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Confidential Psychological Report

Names have been changed

For Professional Use Only

Prepared By:

Debra Bassett
EdS Student in School Psychology
University of Northern Colorado

June 28, 2011


For Professional Use Only



Jane Smith


Debra Bassett, School Psychology Ed.S. Student

9 years, 7 months

Third grade (completed)


Jane was referred as practice for the examiner. Janes mother is concerned about Janes reading
fluency and comprehension. Jane appears to experience difficulties in word decoding and
completing vocabulary and comprehension tasks when they require her to read and respond to
questions (versus orally presented tasks). Janes mother believes the nature of the problem is
minor and Janes dislike of reading may have contributed.
Interviews with :
Cindy S., Janes mother: 6/16/2011:
Cindy briefly talked about the family environment, stating that her and John are happily
married and have a good relationship with both Jane and Grant (Janes half brother). John
has good employment which calls him to travel often, but Cindy describes a happy home
situation even when one member is away. Cindy and John are in good health and very active
in their childrens lives and in their church. Cindy describes Jane has having good health
with no major problems, illness, or accidents during her childhood. She describes Jane as
very upbeat, eager to please, funny, and a very positive little girl. She talked about Janes
close group of friends and how they have nice neighbors (even friends across the street for
Jane to play with). Cindy doesnt believe that Jane exhibits emotional tension, fear, or a lack
of confidence. Instead, she said Jane seems very comfortable in many situations, has an
overall positive attitude and can express her feelings well. Cindy did mention that Jane has
experienced bullying at her school. They have met with the bully and her family to discuss
the problem, but things havent really improved. Cindy doesnt notice any unusual behavior
patterns in Jane. She describes Janes development as average academically and above
average emotionally.
Since beginning school, Jane has attended the same Christian private school. Cindy says
that Jane always excelled at her subjects as seen through grades and teacher comments until
she reached this year (third grade). Now, Jane has had difficulty with reading and she
participates in a special reading group at school. She says that the teacher encourages Jane to
tackle words (i.e. sounding them out loud), but that Jane struggles and is hesitant to try.
Its been frustrating for Cindy when Jane now brings home vocabulary worksheets with a D
or F because she can ask Jane those same vocabulary words and Jane knows the answer.
Cindy has also watched TV news stories with Jane and Jane can comprehend the information

when asked about it a couple days later. However, Jane struggles with reading
comprehension tasks in class. Because of the skills she sees at home, Cindys unsure why
Jane is having trouble at school. When Cindy asks Jane about her D or F assignments, Jane
just says that was silly of me. Cindy doesnt believe Jane stresses about it (almost to a
fault). Cindy tries to encourage Jane to read more, saying that she doesnt really like to read
but at times, cant put a book down when the subject is interesting.
Cindy plans to get a tutor this summer for Jane and said it would be helpful to know what
the tutor can work on. Shes also curious about what the assessments reveal because she
knows Jane doesnt really want to be in the special reading group anymore.
Jane on 6/16/2011:
Jane enjoys school and just finished the third grade at ABC Christian School. Jane does well
in science but math and social studies are difficult for her. Jane said multiplication facts are
difficult for her because she cant memorize them. Jane was generally positive about school,
saying that she liked seeing friends and running home to tell her mom about her day. Jane has 4-5
good, close friends who are her same age. She describes one girl as her best friend and says shes
amazing. Jane participates in a church youth group and enjoys playing soccer. She likes

reading mystery books, drawing her family, and going on vacations. She truly enjoys anything
having to do with Justin Beiber and wishes to meet him someday.
She discusses feeling angry when friends or other kids gossip about her. She doesnt feel
angry at her parents but describes very rare occasions in which her brother can make her angry.
She could recognize her behaviors that make others mad or times she felt guilt or jealousy. She
likes her personality, described as funny and fun, but doesnt like that she can get angry after a
long day or when shes tired. Jane said she gets sad when shes tired and identifies her attitude as
one thing shed like to change about herself. Specifically, shed like to be able to change her
anger to happiness. She repeatedly described a student who has bullied her since kindergarten
and reports feeling angry, sad, and a desire to get even when this individual has embarrassed her
or encouraged her to make others feel bad. She describes bullying as the worst thing that has
happened to her. She has positive early memories of family events (i.e., Easter, weddings) and
hopes someday to be a hair dresser or teacher. She admits that death of a loved one is on her
mind a lot. She says that she hasnt experienced death much but is aware someone (i.e. grandma
and grandpa) will die at some point.
Jane discussed herself and her feelings openly, taking time to really think about the question.
General themes included a close attachment and love for her family and friends, as well as
negative feelings surrounding the bully at school. She had trouble remembering negative
memories with her family (i.e. times of anger), but could easily recall detailed memories of when
she was bullied.
Review of records: Janes attendance records indicated consistent, good attendance. She has
no unexplained absences or discipline problems. Previous report cards indicate a 3.25 GPA (on a
scale of 4.0). At this time, there were no CSAP records available.

Classroom observations: Jane was observed during her reading group. She was very social,
talking with the other students around her and waving across the room. She appeared
comfortable overall in the group, but at times, distracted. She would look up at the clock and
play with her nails on a couple occasions. She only raised her hand 50% of the time when
questions were asked, but her answers were accurate. When she read aloud, she appeared to
struggle on decoding words. She would attempt to sound them out quietly (whispering) until the
teacher would ask her to speak up or would provide the word to her. These occasions seemed to
embarrass her (i.e. face turned red, kept head down). Her teacher indicated that her behavior
during observation was typical.
Tests administered:
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Addition (WISC - IV)
Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI-Survey)
Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2);
Parent Rating Scale (PRS-C)
Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2);
Child Self Report Scale (CSR): administered but not scored at this time
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland II)
Parent/Caregiver Rating Form
Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbances (DAP: SPED)
House-Tree-Person (HTP)
Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD)
Child Depression Inventory
Feedback session: None to date. (No formal feedback provided since this assessment was
conducted for training purposes).
Family History
Jane is the second child of John and the first child of Cindy S. Cindy and John are currently
married and have a very close relationship with Jane. Cindy is a stay-at-home mother and John
works in sales and finance, requiring frequent travel. Jane has an older step-brother who is
fourteen years old. He primarily resides with his biological mother but also spends considerable
time at Janes residence. Jane and her brother share a close relationship, described by Cindy as
communicative, affectionate and expressive. Parental disciplinary procedures include firm
talking and removing privileges (on rare occasions). Janes family resides in the suburbs, with
sports and church activities available. There is no history of significant mental illness or
cognitive deficits in Janes family.
Medical History
Jane had normal prenatal, natal and postnatal medical history. Her recent physical
examination took place on October 10, 2010 and her general health was good. Her overall
medical history is good, with no surgeries or noteworthy illnesses. Her developmental
milestones were normal.

Prior Educational History

Jane has attended Preschool through third grade (current year) at ABC Christian school. She
has not repeated or skipped any grades. Cindy describes this school as adequate, but having
limited resources. During the school year, Jane was part of a special reading program (Reading
Naturally) for help with comprehension and fluency. Jane admitted not enjoying the special
reading group she attends, saying that she reads better than the other students and wants to rejoin
friends in the normal reading program.
All test scores are reported at the 95% confidence intervals (CI) unless otherwise indicated. It is
likely that Janes true score will fall somewhere between the stated lower to upper classification
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
Verbal Comprehension
Word Reasoning
Working Memory
(mean=10; SD=3)
Digit Span
Letter-Number Sequencing
Scaled Score
Perceptual Reasoning
Working Memory
Processing Speed
Full Scale

WISC-IV Score Summary

Scaled Score
Perceptual Reasoning
(mean=10; SD=3)
(mean=10; SD=3)
Block Design
Picture Concepts
Matrix Reasoning
Picture Completion
Scaled Score
Processing Speed
(mean=10; SD=3)
(mean=10; SD=3)
Symbol Search

IQ Index
(mean=100; SD=15)
112 (S)

Scaled Score
(mean=10; SD=3)
6 (W)
Scaled Score
(mean=10; SD=3)
14 (S)






Low Average
High Average



*Note: A statistically significant difference was observed between Janes working memory, processing speed, verbal
comprehension, and perceptual reasoning scores. This discrepancy renders the calculation and interpretation of her
full scale IQ score (FSIQ) meaningless.
*Note: (S) indicates an area of strength for Jane and (W) indicates an area in need of growth.

Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (BASI-Survey)
For Totals: MEAN = 100
Standard Score
Math Computation
Math Application
Math Total


Language Mechanics
Reading Total



Low Average
Low Average
Low Average
Well Below
Low Average








<3.0/ -8.0


<3.0/ -8.0

Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED)



evaluation is:
Not indicated

Childrens Depression Inventory- Self Report

A. Negative Mood
B. Interpersonal Problems
C. Ineffectiveness
D. Anhedonia
E. Negative Self-Esteem
Total CDI Score

Standard Deviation=10


Slightly below average
Slightly below average
Slightly below average
Slightly below average

Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2): Parent Rating Scale
T-Score Mean 50; Standard Deviation=10
Externalizing Problems
Conduct Problems






90% Confidence


(BASC-2 PRS continues)

Internalizing Problems
Adaptive Skills Composite
Social Skills
Activities of Daily Living
Functional Communication









Behavioral Symptoms Index


90% Confidence


90% Confidence



90% Confidence Interval


Daily Living


d Score


e Interval








Play & Leisure
Coping Skills


















*Note: (S) indicates an area of strength for Jane




(Vineland-II continues)

Adaptive Behavior Composite


Maladaptive Behavior Index

v-scale Score



Adaptive Level




95% Confidence Interval





Theme Overview Scale

Popular Pull
Complete Meaning
Available Resources
Support Self-Feeling


Support Other-Feeling


Support Other- Help

Reliance on Others
Limit Setting




Problem Identification
Resolution Scales
Simple Closure or Easy
Easy & Realistically
Positive Outcome
Constructive Resolution

*Note: (S) indicates an area of strength for Jane and (W) indicates an area in need of growth.


Mean=50;Standard Deviation=10

Emotion Scales

70 (PCS)

Unresolved Outcome
Non-adaptive Outcome
Maladaptive Outcome
Unrealistic Outcome
Unusual or Atypical Responses
Unusual- Refusal, No Score, Antisocial
Aytpical Categories

71 (PCS)

Outcome Scales

76 (PCS)


61 (S)
39 (W)
32 (W)

*Note: (PCS) indicates an area of potential clinical significance. This means Janes answers were not average
compared to the general population and these areas may indicate something significant for Jane and require further
attention and/or inquiry.

Janes cognitive abilities were measured with the WISC-IV. The following paragraphs will
discuss her performance in various cognitive areas and an interpretation of her scores.
Verbal Abilities:
Janes verbal comprehension and expression ability fell in the average range and ranked
in the 39th percentile (WISC-IV VC=96; 39th percentile). This suggests that her performance
exceeded that of 39 percent of children her own age in the general population. It is likely (95%
confidence) that her verbal abilities fall into a range from low average (89) to average (103).
Verbal comprehension refers to her ability to listen to a question, draw upon learned information,
reason through an answer, and express thoughts verbally. Janes performance varied among
verbal tasks. Janes highest score was on a task requiring her to demonstrate knowledge about
how two items or concepts are similar. She also did well on tasks in which she would
demonstrate general information knowledge. Her lower score was on a task that also involved
general principles or situations, but specifically required her to utilize comprehension skills.
Jane also had more difficulty with a task where she identified an item/concept based on clues
given by the examiner. Another task required Jane to demonstrating vocabulary knowledge
when questions were verbally presented by the examiner. She scored average on this task. In
connection to the classroom, these scores may imply that Janes reading comprehension isnt
limited by general information knowledge. Comprehending verbally presented information is
also not largely limited by vocabulary knowledge. In other words, when she is told a story
verbally, she has appropriate vocabulary knowledge to answer certain comprehension questions.
She doesnt struggle with receiving the verbal information or retaining factual information in her
long-term memory. At times, though, she may have some trouble when asked to draw meaning or
inferences from verbal discussion, readings, or lectures.
Janes verbal skills are expressed through receptive, expressive and written
communication. Janes abilities in types of communication are discussed below in the
social/emotional interpretation section.
Nonverbal Ability:
Janes perceptual reasoning fell in the low average range and ranked in the 21st percentile
(WISC-IV PR=88; 21st percentile). It is likely (95% confidence) that her perceptual reasoning
abilities fall into a range from low average (81) to average (97). Perceptual reasoning measures
her ability to reason using visual cues in the environment; to examine, think about, and solve
novel tasks without using words. Relative to her own overall performance on these tasks, Jane
scored the highest on tasks requiring her to complete missing sections of a picture matrix and
name the essential part missing from a picture within the time limit. One of Janes lower scores
was on a task that looked at her ability to select one picture among 2-3 picture rows in order to
compile a group with similar characteristics. Jane also experienced difficulty in a task requiring
her to replicate a geometric pattern using blocks. This area is considered a weakness for Jane

and her performance on this task is seen in 10-15% of children her age in the general population.
Janes scores imply that Jane is able to take in visual information from her environment, think
about the information, and complete school tasks. However, she may need to work harder when
working with novel tasks and solving problems using mainly visual cues, versus verbal
information. Within the classroom, for example, Jane would benefit from hearing
comprehension questions explained verbally in addition to a visual representation, such as a story
graph or mobile.
Working Memory:
Similarly to Janes verbal skills, her working memory falls in the average range and ranks
in the 34th percentile (WISC-IV WM=94; 34th percentile). This suggests that Janes performance
exceeded 34 percent of children her own age in the general population. It is likely (95%
confidence) that Janes working memory abilities fall into a range of low average (87) to average
(102). Janes working memory ability involves the ability to attend to verbally presented
information, hold information in her immediate awareness, and then be able to use that
information within a short period of time. Relative to her performance on working memory
tasks, Jane scored the highest on tasks requiring her to listen to the examinee read a sequence of
letters and numbers and then recall the information. Janes lower scores involved tasks asking
her to repeat number verbatim, as state or in reverse order. The final task required her to
mentally compute math problems in a time limit and her performance fell in the average range.
From her performance, it appears that Jane doesnt have a weakness between long-term memory
and short term memory capabilities. With one of the items, she had trouble holding the
information long enough to apply the correct action to the information, but her other scores are
normal. Difficulties in working memory could affect comprehension as well as decoding or
reading fluency. However, this performance doesnt raise a flag that she is struggling in working
memory. It may be helpful to note that if Jane experiences anxiety or stress during a school task,
her working memory could be affected and she may find it difficult to hold onto the information
and apply it as needed. However, if anxiety is an issue, Jane can learn ways to reduce her
anxiety during various situations.
Processing Speed:
Janes processing speed falls in the high average range, ranked in the 71st percentile, and
is considered a personal strength (WISC-IV PS=112; 79th percentile). This suggests that Janes
performance exceeded 79th percent of children her own age in the general population. It is likely
(95%) that her Processing Speed abilities fall into a range from average (102) to superior (120).
Processing speed involves Janes ability to scan, discriminate and process visual information to
complete a task. Janes highest score was on a task requiring her to copy a symbol that paired
with a shape or number according to a reference key. This area is considered a strength and her
performance is seen in only 5-10% of children her age in the general population. Her lower
score was on a task requiring her to scan a group of symbols for a target symbol and indicate if
the symbol was present or absent. The final processing speed asked Jane to scan pictures and
mark target items within a time limit. Her performance suggests that Jane doesnt experience
trouble with concentration, attention or short-term memory according to this sample of behavior.
She doesnt appear to struggle with visual-motor coordination or discrimination. With regard to
reading and other academic tasks, her performance implies that she is able to concentrate on the
letters and words and discriminate different letters from one another.

Janes academic achievement in reading and math were measured with the BASI-Survey and her
performance is summarize and interpreted in the following paragraphs.
In the overall area of reading, Janes achievement scores are below average and rank in
the 7th percentile (BASI-2 Survey RT= 78; 7th percentile). This suggests that Janes performance
exceeded 7 percent of children her age in the general population. Based on this behavior sample,
there is a discrepancy between her reading abilities and where she should be for other children
her age and grade. Reading, in this case, included Janes performance in vocabulary, language
mechanics, and reading comprehension. Each of these skill areas were assessed by Jane reading
a question and selecting an answer from a multiple choice format. There was a time limit on
completion of the reading task. Janes lowest score was in vocabulary, which involves
identifying word meanings within context and in isolation, recognizing synonyms and antonyms,
and analyzing verbal analogies. On this task, her performance was well below average. Her
performance was low average in reading comprehension tasks, which required her to read a
passage and answer questions about the main idea, event sequence, and setting. This skills area
includes identifying cause and effect relationships, predicting outcomes and drawing
conclusions. Jane scored in the average range on the final task involving language mechanics.
Language mechanics measures her knowledge of grammar and syntax rules, such as
capitalization, punctuation, verb form and tense agreement.
These scores imply that Jane is experiencing difficulty with vocabulary when she is
required to read the words, versus hearing them verbally as with other tasks discussed above.
Figuring out the words (decoding) may be placing additional demands on her working memory
as she works to sound out the letters, hold onto the sound, and connect the word sound with her
current vocabulary knowledge. This process can make it challenging for Jane to comprehend the
text since she is using her resources to figure out the word and then must simultaneously
remember the story details. This achievement test supports the concern that Jane is experiencing
difficulties in comprehension. Since much of the work in school involves students reading
assignments, drawing conclusions and working to gain meaning from the information provided,
Janes difficulties in reading may affect her ability to understand information and complete
assignments in various subject areas.
Similarly, Janes overall math abilities fell in the low average range. However, her
performance ranked slightly higher in the 13th percentile (BASI-Survey MT=83; 13th percentile).
This suggests that her performance exceeded 13 percent of children her age in the general
population. It is likely (95% confidence) that her math abilities fall into a range from below
average (76) to average (93). Math abilities involve Janes performance on math application and
math computation tasks. As with the reading tasks, the math tasks are presented in a test booklet
with answers available in a multiple choice format. There is a time limit to complete the
questions. Janes math application ability fell in the low average range. Math application

involves using arithmetic operations to solve mathematical word problems. These problems may
involve interpreting data from graphs or use measurement principles (i.e., length, volume). Janes
math computation ability fell in the low average range. Math computation requires her to apply
skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to whole numbers, fractions and
decimals. She was also asked to simplify numerical expressions and equations.
These scores imply that Jane is having difficulty in math computations and applying her
knowledge of arithmetic operations to story problems. Jane mentioned in her interview that she
struggles with math class. She may have approached this task with some level of anxiety,
recognizing that this is a subject that is often challenging for her. Its important to note that on
previous tasks, discussed above in working memory, Jane performed arithmetic operations on
questions presented verbally. On this task, she scored in the average range. This suggests that
difficulties in math are not due to her working memory. It also suggests that she understands the
concept of arithmetic language (i.e. what less than means). The previous task on arithmetic
was also timed, as was the math application task, but the previous task was delivered verbally
versus in a test booklet. Since these tasks required that Jane read the question and select the
correct written response, her difficulties in reading may have affected her ability to gather
necessary information to complete the math task.
Janes social and emotional abilities were measured with the following: Behavior Assessment
System for Children (Second Edition), Parent Rating Scale (BASC-2; PRS-C), Vineland
Adaptive Behavior Scales (Second Edition), Parent Rating Form (Vineland II); Draw A Person:
Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP: SPED), House-Tree-Person (HTP),
Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD), Child Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Roberts-2. The
following paragraphs will discuss Janes abilities and the interpretation of the information
gathered by the various assessments.
Externalizing Problems: Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems
Janes tendency toward externalizing problems fell in the average range and ranked in the
38th percentile (BASC-2 PRS, EP= 46; 38th percentile). This suggests that Janes responses
indicating externalizing problems exceeded that of 38 percent of children her own age in the
general population. The task to assess externalizing problems involved a parent questionnaire.
From this task, it is likely (90% confidence) that Janes tendency to exhibit externalizing
problems falls into an average range. Externalizing problems includes disruptive behavior,
including hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems.
Janes tendency toward hyperactivity was average and ranked in the 48th percentile.
Hyperactivity is the tendency to be overly active, to hurry through activities, and/or behave
without thinking. It appears that hyperactivity isnt a problem that would interfere with Janes
school work. Most of the time she will display good self-control, be able to take turns
appropriately, and not be overactive to the point of disruption.
The measures of aggression were consistent and Jane fell in the average range. Janes
tendency to behave in an aggressive manner on one assessment was in the average range and

ranked in the 9th percentile. It is likely with 90% confidence that her aggressive tendencies fall in
the low (34) to average (46) range. Aggression involves the degree to which Jane tends to behave
in a verbal or physically hostile manner that threatens individuals or property. On another task,
Jane was in the average range (Roberts-2 Agg: 53 T-score). The task looked at states (feelings)
and expressions (verbal and/or physical) of anger. Jane was required to tell stories based on a
picture presented. Its important to note that in stories including aggression typically involved an
individual getting bullied, suggesting a fear of aggression. Furthermore, Jane was not able to
resolve her aggressive stories in a positive manner, often leaving the situation in the present tense
(i.e. the girl is getting bullied for her clothes). This suggests she may struggle with problemsolving in these situations or coping with her emotions from bullying situations. These scores
imply that even if Jane displays some aggressive behaviors at times, such as arguing or namecalling, her behaviors are average compared to her peers and are not highly disruptive to the
class environment. Aggression by Jane does not appear to be a factor in any academic
difficulties. However, she is currently influenced by the aggressive tendencies of others, which
can affect schoolwork for some children by causing anxiety, stress or some depression. It may
benefit Jane to learn additional problem-solving methods when dealing with bullies and ways to
identify, express and deal with her emotions.
Similar to Janes performance on hyperactivity task, the issue of conduct problems also
does not appear to be a noteworthy problem for Jane. On one measure, Janes tendency for
conduct problems fell in the average range and ranked in the 64th percentile. It is likely (90%
confidence) that Janes tendency toward conduct problems falls into an average range. Conduct
problems include antisocial and rule-breaking behaviors, such as destroying property. However,
as with aggression discussed above, although conduct problems by Jane is not an issue, it
appears that she is greatly affected by the antisocial behaviors of others. On one task which
required Jane to tell stories in response to pictures presented, her score of Antisocial responses
was considered potentially clinically significant (Roberts-2 UNUSUAL-Antisocial= 76 T-score).
Her responses on these tasks were mainly connected with bullying. These scores imply that Jane
can control her behaviors and behaviors she displays dont interfere with her ability to complete
school tasks, maintain relationships or follow the rules of society. However, the conduct
problems of others are on her mind. This may impact how she feels in different environments
and relationships at school, as well as leading to emotions that can impact concentration and selfconfidence.
Internalizing Problems: Anxiety, Depression, Somatization, Rejection
Various assessments were used to assess Janes tendency toward internalizing behaviors.
Janes tendency to experience overall internalizing problems fell in the average range and ranked
in the 19th percentile (BASC-2 PRS IP 41; 19th percentile) according a questionnaire completed
by Cindy. From this assessment, it is likely (90% confidence) that Janes internalizing problems
fell in the low (36) to average (46) range. Internalizing problems are not disruptive, as with
externalizing, but may often go unnoticed. These problems include anxiety, depression and
With regard to anxiety, results were average but conveyed that Jane is experiencing
anxiety from time to time. On one measure, based on Cindys responses to a questionnaire, Jane

falls in the average range and ranks in the 47th percentile (BASC-2 PRS 49; 47th percentile). It is
likely (90% confidence) that Janes tendency to experience anxiety falls in the average range.
Anxiety involves feeling nervous, fearful, or worried about problems, either real or imaginary.
Jane also fell in the average range on a task requiring her to make up a story in respond to a
presented picture (Roberts-2 Anxiety= 43 T-score). Anxiety was represented, but not a strong
theme on assessments that asked Jane to draw pictures of people, houses, and so on (HTP, KFD).
The combination of these assessments suggests that while Jane may not continuously experience
high levels of anxiety, she may experience anxiety in certain situations or when problems are on
her mind. If Jane experiences anxiety during her school work, it can affect her concentration and
ability to process information using her working memory. For example, when she is trying to
decode a word, if anxiety makes it difficult for her to hold the letter sound in her working
memory long enough to blend the sounds together, she will experience difficulty sounding out
In addition to occasional anxiety, its important to note that a few assessments indicated a
theme that Jane experiences feelings of inadequacy at times and may feel insecure in her
environment (HTP; KFD; Sentence Completion). There was some indication that Jane may
desire control over her environment and strive for self-control almost to a rigid degree. One
assessment connected these feelings and needs to social interactions with peers, specifically with
experiences of being bullied (Sentence Completion). These measures indicated that relationships
with peers and family hold special importance to Jane and difficulties with relationships can
invoke feelings of inadequacy, insecurity, and a strong need to control her surroundings.
With regard to depression, Jane measured average to slightly below average. Depression
involves feelings of unhappiness or stress that may interfere with daily activities. On a
questionnaire completed by Jane, she scored slightly below average and ranked in the 11th
percentile on an overall measure of depression (CDI TS= 40). In this measure, depression
includes a combination of negative mood, interpersonal problems, ineffectiveness, anhedonia
(absence or inability to feel pleasure), and negative self-esteem. In the various areas of
depression, Jane rated average to slightly below average in comparison to children of similar age
and gender. Janes profile is indicative of a normal pattern and when her elevated responses
were examined, there was no pattern. This result is supported by a questionnaire completed by
Cindy, in which Janes tendency for depression fell in the average range, ranking in the 16th
percentile (BASC-2 PRS Depression 41; 16th percentile). It is likely (90% confidence) that
Janes depression tendency falls in the low (35) to average (47) range. Jane also rated average on
depression in the story telling task and Janes drawings did not display a theme of depression
(Roberts-2 Depression= 50 T-score; HTP; KFD). In fact, a task requiring Jane to complete
sentences showed a tendency toward positive affect. These scores imply that Jane does not
appear to have an elevated tendency toward depression and depression is not a factor that is
influencing her school work at this time.
Jane fell in the low range for somatization and ranked in the 11th percentile (BASC-2 PRS
Somatization 39; 11th percentile). This score is based on a parent rating scale and indicates that
Janes tendency for somatization likely (90% confidence) falls in a range of low (31) to average
(47). Somatization includes being oversensitive to and complaining about minor physical

problems or discomforts. These scores imply that relatively minor physical discomforts dont
interfere with Janes ability to complete tasks at school or complete daily activities.
One task looked at rejection as an internalizing problem for Jane, and her responses
showed high, clinically significant levels of rejection (Roberts-2 Rejection= 70 T-score). The
task for rejection required Jane to tell stories in response to pictures that were presented. The
majority of responses, again, involved either bullying behaviors or other peer rejection. This
score implies, again, that the negative behaviors of others (i.e. bullies, peers) have a significant
impact on Jane at times. Negative peer experiences at school impact how she perceives certain
situations and may elicit feelings of rejection.
Overall Problem/Maladaptive Behavior or Emotional Disabilities
Jane appears to have a low level of problem behavior according to the assessments
performed. One parent rating scale rates Janes overall level of problem behavior in the low
range and ranks in the 12th percentile (BASC-2 PRS=40; 12th percentile). It is likely (90%
confidence) that Janes level of problem behavior falls in the low (36) to average (44) range.
Overall problem behavior combines Janes performance on measures of hyperactivity,
aggression, depression, attention problems, atypicality (behaving in odd ways), and withdrawal
(evading others). This assessment is supported by another in which Jane demonstrates average
internalizing and externalizing maladaptive behaviors as compared to other children her age
(Vineland-II MBI=13). Assessments involving Janes drawings did not indicate maladaptive
behavior tendencies, disturbances in functioning, or pathology (HTP; KFD; Roberts-2 Atypical=
41 T-score). These scores imply that Jane displays a low level of problem or maladaptive
behaviors and that her behaviors do not affect her functioning in the school environment or
negatively impact her academic progress. This is consistent with the referral concern which has
no mention of disciplinary or behavioral problems.
In addition, Jane does not indicate an emotional disability based on the conducted
assessment. With regard to indications of emotional disability, Jane ranked in the 4th percent as
compared to other children of her age (DAP:SPED= T-score 33; 4th percentile). Further
evaluation for emotional disabilities was not indicated. This test suggests that Janes emotional
development is normal and this is not a concern with regard to her school work or school
Adaptive Skills
As seen in various assessments, Janes adaptive skills fall in the average to high range.
Based on one parent questionnaire, Janes overall adaptive skills fall in the high range and rank
in the 93rd percentile (BASC-2 PRS ASC= 64; 93rd percentile). Adaptive skills include behaviors
important for functioning at home, school, with peers and in the community. They include
adaptability (ability to readily adapt to environmental changes), social skills, leadership,
activities of daily living, and functional communication. Functional communication refers to
Janes ability to express her ideas and communicate so that others can easily understand her. On
each of these skills, it is likely (90% confidence) that Janes abilities fall in the average to high
range and rank in the 81st to93rd percentile. Another parent survey showed Janes adaptive

behavior falls in the adequate range, ranking her in the 81st percentile (Vineland-II ABC=113;
81st percentile). According to this task, it is likely (95% confidence) that Jane has adequate to
moderately high adaptive skills in communication, daily living skills, and socialization. Janes
scored high in receptive communication (i.e., ability to listen, pay attention, and understand what
is conveyed), and has strengths in coping skills and personal daily living skills. Coping skills
involves how Jane shows responsibility and her sensitivity to others, which personal daily living
skills involves personal hygiene practices. Janes lower scores still fell in the adequate range and
involved expressive communication, community living skills, and interpersonal relationships.
Expressive communication involves how Jane uses words to gather or convey information.
Community living skills refers to how Jane uses items such as money, the telephone or computer.
In the near future, this could involve the use of job skills. Interpersonal relationships refer to
how Jane interacts with others.
Another task confirmed that Janes adaptive skills fall in the average range, but also
provided additional information about certain areas that may be considered weaknesses or need
additional attention (Roberts-2). This task required Jane to tell stories about pictures that were
presented. Janes average scores indicate she is able to accurately perceive what is going on in
her environment, follow directions, and utilize her knowledge to make sense of tasks (Roberts-2
POP= 52 T-score; MEAN= 43 T-score). She is also had a good sense of support systems
available, including protective, positive external supports (i.e. family, friends) and internal
resources (i.e., her own resourcefulness) (Roberts-2 A.R. Scales). Jane demonstrated a good
sense of support systems, indicated that she had confidence certain people would provide aid
upon her request. Its important to note from the content of her stories that individuals providing
support were family figures. In addition, Jane conveyed appropriate understanding with limit
setting or consequences for behaviors. Jane demonstrated a strength in her ability to recognize a
feeling or behavior in a situation, but showed a weakness in her ability to pick out and define the
cause for an emotional response (Roberts-2 Recognition=61; Description=39). This insight is
important with regard to Janes ability to select the best coping mechanism, support system, or
problem-solving method. Another aspect of this task involved Janes ability to describe a
positive outcome to her stories. Her performance on these tasks indicated that at times, Jane is
unsure how to resolve problem feelings or conflicts in a positive or successful manner and may
experience significant difficulties (Roberts-2, Easy-Positive Outcomes=32).
These scores combined imply that Jane displays good adaptive skills which allow her to
function properly in various environments. These skills will allow Jane to communicate with
peers and her teacher appropriately, participate in the classroom activities, and use coping skills
to be responsible and sensitive to others. She has knowledge of support systems and confidence
in these support systems and herself to tackle problems. Although Jane can use coping skills and
support systems, at times she may lack the insight to distinguish which coping mechanisms or
supports are best for her situation. She may be unsure how to solve certain problems or feelings
in a positive way. Jane may have excellent support with family members and close friends, but
there may be environments in which it is more difficult to find a dependable support system (i.e.,

Based on her performance on certain tasks, Jane has good general information and
vocabulary knowledge. Jane can appropriately receive and attend to verbal information and is
able to retain information in her long-term memory. When information is presented verbally,
she shows some difficulties in comprehension, but overall, still performs average compared to
other children her age. Therefore, in general, she is able to comprehend lectures or verbal
readings, but may experience confusion time to time. With regard to information presented
visually, Jane can attend to and think about the information in order to complete tasks. However,
novel or problem-solving tasks utilizing mainly visual information may be tricky for her.
Whether the information is presented verbally or visually, Jane does not have trouble with
concentration or attention to the information. With regard to reading, she can concentrate on the
letters or words and discriminate among letters. Her attention and processing abilities aid the
reading process by freeing up mental resources that can be used for comprehension.
Janes memory abilities, short-term and long-term memory, are average as compared to
other children. On one task, it was difficult for her to hold some information long enough to
process the required task. This indicates that although her overall memory abilities are good,
with certain tasks she could experience difficulties in holding the information in her working
memory long enough to apply required actions to the information and then act accordingly.
Decoding words, reading fluently and comprehending text all involve the working memory. For
example, Jane needs to hold letters sounds long enough to combine them into a work and then
retrieve the word meaning from her vocabulary knowledge. At the same time, she needs to retain
story facts in her working memory to later apply to comprehension questions. If she is anxious,
her working memory will be less efficient and this could impact her reading abilities.
Janes performance on reading tasks confirmed her parents concerns that she is
struggling with comprehension and fluency. Vocabulary tasks were particularly difficult for her,
although she was able to perform vocabulary tasks when the information was presented verbally.
The vocabulary knowledge is present, but Jane had difficulty in decoding the words to a point
that she could access her vocabulary database. Her comprehension performance was low,
although as with vocabulary, she performed better with verbally presented information. If Janes
mental resources are preoccupied with decoding, it may be difficult for her to attend to story
details or retain the information in her working memory to answer comprehension questions.
However, its important to note that Jane has an average understanding of language mechanics,
which aids the reading process. Further evaluations are needed to determine what aspect or stage
of the reading process is difficult for Jane.
Jane is also experiencing difficulty in math computation and application. Jane was able
to perform verbally presented arithmetic tasks, suggesting that her working memory is able to
hold the data and process it as needed. This also suggests she understands mathematical
language. However, Jane had difficulties applying her knowledge to tasks when she had to read
the question or information in story form. Laure shared that math is her most difficult subject
and that she struggles remembering multiplication tables. No problems were evidence from the
tasks with regard to her long-term memory abilities. It may be hard for Jane, though, to access
information in her current knowledge when her mental resources are occupied with reading the
problem, comprehending what is being asked, and holding the information in her working
memory if shes anxious or nervous during the task.

Jane demonstrates normal levels of hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems. In

addition, she displays low levels of problem or maladaptive behaviors. This means that in the
classroom, she will often display good self-control and be able to take turns and follow the rules.
In general, she does not display disruptive behavior or act aggressively, which helps Jane in
maintaining healthy adult and peer relationships. Interpersonal relationships are important for
Jane and she seems strongly affected by aggressive and antisocial tendencies of others. Bullying,
gossip and other inappropriate social behaviors may be causing Jane anxiety or stress at times,
which can affect concentration, self-confidence, and areas of cognitive functioning (such as her
working memory).
Tasks revealed that although Jane is not continuously showing signs of anxiety, she does
experience anxiety during certain situations or when problems are on her mind. For Jane,
difficulties with relationships may invoke feelings of inadequacy, insecurity, rejection, and a
need to control her environment. A school task could be challenging if Jane is trying to focus on
information while simultaneously dealing with negative emotions. Her negative emotions may
simply appear at a particular moment or task and not linger with her for other activities.
However, Jane does not currently display depression or somatization tendencies, and she
displays a normal level of emotional development which allows her to recognize feelings. This
is important for Jane in finding ways to deal with negative emotions and situations.
Jane displays good adaptive skills which allow her to function properly in various
environments, participate in activities and communicate effectively. Jane knows and trusts her
current support systems (particularly her family and close friends). She also possesses internal
resources to tackle problem situations. At times, however, Jane may lack insight into the causes
and proceeding factors leading to problem feelings or situations. This will make it more difficult
for Jane to distinguish which coping mechanisms or supports are best for her situation. She may
be unsure how to solve certain problems or feelings in a positive way.
According to the reviewed evidence, Jane is experiencing difficulties with reading
comprehension, math computation, and math application. Further tests should be done to
provide a better understanding of which specific reading components or math processes need
assistance. The Woodcock-Johnson III Test of Achievement is recommended to provide further
information, including but not limited to, Janes phonological and orthographic (i.e., spelling
method) coding ability, reading fluency, receptive and expressive story recall abilities, and
fluency with math facts. DIBELS is also recommended to assess Janes current reading abilities
and assess progress over time.
These assessments should provide further insight toward which reading components to
work on during the summer months with the tutor (per Cindys request) and during the next
school year. Since Jane has trouble sounding out words, interventions that target decoding
abilities may be helpful. Examples would include performing the Drilling Error Words
technique and using the decoding strategy procedure in the Reading First Program.

Also, it would be helpful to increase memorization of sight words. These words

generally include common words that Jane will see when reading. If she can memorize these
common words, it will free up her working memory to focus on sounding out other words and
help her with reading fluency and comprehension. One task would be the folding-in technique
which provides Jane with many opportunities to practice and respond to words (similar to the
Drilling Error Words technique mentioned above). Information on performing these techniques
will be provided to the mother for summer work. Previewing procedures may also benefit Jane
since she will hear the passage read first (and follow along with the reader) and then have an
opportunity to practice reading the passage out loud. The first reader of the passage can be her
mother, a teacher, or a tape recording.
Comprehension could be further assist by teaching Jane to take notes during a story,
including how to pick out important story elements (setting, plot, characters). Jane has good
concentration and attention. Learning to give special attention to story elements will aid her
comprehension and through note taking, she can focus on decoding the words as needed without
fear of forgetting story facts.
Finally, it is recommended that Jane be given many different opportunities to practice
decoding and comprehension as possible. This includes reading not only various book genres,
but also magazine articles (i.e., Justin Beiber magazine), cookbooks, or business fliers in stores.
Jane mentioned playing restaurant and clothes designer with her friends. Menus or clothing
price lists could be made that would give Jane in informal way to practice reading and even
math. Reading emails from her father during business trips, if possible, could also give Jane a
chance to practice decoding and comprehension (especially if specific word lists were
Regarding math, evaluation of her math homework or tests from school is recommended
to look for patterns in her math abilities. Specifically, does she perform the computations well if
there are no words in the question, only numbers? Does she struggle with multiplication, but do
well on addition and subtraction problems? Since she was able to perform arithmetic problems
when delivered verbally but struggled when they were presented in a workbook, further
evaluation of her previous work and a conversation with Jane about what specific areas of math
are tricky would be beneficial before choosing an intervention. In addition, it would be helpful
to observe Jane solving a math problem to see if she struggles at certain points of the
computation process. It may benefit Jane to use a schema-based learning in which she is taught
to break word problems down into the essential elements and depict the numerical relationships
in a schema map. It is also recommended to provide Jane with tools to aid her memorization
since she expressed this concern with multiplication tables.
With regard to social/emotional support for Jane, further discussions with Jane are
recommended to see how she feels when she struggles with reading or other subjects and how
often she is confronted by bullying or other negative interpersonal situations. For example, if
she is in a reading group that she doesnt like, has a bully in the room, and then struggles with
sounding out a word, the anxiety alone may be affecting her performance. However, if Jane
doesnt face such scenarios or feelings, the recommendations will differ. Currently, it is
recommended that Jane receives support in finding an adult in the school building that can serve

as a support system for her when she is bullied or has negative emotions. This individual could
be a counselor or trusted teacher, for example. It is not recommended that the individual be
Janes current teacher for the year. Since Jane has strong support systems at home and with
certain friends, this would help her to have another system in place at school that could help her
discuss different coping skills or problem-solving methods that are applicable for the
circumstances quickly after the incident has occurred. Jane does well identifying her feelings
and those of others. It would be beneficial to talk to Jane about various coping skills and how
each may better apply given her feelings and circumstances. Also, helping Jane identify
preceding events to conflicts and how conflicts can be resolved in a positive way (without her or
other students suffering) may help her gain more control over her environment. A peer group led
by a counselor or school psychologist allowing kids to talk about bullying situations may be
helpful for Jane. The peers in such a group may also provide a further support system for Jane
when needed. Finally, Jane mentioned feeling angry and wanting to change her occasional angry
attitude. It would be beneficial to have a person at school readily available to listen, help her
with expressive language, teach her anxiety relieving strategies, and help her work through anger
would be beneficial. Jane can also work on expressive language and anxiety-relief techniques
with a counselor outside the school during the summer or as needed.
Debra Bassett
June 28, 2011
Date: ________________
Debra Bassett (Examiner); School Psychologist in Training