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Norway: Challenges of globalisation

(Clip from Movie: Thirteenth Warrior)


Øyvind Kalnes,
Lillehammer University College, March 15., 2010
A letter from an Englishman abroad
”There is no reason to help these people! These
dirty, ignorant people produce far too many
children.
They do not want to work, and they are
undisciplined. They misuse all the opportunities
they are given.
Every time they get any money, most of it is spent on
alcohol and is just squandered.
All the help we give them just encourage laziness
and another opportunity for them to have even
more children”

Britisk industrialist visiting Norway 1885,


quoted in Stan Burkey, People First
Reading list
From curriculum
• Maagerø, E. og Simonsen, B. (2008), Norway: Society
and Culture. Portal, Kristiansand
– Chap. 8. Norwegian Politics
– Chap. 9. Norway in a Global Context

From recommended readings


• Hylland Eriksen, T. (1993),
– Being Norwegian in a shrinking world
– National identity in a changing world.
• http://tinyurl.com/ygo8jkr
Plan
INTRO: Some words on globalisation and
the nation state
1. Politics – A small state in a big world
2. Culture – An imagined community
3. Economy – A lucky third world
country?
A tiny, new state

• Independence
1905
• 4,8 million
inhabitants
• In the Arctic
periphery
Globalisation
• A process of qualitative and
quantitative change
– Dependencies and identities across
borders
– Compression in time and space

• A paradox:
– Integration into a world system
– Fragmentation of national and local
systems

• Challenges:
– Complexity and unpredictability
– Freedom and opportunities
Awareness of globalisation
On the globalisation index

Source: Foreign Policy


Challenges for the nation state
POLITICS

ECONOMY CULTURE
Norwegianization …

(Clip from Simpson’s Episode: Coming to Homerica)


1. Politics
A small state in a big world?

Strategies:
• Neutrality
• Security alliances
• Build an international
order based on norms

Recommendations?
Phase One: 1905-40
NEUTRALITY AND NORMBASED
ORDER:

“… we will have no foreign policy …


our goal must be to stay outside those
combinations and alliances, which
may drag us into wars…."

Norways first foreign minister,


Jørgen Løvland, in his inaugural speech to the
Parliament in 1905:
Phase Two: 1940-1990
Norway is a tiny country in the world

Observation from Lars Korvald,


former prime minister

”The timeless wisdom” of realism:


All states are created equal, but some states
are more equal than others

German occupation 1940-45


and Cold War

nato:
WESTERN SECURITY ALLIANCE
AS PROTECTION AGAINST SOVIET
Phase Three: 1990-
A new context?
• End of Cold War
• 911/War on terror – non-state
enemies
• Civil wars/state breakdown
• European Union

 Dilemmas
NATO: Out of area operations against New enemies …. Where?
who …?
In- or outsider in European integration
UN: Humanitarian aid, peacebuilding &
intervention and peacebuilding.
Multilateralism.
The dual basis of foreign policy

Interests Ideals
Maximize national Human rights, peacebuilding,
security and wealth
third world development
Alliances
Multilateralism
IDEALISM:
A ”humanitarian superpower”?

(Clip from interview with Bob Geldof on TV2


RELIEF, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE
.. We have no other wish in
our participation in
Tradition of relief/solidarity inherited from : international politics than to
• Christian lay movement contribute to peace and co-
• Labor movement operation among the peoples
of the world
• Liberal humanitarianism

Increasing state financing/co-operation


 The voluntary aid complex
 About 1% of GNP

Peace / human rights entrepeneurs:


• Small country with no colonial past
• Mix of private and government initiatives (Oslo-
Agreement, Nansen Dialogue)
• Aid (AND Nobel Peace prize?) as incentive Former foreign minister
Halvard Lange
Ideals and interests
Hand in hand or … hand in glove

Idealism is important … it mirrors our moral duty


and economic ability to help
… which is fully compatible with Norwegian
interests
Erna Solberg, leader of
the Conservatives 1. Small countries benefit from strong
international regimes
2. Get positive PR
3. Door-opener for Norwegian businesses
4. Self-interests of voluntary aid-complex
5. Interests (security, economic) prevail
when in conflict with ideals
A Western country

1. Politics – Liberal democracy, NATO, EU/EEA


2. Economy – Market economy, OECD, EEA, WTO
3. Culture – Christian humanitarian
2. Culture
An imagined community?
CULTURE:
• Learned behaviour
• A deposit of collective
knowledge accumulated
over generations
• Collective programming of
the mind
Culture creates
Imagined communites
• A cultural group is an
imagined community
• You feel part of a group, even
though you have never met –
and never will meet – most of
the other individuals in that
group
• You imagine ”others” that are
not part of the group

(Benedikt Anderson)
The
TheState
State(1905)
(1905)
An
Anobjective
objectivepolitical
political
form
formof
oforganizations,
organizations,
based
basedon
onthe
theright
rightto
touse
useforce
force

The nation state as


overlap between the two

The
TheNation
Nation(1945?)
(1945?)
AAcultural
culturalconstruction,
construction,based
based
on
onsubjective
subjectiveidentity
identity

Benedikt
BenediktAnderson:
Anderson:
Imagined
Imaginedcommunites
communites
“Othering” of Norwegianness

(Clip from Bones Episode: Mayhem on a Cross http://xrl.in/4szc


Types of nationalism

Community based on
1. Civic rights and duties
2. Ethnic heritage

Constructed by:
1. Elites (top-down)
2. Masses
Norwegian nation-building
•Recent sovereignity
•Lacked nobility
•Weak city bourgeoise
•Scattered local
communities

Norwegianness an urban middle-class project (about


1850-1920) based on national romantic ideas
Watch “Birkebeinerrennet” 20. March!
The True Norwegian?
• Independent farmers close
to nature as ideal (to this
day – at least on the
surface)
• Strong egalitarian
individualism and
consensus-orientation
• Designing national
costumes and national
language
• “Rediscovering” and writing
history of glorious common
past
Globalisation
• Immigration leads to
cultural diversity at home
• Norwegian Multinational
Companies operate in
diverse foreign cultures
• Foreign MNCs in Norway Cultural adaptation,
defense or defeat?
• Travelling and global media
 the glocalized?

(Clip of Sami band BLACKSHEEPS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ss9qgo11aU


Immigration
Change in immigration patterns

http://www.ssb.no/innvandring/
Reasserting ethnic national identity?
Eriksen: Most likely when FELT
threatened from the outside:

• Heroic national resistance against


German occupation during World
War II
• Pre-Christian “Norse” nostalgia
• National window-dressing at
Lillehammer Olympics 1994
• Revival of “traditional” clothing,
handicraft, music
Constructing Norwegianness

Clip of Eurovision winner Alexander Rybak


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8JRtGMBUz0
almost, but not quite ….

Lifestyle:
• Global brands in clothing
• Internet / satelitte TV
• Foreign films, music
• McDonalds
• Americanization of language

Is a Norwegian ethnic identity therefore a fake?


Eriksen: No, it exists as long as people believe in it,
remember IMAGINED COMMUNITIES
Ethnic nationalism
in a multicultural society?
Who should be included in “the
nation” and on what terms?

• Ethnocentrism:
Ethnocentrism The belief in the
superiority of one’s own culture. “The
other” should learn and adjust.
• Cultural relativism:
relativism Each culture is as
good as the other culture. Acceptance
of a multinational state

Or … redefine “the nation” as civic, rather


than ethnic
• Conditioned by acceptance of duties to
the community (pay taxes, obey laws,
military service …)
3. Economy: Dualism
Global free trade Welfare state:

• Merchant shipping • Huge public sector


• Power consuming • Redistribution of
Or .. ?
industries wealth
• Fish and timber • Protection of farming
• Oil (and later) gas and food industries

Market access and Government regulation


competitiveness and taxation