Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
Chapter 7 Dynamic stability analysis – I – Equations of motion and estimation of stability derivatives  6 Lecture 27 Topics
7.17 Derivatives due to change of ′β ′
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
7.17.1
7.17.2
7.17.3
C
C
yβ
nβ
C lβ
7.18 Derivatives due to change of ′p′
7.18.1
7.18.2
7.18.3
C
C
_{y}_{p}
_{n}_{p}
C lp
7.19 Derivaties due to change of ′r′
7.19.1 C
7.19.2 C
7.19.3 C′ _{l}_{r}
_{n}_{r}
_{y}_{r}
7.20 Lateral control derivatives ( C
nδr
,
C
lδa
,
C
nδa
and
C
lδr
)
7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives
Example 7.1
7.17 Derivatives due to change of ′β ′
These derivatives include C _{y}_{β} , C
nβ
and
C
lβ
7.17.1 C _{y}_{β}
The major contribution to this quantity is from the vertical tail. From
Eq.(5.13):
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
(Y)
v.tail
= 
1
2
2
ρV SC
v
Lαv
α
v
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
(7.146)
Noting that α _{v} = β+σ, η _{v} = (½ ρV _{v} ^{2} )/ (½ ρV ^{2} )and C _{y} = Y / (½ ρ V ^{2} S) , Eq.(7.146)
gives:
C
yβ
=  η
v
S
v
S
C
Lαv
(1+
It may be added that
dσ
dβ
)
QSC
yβ
Y ^{=}
β m
(7.147)
(7.148)
Remark:
Reference 1.8b, chapter 7 mentions that wing and fuselage also have small
contributions to C _{y}_{β} (see also Appendix ‘C’).
7.17.2 C _{n}_{β}
From Eq.(5.21):
C
nβ
= (C
nβ
)
w
+(C
nβ
)
f,n,p
+V
V
η C
v
Lαv
(1+
dσ
dβ
)
(7.149)
Details regarding estimation of various terms in Eq.(7.149) are given in Sections
5.3 to 5.6.
Note that
N
^{=}
QSb C
nβ
β I
zz
7.17.3 C′ _{l}_{β}
From Eq.(6.2):
C'
lβ
= (C'
lβ
)
w
+(C' )
lβ
f,n,p
+ (C'
lβ
)
vt
(7.150)
(7.151)
Details regarding estimation of different terms in Eq.(7.151) are given in section
6.5 to 6.8.
Note that L'
^{=}
QSb C'
lβ
β I
xx
7.18 Derivatives due to change of ′p′
These derivatives include C _{y}_{p} , C _{n}_{p} and
C
lp
(7.151a)
7.18.1 C _{y}_{p}
Consider an airplane rolling with angular velocity ‘p’. A component of the
airplane which is at a distance ‘z’ from the xaxis would be subject to a linear
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
velocity ‘pz’. This would induce a sideslip angle β = pz / u _{0} . This sideslip angle
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
would result in a side force. Since, the sideslip angle depends on the distance ‘z’
from the xaxis, the contribution to C _{y}_{p} is mainly due to the vertical tail. When
subjected to this sideslip, the vertical tail would produce a side force. The vertical
location of this side force would depend on Z _{v} , l _{v} and the angle of attack of the
airplane in the undisturbed flight; Z _{v} is the distance of the a.c. of vertical tail
above of c.g.
Reference 1.8b, chapter 8 gives the following expression:
C
yp
Note
(C
yp
)
v.tail
that Y ^{=}
p
= 2
(Z
v
cos α 
l
v
sinα)
b
QS bC
yp
2mu
0
C
yβv
(7.152)
(7.153)
Remark: C _{y}_{p} is generally small and neglected.
7.18.2 C _{n}_{p}
The main contribution to this quantity is from the wing in the form of adverse
yaw. As explained in section 5.8.1:
^{=} ^{}
C
L
8
=
pb
(C )
n
adverseyaw
dC
n
2u
C
L
0
Hence, 
C 
Note : 

Remark: 
np
N
=
p
d(
pb
2u
0
)
_{8}
^{=}
2
QS b C
np
2I
zz
u
0
(7.154)
(7.155)
(7.155a)
Reference 1.8b gives a procedure which includes contributions due to
vertical tail (see also Appendix ‘C’).
7.18.3 C’ _{l}_{p}
Main contribution
Eq.(6.22):
C' to this quantity is from the damping due to wing. From
lp
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(C' )
l
damp
=
2C
Lαw
p
u Sb
0
b/2
0
cy
2
dy
Hence,
C'
lp
=
C'
l
(
pb
2u
0
)
Note that:
'
L
p
^{=}
=
4 C
Lαw
Sb
2
b/2
0
2
QS b C
'
lp
2I
xx
u
0
c y
Remarks:
2
dy
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
(7.156)
(7.157)
(7.158)
i) The horizontal tail and vertical tail also make minor contributions to C’ _{l}_{p}
(see Appendix ‘C’).
ii) Reference 1.1, chapter 3 gives the following formula for C’ _{l}_{p} in terms of
C _{L}_{α}_{w} and geometrical parameters of the wing.
C'
lp
^{=}
C
^{} 12
1+3λ
Lα
1+ λ
7.19 Derivatives due to change of ′r′
These derivatives include C _{y}_{r} , C _{n}_{r} and C’ _{l} _{r}
(7.158a)
7.19.1 C _{y}_{r}
When an airplane has an angular velocity in yaw (r) , then a component of
the airplane at a distance ‘x’ from the c.g. experiences a side word velocity of ’rx’.
This results in side slip of (rx/u _{0} ) leading to side force and consequently C _{y}_{r} . The
major contribution to C _{y}_{r} is due to the vertical tail. It is evident that the vertical tail
has a side ward velocity of r l _{v} and side slip angle Δ β of ( r l _{v} / u _{0} ).
This would produce a side force:
Y =  C _{L}_{α}_{v} Δβ Q _{v} S _{v}
Hence, C
=
C
Lαv
(
l
v
r
u
0
)Q
S
vv
y QS
= C
Lαv
(
l v
r
u
0
)η
v
S
v
S
(7.159)
(7.160)
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
Let, C 
= 
C 
y rb , Then, C 

yr 

( 
2u 0 ) 

Noting that, (C yβ ) v.tail  C 
Lαv 

C yr = 2(C 
) 
l v 

yβ 
v.tail b 

Note that: 
Y r 
Q S b C ^{=} yr 2 mu 0 

Remark: 
yr
=2C
Lαv
η
v
S
v
,
S
η
v
S
v
l
v
S
b
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
(7.161)
(7.162)
(7.163)
Y _{r} is generally small and in Eq.(7.88) it appears as (u _{0} Y _{r} ). Hence Y _{r} is often
neglected.
7.19.2 C _{n}_{r}
As mentioned above when an airplane has an angular velocity ‘r’ the
vertical tail experiences a sideslip angle Δβ = (l _{v} r / u _{0} ) . The side force would
also produce a yawing moment given by:
N=C
Lαv
Δβ Q S = C
v
v
l
v
Lαv
Or C
n
Let,
=
N
qSb
=  C
Lαv
C
nr
=
C
n
(
rb
2u
0
)
,
(
l
v
r
u
0
Then, C
nr
= 2C
η V
v
Lαvv
l v
b
l
r
v
u
0
)η V
vv
Note that :
Remark:
N
r
^{=}
2
QSb C
nr
2I
zz
u
0
Q S
v
l
vv
(7.164)
(7.165)
(7.166)
(7.167)
(7.168)
When the airplane has a rate of yaw, the two wing halves experience
different velocities (refer to the explanation of C′ _{l}_{r} in the next subsection) and
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
hence, experience different drags. This would cause a small contribution from
wing to C _{n}_{r} (see appendix ‘C’).
7.19.3 C′ _{l}_{r}
Consider an airplane experiencing a positive rate of yaw i.e. right wing
back. Then, a section of the right wing at a distance ‘y’ from the xaxis would
experience a velocity ‘ry’ or relative wind of (u _{o} ry). Consequently, the dynamic
pressure is lower on the right wing. For the same reason, the dynamic pressure
is higher on the left wing. The lifts on the two wing halves are different, thus
producing a positive rolling moment. Strip theory (as explanied in subsection
6.10.2) can be used to obtain an approximate estimate of C′ _{l} and C′ _{l}_{r} . In addition
to this the side force on the vertical tail also contributes to C′ _{l}_{r} . Ref.1.1, chapter 3
gives the following approximate formula:
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
C'
lr
=
C
L
l
Z
vv
2
4
bb
C
yβtail
(7.168a)
Reference 1.8b gives an improved estimates. See also Appendix ‘C’.
Note that:
L'
r
^{=}
2
QSb C'
lr
2I
xx
u
0
7.20 Lateral control derivatives:
(7.169)
Expressions for the derivatives C _{n}_{δ}_{r} and C′ _{l}_{δ}_{a} are given in Eq.(5.31a) and
(6.27) respectively. The cross derivatives viz. C _{n}_{δ}_{a} and C′ _{l}_{δ}_{r} can be obtained from
Ref. 1.1 and 1.12.
7.21 Summary of lateral stability derivatives
The expressions for the lateral stability derivatives are summarized in
Table 7.7; Table 7.6 presents the list of symbols.
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Y 
= 
QSC 
yβ 
2 (m/s ) 
Y = 
QSC yp 
(m/s) 
Y = QSC 
yr 
(m/s) 

β 
m 
p 
2mu 0 
r 
2mu 0 

N = β QSbC I zz nβ 
(s 2 ) 
N p 
= 
2 QSb C 2I zz u 0 
np 
(s 1 
) 
N 
r 
= 2 QSb C 2I zz u 0 
nr 
(s 
1 
) 

L' = β QSbC' I xx 
lβ 
(s 2 ) 
L' 
p = 
2 QSb C' 2I xx u 0 lp 
(s 1 ) 
L' 
r 
= 2 QSb C' 2I xx u 0 lr 
(s 
1 
) 

Y 
δa = 
QSC m yδa 
2 (m/s ) 
Y δr 
= QSC m yδr 
2 (m/s ) 

N δa 
= QSbC I zz nδa 
(s 2 ) 
N δr = 
QSbC I zz 
nδr 
(s 2 
) 

L' δa 
= QSbC' I xx 
lδa 
(s 2 ) 
L' δr 
= 
QSbC' I xx 
lδr 
(s 2 
) 
Table 7.7 Lateral stability derivatives
Remarks:
i) For expressions for C _{y}_{β} , C _{n}_{β} , and C’ _{l}_{β} see
respectively.
Eqs. (7.147), (7.149) and (7.151)
ii) For expressions for C _{y}_{p} , C _{n}_{p} and C′ _{l}_{p} . See Eqs.(7.152),(7.155) and (7.157).
iii) For expressions for C _{y}_{r} , C _{n}_{r} , C′ _{l}_{r} . See Eqs.(7.162),(7.167) and (7.168a).
Example 7.1
A general aviation airplane has the following characteristics.
W = 12232.6 N, C _{D} = 0.035 + 0.091
C
2
L
,
C
Lα
= 4.44 rad
1
,
x
cg
/ c
= 0.295
Wing :
S = 17.09 m ^{2} , b = 10.18 m,
C
LαW
= 4.17 rad
1
,
x
ac
/c = 0.25
,
c
= 1.74 m ,
Fuselage : _{}
C
mα
_{}
fuselage
= 0.212 rad
1
Power :
_{}
C
mα
_{}
power
H.tail : S _{t} = 4.73 m ^{2} ,
= 0.195 rad
1
C
Lαt
= 3.43 rad
1
,
η
t
= 0.9 ,
η
t
= 0.9 ,
l
t
= 4.63 m ,
Obtain the values of C
Xα
,
C
Zα
^{d}^{ε} = 0.438 dα
,
,
C
mα
C
mα
and
C
53.64 m/s at sea level.
mq
in a flight at a velocity of
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
Solution :
Before calculating the desired quantities, the items like C _{L} , C _{D} ,
evaluated below.
Flight is at sea level, hence,
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
C
mα
and
C
Dα
are
ρ = 1.225 kg/m
3
dε
dα
C
L
C
=
2W
2
=
2×12232.6
2
= 0.406
ρSV 1.225×17.09×53.64
2 = 0.050
D = 0.039+0.091×0.406
+ C
mα
f,p
Lαt
1
V η C
= 4.17[0.295 – 0.25] + 0.212 + 0.195 
4.73
4.63
×
17.09
1.74
×0.9×3.43 10.438
= 0.1877 + 0.407 – 1.2777 =  0.683 rad ^{}^{1}
C
=
2C C
L
Lα
Dα π Ae
= 2×0.406×4.44×0.091 = 0.328
The desired quantities are evaluated below.
From Eq.(7.117)
C
Xα
= C
L
C
Dα
= 0.4060.328 = 0.078
From Eq.(7.121)
C
Zα
= 
C
Lα
+C
D
=  4.44+0.05 =
4.49
From Eq.(7.142a)
×0.438 = 5.3
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Flight dynamics –II Stability and control
Answers:
C
Xα
= 0.078;C
Zα
= 4.49;C
mα
= 5.3; C
mq
= 12.1
.
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Dept. of Aerospace Engg., IIT Madras
9
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