles are used to atomize the coolant as it is injected. “Hicor has developed and is in preparations for field trials of our multiphase compressor technology.” he said. a young engineer with an idea for a better compressor. effectively sealing the high-pressure portion of the chamber by creating a tortuous path for the gas that is further sealed by liquid wetting in the clearances. the outlet valves are specially designed to handle liquids by maximizing effective orifice area.and low-pressure portions of the chamber. engineering. “We have multiple prototypes operational with compelling test results. reduced noise and vibration. minimizing changes in direction. Hicor’s design utilizes two key elements: a novel rotary geometry and atomized liquid-injection cooling. In November 2009. The geometry features a dynamically balanced and cam-shaped 24 rotor.” said Santos. and fewer moving parts. B ased on more than five years of methodical research and development. A secondary reciprocating “gate” component utilizes an external cam drive to stay in constant contact with the rotor.” Pitts said. with a temperature rise of less than 10% of the temperature rise of a single-stage adiabatic air compressor with the same ratio. In addition. all of the liquid is removed each cycle. “This ‘nearisothermal’ cooling allows the Hicor compressor to achieve compression ratios of 40:1 or higher with minimal temperature rise. Since the rate of heat transfer from the gas is proportional to the surface area.) reports that it is ready to test its innovative rotary compressor technology in the field. Since clearance volume is minimal. and minimizing valve clearance volumes. resulting in higher energy density.” Pitts said. vice president. Hicor Technologies (formerly OsComp Systems Inc. CEO of Hicor. “The rotary geometry is a fundamentally simpler design than conventional reciprocating or rotary compressors. The compressors can operate january-february 2015 with a compression ratio greater than 30:1. absorbing heat and keeping gas temperatures low.Hicor Technologies’ New Compressor technology emerges from Ready For Field Trials > Rotary five years of development By Norm Shade n A close up of a Hicor third-generation prototype compressor under test in one of the company’s fully automated test cells. The rotor features a dwell seal section in which the outer radius matches the inner radius of the casing for an extended rotational period. This Compressortech2 . Gravity aids in moving the liquid out of the chamber since the outlets are located at the bottom of the compressor. in mid-2010. Liquid coolant is injected directly into the compression chamber at numerous ports. Incorporating as OsComp Systems Inc.” said Jeremy Pitts. The proprietary rotary compressor geometry allows the liquid to be swept out of the compression chamber with each cycle. This dramatically increases the liquid surface area and allows heat transfer to occur at sufficiently rapid rates. which spins concentrically within a circular compression chamber. Santos secured investments for his development from Energy Ventures and in December 2011 from Chevron Technology Ventures. creating a second seal and separating the high. The high-compression ratio capability allows for dramatic simplification of the wellhead infrastructure needed for gas compression. founded the company while still working on his MBA at MIT.

Reliability. By placing the injector nozzles at locations in the compression chamber that do not see the full pressure of the system. cooled and recirculated back into the compressor in a closedloop system. Integrity. Hicor said that gas temperature would rise by more than 842°F (450°C). 100% condensate. the compressor geometry enables all of the liquid to be swept out of the compressor during each cycle. Since clearance volume is minimal. The fledgling company took Santos’s idea and designed and built a prototype compressor that was first operational in March 2012. An external cam drive keeps a secondary reciprocating “gate” in constant contact with the rotor. the rotor’s outer radius matches the inner radius of the casing for an extended period. Santos explained that with the addition of Seshu Seshasai. The clockwise rotor rotation compresses the gas until it is discharged through the exhaust valves at the bottom right. Additional testing focused on the cooling system. at that ratio. totaling 553. The AXH manufacturing complex consists of six plants. (918) 283-9200 Fax (918) 283-9229 www.n Hicor’s compressor is a positive capability also allows the Hicor compressor to function in wet gas environments without the need for complicated liquid removal systems and large storage tanks for the removed liquids. The cooling liquid is removed from the gas stream.com january-february 2015 25 Compressortech2 . In the dwell seal section. The liquid can be 100% water. The system also lends itself to a significantly simpler heat recovery system than traditional compression systems.. showing some areas for improvement with the design. Liquid for cooling is recovered in a downstream separator. the recirculation system does not require an additional pump (and associated parasitic load) to deliver the atomized droplets. mechanical losses were high because of an undersized flywheel.5 bar) discharge. effectively sealing the high-pressure portion of the chamber. condensate and oil. In a comparable isentropic compression process. keeping gas temperatures low. Most notably. creating a second seal and separating the highand low-pressure portions of the chamber. The findings from these tests were used to guide the next-generation design that included better seals and an upgraded lubrication system to reduce the mechanical losses and leakage. continued on page 26 displacement machine with a hybrid rotary design. Gas enters the cylinder at the inlet at the bottom left.axh.. Liquid coolant is injected directly into the compression chamber at numerous ports to absorb heat. Experience. Far exceeding what any commercially available air compressor can achieve in a single stage. The first prototype was able to boost air from ambient suction pressure to more than 370 psig (25. 100% oil or any combination of water. since the entire heat load is in the cooling liquid and does not have to be removed from the gas stream. Initial lab tests were performed with air as the working fluid and water as the coolant. and internal leakage was observed to be higher than desired in the initial prototype. this test resulted in a temperature rise of less than 167°F (75°C). PhD.500 SF on 67 acres. a ratio of more than 25:1.

chief technology officer. This second-generation prototype began testing in the spring of 2013 in the company’s new.17 to 15. to 230 psig (15. and a speed range of 300 to 1800 rpm with an optimal operating speed of 900 rpm. The other stand can operate on nitrogen as a closed loop with oil injection for cooling. No gas stream cooling is required since the entire heat load is in the cooling liquid. with water or water/glycol injection for cooling. including Textron. The recirculation system does not require an additional pump to deliver the atomized coolant droplets into the compressor. and ANSYS computational fluid dynamics. which. respectively. Solidworks and ANSYS finite element analysis. 500 hp (373 kW) maximum power rating. New materials and surface finishes. fully instrumented test facility in Houston.5 m3/min). permitting a train of up to four compressors to be driven by a single driver. Having previously led engineering and technology at several firms.7 bar) and are fully automated with more than 40 channels of data acquisition. many different tests were run to allow the team to learn as much as possible about its performance. Several application examples are being discussed with customers for the potential field trials. Excess liquid is carried away in a single pipeline with the gas stream. Its design specifications include a suction flow rate of 230 acfm (6. multiweek field-simulated testing. Wellhead tests are expected to begin in the second half of 2015. the team’s manufacturing and testing competencies were upgraded. 500 psi (34. 40:1 pressure ratio limit. One is a new Bakken wellhead gas stream with 96. Anticipating a continuation of recent development success. were also incorporated to improve durability of the new design.5 m3/min).69 bar) inlet to 220 january-february 2015 n Hicor Technologies’ Houston facility includes two test stands rated at 1200 psig (82. with subsidiaries Bell Helicopter and Cessna Aircraft. Both test stands are rated for pressures to 1200 psig (82.51 m3/min) with 85 to 100% GVF capacity. Both are fully automated with more than 40 channels of data acquisition in­­­­­­­­­­clud­­­ing torque sensors and are driven by 500 hp (373 kW) motors with VFDs that can vary operating speeds from 150 to 1800 rpm. Seshasai led the development of the next-generation Hicor compressor design. Both stands are driven by 500 hp (373 kW) motors with variable-frequency drives (VFD) that can vary operating speeds from 150 to 1800 rpm. A downstream separator recovers some of the liquid from the gas stream. One test stand can operate on air as either an open or closed loop. the Hicor compressor gained 27% in volumetric efficiency (from 54 to 69%) and 150% in mechanical efficiency (from 14 to 38%) compared to the screw pump. The 2013 and early 2014 testing led to the development of a thirdgeneration (pre-commercial) unit prepared for endurance testing and field trials.” Hicor shared some second-generation prototype test results that were validated by a third party. with full commercial trials in early 2016. is recirculated and injected back into the compressor for internal gas cooling. Hicor’s in-house design capabilities include Solidworks 3D CAD.86 bar) discharge. Compressing a stream having 99. especially when an electric motor drive is used with a VFD. The Hicor multiphase compressor requires a relatively simple system that typically includes an upstream filter/separator to remove particulates and trap large slugs of fluid. with water or water/glycol injection for cooling. Two third-generation units were 26 built and in operation in the fall of 2014 and in January 2015. One test stand can operate with air as either an open or closed loop.8% Compressortech2 . The wide speed range capability can be used for capacity control. in mid-2012.4 bar) maximum discharge pressure. after cooling. and a two-stage quad drive configuration delivering 690 acfm (19. The compressor rotor shaft is of sufficient diameter to through-drive up to three additional compressors. This enables Hicor to use one basic compressor to configure a single-stage dual drive delivering 460 acfm (13 m3/min). comparing performance with a prevalent brand of 3600 rpm multiphase twin-screw pump.7 bar). Monitoring every aspect of the compressor’s performance. and full life-cycle cost validation. Texas. Early 2015 tests are including thirdparty verification of lab performance. including torque sensors. along with improved manufacturing techniques. “In addition to our sophisticated flow loop testing facilities.5 bar) maximum differential pressure.” Seshasai said. The other stand can operate with nitrogen as a closed loop with oil injection for cooling. a singlestage triple drive delivering 690 acfm (19. 1500 psig (103. “We also have qualified world-class production-ready manufacturing processes. Hicor plans to host an open house event at its Houston facility in March or April 2015 to demonstrate the new technology to potential customers.7% gas volume fraction (GVF) from 10 psig (0. An additional test unit was then built for enhanced design and operational hour accumulation in a second test stand.

reducing complexity and potentially improving the reliability of the machine. eliminating the built-in pressure ratio that is common in other types of rotary compressors. pipeline. Hicor has received several awards and grants for its innovation including U. requiring no storage tanks.com 800-227-0729 • info@testo. Yet another is an existing Eagle Ford wellhead gas stream with 99. producing 12 MMscfd (3. “It promises enormous improve­ments in efficiency.” Santos said. pumps.6 bar).S Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) grants in 2010 and 2012. carbon dioxide (CO2). which generates very little noise. as well as subsea. and refinery. “Hicor Technologies has developed a breakthrough new compression tech­­nology that has the ability to revolutionize the way natural gas is produced and transported.com 27 Compressortech2 . Incorporation of reed-type outlet valves allows for variable outlet pressures. small-diameter Hicor compressor. etc.7 bar).3 to 27.GVF compressed from an inlet of 100 psig (6. however. and even transportation and fueling. the company indicated that future applications of the technology could potentially cover the entire natural gas value chain — including wellhead.0% GVF compressed from an inlet of 200 psig (13. the Hicor team is well-positioned to develop this technology into a reliable.66 x 104 m3/d) of gas and 1500 bbl/d of liquid.5 bar). CT2 #1 for Engine Testing Testo Portable Emission Analyzers #1 #1 #1 #1 dependable & accurate especially high CO! calibration stability (time & temperature) network for training & support long-distance wireless connectivity Find out at testo350. offshore. commercial product that will impact the natural gas industry for many years to come..13 x 104 m3/d) and 90 bbl/d of liquid.8 bar) to an outlet of 1200 psig (82. The compact rotary design necessitates significantly fewer moving parts than reciprocating machines.” The technology is currently being developed for wellhead compression applications.9 bar) to an outlet of 950 psig (65. which often leads to overor under-compression and wasted energy. and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in one stream without field processing or separation. The technology is also relevant to other compression applications such as compressed air. producing 2 MMscfd (5. reliability and capital costs. retaining all natural gas. liquids. producing 400 Mscfd (1.4 x 105 m3/d) of gas and 1500 bbl/d of liquid.8% GVF compressed from 5 to 400 psig (0. The absence of inlet valves also minimizes any inlet losses. and other process gases. “With strong financial backing now in place. This eliminates the need for wellhead january-february 2015 flaring and increases the downstream recovery of valuable liquids. leading to higher suction efficiency.” said Santos. can be quickly installed to flow a complete well stream through a single pipeline. A single. Another is a new Marcellus well pad gas stream with 99. Company officials explained that the balanced and concentric motion of its rotor design results in a compressor with extremely low vibration.

3. Twenty-five years later. It also comes with configurable analog and digital I/O. for natural gas applications.” Carpenter said.5 in. Caterpillar said.” Carpenter said. The Cat HMI system features a ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­15 in. standard JW heater ports. The engine platforms also feature improved power at higher altitudes and elevated ambient temperatures. the upgraded models are available in power ratings ranging from 1875 bhp (1398 bkW) at 1000 rpm to 5350 bhp (3990 bkW) january-february 2015 at 1000 rpm and 0. (1524 m). giving us a 40% reduction in the NOx output from the engine.” 28 The engine design also simplifies packaging as it includes standard compressor oil cooler ports. The ADEM A4 engine control module (ECM) provides two options for the operator interface — OCP 4.Oil & Gas releases Upscale For Shale > Caterpillar enhanced Cat G3600 series gas compression engine By DJ Slater n Caterpillar Oil & Gas has launched an updated version of its Cat G3600 engine series to better handle gas compression tasks. According to Caterpillar. The OCP 4. When the Cat HMI system is integrated into the package control system through development software. greater altitude and ambient temperature capabilities and a 5.” Carpenter said.­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ (381 mm) color touchscreen with the same capabilities as the OCP 4.3 has a 5.6% power increase. Caterpillar Oil & Gas gas compression marketing manager. with ratings at 90°F (32°C) and 110°F (43°C) aftercooler water temperatures in addition to the standard 130°F (54°C) rating.” Carpenter said. which includes the G3606.3 and Cat HMI.” CT2 Compressortech2 . It’s an important feature that lets users get more out of their compression assets.” The Cat G3600 was first introduced in 1990 for natural gas applications. “As ambient temperature decreases seasonally or daily. The new exhaust insulation system features a stainless-steel.5 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions. Caterpillar will be ready to accept orders for the upgraded engine in March 2015. The engine will be able to function at a higher power level. “The prior generation would have de-rated at 2000 ft.3 NOx rating later in 2015 as well. It’s got a much broader fuel tolerance and can run on a wide array of fuels. Pictured is the G3616. a two-stage aftercooler and a new turbocharger. Caterpillar said. as well as engine-mounted thermostats. “The underlying reason for this update was to expand the fuel flexibility. it can be an operator’s single interface for the entire compressor package. sheet-metal structure with grab handles and an inner insulation layer. Additional design improvements include a lower compression ratio. according to Caterpillar. “It’s timed well to match what’s happening in the industry. “I’m excited for this product. (140 mm) monochrome display. ADEM A4 ECM parameters and includes Modbus and Ethernet interface capabilities. Caterpillar Oil & Gas has launched an updated version of its G3600 engine series. It also incorporates the ADEM A4 engine control unit. “The ambient-based rating allows for higher power in cooler ambient temperatures. “We’ll have a 0. G3608. (610 m). W ith shale gas still playing such a prominent role in the compression industry. G3612 and G3616. standard coolant and oil sample ports. allowing access to engine controls. “This engine is able to use hotter fuels without any pretreatment or conditioning.” said Greg Carpenter. the updated model provides expanded fuel flexibility. We have a full rating up to 5000 ft. “We increased the engine’s ability to work in higher elevations. the engine will adjust itself and customer can take action to increase compressor load.

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Kelly Eberle is a principal engineer in the Beta design group. a centrifugal compressor system could go into surge. including gas coolers. The likelihood and magnitude of a surge event is based on the compressor’s interactions with the following four factors: continued on page 32 Compressortech2 . Botros is an authority on surge control design and analysis. such as an emergency shutdown (ESD) or power failure. piping. seals and casing. Notice that the flow reversed signifying deep surge due to the effect of high perturbation energy travel- Dr. He also leads many dynamic analysis projects involving machines. a surge event is harmful to the compressor system and should be avoided at all costs. a dynamic instability detrimental to the integrity of the unit. the compressor damage was extensive and caused considerable downtime. To prevent surge. compressor stations and their associated piping and equipment ought to be designed in a way to avoid surge. offshore structures. This centrifugal compressor rotor was damaged during a surge event. bearings. He leads acoustical (pulsation) and mechanical vibration analysis projects on compressor packages and pump installations.Challenges With Surge analysis recommended Control Studies > Dynamic during design phase By dr. and how to ensure these situations are properly addressed in a surge control design. january-february 2015 30 ing back towards the compressor on the discharge side. Kamal Botros and Kelly Eberle I t is widely known that in certain situations.com. it generates violent and potentially disastrous shaking and vibration on the compressor and components. the recommended modifications were implemented and the customer has reported successful results with no surge-related problems with the unit. Contact him at: keberle@betamachinery. He is the author of more than 170 technical papers. This article provides an example of how incomplete analysis could result in costly surge events and the best way to prevent them. As shown in the chart. The unit’s performance followed the line back and forth many times (from point C to D). To avoid damage occurring from upset events such as ESD. one of many compressor problems that the authors have investigated. While this event only lasts a few seconds. pressure relief system dynamics. the gas flowed forward (positive x axis). near the surge control line. Figure 2 illustrates results from a dynamic simulation of a centrifugal compressor system that experienced surge cycles during operation. and transients of two phase stratified flows. a dynamic analysis is performed. The problem is particularly accentuated when a large volume of high-pressure gas is retained in the yard piping. and back again to forward. and changed direction to reverse flow (negative x axis). What is less widely known is why specific surge control valves and piping characteristics still allow severe surge events to occur. Dr. n Figure 1. Vibrations created Compression systems are designed and operated to eliminate or minimize the potential for compressor surge. the unit will experience large flow reversals and pressure transients that cause violent vibration of the compressor rotor. Contact him at: kbotros@betamachinery. Once unstable.com. The figure shows the unit operating at point A. Influencing factors The compressor “system” parameters will determine the dynamic response to compressor instability. In this example. Compressor surge can occur when compressors are subjected to rapid transients. This cycle repeated until the pressure equalized across the compressor with no flow through it. resulting in violent motion of the compressor. and transients. In this case. Figure 1 illustrates a compressor rotor first-stage failure. or to bring the unit out of surge quickly if it occurs. foundations. and has focused his research on transient flow problems in complex systems including centrifugal compressor surge phenomenon. After the ESD process was initiated the unit’s performance followed the path toward point B. Thus. Kamal Botros is a research fellow with NOVA Chemicals and an advisor to the surge control team at Beta Machinery Analysis.

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This simplified approach used generic software tools and assumptions. For this application there is one anti-surge recycle valve downstream of an aerial cooler and two fast stop (hot recycle) valves around each of the compressors. Case study The following example includes two new centrifugal compressors that were to be installed in an existing compressor station. and validates the overall system design by simulating the system dynamic response to the above parameters and operating scenarios. the recycle system around the centrifugal compressor unit is an essential component in the unit’s operation. and compressor aerodynamic characteristics close to surge point. the owner specified that a dynamic surge analysis be completed of the piping system around the two compressors. Given the risks involved. As these events are transient in nature. n Figure 2. This leads to mechanical stress analysis. optimizes. suction and bypass valve design and selection criteria. january-february 2015 32 Compressortech2 . recycle and check valve parameters • System inertias (fluid and compressor/driver inertias) because they play an important role in either stabilizing or destabilizing the system dynamics • Compressor performance characteristics. Additionally. The parameters that affect the potential for the compressor to undergo surge during ESD are the recycle valve attributes such as maximum capacity. Furthermore. are also important and have to be investigated. An ESD event when compressors operate in parallel configuration (original design). opening delay and valve travel time. all dynamic parameters from gas flow. all contribute to the complexity of the problem. powertrain inertias. Each compressor was driven by a 20. and flow control (turndown capability) and needs to be assessed with respect to the compressor wheel map. such as piping geometries. shutdown. and blowdown systems. timing of the compres- sor ESD signal. A very simplified surge study was provided as part of the design. Finally. relief valves.thermal analysis. The station piping was designed to operate the new compressors in series. An ESD surge event illustrating 5633 rpm compressor instability during surge. The surge control dynamic analysis (or surge study) evaluates. performance and safety. flow versus opening characteristics. The continued on page 34 n Figure 3. vessel volumes. or in parallel. including the three valves and the various dynamics occurring during gas recycling around the two compressor units in both parallel and series operations. gas and equipment dynamic interactions of other elements employed in compression systems such as check valves. It is necessary for startup. equipment. including the OEM-supplied surge line • Surge control strategy and timing. surge protection. • Physical components.115 hp (15 MW) gas turbine. fuel gas manifold size (in the case of gas turbine drivers). play an important role and impact the system instabilities. The most damaging surge events tend to occur during an ESD. fittings. the fuel gas shutoff signal. and control.

Rigorous full-load testing in the factory meant there were no surprises in the field. Nidec delivered.asi . turning dreams into results.ni dec. Nidec ASI www. com . India Our customer’s dream was to double production through a major expansion project and to do so on-time to maintain their perfect track record. Nidec ASI. Variable Speed Electric Drive Systems Sanjay dreams of a time when all of the homes in Mumbai will have access to safe and clean natural gas. The motors were delivered on schedule and were up and running in record time.Gas processing expansion Project.

Using the field-proven Centran sim­ ulation software (a proprietary software solution). The first two charts.ommended for the high-pressure system check valve • One of the fast stop valves would not be adequate even with the recommended piping layout design This is primarily due to the valve trim characteristics. including valve characteristics. The owner was concerned about potential surge events that could damage the new compressors and whether the system was properly evaluated. The specific project details and recommendations are not disclosed to ensure confidentiality. even under the worst-case ESD transient events. it is prudent to evaluate the surge control system by performing a surge study. It is important to understand what type of surge analysis is being done and the level of detail included. including 24 in. • The selected anti-surge valve for the cold recycle was adequate • The 24 in. illustrate the original design during an ESD transient event. Notice that both units will go into surge (area to the left of the surge line). but not adequate for parallel operation. An ESD event when compressors operate in series configuration (original design). Simulation results for parallel operation. the units will operate reliably and avoid going into surge. Not all n Figure 5. Note that the units do not go into surge. The following charts summarize the results from Centran’s dynamic simulations. especially given the initial design work and completion of (what they thought was) an appropriate surge study. The analysis is not expensive and will save the owner from costly field modifications such as piping and/or valve changes. 34 Compressortech2 . After further investigation the deficiency in the simplified analysis was identified and recommendations were made to circumvent it. Figure 3 and Figure 4. january-february 2015 Recommended solution The surge control dynamic analysis identified four main findings and provided detailed recommendations to the owner. (61 cm) valves. As shown above. (61 cm) check valve on the low-pressure compressor was relocated and changes were rec- Conclusions During the design phase. n Figure 4. A more detailed surge study of the system was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the surge protection system using the proposed valves and the original piping layout. compressor inertias and performance curves. with the recommended modification to valve size and trim. The analysis includes all the parameters mentioned above. design was almost completed and components were being ordered. timing. This result was a surprise to the team. piping geometries and operating scenarios. The recommendations were evaluated in the surge control dynamic analysis. Recommendations were provided to change the trim characteristics • The other fast stop valve was found to be adequate when operated in the series configuration. surge would occur in both the parallel and series operations. the authors discover­ ed that under an ESD event.

n Figure 6. Simulation results for series operation with the recommended
modifications. As noted earlier, the units do not go into surge.

surge studies accurately predict surge
events such as fast-stop scenarios.
Some firms use commercially available process analysis software for this
dynamic application, but, as this ex-

ample illustrates, designs based upon
simplified surge calculations are inadequate in preventing surge events. It
is important to recognize the (potentially costly) limitations and errors as-

sociated with using generic software
and assumptions.
For more critical applications, including multiple compressors in parallel or series, the correct scope and
approach is important for transient
surge analysis. As always, “The devil
is in the details.”
Valve and piping details become
critical when simulating fast transients.
Consult experts in dynamics who have
the applicable field-proven modeling
techniques, experience and tools to
accurately assess the surge dynamics.
It is up to the owners to specify a
surge control dynamic analysis. Otherwise, there is uncertainty about
how the surge control system will behave under fast transient conditions.
For sample specifications, contact
the authors.
It is recommended that the analysis
occur during the front-end engineering
and design stage to highlight detailed
constraints, or at least early in the detailed design stage. This provides sufficient time to review the design and
provide recommended modifications
to the EPC and owner. CT2

environment and condition of gas. usage By David Dragert A reliable and well-maintained natural gas-powered engine per­­­­­­­­forms consistently and continuously. the lubricant can be viewed as part of the engine design. The limits for the used oil are defined by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) of the gas engine. as it reaches specific maximum levels that are dictated by the OEMs. which can lead to a healthier bottom line for plant operators. This article also raises awareness of the need for service and plant managers to carefully select an NGEO to achieve ideal engine performance and minimum downtime. core products at Petro-Canada Lubricants. Drain intervals are dictated by the rate of oil degradation. it takes on certain characteristics. It is sometimes referred to as the “life blood” of the engine because it circulates throughout. natural gas engines traditionally burn cleaner and hotter.ca. 38 Drain intervals Drain interval — or oil change frequency — is closely linked to engine reliability.and high-quality diesel fuels). operations and service managers of natural gas-powered engines need to be focused on how to minimize engine downtime. It specifically examines extended drain intervals and deposit control. NGEOs must be specially formulated to address these unique characteristics. Minimal deposits and varnish can be seen on the lands and ring grooves. This article studies the impact of natural gas engine oil (NGEO) on an engine’s reliability. dragert@petro-canada. engine operators can reduce unnecessary maintenance costs and downtime. To achieve strong plant efficiencies and profits. a Suncor Energy business. In fact. engine cleanliness and wear protection. which results in reduced downtime/increased uptime. without any sludge or lacquer. The NGEO used to lubricate the engine is one key component that can address each of these objectives. Because there is a strong correlation between continuously operating engines and a plant’s bottom line. the oil is condemned and needs to be Compressortech2 . application. n Minimal excess ash deposits are shown on the top of the piston/cylinder head fireface.The Impact Of Natural cleanliness. By going beyond today’s standards with lubricants that maximize service life. Longer oil life allows the engine to perform consistently. maximize drain in­­­ tervals and optimize performance. Drain service intervals are designed to provide maximum engine protection under various conditions. n This photo depicts an engine that is very clean. durability heavily Gas Engine Oil > Engine determined by oil type. and operate at a constant speed.” it is measured as the number of hours an engine can efficiently run before the oil needs to be changed. Additional savings can be realized by taking a proactive approach to consolidating a plant’s lubricant product offering. As the oil degrades. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 as low. Also referred to as “drain time. In contrast to other fuel types (such David Dragert is the product specialist. NGEOs with extended drain capability can withstand factors that break down the oil and cause it to degrade. These intervals vary due to factors such as mechanical design of equipment. reduces maintenance cycles and provides cost savings. performing critical functions necessary to maximize engine performance. NGEOs that offer extended drain intervals reduce the need to change oil as frequently. research and development. confirming the critical role NGEOs play in engine cleanliness and durability. minimizing downtime is a key objective for operators of natural gas-powered engines. Optimal drain intervals allow the engine to run for an extended period before oil change is necessary without compromising engine durability. It also carries information about the engine condition that can be seen through an oil analysis. As such. The timing of the oil drain is determined by the results of a usedoil analysis.

Nitration Nitration is another factor that con­­ tributes to oil life and drain interval. As it relates to engine reliability. including: • Oxidation of the oil • Acids that form in the oil • Base reserve in the oil to neutralize the acids • Nitration of the oil • Trace metals and other contaminants found in used oil Oxidation Oxidation occurs in engine oils when oxygen molecules chemically join with oil molecules. The greater the TBN retention is. threatening service life and durability. deposit formation and. full seating and minimal excess deposits. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 39 Compressortech2 . If not neutralized. n Pictured is the combustion chamber (no valves). oil oxidation is accelerated by heat and pressure. in particular. increased acid control contributes to longer drain intervals and minimizes wear. By neutralizing the amount of acid attacking the metal of the engine. Hence. viscosity (oil thickening). In addition. NGEOs need strong acid neutralization capability (total acid number or TAN) and good base retention (total base number or TBN). Oxidized oil can lead to deposits on pistons and valves. form acids and lose fresh oil qualities. This naturally occurring process results continued on page 40 n This photo shows minimal varnishing on the valve stems. This causes the oil to thicken. the greater the ability of the oil to neutralize acid. Oxidation reduces the oil life and its ability to neutralize acid. the majority of new engines today require oil with higher oxidation resistance (the oil’s ability to resist breakdown). As such. high-pressure operations. There is very little residue. They are also free of excess ash deposits and the symmetric patterns on the valve stem indicate free movement. Several factors cause oil to degrade. which forms as a result of the combustion process. acid can attack metal engine parts. As with most chemical reactions. changed. ultimately. which can accelerate acid formation. corrosion. the formation of deposits could be minimized — as could pitting and corrosion. threatening engine life. will speed up the oxidation process. Heat. High levels of oxidation impede optimal engine performance as a result of: • Increased deposits and varnish that will affect wear rates of contacting surfaces Acid formation The concept of oxidation is closely tied to acid. engine loads influence the levels of oxygen and pressure within the engine. oxidation is an issue for natural gas-powered engines — both older engine types and new lean burning engines in high-temperature.• Increased viscosity and sludge buildup • Corrosive attack • Reduced drain intervals For these reasons. wear.

when oil is exposed to heat. varnish and deposits. dirt and contaminants in the fuel found in used oil also affect drain interval. which can reduce drain intervals and minimize downtime. In some engine designs. Any excessive levels of contaminant JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 ingress need to be addressed as soon as possible. 40 Compressortech2 . pistons. As a result. This occurs as a result of many things. A high-performing lubricant protects the engine from these harmful contaminants. reduce or potentially eliminate this ingress ensure longevity of the engine. The result is the formation of sludge. Deposit control As discussed previously. which could cause wear and reduce engine efficiency. A top-performing NGEO can play a significant role in minimizing deposits and wear on valves. however. including the oxidation and nitration processes mentioned earlier. coolant leaks. dust. These deposits also cause oil rings to stick.n These spark plugs are free of excess deposits. ports. it is important to select a high-quality oil that can resist breakdown caused by temperature. Similar to the effects of oxidation. Metals such as iron. deposits inevitably grow in the engine. This leads to a greater creation of NOx and nitrates (less free oxygen). and shorten engine component life. they are also prone to creating deposits. which leads to corrosive wear • Formation of harmful varnish and deposits on engine parts • Reduced drain intervals Since oil type can define nitration resistance. It can also help to control valve recession. increase oil consumption. It is essential to reduce excessive n Shown is the piston undercrown. nitrogen oxides and other contaminants. high nitration levels do not allow for optimal engine performance due to: • Increased viscosity • Change in TAN. there is greater likelihood of condemnation based on nitration of nitric acid (HNO3) formation. the NOx created in combustion is much higher since there is stricter air/fuel ratio control (stoichiometric conditions). which is immaculate. The type of engine duty cycle and the environment it operates in also play a role in deposit formation. steps taken to control. Trace metals. lead and copper come from metal-to-metal contact or metal corrosion/erosion attack of the engine. These deposits can also increase oil consumption. and shorten engine component life. oxygen and nitrogen oxides (NOx). the formation of deposits (including sludge and varnish) leads to reduced engine efficiency and increased wear. This can lead to: • Extended engine life with reduced maintenance cycles and cost savings • Engine cleanliness for optimal engine efficiency and reduced oil consumption • Minimized de-rating of engines for top performance and maximum profit potential Natural gas-powered engines are designed to run at 100% under optimal pressures and temperatures. As they work. In natural gas-fueled engines. liners and rings. nitration occurs when the oil comes in contact with nitrogen oxide compounds. Because natural gas engines operate at a constant speed and temperature.

helps to prevent premature valve recession by forming a protective. which has negligible bore polish with cross-hatching intact. The result is that the engine has to work harder to achieve the same result. Suite C Tulsa.com Compressortech2 . This is often because of the presence of deposits. sacrificial layer on the valve seat and valve tulip to absorb the impact of the two coming into contact. in the form of ash. engine efficiencies are impacted. For example. it is not performing at optimal levels. deposit formation to operate at the highest efficiency and gain minimal downtime and maximum profit. When an engine is de-rated. the severe operating conditions common to natural gas-fueled engines demand an NGEO that delivers performance and extended oil life while helping maintain excellent control of engine deposits. we can help you through the process to find the right solution for you. Some deposits. are needed to protect valves and prevent valve recession (the premature compression and wear of the valve seat in the cylinder head and valve tulip). Compression Dynamics Consulting. Ash residue. LLC 6130 S Maplewood Ave. Compression Dynamics will work with your designers to ensure acceptable vibration and extend reliability. Deposits can also lead to higher wear when they form in the groove rings so that the rings can no longer move.cdconsulting. which could result in: • Even higher engine temperatures • Loss of energy to either create power or compress gas • Pre-detonation • Engine damage Because of this potential engine damage. CT2 n Shown is the cylinder liner.Not all deposits are unwanted and harmful. Whether it’s mechanical. acoustic. which remains after the oil is burned during operation. Deposits can cause pre-combustion. As a result. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 EnginEEring AnAlysis to mEEt your dEmAnding schEdulE We Are Your engineering resourCe for: • APi 618 5th edition Pulsation & Mechanical • rotor Dynamics • field Vibration Analysis • Dynamic structural skid finite element Analysis Smooth Compression is incorporated in the early design stages. In summary. more energy is utilized. When engines are burdened with deposits. temperatures are lower. operations de-rate the engine and reduce loads. which creates instability in the engine. An NGEO that contributes to engine cleanliness can help to minimize engine de-rating and maximize engine performance. resulting in incomplete combustion and more formation of deposits onto the metal surface that remain on the engine. Call us today and experience the difference. OK 74136 41 Call Now (918) 710-3664 sales@cdconsulting. or FEA. there is additional stress on the engine and output is reduced. if pistons cannot move up and down freely. This robs an engine of its efficiency. torsional. This reduction of load will reduce engine outputs and may affect the bottom line.com www. consuming more energy in the process. which could add to operating costs. As an engine is de-rated.

based in Freeport. specifically for compressors and engines in the energy industry. shaft-driven compressors commonly used the more Walter Sloan is the president and CEO of Sloan Lubrication Systems. rings. lack of proper attention. Many gas transmission. manufacturing. or even the user’s inability to calculate actual lube rate requirements. and protection or monitoring of delivery was impossible. even at ever-decreasing rates of delivery. • Increased accuracy and reliability of lubricating system hydraulic components and monitoring systems • Greater emphasis at the management and operations levels on responsibility for cost-efficiency and environmental compatibility This paper deals with lube rate reduction from the lube system’s perspective and what must be addressed to guarantee accurate and reliable lubrication. and maintenance of lubrication systems. In the past. This provides the operator easy access to monitor and adjust the lubrication system as needed during rounds. Proper volumetric delivery ensures maximum equipment life. refinery and chemical processing operations using reciprocating engines and compressors are finding that their lubrication rates to compressor cylinders. power cylinders and valves can and should be drastically reduced. what equipment was used. distribution. Units installed in the mid-to-late 1960s. valve guides. packing glands. provides efficient operation and causes minimal impact on the environment. and newer highspeed. reciprocating machinery has been overlubricated because of inefficiencies in oil delivery systems. older units more recently equipped with newer systems. He has more than 40 years of experience in the design. etc. Many smaller compressors with these types of systems are still in operation today. History A brief review from a historical perspective provides a better understanding of where and when the industry started with engine and compressor lubrication. which required constant attention to filling and adjustment. so there is much room for improvement. rods. The “more is better” theory was always considered the preferred choice over “not enough. The standard for lubrication system design at that time was the pumpto-point mechanical lubricator. January-february 2015 42 Compressortech2 . The typical integral reciprocating engine-driven compressor used in the gas transmission industry may have been installed before or during the early 1960s.” Possible reductions in lubricant delivery today and the subsequent cost savings that can be realized are made possible by any or all of the following factors: • Vastly improved quality and various types of today’s lubricating oils and additives • Similar improvements in wear surface materials used in rider and compression bands.Lubrication Rate Reduction In Engines delivers evidence for And Compressors > History reduction program By Walter Sloan I ncreasing environmental and economical pressures demand that the conscientious engine and/or compressor operator look carefully at lubricant consumption. cylinder liners. and how it has been improved over the years. Each feed point had its own adjustable stroke pump. n A Cooper GMWA 10-3 gas transmission engine/compressor with the dual zone lubrication system installed on the end. Pennsylvania. minimizes waste. Each pump had a practical minimum stroke adjustment and could not be adjusted to the lower desired flow rates.

even at the lower flow rates and higher back pressures. due to the fact that personnel needed to be familiar with calculating lube rates based on divider cycles. The shortcoming here is that the protection is afforded by a main line switch. programmable logic controllers (PLCs).com www. Lube delivery was electrically protected by ensuring divider cycles within a time limit. Piston fit tolerances are excellent for reliable deliveries. We Manufacture and Remanufacture the World’s Largest Crankshafts Ellwood Crankshaft Group modern divider block or feeder-type systems. compressors were lubricated using the “pump-to-point” design.ellwoodcrankshaftgroup.n Prior to the divider block style of lubrication. PA. Irvine. PA. This eliminates all calculation error and permits simple and accurate flow rate adjustments. or battery-powered devices now display the actual lubricant delivery rate. but new processor-based monitors. Lubrication systems today use similar type divider networks with much-improved dividers. The oil deliveries made by these systems are monitored with mechanical counters and protected with main line flow switches that provide for alarm or shutdown in the event of lubrication failure. USA 16148 1-800-247-1326 or 724-347-0250 ecgsales@elwd. These still use the proximity switch pickup. These monitors also track total oil deliveries over time to aid in the preparation of oil consumption records. not by actually watching the volumetric delivery of the divider system. a single pump and monitoring arrangement delivers oil to many feed points through a series of positive displacement divider valves. Each individual pump required attention to maintain proper lubrication rates.com A cautionary note Before jumping into a lube rate reduction program. Automatic alarm or shutdown was initiated on lubrication failure. however. This was a definite improvement in the delivery protection system since it was based on actual volumetric delivery. There is an individual lubrication pump for each point requiring oil. There was room still for improvement. which used a magnetic reed switch to pick up divider cycles to index an electrical counter and timer. USA 16329 Hermitage. In this type of lubrication system. The next improvement was the electronic monitor. consider for a moment the following questions: continued on page 44 January-february 2015 43 Compressortech2 .

which is being carried away by various factors. what are those factors and can they be reduced or eliminated? These factors could include contamination.in. (0. Testing. liquids. Flow rate adjustments to each zone are made easily while watching the actual total flow rate on an easy-to-read monitor screen. (32.• Of what vintage are the lubrication system components? Are they still hydraulically capable of delivering lower flow rates without sacrificing reliability? • How was the lube system pump originally designed? If it was designed to deliver 100 pints (47 L) of oil per day. then how much is enough? • What about injection intervals? At roughly 0. Many of the existing high-capacity pumps in use today are already at their minimum stroke while still delivering higher volumes than are required.0508 mm). water or a host of others.114 drops = 1 pint For divider block systems with mechanical counters: • Trabon MV lube meter: 168 counts per 1 pint delivered o 516/s per count = pints/24 hr • Manzel L Series lube meter: 155 counts = 1 pint o 559/s per count = pints/24 hr • Mccord/Lincoln modular lube: 200 counts = 1 pint • Lubriquip MH lube meter: 200 counts = 1 pint o 432/s per count = pints/24 hr n Pictured is an electronic “Wizard” monitor that displays the total flow rate per lubrication zone and monitors for low-flow/ no-flow conditions. will lubricant film thickness be regenerated and dispersed often enough at the lower rates? If secondary divider pistons are too large. intervals can be stretched to five minutes or more — much longer than is adequate to do so. 44 Compressortech2 . as rates are actually reduced. Identifying existing lubrication rates For pump-to-point lubricators with vacuum sight glasses: • 1 drop = 0. or repairs might need to be performed before considering lube rate reduction. All of the prior points indicate the requirement for a little homework before getting started. Then. maintenance n This Superior compressor lubrication system is a retrofit design that provides a divider block assembly and flow rate monitor with easy access to the pumps for adjustment and monitoring of current flow rates. January-february 2015 For electronic monitors with proximity switches: • Total divider displacement in cubic inches x 3000 = constant K • K/s per cycle = pints/24 hr currently delivered • For most processor-based monitors: current flow rates are constantly displayed. alerting operators if a critical lubrication condition fault requiring attention occurs.002 cu. • If you think you are now delivering too much. it is probably not adjustable down to the 10 pints (5 L) or so you may really need.774 mm3) – 10 drops/min = 1 pint (473 mL)/24 hr – 14. • Is the engine/compressor in good operating condition? Is it possible that higher lube rates may be necessary to compensate for abnormal wear or a long overdue maintenance requirement? • If the basic theory is to deliver only enough oil to replenish the film thickness.002 in. a comprehensive inspection program must be carried out to verify that wear surfaces are indeed still being adequately lubricated.

BA 6000 8000 .ft.15.600 hp (25. that matches the engine type.9000 HRA.com Tulsa. so compressor lube rates are reduced proportionately with the power.ft.000 GMWA & C 7000 10.000 HBA. OK 45 Compressortech2 .000 All other Cooper 10. sq. sq.8 MW).ft. HLA.000 PRODUCTS: n Pipe Supports & Clamps n Epoxy Grout n Anchor Bolts n Flywheel Locks n Temperature & Vibration Sensors n Spark Plugs • Use 1 pint/2 mil.ft. K = 80.000 • For 1 pint/5 mil.. K = 32. TLA and TCV units. Lubrication reduction — a success story A mainline gas compressor station in the northeastern United States has reported great operational savings by reducing lubrication rates. Consider reducing lube rates down toward the target value. RA 5000 7000 .000 12.000 • For 1 pint/6 mil.000 .000 HSRA and HRA-T 4500 7000 .Recognized Leader Calculating required lubrication rates Power cylinder requirements for two-cycle engines: • Engine horsepower x 8 x 24/brake hp hr/gal. K = 96.000 .000 • For 1 pint/4 mil.. K = 48. sq. • Use 1 pint/5 mil.10. They are all Clark 2 cycle engines — BA. TRA. K = 64. = pints per 24 hr required to ALL power cylinders Use the following brake horsepower h/gal. sq. as target rate. The primary attention has been focused on lube rate reduction to the power cylinders. Fourteen integral engine/compressors in operation provide 34..000 12. The lubricant being used is a high-quality popular mineral oil formulated especially for two-cycle engines. though the smaller units have single-zone lubrication systems. TLA.ft. TMB.com info@r-f. COOPER Maximum Target GMW 7500 10. sq. sq..ft. Power valve requirements: four stroke engines: • Each valve guide requires 0.05 pints (24 mL) per 24 hr period.000 CLARK Scavenging air cylinders start at 2-3 pints (946-1420 mL)/24 hr and reduce by one-half. TCV 7000 9000 . HMB.r-f. These values should be considered as the maximum amount of oil required.9000 HMA.12.000 • For 1 pint/3 mil. as maximum lube rate required.ft. TCV. Innovator in State-of-the-Art Pipe Supports & Clamps Inventor of Flywheel Lock Leaders in Field Machine Work Pioneers in Casting Rapair Compressor cylinder requirements based on swept area calculations: Stroke x Bore x rpm = pints/24 hr required to cylinder wall K • For 1 pint/2 mil.11. sq. Engine manufacturer-recommended power lube rates continued on page 46 January-february 2015 SERVICES: n Field Machining n Casting Repair n Crankshaft Machining n Machine Shop n Broken Bolt Removal n Frame Reinforcement n Alignment Services 918-252-7545 www..

recommended lubrication rates were 64 pints (30 L) per 24 hr. Another story At another mainline gas compression station. A quick wipe of the finger on the wall is all that is required.000 gal.000 hr. liquefied petroleum gas.are at 7000 or 7500 brake horsepower hours per gallon. allowing it to improve its engine research and evaluation services to industries that use engines up to 7000 hp (5220 kW) for applications in transportation. With these lower lube rates. just a bright. It will be good for you. (19 L) of oil each day — oil that is not burned and spewed out the exhaust stack as smoke or sent down the pipeline as hazardous waste.850 L) per year. If persistent stuck rings are still a problem.000 and 120. SwRI performs large-engine services including alternative fuel evaluations. dimethyl ether or Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuels. the station reported a lube oil savings of 24.000 and 12. all cylinder liners. pipelines and power generation. Even today. Terminal check valves were replaced with positive sealing types. standardized testing. The facility’s centerpiece is a Froude Hofmann model F63RE dynamometer rated to 8985 hp (6700 kW) and a maximum speed of 2500 rpm. Solution All lubrication system components. very small amounts at a time. there are four Cooper Bessemer GMWA8-2 engine-driven compressors. If it feels dry to the touch. The first cell was completed in September and the second cell is to be available in early 2015. this is projected to be extended to between 80. smooth polish. production and supply chain divisions. rings. Compressortech2 . Here are some recommendations by the station personnel for conducting a responsible lube rate reduction program: • Consistency is the key: the same person must inspect the cylinder condition each time. resulting in yearly oil savings of US$3707. Operate under normal conditions for several weeks before next inspection. Then. Compared with today’s lube rates. your customers and the environment. lube rates are still too high. Originally designed in 1964. engine and component design services. Many older blocks were replaced. (90. Take pictures for comparison at each inspection. If oil is visible on the finger. Prüftechnik Dr. though rarely pursued. and 14 pints (7 L) per 24 hours to compressor cylinders and rod packing. Operating hours between major overhauls used to be estimated at 40. How much lubrication is enough? A simple. as a result of the protection of accurate lubrication. rather than looking at those reduced costs positively affecting the bottom line. CT2 46 PRIME Movers SwRI Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has opened a high-horsepower engine dynamometer facility. T. diesel and biodiesel.49 MW) at 250 rpm and drive two 18 in. Germany — Rohe held several executive positions in organizations in the fields of research and industry. • Reduce rates by small amounts only. Lubricating oil costs for both purchase and disposal are often considered fixed. ensuring the most accurate deliveries possible. fuel injection system development. Along with persistent attention to crankcase leaks and consumption. engine performance im­­­­­ provement.and volume-tested to verify that they were in good condition. those principles apply. and the above units have been operated for several years at between 10. cooling system. • Use only good quality oil. Visual inspection of power cylinder walls shows no cuts or scratches. (508 mm) stroke compressor cylinders. formulated and recommended for your engine service. Thomas Rohe joined Prüf­ technik Dieter Busch AG as a member of the management board and has been named chief operating officer with responsibility for development. lube rate reductions are saving just this one station more than 5 gal. the pump adjustments were checked to verify current lube rates were 55 pints (26 L) per 24 hr to all power cylinders. Management’s primary concern was regarding carbon buildup in the power January-february 2015 cylinder ports and oil carryover to the downstream pipeline. Conclusions The two examples were from one and two decades ago. but oil still barely appears when wiped with a tissue. to the power cylinders.000 hr. were pressure. Rohe to Munich. Consider implementing a lube rate reduction program as soon as possible. These eight-cylinder units each develop 2000 hp (1. rates can be reduced even further. This is attributed primarily to significant reduction of carbon buildup in the ring and port areas. Result Oil deliveries were reduced to 38 pints (18 L) per day to power and 6 pints (3 L) per day to compressor. reducing system maintenance cost and time. riders and various other wear components now last much longer between overhauls. The test cell’s support equipment (conditioned combustion air. modeling and noise evaluation. and 24 pints (11 L) per 24 hr to the compressor throws. control system development. The divider blocks are metering devices that must make extremely specific and accurate lube deliveries at lower volumes.000. the lube rates are improving. including natural gas. Before joining Prüftechnik — located close Dr. (457 mm) bore x 20 in. emissions research. In addition. low-tech approach requires removal of a cylinder head with a piston at the bottom travel. particularly the divider blocks. fuel mass-flow measurement and exhaust system) was designed to comfortably support 7000 hp (5220 kW) engines. All cells accommodate engines that use a variety of fuels.

Prior to serving as president of CTT. Exterran Partners. as well as fabrication businesses into a freestandall of the incentive distribution rights in ing.we can help! Summit Industrial Products 800.S.S. It will retain the Carryover 1 cer1/21/2014 3:50 PM Page 1 sole generalReliable partnerLube_Layout interest and continued on page 65 RELIABLE Synthetic Lubricants Carryover Problem? If you’re experiencing elevated carryover rates. She has also held marketing and sales positions in Cummins’ Emission Solutions and Filtration businesses and was executive director of the Chrysler business. aftermarket services businesses named RemainCo. The company.5823 www. Talaulicar now serves solely as chairman and managing director of the India Area Business Organization. Motortech Motortech has opened a training and technical center at its headquarters in Celle. mechatronics and construction.K. including electronic and software development. There is also an engine simulator and pickup tester. who was serving as both both president of the Components Group while leading the company’s India Area Business Organization. All NGL lubricants are UOP approved and can be used in refinery applications where catalyst poisoning is a concern. The training center has workbenches equipped with tools for working on gas regulation systems.749. publicly traded company (SpinCo). compression services business U. The carryover rate for Summit’s PGS and NGL lubricants is typically 1/6 the rate for petroleum oils.. Switch to Summit’s NGL Series in high pressure CO2 applications to eliminate cleaning of downstream piping. PGS lubricants result in lower make-up rates for oil flooded compressors. Embree also spent two years in the power generation business as general manager for Cummins’ Energy Solutions Business in Kent. Germany. it’s time to switch your compressors to Summit’s NGL and PGS Series synthetic lubricants. U. Embree succeeded Anant Talaulicar. which makes ignition components. injectors and the formation in EOR applications. intergether represent a 37% ownership innational aftermarket services and global terest in Exterran Partners.klsummit. tain limited partner interests that tointernational contract operations. reporting to Chief Operating Officer Rich Freeland. RemainCo will own and operate the Exterran Holdings will be a pure-play remaining U. Upon completion of the transaction.PRIME Movers Cummins Cummins Inc. The R&D building will provide extra space and equipment for various departments. and simulating the functions of the VariFuel2 and the EmCon5. Call us for Free Technical Support. also is constructing a research and development (R&D) center at the Celle factory. It will have a separate laboratory for ignition tests. is separating its JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 47 Compressortech2 . effective Jan 1.S. Embree is a member of the Cummins Leadership Team.. including the company’s VariFuel2. contract operations and U.com Exterran Exterran Holdings Inc. Embree worked in the midrange engine business where she was responsible for the on-highway line of business. air/fuel ratio controllers and engine management systems for stationary gas engines. has named Tracy Embree president of its Components Group.

maintenance expenses and lost productivity. Corpus Christi. MarkWest attains sufficient volumes to make pro- n Figure 1. owned by MarkWest Energy Partners LP. Sound unlikely? It’s precisely the scenario encountered by MarkWest Javelina. 48 Compressortech2 . n The compressor deck at MarkWest Javelina. everything can change. the vibration signal is normal. Shutdown was triggered within three revolutions. but also possible emissions releases and serious threats to the safety of nearby personnel. especially in terms of their sensitivity to minute changes in normal operating behavior. A byproduct once used as boiler and heater fuel. By collecting off-gas from multiple refineries. project realization and customer support.Monitoring System Keeps Small Fault From vibration analysis Becoming Catastrophic > Segmented triggers timely shutdown By Skip Morrison fective response of MarkWest’s maintenance team. I n the 200 ms it takes for one revolution of a crankshaft. compression system and monitoring technology The MarkWest Javelina plant pro­­ cess­­es off-gas from six Corpus Christiarea refineries. This incident illustrat­­­­­es how effective advanced conditionmonitoring systems can be. and their ability to activate a proper automatic response — all within a few revolutions of a crankshaft. However. off-gas contains ethylene (C2H4). Consequences may include not only hundreds of thousands of dollars in equipment damage. In that brief span of time. ethane (C2H6). concealed bolt can reach the breaking point. the outcome was not failure. Texas. In the second revolution (right side). an off-gas processing plant in Corpus Christi. the structural integrity of a single. overseeing Prognost System sales.. Texas. hydrogen and other components that are now more valuable when recovered for use as basic petrochemicals and feedstocks. beginning a cascading series of events that causes the catastrophic failure of an entire machine. In the first revolution (left side). JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 protective measures. their accurate diagnosis of what those changes mean. Impending disaster was averted by an advanced condition-monitoring system installed on a critical compressor and by the ef- Plant. but triumph for the plant’s foresight and Skip Morrison is president and general manager at Prognost Systems Inc. Two-revolution plot shows moment of bolt failure. the stepchange impact is shown.

With large. velocity sensors on all rear pedestal bearings. which met American Petroleum Institute (API) [1] standards at the time. including ethylene. the compressors were protected by simple mechanical vibration switches (“earthquake switches”). acceleration sensors on all crosshead guides.38 x 108 scfd (3 x 106 Nm3/d) of off-gas. an inlet gas compression system boosts gas pressure to send it to a dehydrator unit and cryo­­­­­ genic plant for separation into each hy­­­­­ drocarbon component. Contact Sloan today to ensure your systems are optimally protected. MarkWest Javelina can process roughly 1. The critical importance of the compressor units led to a decision in 2005 to improve protection and add predictive maintenance capabilities with an advanced condition-monitoring system. Inlet pressure is 60 psia (4 bar) and discharge pressure is 575 psia (39 bar).com www. The process at MarkWest Javelina begins by running off-gas through an amine unit and Sulferox unit to scrub hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2).000 bbl/d of liquid hy­­­drocarbons. the reliability of the compression system is crucial to operations. they offered no indication of the source or severity of a problem.0250 | Sales@SloanLubrication. the plant generates more than 28. as well as 3 x 107 scfd (849. The reliability of the switches was also questioned as plant personnel experienced frequent “nuisance” (false) trips.com JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 49 Compressortech2 . 10-degree segments. propane (C3H8). propylene (C3H6). The presence of incompressible substances and the composition and molecular weight of gas received by MarkWest Javelina can change significantly from hour to hour depending upon operating conditions at each of the six refineries. each with eight throws and two stages.SloanLubrication. We focus on one thing and one thing only ― providing you with the highest quality lubrication systems and service. Although these switches provided some basic shutdown protection. Then. dependable and protected lubrication solution for your reciprocating and rotary equipment. Sloan Lubrication puts extraordinary attention and expertise into designing and applying the ideal components. This capability subdivides each time waveform into 36 individual. early failure detection. butane (C4H10) and natural gasoline. Nevertheless.800. With all six refineries online. eight-throw machines. treating continued on page 50 YOUR BEST SOURCE FOR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS SINCE 1922. eth­­­ane. From this supply.000 Nm3/d) of hydrogen. Off-gas is a notoriously unpredictable and challenging application for a compressor. wear monitoring (for first-stage cylinders) and process data integration. as well as some switches that failed to activate when needed.722. The massive gas compression system consists of four Cooper-Bessemer LM-8 reciprocating compressors. When the plant first opened in 1990. Sensor hardware on the compressors in­ cluded a phase-angle trigger on the flywheel. The technology selected was a Prognost-NT system providing safety protection. and eddycurrent piston rod position sensors on the first-stage cylinders. We do the legwork and you get the results you need: the most accurate. 1.cessing and separating these components economically viable. The Prognost-NT system uses a unique segmented crank angle (root mean square [RMS]) vibration analysis for extreme precision. finding the cause of a trip was often time-consuming and costly. A synchronous electric drive operates at a maximum speed of 257 rpm and 8173 hp (6010 kW).

We had personnel on-site this time who heard banging noises coming from the crankcase. Viewing ring buffer data in the time domain showed impacts were also recorded on crossheads six.” On February 12. we found that the restart ring buffer delivered similar data as on the first trip. Since there were no impacts when the machine was barred over. “The work on this machine. Online plot of crossheads five..” Lockard said. seven and eight. During the first revolution (left side) the vibration signal is normal. but the system had already shut down the unit before they could stop it manually.n Figure 2. Pin to bushing clearances and fit were all within tolerances. 28 and 29) on JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 crossheads five and six.e. The system also calculates the peakto-peak value of the segmented pistonrod-position (run out) signal. Almost immediately. there were no visible indications of any problems. six. Figure 1 shows data from the crosshead five acceleration sensor over two revolutions.” Lockard said. we decided to pull the crosshead slide doors and inspect crossheads five. seven and eight (Figure 2). “Based on this analysis and input from the system’s support team. we decided to re-start the compressor. caused by same source). “Consulting with Prognost support. At this point. they suspected a loose or broken component. But since that bolt is inserted through the top of the connecting rod. it looked normal when doing a visual inspection. There were no audible or visual indications of a mechanical failure. Ring buffer data showed that a step-change impact occurred at three segments (27. Trend data from the system on all crossheads indicated no increase in the minute-to-minute vibration trend prior to the trip. Sequence of events “Our machines had been in service for 24 years without major overhauls. six and seven. MarkWest Javelina maintenance manager Kelly Lockard describes the experience. but none more dramatically than the day in February 2014. providing additional information regarding the condition of motion works components. They explained that the issue was most likely related to the big end connecting rod bearing at the crankshaft. but the increase in amplitude during the next revolution (right side) shows the moment of impact. Log entries reveal the sudden nature of the event. full-waveform data reveals details of the first impact. “The next morning. Each segment has a safety limit value that can be set independently to account for normal events.. was recently completed and it had been back in service for less than a month. Again. six and seven in time domain shows impacts occurring simultaneously (i. We decided to do a thorough inspection during daylight hours the next day. this was the instant in which a connecting rod bolt sheared and hit the top cover. centrifu- n Figure 3. The monitoring system has proven its worth many times. The bolt was snapped completely in two. with only two seconds between the first alert and the shutdown alarm. During operation. compressor C. when a single bolt failure threatened dire consequences. such as high valve impacts or increased vibration events at rod load reversal points. three revolutions before the trip. As was later discovered. we found a broken bolt on the big end con rod of throw five. but nothing was knocking or binding. six and seven. “There were no visible abnormalities. We then barred over the compressor for approximately 30 min. as well as the side covers for the crossheads and top doors. we removed the crankcase side covers to inspect connecting rod bearings for throws five. but the system immediately tripped it again. 50 Compressortech2 . High-speed. indicating that each impact was caused by the same source. each segment as a separate data point. the Prognost-NT system tripped the compressor offline based on two alerts detecting vibration in crossheads five. “So we decided to conduct a torque check on each of the connecting rod bolts and main bearing bolts.

We were just beginning another overhaul at the time. but no definitive cause has been determined for the break. which is the threat to personnel safety. “In terms of productivity. VA LUE -A DDED A PP ROACH (800) 255-0111 51 www. “That meant we had a very limited amount of time before the other bolt broke. gal force caused the top of the bolt to slide out far enough to hit the top cover of the compressor and then drop back into the con rod.” Lockard said. “Of course. That’s the result of our commitment to do whatever it takes to protect our people. MarkWest Javelina has gone 14 years without a lost-time accident.exline-inc. The con rod was determined to be in proper condition. it would take a year for a replacement. The important thing is that we were able to quickly isolate the problem before any additional damage occurred and restore normal operations in less than two days. The costs of materials and labor would have been huge.apart and there was a major wreck of the machine. so we would have been at least three months away from having a compressor available. If it destroyed the crankshaft. an outage for this compressor would reduce plant capacity by a third until we could bring a spare compressor online. we installed a spare con rod and sent out the original one for analysis. A catastrophic failure could put anyone nearby in danger. “The bolt sheared from the end of the con rod that has only two bolts. That cycle repeating itself was the impact noise we heard when we attempted restart.” Benefits of timely shutdown Timely shutdown of the compressor avoided substantial costs and potentially tragic consequences. there was no other damage. We also sent the bolt for analysis. As a precaution. “Because of the immediate shutdown of the machine by the PrognostNT system.com Compressortech2 . Downtime is a factor too. we can’t measure the most serious consequence of all. The extra measure of continued on page 52 GAS COMPRESSION SERVICES n Kelly Lockard shows location of sheared bolt on the connecting rod at MarkWest Javelina. the con rod came JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 TRUSTED FOR OVER 140 YEARS Manufacturing Services On-Site Machining Component Parts Repair Preventative Maintenance Mechanical Services Controls & Ignition Systems Foundation Services Thermal Sprayed Coatings A N E X PE RIE NCED.

however. 1220 L Street.. a minimum of five segments). It must be a high value across a wide span of crank angle degrees to distinguish a significant impact. The shearing of the bolt was literally a single-cycle failure. shutdown is activated after only three revolutions. Still.api. NW. safety we get from our monitoring system is another reason why we have implemented the Prognost-NT system on our newest compressor. n A sheared bolt is shown. www. keeping that side of the big end con rod together. the Prognost-NT system requires high vibration amplitude in a number of segments (typically. vibration values must exceed established safety limits for a preset number of consecutive revolutions to generate a trip alarm. Additionally. shut down the machine). as well as on the sensor on the opposite throw.org.” The state of machine monitoring MarkWest Javelina benefited from the ability of their monitoring system to detect a relatively small fault at an early stage and the speed with which the system was able to take proper action (i. 52 Compressortech2 . Washington. There was no gradual increase or trend to indicate an impending problem. DC 20005-4070. To avoid false trips from brief transient events. For JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 these conditions.e. This additional level of sensitivity shortened the length of time the machine operated with a single bolt. CT2 Reference [1] American Petroleum Institute (API). In this case. The bolt failure incident at MarkWest Javelina demonstrates the value of advanced condition monitoring in detecting the smallest of faults and avoiding the consequences of both routine and catastrophic failures. Conclusions Since being commissioned in 2005 on these four critical compressors. the system was able to shut off power to the electric drive within two seconds of the failure (Figure 3). the Prognost-NT system has provided significant return on investment by detecting multiple failures of drivetrain components at an early stage and successfully interlocking the machine before consequential damages could occur.n This photo shows the big end of a connecting rod with a sheared bolt embedded. the bolt failure resulted in such a strong impact that the system recognized a violation of safety limits on both the throw-five crosshead sensor.

We integrate Murphy’s rugged products as well as the leading PLC brands to create a solution to fit your application. LIFETIME SUPPORT Service after the sale is our priority. PLCS SUPPORTED •Rockwell •GE •Siemens Put our experience to work for you. Call 918-317-2611 or visit www.fwmurphy. Murphy by Enovation Controls has 75 years of experience putting quality panels in the field and keeping them running. our team provides superior. reliable panel systems tailored for the market.com/ct2centurion 01/15 1511621 . INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS As a natural gas certified hazardous area provider. With personnel dedicated to start-up assistance.AUTOMATION IS NOT AUTOMATIC It takes years of application knowledge and experience with leading controls and instrumentation to develop the best solutions. in-field application support and 24-hour technical support. you have a partner to rely on for the life of your Murphy panel.

A. Self-explaining graphs are presented in order to reduce this narrative to a minimum. Contact him at: mando@turbodina. Typical triple performance map. Pd = constant Triple performance map Having power and flow curves together with a VVCP setting as a function of suction pressure is a convenient way to help operators to find the recommended setting for the VVCP. usually in “as new” condition. It also applies to combustion engines. n Figure 1. Typical triple performance map. Field analysts of reciprocating compressors may have difficulties in matching the gas flow obtained from the performance map with the one obtained with an electronic analyzer or a meter. He has a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from Simon Bolivar University and 30 years of experience in rotating equipment engineering. Several reciprocating compressor map formats are available in the energy industry. This is particularly true in the presence of network pressure fluctuations. Another idea behind this paper is to let the reader evaluate the suitability of the map formats presented here. Verbal clarifications will be provided to the reader. maintenance and training. Figures 1 and 2 are the so-designated basic performance maps (BPM) or match available power maps in “as Luis Infante is chief engineering officer for Turbodina C. Venezuela. RPM = fixed. Compressor performance maps are a graphic model of the thermodynamic behavior of the machine. It also applies to field people with nothing but a performance map at hand.com january-february 2015 n Figure 2. Pd = varying. some more practical than others.A Wear Map For Reciprocating Compressors > Volumetric charts provide best picture By Luis Infante corner TECH R eciprocating compressors in oil and gas applications are subject to stringent operating conditions that may lead to accelerated wear on the pressure seals. and methodologies to graphically account for wear in such maps are not abundant in the energy industry. in Caracas. operations. Here we present useful formats that can be of interest for those linked with the field analysis for this type of machinery. and provide feedback if desired. He focuses on reliability engineering for gas compressors. RPM = fixed 54 Compressortech2 . Some operators of reciprocating compressors in remote areas or areas with little support and service availability can have difficulties in finding the correct setting for the variable volume clearance pockets (VVCP) in a performance map because both engine and compressor have accumulated a significant amount of wear.

Resultant flow can be estimated by linear extrapolation based upon the dotted flow line extending from the vertice. Operation outside performance map Figures 3 and 4 help an operator in the field to estimate the performance for an arbitrary VVCP setting. Figure 4 illustrates how to deal with S settings. is between the slopes of the lines at vertices. the result of suction pressure fluctuations. Y’ flow change can be cleared from the proportionality relationship: X/X’ = Y/Y’ Use the same approach for power. continued on page 56 . “What if?” performance map. A sensitive (S) setting can be either a result of an incorrect adjustment from the operator or a result from a pressure fluctuation. line. Let’s suppose the operator sets the VVCP in the S (sensitive) setting shown in Figure 3. the slope of the brown flow line is fairly parallel to the lines at vertices. At its own.new” condition. X. The slope of the brown power n Figure 4. Y and X’ can be determined from the vertical axes scales or with a measuring tape on the graph. Sensitive operating-point estimation. In such a way one can skip the use of a PC on the field. n Figure 3. Variations in Ps and VVCP setting. The key points for the three curves are the vertices where the curves break. Of course the three curves break at the same Ps where the driver becomes overloaded.

when thermodynamic formulae starts losing accuracy due to the amount of hot gas trapped (and ready to mix with cold gas at the end of reexpansion event) at the end of discharge event. Performance map with wear only in the compressor side. the flow and power curves can be easily located by extending a vertical line from the intersection of the “pivoting stick” with the X axis. The blue lines represent the performance with the engine in “as new — 0% wear” condition. The blue lines represent compressor performance in “as new” condition. Next. a 50-point drop in the “as new” suction volumetric efficiency SVE is considered 100% wear. Two industry-accepted thresholds for low SVE do exist: one is 30% (alarm). Performance map with wear only in the engine side. Focus on the vertices of the performance curves. Engine wear map Figure 5 shows the BPM with wear only in the engine side. the behavior of the VVCP curves is acting as a “pivoting stick. respectively. but certainly can be handled with the help of an electronic analyzer. whereas the light blue lines represent the performance with the engine in the “worn out — 100% wear” condition. Wear levels can be conveniently linked to the measured or current lumped volumetric efficiency (VE) of the compressor. whereas the red lines represent performance in “worn out — 100% wear” condition. n Figure 6. Lumped VE can be derived from the electronic analyzer readings and arithmetically elaborated depending on the 56 Compressortech2 . As cold compression drops (from 240 to 150 lb. The wear in the compressor is kept at 0% in this analysis. By having the blue and light blue lines.” one can elaborate a percentage wear indicator for compressor cylinders. january-february 2015 Compressor wear map Figure 6 shows the BPM with wear only in the compressor side. the VVCP setting line rises from the blue line to the light blue one.” with the pivot located somewhere down the Y axis. taking into account the gas handled and the maximum VE attainable by a given cylinder design.n Figure 5. Field operators can quickly update a BPM without any software by knowing/guessing the amount of wear in the engine side. Incidentally. These values should be adjusted in a case-by-case basis. shortening its life by means of high impact velocities against the seat. [109 to 68 kg]). For the purpose of this proposal. The other is 15% (trip) when flow reversal plays a major role in the discharge valve plate dynamic. Such indicator needs further elaboration not provided in this paper. Black lines represent the resultant BPM with 80% wear in the engine side. one can figure out the current VVCP line for any intermediate wear level by just drawing the corresponding VVCP line (let’s say 80% wear) in the appropriate angular location of the “pivoting stick. At its own. the HP and Q curves drop from the blue lines to the light blue ones. By comparing current lumped VE against “as new. Red circles show the location of vertices.” See the black line in the bottom VVCP part of Figure 5. See the red line in Figure 5 for 80% engine wear alone. Wear level on the engine side can be conveniently linked to the measured cold compression (or with elapsed time) in power cylinders. Use this setup also for fuel/ambient deration. corresponding to 0 and 100%.

whatever it is. In a multicylinder stage one can use a (weighted) average. whereas the VVCP curve stays always on the “as new” blue line. In Figure 6. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND TO REGISTER VISIT: WWW. The green line in Figure 6 together with the green circles depicts the location of the vertices in order to sketch arbitrary 80% wear curves for this map.indd 1 january-february 2015 57 1/21/15 8:27 AM 2 Compressortech .ORG/MEETINGS GCA. The blue lines depict the location of the vertices for both the 100% wear engine and 100% wear compressor.number of stages and cylinders.GASCOMPRESSOR. For adjusting both HP and Q curves for a given common wear level (let’s say 80%). Black lines depict the resultant BPM with 80% wear only in the compressor side. Wear of 80% represents a drop of 40 points (80 x 50/100) in the “as new” VE. The performance curves move from the blue lines to the red ones. Performance map with equal wear in both sides. one drops proportionally the vertices down along the vertical red line. The same “pivoting stick” effect as stated above applies here for the three curves. 100% means the lumped VE dropped 50 points from the “as new” value. The vertices for the HP and Q curves drop vertically in location along the red line. In a multistage compressor the key VE is the one associated to the first stage. whatever it is. Equal wear map Figure 7 shows the BPM with equal wear for both engine and compressor sides. Red circles show continued on page 58 n Figure 7.

The objective of this map is to de-rate the BPM for an il- n Figure 10. Performance map with combined wear. if Pd increases to 1450 psig (100 bar). Blue lines show the BPM with both engine and compressor in “as new — 0% wear” condition and also in “worn out — 100% wear” condition. Again. Performance map with combined wear Figure 8 shows the BPM with combined wear (wear map) with the full spectrum of the effect of combined wear on both engine and compressor sides. january-february 2015 58 Compressortech2 . Constant volumetric efficiency map for recips Figures 9 and 10 show head-end constant SVE lines C1 HE in “as new” condition on the bottom portion of the BPM for a four-stage reciprocating compressor. Figure 10 shows a more complete picture with VE lines for different discharge pressures: from Nominal values. one draws another vertical line denoted as “B” starting at a point on the X axis corresponding to 25% differential wear on the engine side. First. Black lines show the resultant BPM. one draws the vertical line denoted as “A.7 cm) HE SVE = 29% (approximate interpolated value) the approximate position of the vertices for the HP and Q curves having 80% wear in the engine and 80% wear in the compressor. The final de-rated BPM is comprised of the black lines. which setting lines are also shown. C and D. By opening VVCP to 13. Nominal values are: n Figure 8.25% (interpolate value.1 bar) Pd = 1350 psig (83 bar) VVCP setting = 3. whereas red lines show the BPM with 100% wear only in the compressor side.25% = 25% toward the engine side (engine has 25% more wear than compressor). Ps = 60 psig (4. SVE yields 18%. The derated vertice for VVCP curve is located on the intersection between B and the X axis. n Figure 9. One finds the approximate slope for the VVCP curve following the grey lines spectrum. Next. A characteristic map for crank-end constant suction volumetric efficiency (DVE) is shown in Figure 11. one draws lines C and D parallel to original HP and Q curves. Light blue lines show the BPM with 100% wear only in the engine side. Secondly.lustrative engine-compressor set that reports 50% wear on the engine side and 25% wear on the compressor. approximate). One finds the derated HP and Q vertices on the intersections between lines B.3 cm. Such a case has a differential wear of 50% .” and drops both the HP and Q curves half way (50%) along A. This cylinder has a VVCP in the head end side. Head-end constant volumetric efficiency map for a recip compressor.8 in. thus increasing the SVE to 29. the VVCP curve is the blue line. (9. Head-end constant volumetric efficiency map for a recip compressor. then the 18% SVE line drops slightly. DVE changes with VVCP setting because interstage pressures change with it.

Percentage wear can then be deducted arithmetically as follows: VE Drop (Wear): Current wear: 100 (41 – 40)/50 = 2% Alarm: 100 (41 – 30)/50 = 22% Trip: 100 (41 – 15)/50 = 52% n Figure 11. The theoretical “as new” value for SVE is 41% according to constant VE lines. percentage wear can be estimated once both current and as new VEs are at hand. Figure 12 shows a multistage compressor (same depicted in Figures 9 and 10) with a VVCP setting of 3 in. Nominal values are: Ps = 60 psig (4. Where 50 is the maximum SVE allowable drop. Measuring wear using volumetric efficiency maps. (29 kg).7 cm) CE SVE = 81.5 bar) VVCP setting = 4. but VE maps provide the analyst with a more complete picture of the cylinder characteristic behavior in a wide operating range. Electronic analyzers commonly provide theoretical VEs. then CE SVE decreases further to 77. But what if this cylinder has some wear in it? How can one determine the percentage of wear from an electronic analyzer reading? Measuring wear with electronic analyzers Electronic analyzers provide volumetric efficiency readings.2 bar). the same as VE maps in Figures 9 through 12. However. Pd) and to match flow readings either from electronic analyzers or meters. a set of four values should be available. CE suction volumetric efficiency map for a recip compressor.8% (interpolate value).5% (interpolate value). In order to estimate the lumped current VE for characterizing wear in a given cylinder. In the event suction pressure increases to 65 lb. The above analysis is valid only for theoretical SVEs greater than 30%. In the event theoretical SVE is less than 30%. then the cylinder is poorly designed. and alarm and trip levels do not apply (would be negative). as measured by an electronic analyzer. CT2 If discharge pressure decreases to 700 psig (48. 30 is alarm level and 15 is trip level as proposed earlier in the compressor wear map discussion.6 cm) and a “current” SVE of 40%. Further refinement of the algorithm suggested in this paper can produce useful tools to account for wear in the reciprocating compressor performance maps. DVE should be used with caution. (11. then CE SVE decreases to 79.9% Conclusion Updating performance maps according to accumulated wear can help field operators and analysts to estimate the recommended VVCP settings due to changing process conditions (Ps. which can help in determining current wear in the comjanuary-february 2015 59 Compressortech2 . as shown. (7. It is apparent from Figure 11 that volumetric efficiency maps. As proposed above. namely: HE SVE HE DVE CE SVE CE DVE n Figure 12.1 bar) Pd = 800 psig (5.6 in. Modern reciprocating compressor modelers can be of paramount help in order to produce the VE maps required to estimate percentage wear in the cylinder. because discharge valve malfunctions can cause flow reversal and can virtually and erroneously increase DVE readings taken with an electronic analyzer.pressor (and engine) side. are capable of estimating accurately to one decimal value. Mathematical manipulation of such parameters in order to obtain a lumped value is a challenge beyond of the scope of this paper.

e Depends on the type of wire mesh or vane pack. Fifth Edition. which can ultimately be a catastrophic failure and loss of process containment. ++ is very high.S. b Limited by droplet size and entrainment onset.nl or andre. For these reasons. continued on page 62 Compressortech2 . Comparison of the characteristics of gas/liquid separators. 12 in Vienna.1. T he working principle of a recip­ rocating compressor is based on the compression of gas.eijk@tno. + is high. Editor’s Note: This paper summarizes a presentation that P.is low.shoeibiomrani@ tno.7.4. Explanation of used symbols: -. API Standard 618. condensation in upstream com­­ponents or excessive cylinder lu­ brication for the lubricated machine. it is desired to design and oper­ ate a reciprocating compressor system JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 to prevent liquid problems in the system. c Slug handling of each device can be improved with a suitable inlet device. Additionally. both with TNO. 0 is moderate. the compressor is incapable of handling the liquid carryover inside the compressor cylinders. Thus.is very low. . but it also liter­ ally “washes away” any protective and lubricating effects of compressor oil and rider materials.nl. which are summa­ rized as follows: • Liquid separator shall be as close as possible to the compressor suction side • Separator efficiency over the oper­ ating flow rates shall be maintained • Sufficient separator volume to handle incoming slugs • Sufficient gas velocity in the line from the separator to the cylinder to minimize liquid dropout • Elimination of low points between the separator and cylinder • Sloping of the piping system • Insulation to minimize heat losses • Heat tracing to maintain the gas tem­ perature at or above the dew point. Due to incompressibility of the liquid phase.Avoiding Liquid Carryover Problems In Recip Compressors > EFRC guidelines offer solutions Type Of Separators Slug Handlingc Droplet Handling Turndown Ratiod Pressure Dropd Fouling Tolerance Vertical Knockout-Drums + - ++ -- ++ Horizontal Knockout-Drums ++ - ++ -- ++ Cyclone With Tangential Inlet + + 0 + ++ Cyclone With Straight Line And Swirler ++ + 0 + 0 Horizontal Vane-Type + + 0 - -/--e Vertical Vane-Type (Inline)a -- 0 0 - -/--e Vertical Vane-Type (Vertical)a + + 0 - -/--e Horizontal Wire Mesha ++ ++ - - -/--e Vertical Wire Mesha 0 ++ - - -/--e Cyclone Packs With Wire Mesha ++ ++ + 0 0/- Cyclone Packs With Vane Pack ++ ++ 0 0 0/- -- ++ ++ ++ -- a a Coalescers b These demisters are combined with a knockout drum. d See Annex A in the full presentation for values of turndown ratio and approximated pressure drop. Contact the authors at: pejman. a n Table 1. made at the Ninth Conference of the European Forum for Reciprocating Compressors on Sept. which may re­ sult in loss of containment (typically head cover dislodged). Liquid carryover to compressor cy­­ l­­ inders could be due to inefficient sep­­aration. Omrani and Andre Eijk. especially for reciprocating compressors. there were no standard and detailed guidelines on how to pre­ vent liquid problems in compressor systems. Until now. This was also concluded from a reli­ ability survey conducted by the R&D group of the European Forum for Re­ ciprocating Compressors (EFRC). It is of general opinion that the API 618 guidelines on preventing liquid carryover problems give too little in­ formation and guidance for this spe­ cific problem. Liquid is harmful to a compressor not only because it imposes signifi­ cant hydraulic forces. 60 There are some design rules indi­ cated in section 7. EFRC decided to start an R&D project on the devel­ opment of guidelines on how to avoid liquid problems in reciprocating com­ pressor systems. the amount and the form of liquid entering the compressor cylinder have an effect on the extent of the damage.

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which are specifically developed for each component of the reciprocating compressor system. It should always be sloped toward the separator. reliable and efficient operation of the complete system for the long term with respect to liquid carryover. flexible or rigid coupling • Dry running and lubricated reciprocating compressors • Compressor systems for all types of gases • Diaphragm compressors • Labyrinth compressors. components such as dampers and piping are not chosen with respect to avoiding liquid problems.org. The guidelines can be applied to various reciprocating compressor systems including: • Horizontal. rules on the design of different parts of the piping are detailed to avoid liquid problems. It is believed that applying these recommendations will considerably reduce the chances of liquid problems in reciprocating compressor systems. • Pulsation dampers • Upstream. JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 62 Compressortech2 . The design of the suction piping up and downstream of the inlet separator is critical. vertical. The design of the discharge piping with respect to liquid problems is less crucial. In these guidelines. CT2 The guidelines can be downloaded from the EFRC website: www. Miscellaneous In this part. Piping In this section. The system components which are covered by these guidelines are: • Separators and their auxiliaries. Operations Since most of the liquid carryover problems are initiated during the start-up or cold restart of the compressor. Heat tracing. Table1 compares the different characteristics of gas/liquid separators. Conclusions Previously. some design and operational guidelines on other system’s components are given to mitigate liquid carryover problems. Thus. there were no engineering guidelines and standards on how to prevent liquid carryover problems in reciprocating compressor systems.The EFRC R&D team conducted a number of interviews and decided that API 618. downstream and interstage piping • Miscellaneous. It is recommended that the EFRC guidelines be used in conjunction with the more detailed guidelines. these devices are ideal spots for liquid to accumulate and lead to liquid carryover. valve unloaders. coolers and compressor recycle operation are discussed. For instance. with or without a gearbox. The first part focuses on the design of compressor components with respect to liquid carryover prevention. Separator This section of the guidelines focuses on the design check and operation of separators with respect to liquid carryover prevention and is one of the most important chapters. could be used to prevent liquid carryover problems. and low points or pockets should be avoided. a procedure was developed to give a step-by-step approach to pre­­­­­vent liquid carryover problems during these conditions. pulsation damper. Engineering rules are given to increase the awareness on the design and operation of different compressor system’s components. should be addressed and explained in the guidelines. gas and diesel engines. but it also must be considered. etc. level control. However. etc. W. For that reason. V-. The team also concluded that during the design of a complete compressor system. Scope of guidelines The EFRC guidelines are divided into two main parts. etc.recip. The following topics are discussed in the separator section: •E  ngineering guidelines for pre-selection of separators and demisters • Rules on how to check the vendor’s design of a separator and its auxiliaries • Additional engineering rules for the design and operation of separators. The second part details the operation of the reciprocating compressor system. the pipe configuration should be designed in such a way to avoid liquid accumulation in low points and blocked points (dead end). cylinder lubrication. more detailed and quantitative rules and guidelines are required for the basic design and operation of reciprocating compressor systems to ensure a safe. such as separator. including insulation of the suction piping. should be considered to ensure the process gas temperature always will be avoid the dew point. safety and efficiency of reciprocating compressors. In general.and Ltype compressor systems • Constant and variable speed compressors • Compressors driven by electric motors. pipe layout with an adequate sloping. Process gas dew point should be calculated accurately at each compression stage and a dew point margin should be considered to account for possible uncertainties in the models and process gas sampling accuracies. guidelines in choosing an appropriate type of a separator.. Thus. together with some internal guidelines from the interviewed companies. the pulsation dampers are not designed to work as a separator. steam turbines. Pulsation dampers This section of the guidelines focuses on the design considerations of pulsation dampers with respect to liquid carryover prevention. That prompted EFRC’s research and development group to develop such guidelines to ensure the longterm reliability. The main function of pulsation dampers is to reduce the pulsations in the system to acceptable levels. Different topics such as compressor valves. each component in the system is discussed in order to decrease the chance of liquid related problems. such as demisters. developing guidelines on how to prevent liquid carryover is essential.

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which are easily stored. (29. calculating errors and re­­­­­­­ porting PASS/FAIL errors. and Canada.S. titled “Proper Vapor Recovery System Compressor Assembly. the 10P Portable Power Panel.hipowersystems.com Cummins Mobile App Cummins Inc. 120/208 V. www.4 m).6 x 0. a manufacturer of powergeneration and power distribution equipment in the U. oil and gas. The 200 A. has debuted the latest product in its line of portable power systems. Other features include one set of male 400 A 16-Series Camloks 3P-5W with snap covers. level surface. to help maintain compliance with industry standards and regulations and improve process and operational efficiency. It also includes a fault code analyzer for Cummins’ electronic engines. (0. which should be placed on a graded. Results are displayed on the large screen and can be documented in 8 GB of user memory.blackmer.com Compressortech2 . A task menu allows simple. up to 1050 A 125/250 V CS6369 receptacles with Lexan covers.com JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 64 GE Measurement & Control has unveiled its DPI 611 handheld pressure calibrator designed for use in the process. The instrument can automate processes to significantly reduce calibration times by running pre-defined procedures. three-touch setup for any pressure test or calibration. making it suitable for industrial and harsh environments. has twice the pressure accuracy and three times better electrical accuracy than its DPI 610 predecessor. color-coded inputs. The video can be found at: www. The free QSOL mobile app is available globally for download in the Apple Store by searching for “QuickServeMobile. HDS and NG series — as part of a field vapor recovery unit can optimize the operational reliability and production of the system while also reducing costly downtime and maintenance.com Instructional Video Blackmer has produced a video designed to illustrate the proper installation of a vapor-recovery unit’s compressor in oil and gas production applications. A “Favorites” facility also enables quick access to frequently used tasks and custom configurations.ge-mcs. and its intuitive screen interface displays a comprehensive application dashboard.3 x 0.FEATURED PRODUCTS Hipower Systems Calibrating Pressure Hipower Systems. 200 A 3P-5W QO load centers and breakers up to 30x single pole 120 V breakers. 10-position panel features an aluminum enclosure. The instrument is the first dedicated pressure calibrator to feature swipe screen touch technology. said the panel is suitable in industrial applications.cummins. www. and measures 12 x 24 x 17 in. and shortcircuit protection.com/ en/psgtv/item/5148-does-your-vru-compressor-vibrate-it-shouldn’t. Raimond Castillo. including 4Sight from GE. parts catalogs and engine data plate information for 15 million Cummins Engine Serial Numbers (ESNs). and then bolting the baseplate to a concrete slab. The DPI 611 integrates with leading calibration and maintenance software. power generation and general engineering sectors.5 kg).” explains how the proper mounting and installation of the various models of Blackmer reciprocating gas compressors — the HD.psgdover. a heavy-duty stainless-steel cage with two casters and a folding handle and corrosion-resistant material. The DPI 611 is twice as efficient at generating pressure. GE said. The four-minute video. The panel averages 65 lbs. providing specific fault code details and analysis. The QSOL mobile app provides access to Cummins’ part options.” www. half the size. depending on the amount and type of receptacles. has released a free QuickServe Online (QSOL) mobile app for Apple iOS devices. Hipower sales director and division manager – Power Distribution. the company said. the company said. www. The company said its video explains the proper way to eliminate vibration in the compressor: anchoring it to a suitable baseplate that is at least four times the weight of the compressor.

and its global fabrication business. “The acquisition of Jamison continues our multifaceted growth strategy and diversifies our customer base as we expand further into adjacent end markets and product categories. a native of Buenos Aires. as well as a sales office in Australia. Koziner was named vice president with responsibility for the Americas Distribution Services division.tfhudgins. T. Founded in 1947 and headquartered in Houston. T. Hudgins CEO Ted Edwards said. Mexico. marine and industrial engine businesses. Hudgins pro­ vides engineered products and serv­­­ice solutions that improve the reliability.com 1/22/15 8:20 AM 2 Compressortech . Koziner P. a Houston-based provider of engineered pipeline and filtration products used in a wide range of gas and fluid-handling applications including strainers.F.F. separators. The operations of Exterran Partners will not be affected by the transaction.F. Expertise. www. T. was named group president for Cat’s Construction Industries group. Hudgins Inc. efficiency and performance of compressors.com 713-682-3651 sales@tfhudgins. has named Pablo Koziner as vice president and president of San Diego. has completed the acquisition of Jamison Products. Hudgins’ first acquisition and adds complementary engineered products and broadens the company’s customer base. Incorporated TF_Hudgins. effective Jan. he became Power Systems regional manager in Monterey. joined Caterpillar’s Legal Services di­­­­ vision in 2001 with­in the organization’s Latin American Commercial division. California-based Solar Turbines. Caterpillar/Solar Turbines Caterpillar Inc.indd 1 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 65 SERVICE TRAINING Technology. filter vessels.” T. Hudgins. with operations in Latin America and parts of the Eastern Hemisphere.PRIME Movers continued from page 47 currently owned by Exterran Holdings. Visit www. Hudgins has lo­­­­­ca­­­tions in Houston. engines and other industrial machinery. petroleum.F. and was responsible for Caterpillar’s electric power. Koziner. cur­­­­rently a Cat vice president and the president of Solar Turbines. Hudgins T. Results. the company said. New Orleans and Venezuela. In 2013. 1. EverythingLubrication COMPRESSOR LUBE SYSTEMS OIL MIST SYSTEMS GREASE SYSTEMS From new systems and maintenance to training and repairs. pig launchers and closures. Tom Pellette. get everything you need for automatic machine lubrication from one resource with 67 years of experience. SpinCo’s businesses will consist of Ex­­­­­­terran Holdings’ current international con­­­­tract operations and aftermarket services businesses. effective Jan. The addition of Jamison is T. Koziner previously served as vice president with responsibility for Cat’s Americas Distribution Serv­­­­­ices Division. In 2005.F.F.tfhudgins. 1.F.com/lube ©2015 T.

Each vessel is powered by a slowspeed. At the dry docks.6 tph (6. The addition of a third compressor stage (the Mark I had only two compressor stages) allows the process to condensate the BOG at higher pressure and temperature. rated at 6. The repair and maintenance process is scheduled in cycles.0 T/hr). coupled with earlier removal of compression heat. prevents wasted gas and preserves the environment by not venting the BOG. (315 m) Al Ruwais was one of the first liquefied natural gas tankers to enter the N-KOM dry docks in 2012.6 x 106 cu. all maintenance has to be concluded within a 20day window by teams specialized in servicing the different equipment in- january-february 2015 stalled on board. The system is based on the operation of a BOG compressor and a nitrogen compander. The BOG reliquefaction system is the Mark III type from Hamworthy Gas Systems.2 bar) in the fourth stage of the integrally geared compander to create the low temperatures necessary to reliquefy the BOG inside the cold box. the cold gas is transferred from 66 the BOG into the N2 loop. the major equipment aboard the vessels is regularly serv­ iced at the two N-KOM dry docks of the Erhama Bin Jabel Al Jalahma Shipyard in the port of Ras Laffan. About 300 workers from different companies are simultaneously on the job at each dry dock. Germany. After each compression stage. which has the pressure Compressortech2 . three-stage compressor that can convert up to 160 Mcfh (4500 m3/hr) of BOG from 15 to 116 psi (1.ft.n The 1033 ft. which is also responsible for the maintenance of their equipment. Maintaining Boil-Off reliquefy gas aboard Gas Compressors > Units Q-Flex LNG carriers By Roberto Chellini T he State of Qatar owns 15% of the world’s liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. Fifteen LNG carriers were repaired and maintained during the last seven months of 2013. In order to minimize their maintenance times. The nitrogen is then expanded to 162 psi (11. water-cooled heat exchangers remove the heat generated from the compression process. are the main reasons for 15% reduction in power consumption is reduced by some 15% (Hamworthy patent).000 m3). both supplied by Atlas Copco Gas and Process Division of Cologne. including 31 QFlex vessels all rated at 7. Before compression. This effect. (216. now part of the Wärtsilä Group.03 to 8 bara). two-stroke diesel and has a plant on board to reliquefy all boiloff gas (BOG) produced during voyages. The system. The compander compresses ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­290 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Mcfh (8200 m3/hr) of nitrogen from 145 to 638 psi (10 to 44 bar) in three stages. The Mark III process features an integrally geared.

The machines were inspected months before the dry-dock work and orders were placed for spare parts that were not yet available. The expander stage is mounted on the same gear as the three nitrogen compressor stages and recovers part of the energy needed to drive the whole compander. The team arranged for transportation to Qatar of the specialized tools and spare parts vital to the project’s success. Atlas Copco’s specialized crew working aboard the Q-Flex typically consists of four members. Service crews aboard the vessels from Asian or European ports complete roughly half of the servicing before they even enter the dry docks. The service team inspects both the nitrogen compander and BOG compressor drivetrains. which lose elasticity over time. Increasing and decreasing the nitrogen filling — and thus the compressor mass flow — is the basic control mechanism for the cooling capacity of the nitrogen cycle. which is vented from the BOG collecting vessel before it is piped to the cryogenic tanks. They check for wear and tear. Sensors and transmitters provide the required input signals to a programmable logic controller that is part of the main vessel control system and enables 0 to 100% capacity control. the Atlas Copco Aftermarket Service team began preparing for an ongoing job intended to cover the entire lifespan of the fleet. Those parts were shipped to the yard or stored aboard the vessels coming in for repair. explained Ahmed Nour. “We started performing maintenance work en route. necessary to flow back to the LNG tanks. augmenting the work done at the shipyard. The technicians also replace dry and liquid-film seals. each plant is equipped with two BOG compressors and two nitrogen companders. In 2012. The reliquefied gas is free from its nitrogen content. The BOG compressor capacity is adjusted automatically in accordance with the boil off to be recovered. ensuring that BOG doesn’t escape the closed loop system.n The Atlas Copco BOG compressor and nitrogen compander play key roles in transforming boil-off gas into a liquid so it can be recovered for storage on the ship. In order to comply with International Gas Code criteria requiring full redundancy of all the on board equipment. CT2 n A technician inspects the alignment of a gear train in the Mark III compressor. These seals play an essential role onboard the LNG vessel.” he said. Atlas Copco aftersales consultant in Dubai. including the bearings. swapping out or servicing components when necessary. This is standard equipment from Atlas Copco. mounted on skids with their auxiliaries placed on deck and hooked up to the rest of the plant in a plug-and play system. normally working on one line with the other in standby. january-february 2015 67 Compressortech2 . They separate the cooling process from the oil system. before the first Q-Flex entered the yard. rotors and gears that enable them to perform high compression.

7 2 3 4 6 Scheduled Downtime Visit www. Puzzlemaster Starting Anew Z I R A P E Z I G R E N E H S B E Y T N P I E R G R C I A E I W U S D G E R N R K D N E C S A N L V A S T I I C I H E E G Q E N A C T I V A T E E N N B Z S S D N R W O O E R T A M T Z O E V O U I E O V E F V A V Y I N P C I M L I R P B R M G S E A S L A A I F T M V P G I D R P B Y T R T E T Y T Z P O I N E O G A U I R F O A E P M T E E C W V N R R I T F J E H R L J K U B C T W S C J E A N E E R P T E T A M I N A A A E N C A T A S R E R X F C O T I N Y R A R O P M E T N O C E U R F A N E M D A K N U E T A E R C O V B E L O F S S R L D L K G B M N N U V I P S L O K R E T I E T A L U M I T S E V G H D I C C U T H C Q I U L A V I R R A B K Q X E A I S X A S X G N I N E P O L D A W N I O C K E H I J D E C W I L K A Q C T C N E K A W A T H X M A H K A R B Activate Animate Arise Arrival Ascend Awaken Birth Begin Commence Contemporary Create Dawn Embark Energize Establish Exhilarate Fresh Galvanize Inaugurate Inception Initiate Innovate Invigorate Kickoff Latest Launch Modern Onset Opening Originate Present Recent Recharge Recondition Recover Refresh Refurbish Rekindle Renew Renovate Replenish Restore Resurgence Revamp Revitalize Revival Start Stimulate Surface Update .compressortech2.com/scheduled-downtime/ for answers 5 F K N P O E G R A H C E R U V X T B G H DJ Slater.

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5) 4. easily packaged field compressor units. given the “hotter” fuel often encountered in gas field duty.1963 28 GMXH 450 82.1969 89 GMXC 500 110 (82) 4. the CLA.10 2. eight.3.10 2. That same year. [76 to 152 mm]). increasing the power rating to 55 hp (41 kW) per cylinder.6.000 hp (346.1969 10 All spark-ignited natural gas engines. With pure turbocharging and running at 450 rpm. 2 Power cylinders: 9.1956 75 GMXD 450 66 (49) 4.8. engines went to C-B/Southern. a 5 in.5 hp (61. It was immediately successful. including 40 produced by licensees.3.34 bar). for packaging by Southwest Industries. giving the same 1. high-speed. were produced over a 23-year period.5 (61. In 1954. The 400 rpm GMX was produced in four-.4 1946 .4. raising the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) from 60 to 63 psi (4.000 hp (346. this led to the engine tending to “run hot. as GMX production ended in 1969. except for one diesel. increasing use of packaged highspeed (900 and 1000 rpm) gas engine compressor units in the 400 to 1200 hp (298 to 895 kW) range. with the advent of the Turboflow high-compression head design for the GMV. Of Power Throws3 No. Texas. it was possible to match the speed of a wide range of proven Climax.13 to 4. a C-B subsidiary.3. By that time.and 10-cylinder versions. CT2 (394 mm) pistons. the designers were somewhat more courageous. mostly for gas-treating plants. the GMXH was introduced.5 hp (46 kW) per cylinder. 1000 rpm separable in 1958. 50 hp (75 vs.3.5 (61. giving the largest 12-cylinder models an output of 990 hp (738 kW).5.Cornerstones Of Compression story continued from page 72 C-B GMX Integral Gas Engine Compressor Ratings & Production (1946-1969) Engine Model1 Rated Speed (rpm) Power/Cylinder2 (hp [kw]) No. ROIline and Caterpillar industrial gas engines to provide compact.5) 4.4. 37 kW) per cylinder.4.8. running at 500 rpm with a lower BMEP to maintain the same power rating as the GMXF.6. A total of 40 GMXFs were produced from 1957 to 1969.8. Of Compressor Throws Production Years Quantity Produced4 GMX/TF 400 50/55 (37/41) 4. Almost all GMXs were used in gas production and treating applications. GMXD was produced in four-. already in 1957. separable compressor.5) 4.12 2. This was not the wisest decision. plus some benefit from the higher combustion air density due to the exhaust turbine backpressure.010 kW). Later.6. with 75 units produced through 1956.010 kW). This extra combustion air supply.5 kW) per cylinder. A total of only 10 GMXH units were sold. Dresser-Clark had fielded the first 1000 rpm. Production of this model totaled 89 units. The most popular model in the series. at prices substantially lower than the classic integral units.6. In 1958. higher than any other GMX model.4 1954 . especially with the “hot” fuel often prevalent in gas production fields. for packaging.5 1954 . An infamous GMX version was the series-turbocharged GMXC. the GMXE was introduced. six. covering a range of 300 to 600 hp (224 to 447 kW). (248 mm) bore x 10.5 1958 .6.10 2. and six of those appear to have been replaced by alternate units.5 (61.5 in.5 1957 . low-cost. Turbocharging was first applied to the GMX as a supplementary air system. To get an exact 2:1 power ratio versus the GMV.3.25 scavenge-to-power piston ratio as the GMV.8 2. 1 enced many field problems. In 1948. increasing the rating to 61. allowed a GMXF rating of 82. (267 mm) stroke.and eightcylinder versions. the GMXA was introduced with a gear-driven blower. Most of the early engines went to Houston. and a total of 247 units were produced through 1953.10.” and it experiJANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 71 Compressortech2 .5 1958 . six-. but what was new was the realization that by going to shorter strokes (3 to 6 in.8 2.5 in.10 2.6.5 hp (61. the GMXA’s engine speed was uprated to 450 rpm.1969 389 GMXF 450 82. totaling 389 units through 1969.8. In 1967. however.5) 4. resulting in the GMXD rated at 66 hp (49 kW) per cylinder.5 (46. with turbo discharge air being delivered to the GMXD scavenging air headers. Ironically.1953 247 GMXA 400 62. introduced in 1958.4. the engine was conservatively rated at 82.3. The separable concept was not new. taking advantage of the lessons learned in the development of the pure turbocharged GMVH and recognizing the thermal loading limitations of the GMX.3.4. It was rated at 110 hp (82 kW) per cylinder. (267 mm) stroke.6. However. (127 mm) stroke. but never was able to develop or acquire a competitive 1000 rpm gas engine driver line to match it until decades later.8.75 in. C-B had introduced the AM compressor. with the notable exception of one GMX-8 diesel that was built in 1947 for refrigeration service. 100 vs. Waukesha. made continuing the GMX-type units uneconomic. A total of 878 GMX units.1969 40 GMXE 500 82. equivalent to 464.5 kW) per cylinder at 450 rpm. 3 Compressor throws: 10.6 1967 . that technology was also applied to the GMX. GMXC production was stopped in 1963 with only 28 units listed as sold over a five-year period. 4 Total production = 878 units/464. integral with the crossheads. engine-driven.

the use of high-speed engines as drivers for the skidded compressors was ruled out. such as a GMV derivative in C-B’s case. Compressor throws also had a 10. C ornerstones Of Compression n The C-B GMX was a “half-sized” GMV for skid-mounting on a steel skid with cooler. skid-mounting anything bigger than a 400 hp (298 kW) GMV-4 was not very practical. auxiliary equipment and all interconnecting piping and wiring to meet the need for “small. (267 mm) stroke. a need emerged for smaller. Cooper-Bessemer GMX Integral Gas Engine medium-speed integrals met the early Compressor > Smaller. Therefore. The GMX power cylinder bore and stroke were 9. the early GMXs had 15.5 in. well-proven. In all. the GMX emerged — a half-sized GMV.75 x 10. integral engine compressor units. ranking as one of the most prolific models of its kind. which could be quickly installed at small producing fields at remote locations. The engine was a geometrically equivalent. and the specific power output was increased by 225% over a span of three decades. (248 x 267 mm). complete with cooler. designed and put into production immediately after the end of the War in early 1946.5 in. For the scavenging air supply. Since compressor speeds higher than 500 rpm were JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2015 unheard of for oilfield equipment at that time. with the same master rod/ articulated power rod geometry and crosshead scavenging air piston configuration as the GMV. portable compressor units that could be quickly installed at producing fields in remote locations. During World War II. These requirements could best be met by packaging the engine and compressor on a steel skid. Although some GMVs were packaged on skids. and the logical choice was therefore smallersized. scaled-down GMV. skidded packages prior to the emergence of high-speed separable units By Norm Shade T he Cooper-Bessemer (C-B) GMV integral gas engine compressor has been characterized as one of the most advanced engines of its day.5 in. demand for portable. 4660 GMV engines were produced. continued on page 71 72 Compressortech2 . The basic design was in continuous production for 55 years. giving both models exactly the same piston speed. auxiliary equipment and all interconnecting piping and wiring.” portable compressor units.

www. Our compressors are severe-duty engineered and built in-house for exceptional durability and reliability. They’re part of our full line of surface production equipment. owned and operated for over 50 years. Since you need to get busy compressing gas. And you can count on our people as much as our equipment. With Dragon they don’t. We offer 200HP and 380HP units featuring the best components. including Ariel compressors with Caterpillar or Cummins engines. from tanks to separators to VRTs.Gas compression operations can’t wait and can’t stop.S. . All rights reserved. Top-quality gas lift compressors. allow us to compress this message. Priced right and available. Make it happen. U.dragonproductsltd. just as we’ve done with all our equipment for 50 years.com — 1-800-231-8198 © Copyright 2015 Modern Group Inc.

G3304 NA G3304B NA G3306 NA G3306B NA G3306 TA G3306B TA G3306 TAA G3306B TAA G3406 NA G3406 TA KTA19 G8. 1411584 Tell us what engine you want mapped next.com/ct2EICS All trademarks are property of their respective owners. . Go to: www. Install Murphy’s turnkey Engine Integration Control System on your engine for a productive year of increased performance.9 – (Coming Soon) VRG 330 VRG 330-CF– (Coming Soon) Learn more about EICS at www. even more are on the way.3 G5.fwmurphy.fwmurphy.com/MapMyEngine to add it to our list 01-15 With an extensive list of engines already mapped.