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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

Chapter 7 Dynamic stability analysis – I – Equations of motion and estimation of stability derivatives - 6 Lecture 27 Topics

7.17 Derivatives due to change of β

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

7.17.1

7.17.2

7.17.3

C

C

yβ

nβ

Clβ

7.18 Derivatives due to change of p

7.18.1

7.18.2

7.18.3

C

C

yp

np

Clp

7.19 Derivaties due to change of r

7.19.1 C

7.19.2 C

7.19.3 Clr

nr

yr

7.20 Lateral control derivatives ( C

nδr

,

C

lδa

,

C

nδa

and

C

lδr

)

7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

Example 7.1

7.17 Derivatives due to change of β

These derivatives include C yβ , C

nβ

and

C

lβ

7.17.1 C yβ

The major contribution to this quantity is from the vertical tail. From

Eq.(5.13):

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

(Y)

v.tail

= -

1

2

2

ρV SC

v

Lαv

α

v

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

(7.146)

Noting that α v = β+σ, η v = (½ ρV v 2 )/ (½ ρV 2 )and C y = Y / (½ ρ V 2 S) , Eq.(7.146)

gives:

C

yβ

= - η

v

S

v

S

C

Lαv

(1+

It may be added that

dσ

dβ

)

QSC

yβ

Y =

β m

(7.147)

(7.148)

Remark:

Reference 1.8b, chapter 7 mentions that wing and fuselage also have small

contributions to C yβ (see also Appendix ‘C’).

7.17.2 C nβ

From Eq.(5.21):

C

nβ

= (C

nβ

)

w

+(C

nβ

)

f,n,p

+V

V

η C

v

Lαv

(1+

dσ

dβ

)

(7.149)

Details regarding estimation of various terms in Eq.(7.149) are given in Sections

5.3 to 5.6.

Note that

N

=

QSb C

nβ

β I

zz

7.17.3 Clβ

From Eq.(6.2):

C'

lβ

= (C'

lβ

)

w

+(C' )

lβ

f,n,p

+ (C'

lβ

)

vt

(7.150)

(7.151)

Details regarding estimation of different terms in Eq.(7.151) are given in section

6.5 to 6.8.

Note that L'

=

QSb C'

lβ

β I

xx

7.18 Derivatives due to change of p

These derivatives include C yp , C np and

C

lp

(7.151a)

7.18.1 C yp

Consider an airplane rolling with angular velocity ‘p’. A component of the

airplane which is at a distance ‘z’ from the x-axis would be subject to a linear

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

velocity ‘pz’. This would induce a sideslip angle β = pz / u 0 . This sideslip angle

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

would result in a side force. Since, the sideslip angle depends on the distance ‘z’

from the x-axis, the contribution to C yp is mainly due to the vertical tail. When

subjected to this sideslip, the vertical tail would produce a side force. The vertical

location of this side force would depend on Z v , l v and the angle of attack of the

airplane in the undisturbed flight; Z v is the distance of the a.c. of vertical tail

above of c.g.

Reference 1.8b, chapter 8 gives the following expression:

C

yp

Note

(C

yp

)

v.tail

that Y =

p

= 2

(Z

v

cos α -

l

v

sinα)

b

QS bC

yp

2mu

0

C

yβv

(7.152)

(7.153)

Remark: C yp is generally small and neglected.

7.18.2 C np

The main contribution to this quantity is from the wing in the form of adverse

yaw. As explained in section 5.8.1:

= -

C

L

8

=-

pb

(C )

n

adverseyaw

dC

n

2u

C

L

0

Hence,

C

Note :

Remark:

np

N

=

p

d(

pb

2u

0

)

8

=

2

QS b C

np

2I

zz

u

0

(7.154)

(7.155)

(7.155a)

Reference 1.8b gives a procedure which includes contributions due to

vertical tail (see also Appendix ‘C’).

7.18.3 Clp

Main contribution

Eq.(6.22):

C' to this quantity is from the damping due to wing. From

lp

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(C' )

l

damp

=

2C

Lαw

p

u Sb

0

b/2

0

cy

2

dy

Hence,

C'

lp

=

C'

l

(

pb

2u

0

)

Note that:

'

L

p

=

=

4 C

Lαw

Sb

2

b/2

0

2

QS b C

'

lp

2I

xx

u

0

c y

Remarks:

2

dy

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

(7.156)

(7.157)

(7.158)

i) The horizontal tail and vertical tail also make minor contributions to C’ lp

(see Appendix ‘C’).

ii) Reference 1.1, chapter 3 gives the following formula for C’ lp in terms of

C Lαw and geometrical parameters of the wing.

C'

lp

=

C

- 12

1+3λ

Lα

1+ λ

7.19 Derivatives due to change of r

These derivatives include C yr , C nr and C’ l r

(7.158a)

7.19.1 C yr

When an airplane has an angular velocity in yaw (r) , then a component of

the airplane at a distance ‘x’ from the c.g. experiences a side word velocity of ’rx’.

This results in side slip of (rx/u 0 ) leading to side force and consequently C yr . The

major contribution to C yr is due to the vertical tail. It is evident that the vertical tail

has a side ward velocity of r l v and side slip angle Δ β of ( -r l v / u 0 ).

This would produce a side force:

Y = - C Lαv Δβ Q v S v

Hence, C

=

C

Lαv

(

l

v

r

u

0

)Q

S

vv

y QS

= C

Lαv

(

l v

r

u

0

)η

v

S

v

S

S

(7.159)

(7.160)

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

Let, C

 

=

C

y

rb

, Then, C

yr

 

(

2u

0

)

 

Noting that, (C

yβ

)

v.tail

- C

Lαv

C yr

= -2(C

 

)

l

v

yβ

v.tail

b

Note that:

Y

r

Q S b C

= yr

2 mu

0

Remark:

 

yr

=2C

Lαv

η

v

S

v

,
S

η

v

S

v

l

v

S

b

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

(7.161)

(7.162)

(7.163)

Y r is generally small and in Eq.(7.88) it appears as (u 0 -Y r ). Hence Y r is often

neglected.

7.19.2 C nr

As mentioned above when an airplane has an angular velocity ‘r’ the

vertical tail experiences a sideslip angle Δβ = (-l v r / u 0 ) . The side force would

also produce a yawing moment given by:

N=C

Lαv

Δβ Q S = -C

v

v

l

v

Lαv

Or C

n

Let,

=

N

qSb

= - C

Lαv

C

nr

=

C

n

(

rb

2u

0

)

,

(

l

v

r

u

0

Then, C

nr

= -2C

η V

v

Lαvv

l v

b

l

r

v

u

0

)η V

vv

Note that :

Remark:

N

r

=

2

QSb C

nr

2I

zz

u

0

Q S

v

l

vv

(7.164)

(7.165)

(7.166)

(7.167)

(7.168)

When the airplane has a rate of yaw, the two wing halves experience

different velocities (refer to the explanation of Clr in the next subsection) and

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hence, experience different drags. This would cause a small contribution from

wing to C nr (see appendix ‘C’).

7.19.3 Clr

Consider an airplane experiencing a positive rate of yaw i.e. right wing

back. Then, a section of the right wing at a distance ‘y’ from the x-axis would

experience a velocity ‘ry’ or relative wind of (u o -ry). Consequently, the dynamic

pressure is lower on the right wing. For the same reason, the dynamic pressure

is higher on the left wing. The lifts on the two wing halves are different, thus

producing a positive rolling moment. Strip theory (as explanied in subsection

6.10.2) can be used to obtain an approximate estimate of Cl and Clr . In addition

to this the side force on the vertical tail also contributes to Clr . Ref.1.1, chapter 3

gives the following approximate formula:

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

C'

lr

=

C

L

l

Z

vv

-2

4

bb

C

yβtail

(7.168a)

Reference 1.8b gives an improved estimates. See also Appendix ‘C’.

Note that:

L'

r

=

2

QSb C'

lr

2I

xx

u

0

7.20 Lateral control derivatives:

(7.169)

Expressions for the derivatives C nδr and Clδa are given in Eq.(5.31a) and

(6.27) respectively. The cross derivatives viz. C nδa and Clδr can be obtained from

Ref. 1.1 and 1.12.

7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives

The expressions for the lateral stability derivatives are summarized in

Table 7.7; Table 7.6 presents the list of symbols.

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Y

=

QSC

yβ

2

(m/s )

Y =

QSC

yp

(m/s)

 

Y =

QSC

yr

(m/s)

β

m

p

2mu

0

   

r

2mu

0

 

N =

β

QSbC

I

zz

nβ

(s

-2

)

N

p

=

2

QSb C

2I

zz

u

0

np

(s

-1

)

N

r

=

2

QSb C

2I

zz

u

0

nr

(s

-1

)

 

L' =

β

QSbC'

I

xx

lβ

(s

-2

)

L'

p

=

2

QSb C'

2I

xx

u

0

lp

(s

-1

)

L'

r

=

2

QSb C'

2I

xx

u

0

lr

(s

-1

)

Y

δa

=

QSC

m

yδa

 

2

(m/s )

Y

δr

=

QSC

m

yδr

 

2

(m/s )

 
 

N

δa

=

QSbC

I

zz

nδa

(s

-2

)

N

δr

=

QSbC

I

zz

nδr

(s

-2

)

 
 

L'

δa

=

QSbC'

I

xx

lδa

(s

-2

)

L'

δr

=

QSbC'

I

xx

lδr

(s

-2

)

 

Table 7.7 Lateral stability derivatives

Remarks:

i) For expressions for C yβ , C nβ , and C’ lβ see

respectively.

Eqs. (7.147), (7.149) and (7.151)

ii) For expressions for C yp , C np and Clp . See Eqs.(7.152),(7.155) and (7.157).

iii) For expressions for C yr , C nr , Clr . See Eqs.(7.162),(7.167) and (7.168a).

Example 7.1

A general aviation airplane has the following characteristics.

W = 12232.6 N, C D = 0.035 + 0.091

C

2

L

,

C

Lα

= 4.44 rad

-1

,

x

cg

/ c

= 0.295

Wing :

S = 17.09 m 2 , b = 10.18 m,

C

LαW

= 4.17 rad

-1

,

x

ac

/c = 0.25

,

c

= 1.74 m ,

Fuselage :

C

mα

fuselage

= 0.212 rad

-1

Power :

C

mα

power

H.tail : S t = 4.73 m 2 ,

= 0.195 rad

-1

C

Lαt

= 3.43 rad

-1

,

η

t

= 0.9 ,

η

t

= 0.9 ,

l

t

= 4.63 m ,

Obtain the values of C

Xα

,

C

Zα

dε = 0.438 dα

,

,

C

mα

C

mα

and

C

53.64 m/s at sea level.

mq

in a flight at a velocity of

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

Solution :

Before calculating the desired quantities, the items like C L , C D ,

evaluated below.

Flight is at sea level, hence,

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

C

mα

and

C

Dα

are

ρ = 1.225 kg/m

3

dε

dα

 

C

L

C

=

2W

2

=

2×12232.6

2

= 0.406

ρSV 1.225×17.09×53.64

2 = 0.050

D = 0.039+0.091×0.406

From Eq.(2.65)  x x  cq ac C =C -   mα Lαw
From Eq.(2.65)
x
x
cq
ac
C
=C
-
Lαw
cc

+ C

mα

f,p

Lαt

 

1-

-V η C

= 4.17[0.295 – 0.25] + 0.212 + 0.195 -

4.73

4.63

×

17.09

1.74

×0.9×3.43 1-0.438

= 0.1877 + 0.407 – 1.2777 = - 0.683 rad -1

C

=

2C C

L

Lα

Dα π Ae

= 2×0.406×4.44×0.091 = 0.328

The desired quantities are evaluated below.

From Eq.(7.117)

C

Xα

= C

L

-C

Dα

= 0.406-0.328 = 0.078

From Eq.(7.121)

C

Zα

= -

C

Lα

+C

D



= - 4.44+0.05 =

4.49

From Eq.(7.142a)

l dε t C = -2C ηV mα  Lαt H c dα 4.73 4.63
l
t
C
= -2C
ηV
Lαt
H
c dα
4.73
4.63
4.63
= 2×3.43×0.9×
×
×
17.09
1.74
1.74
From Eq.(7.133a)
l
t
= -2C
ηV
=C
/
C mq
LαtH
c
 
 
= - 5.3 / 0.438 = -12.1

×0.438 = -5.3

Flight dynamics –II Stability and control

Answers:

C

Xα

= 0.078;C

Zα

= 4.49;C

mα

= -5.3; C

mq

= 12.1

.

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara