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THE

HISTORY
O

THE

LIFE
O

TviUius

Marcus

Hunc
Hie

Cicero.

nobis exemplum.
igtturfpeUetnus.
Hocpropofitumfit

fiiat^cut
fe profecijfe

CiczKO

Qu

By

I N

valde
T

I L.

MiDDLETOMy

CONYERS

PrincipalLibrary-Keeper

of the

Inilit.1.X.

D.

i.

D.

of CamiriJ^i^
Univerfitjr

in.

VOL.

Edition.

Second

The

placebit.

LONDON:
Printed for W.
R. M

Y,

Wtft-EnitA^Pm^s^ and
the Old-BaUtj,
luigatt-Ull,
over-againft

Inktt
on

8, at

the

MJ3CCXLI.

7fMi^^^^MuAx""*^^

'THE

HISTORY
OF

The

I F

M. 7ULLIUS

CICERO.

T.

IX.

prefentat

was

CICERO
Csefiir in the

of

of

Senate

the death A. UA.

bad tbe pleafure:^


he tells us,
as
periftf
/}Tii;i/

this accident

he

freed

was

be
at

feetbe
deferved\o']. By

once

Cic.

be

where
to

fi-om all fub-

j^

^^J^n-

|,j.

p.

helius

jedion to a fuperior,and all the uneaiinefs and ^abblla.


indignityof mans^ng a power, which every
could opprefshim.
He was
with-moment
now
out
competitionthe firftCitizen in Rome ; the
both with the
firft in that "Tedii:and aXithority
3enate and People, which illuftriousmerit and
fervices will neceflarily
give in a free City.
The
Con(pinttorscoiifidered Urn as fuch, aiid
reckoned

they

had

upon
no

him

as

Iboner

their fure friend

finiihed their work,

than

Brutus^ lifting
up bis bloodydagger^called
upon

bim

Vol.

to

with
congratulate

mihi

attuleritifU

macatio, pcaeter lae-

titian,
qaam

him

III.

["]Qgid
domini

by name^

ocdii cepii jufto

intersttt Tyraiuii?Ad
14* 14.

for

out
on

the
Att.

709.

63.

cor*
Do""

^e

2
A.

Urb. 709.

^C ff
M. Anton
us.

I-

P. Con-

NELius

LABELLA.

Do-

of tbe Life

History

[p]: and when they


of their liberty
after into the Forum, with
^^' ^^^ ^^^ prefently
^^^^irdaggersin their hands, proclaiming
liberty
at the ftime time
to the City, they proclaimed
the
the name
of Cicero \ in hopesto recommend
jyHj^cqF their aft,by the creditof his approbation
the recovery

[j].
to chargehim
Antonya pretence

This

gave
afterwards in

widi beit^g
privyto tbe
public,
the principal
aavtfer
of it \y]:

con-

but
/piracy and
it is certain^that he was ,not ft all accjuainte
with it : for tho* he had. the ftrii^eft
friend/hip
with the chief aftors,and theythe greateft
fidence
conin him, yet his age^ diaradler,
aad dig-,
nity,rendered him whollyunfit,to bear a part
J

; and to embark
attempt of that nature
with a number
himfelf in an affairfo defperate,
of men,
a ftw of their Leaders,
who, excepting
ail either too young to be trufted,or too oh*
were

in

an

fure^ even

to

been of littleor

have

by him [j].He

be known

fervice to them

no

could
m

the

execution of the a6t, yet of much greater in ju-^


itafterwards to the City,for havinghad
ftifying
tA makQ
intereft,
perfonal
his authority
die true
fuipeaed. Thefe were
reafons without doubt, why Brutus and CafTius
did not impartthe defignto hun: had it,
been

fhare in it,nor

no

from

any

any

other motive,

as

fome

writers hftve

fu"t
Cgfoe

M
tim

interfefto """*
alte eztoUeai

cruentum

M.

Brutus

pugionem"C/V/r"

nofninatim

nem

exdamavit,

ille fariofos

eft

[j]Qaam

3. it.2.

verifimile porrd

gntulatiu. Philip.ell,.intot hominibnt

p"rtim
obfcnris,
partim adolerce"ti-

2.12.

priacipeiti

eflec. Ep.fam. 12.

anqiie"i recuperatam libertatem

me

dick /uifle. Utinim qvidem


molellus nobis noA
fuifleiDy

Dto. p. 249.

[rJ Cefiuem
interfeaum.

meo

eonfilio

[Phil.2. n.]

busy peminem

occu1tantibus"

feeum

laterepotoiflTe?

nomen

Phil.2.

Ydbicnimpatcherrimifa^
*

11.

ofM. rULLIUS
or had itadmitted
luggcfted,

CICERO.

j
A. Urb.

any interpretation 709,


to his honor, he muft have been often
injurious
Coff
with it h^Antofiy^
and his other ad- m. Antonireproached

verfariesof thofe times, who


invent and propagate every

were

io ftudious

to

us.

P. CaR-

calumny that could


^^**^''**
I tannot however intirely
deprelshiscredit.
acquit
him of beinginfbme degreeaccefifory
to the deadi
of Csefar: for it is evident

Letters,that

he had

an

""i'*v$

Do-

from ieveral of hi^

of fuch
expedtation

an

at^

%
tempt, and from what quarter it would come
and not onelyexpe"ed, but wifhed it: he prb^

that Cafat^sreigncould mt
phefied
very early,
Uftfixmonfbfj but muft neaffartly
fdl^ eitber iy
^^ hopedto live to feeit [t]i
vMince, or ofi^fi^
he knew the difafifeftion
and b^fl:
of the greateft
with great
of the City; which
they exprefled

freedom

in their Letters,and with much

we

may
he knew

more,

conver"tion
in their private
imiagine,

of Bruttq
haughtyfpirit
and Caflius ; and their impatience
of a Mafteri
and activated a ftriftCorrefpondence
with them
both at this time,'
of cx^
as if for die opportunity
thrm to fome aft of vigor. On the news^
citing
that Atticus fent bin), of C^fat^simage being
to
plaeedin the Temple0^"luirinus^
adjoining
that of the Goddefs
Solus ; / bad ratber^fayshe,
have him the Comrade of,
RomuluS^ than of the
to Romulufs fate^
GoddefsSafety
[u]: referring
of beingkilled in theSenaceJ In another Letter
the fierce and

it fcetm

be intimated,that Atticus and he had


been contriving,
at lead together,
or
talking
how Bfutus migHtbe fpirited
up to fome attempt
to

of

id r^g* left,
aut
tut per adverfaricM,
[/]Jm uitelligrs
(L.id
"iSk
ftmcftre
^poS^m^ ipfeper
fpero
Tiiris aomiQ^yix

po9 tin\fa hoc am6fmmxi$


lib
nee

vXfipxio^
qjio dudmo* I
AO0 "l|it, fiec sliw 9^-

cidec

Contut

bisfore. Ad Att.
Eom ain^w
M
"

z.

8.

Quirinp

mslo,quani ^loti. Ad

ifte nefiplTfis. 15.

Att.

._^^

4
A.

HisTOKY

of the Life

before him
of that kind, by fetting
Urb^rog;
'^'

LABBLLA.

the feme and

Ck. 63
Coff.
M. AmtohiP. Corws.
DoWBLIVS

gloryof his Anccftors : " Does Brutus then tell


with him glad
us, fayshe, that Csefar brings
? where will he find
to honeft men
tidings
"C
them ? unlefs he hangs himfelf. But how fec(
ishe now
intrenchedon allfides? What
curely
CC
of
ufe then of your fineinvention ; the picture
^^
old Brutus and Ahala with the verles under,
**
which I law in your Gallery
? Yet w^t after
**
all can he do ?*'[x] One cannot
helpobferin his Pieces,
addrefled about this
vinglikewife,
be fidlsinto a la-^
time to Brutus,how artfully
mentation of the times,and of the particular
un-^
of Brutus himfelf,in beingdeprived
happinefs
lents
by them of ailthe hopesand ufe of his great tahim in mind at the fame time of
; putting
fi-om Anceflors,who had acbis double defcent
quired
immortal gloryby delivering
Rome
from
Thus he concludes his treatifeonfa^
fcrvitude.
^^

"
^^

Orators.

mous

"

Whbm

[4r]Itane nunciat Brutus, of old Bratus and Ahala.|oiii


ilum ad bonos viros fuV"^/" ed together in ione piSure,
Ai"? fed ubi eos? nififorte with the yerfes under,had given
ft fufpendit?
hie autem
ut
to a cona handle perhaps
lultumeftf ubi igitur
verlationbetwden Cicero and
^/Apillud
tuum
quod vi- him, how Brutus might be
Vx^9^
di m Pdrtbiwui^ Alubm
U
incited by the example of
Bratum? fed quidfiiciat
thofe great Anceftors to dif? ad
folve the tyrannyof Caeftr.
Atti3. 40.
FdrtbtnoKi is fuppoied
Itieemsalio ^nry probable,
to
denote fome room
or
gallerythat this very pidureof At*
in Brutus*s,
or
more
bly
probatn Atticus*shoufe,adorn*
ed with the Imagesor Portraits
of
of the great men
^9mit under each of which,
as Cornelius Nepos tellsus,
[in vit. Att. c. 18.]Atticus

had

defcribed their
feverally
ads and honors, in
principal
fiveverfes of his own
the coa: where
compofing
four

or

of thefe Figures
tempJacion

ticus^s invention,as Cicero


callsit,mightgiveqcotfion
to the thoughtand coinage
of that filvermedal or inMis ftillextant,
r/ir/, which
of
with the headwind names
thofe two old Atrlots;Bm*
the one
fide,Ahala
ttts on
the other. Vid. Thefaur.
on

MoielL in Fam.
It I.

Tab"
Junia.

CICERO.

iffM. nrLLIUS
**

"

Wh

i look

**

'"
"

you,

Brutus, I

am

A. Urb. 709.

in full career
through the midft of m. Awtoniwere,
glory, ftop'dfhort by the wretched fate of us. P. Co*.
your

Country. This grieffits heavy upon

friend Atticus, the


our
of
f* partner of my
affedion,and good opinion
**
wilh you well ; wifli to fee
heartily
you : we
^*
and to
you reap the fruit of your virtue ;
*^
live in a Republic,that may
give you the

5' me,

and

not onelyto revive,but


opportunity,

"

of the two
erode the honor and memory
ble families,from which you defcend

to

no-

for

whollyyours ; yours all that


glory: you, of all the young plea-

the Forum

^^

courfe of

^*

ders, brought thither, not

**

but
ready formed by the exercifeof fpcaking,

**

had

was

enriched your
alio of the feverer
the

^'

quence the

**
'^
^^
^^
"

are

onelya tongue,

Or"ory by
arts

the furniture

by the helpof

and

to
i^n^earts had joined

ff

**

'"^**''''^'

in-

**

^"J;^^'/

common

on

**

^*

q^'

youth, running, as it

fee your

grievedto

**

upon

of eloperfeAion

of every virtue.

ornanient

doubly lorrytherefore on

your

We

account,

the benefit of the Republic


that you want
(
of
but
the Republic you :
thoughthisodious
the ufe of your
ruin ot the City extinguifhes

Brutus, to purfue
abilities,
go on flill,
your
"?^.'*
ufual fludies,
feem
paflages

give a realbnable
ground to believe,that Cicero, thougha flrancounfilsof the Confpirators,
ger to the particular
notion of their delign,as well
had yet a general
AS ibme (hate in promotingit. In his replyto
Antony'scharge,he does not deny his expeAatt*
his joy for it,and thanks
of it,freely
owns
on
him for givinghim an honor, which he had not
merited, of bearinga parr in it ; he callsit,
^* the moft glorious
adt, which had ever been
These

to

"

done.

The Hist

6
A.Urb.

1 69.

^c ff
M.

"

done, notonelyin that, but in any

"

^^^y

P. Cor-

NBLius

Do-

^^ which

were

men

"

ihare, which

more

they had
they had 5

td

than

to

claim

*'

diflemble that which

""

reafon for

**

nify,that he was then emulatinghis


by an aA, not unlike to what he had

out
calling

not,

that Brutus's

him,

upon

^'

*'

that if to wifh C"far*s death

*^

at
rejoice

*'
*'
**
"

"
*'

"

the fame

it was

was

done

crime, to

there

figpraifes,
to

was

'

LABELLA.

other

forward

"

AifTONi-

us.

of fbe Life

oKY

being n6

die advifcr and the approver


Antony and a few morty
; yet excepting
who were
fond of havinga King, that there

differencebetween

in Rome^ who did not defire


fee the faft committed -, that all honeft
to
in their power, concurred
men, as far as itwas
not

was

man

in it -, that fome

fome the courage,

indeed wanted

the counlil,

fome the

but
opportunity,
the will to do it, "?f. [y]**
none
of this furprifing
The
fedt raifed a genews
neral
conilemation through the City; fo that
the iirftcare of the Confpirators
was
to quiet
the minds of the people,by proclaming
peace
and liberty
and
that
to all,
declaring, no farther
violence was
intended to any.
They marched
therefore in a body, with a Capj as the enout
carried before
them on a Spear[2]5
ftgnofliberty
"

"

and
te

[j] Ecquiseftigitur,
qui
Sc
ilium
lis,qui
excepto,

regnare gaudebant,qui illud


aut fierinoluerit,
aut fad^um
? omnes
improbarit
Etenim
culpa.
omnes

in

cnim

in

boni,

fuic,Caefaipiis

made

were

tj
on

Spear,was

to

the

offered

quantum
occiderunt. A|iisconrem
filium,aliisanimus, occafio

flrudion

defuit

voluntas nemui,"c.

ftruck

12.

the

Phil.

2.

[z] A
ven

to

to

was
on

fame

the

vitation
embrace

There

of

it

Hber*

therefore

expofe it

to

free; whence

tbi Embitm

became

publicin-

people, to

that was
liberty
by the de-

them

of

their

Tyrant,

likewife
this occafion,with
a

Medal

device, which

Cap was alwaysgt- flill exUnt.


Slav$jfwhen they however was

The
not

is

thought
new

for

Satur*

ofM.rULLIUS
and

in

calm

and

CICERO.

throughdie Forum 5 where, in die firftheat of


joy for the deaUi of the Tyrant, fcveral of the
Nobility,who had bom no part in the
young
confpiracy,
joinedthemfelves to the company
with fwords in their hands,
to

be

in the a"t

thoughtpartners

dear afterwards for that


(hare of the
which
cd

to

of

out

involved

m.

^^***'*'^*

any

in the ruin

itdrew upon all the reft. Brutus dcfignhave fpoken


to the Citizens from the Ro-

knowing that there were great numbers of


Caefar's oldfoldiers
in the City^who bad heenfummanedfromall parts to attend him to the Parthian
he thought
war^
proper, with his accomplices,

and

the guard ot Decimu8*s

in
rcfijge

the

to take
Gladiators,

Capitol[a]. Being here

fecurcd

the
any immediate violence,hefummoned
peoplethither^in the afternoon *, and in a fpeech

from

his
them, which he had prepared,juftified
ad, and expianedthe motives of it, and in a
to

manner
pathetic

exhorted

them

to

exert

felves
them-

in the defence of their country,

and mainall
offered to them, againfl
tain the liberty
now
the abettors ot the latetyranny.
Cicero prefentwith the bcft
ly followed them into the Capitol,
B

and

Saturninus,in his fcdition, himfclf ufed the fame expehe had poicifedIlka- dfcntafternrarda
wben
to invite the
UMoi

the

Cap alfo9K

exalted
Capitol,
thi top ofa

flavei to take

Spear
^

as a token of libertyto allthe


Slaves,who woula joinwith

htm : and
his fitch

thoughMarius,In

deftrovOonfalfliip,

"d him for that aA, by a iticrec of the Senile^ yet he

arms

who
againft
Sylla,

ing with

with him
marchwas

the
his army
into
Val.
attack him.

City

to

Max.

8. "S.

"

p. ^05. Db.
p. 250. Plat, in Csf. " Brut,

[a] App.

2.

P. Co**

melius

them to be in too great an


Jira; but perceiving
and beinguncertain
to attend to fpeeches,
agitation
what way
the popularhumor might turn,

under

Antoni-

U3.

theypaid

without

709.

^^^/

ambition

an

but

and
vanity,

glory, were

Urb

precededA.

orderlymanner

Do*

8
A- Urb. 709.
Cic. 6v

M.Antonivs.

P. Con-

wELius

LABfiLLA.

and

greateft
part of

the proper

Senate, to deliberate on

the

beimprovingthis hopeful!
their Kbcrtygn a folid
eftablilhing

of

means

g^'^^^S*and

foundation.
lafting

and

Do-

of the Life

History

in the

while, fhocked by

mean

fomc
hardinefs of the aft, and apprehending
himfelf
dangerto his own life,
ofbis con-Jiripped

^g

5 where be
difguife
all
bis boufcy
and keptbimfelf
clofe
beganto fortify
conduft
the pacific
that day[^]; tillperceiving
and
he recovered his fpirits,
of the confpirators,
againthe next morningin publick.
appeared
While
L. Cornelius
in this fituation,
were
things

Jularrvhesjand fledborne

of the Praetors,who was


Casfar,made a fpeechto the

Cinna,
allied to
in
as

in

ly
near-

one

of the
praife

people

their adt,
confpirators
; extolling

tude
the multihighlymeritorious,and exhorting
and
down from the Capitol,
to invite them

reward them

with the honors due

of their country
torian

then

to

the deliverers

throwingoff his Pra^

rohe^he declared,that he would

not

wear

as beingbellowed
longer,
upon him by a
tyrant and not bytbelaws. But the next day,
he was
as
goingto the Senate, ibme of Casfar's
of the
Veteran foldiers,
a mob
havinggathered

it any

fame

party, attacked him

in the ftreets with

houfe,
which theywere
goingprefendyto iet on fire,
with defign
to have burnt him in it,if Lepidus

yoUiesof ftones,and drove him

had

not

to

come

his reicue with

into

body of

re*

gulartroops \j].
Lepidus
Rome

at

was

at

the head of

thistime in the fuburbs of


an

army,

readyto depart
for

[^]Qu"
formido

tua

iliafuga-^Iamtedomum
fa^? quaeres

prxdaro

illo

cue

Phil.
? JJrecepiftL

s.

35.

Vid.

qasepropterconrcientiamfce-ftDio.
p. 259. App. 502,503.
krum

defpentiovitaeF^cniii^
[r]Plut.in Brot App^P-S04*

tfU.

"TtlLLIUS
of

for the government

CICERO.

which
Spain^

0
had

been A. Urb. 709.

to him by Caefar,with a part of GauL


afligned
coffi
after Csefar's death, he m.AntoniIn the night therefore,
with his.troops, and findingus. P. Cor*
filledthe Forum
I^""in power, began to ^^^^^^
himfelf fuperior
to any man
'"*""'-'-^think of making UmfelfMafterof the City,and
immediate revenge on the Confpirators
: but
taking
beinga weak and vain man, Antony eafily^diand managed him
verted him firom that defign,
views :
the hazard
He reprefented
to his own
of the attenipt,while the Senate,
and diAicuIty
the City, and all Italywere
againftthem ;
what theywiflied,
that the only way to efi5"ft
to difiemble theirreal purpofe
was
; to recomand lull their adverfa^
mend pacific
counfils,
tilltheyhad provideda ftrength
ries alleep,
them ; and that,as foon
fufficientto opprefs
were
as things
ripe, he would joinwith him
in avengingCsiar's death.
*f very heartily
With chefe remonftrances he pacified
him ; and
*

'^

'^

*^

*'

**

^^

^'
^^
*'

"

"

render their union the firmer, and to humor


his vanityat the fame time, gave ins Daughter
to

him to
marriageto LepidufsSon, and affifted
the HighPriejihoody
vacant
by Cxfar's death,
feize
forms of ewithout any r^ard to the ordinary
leAion [d]. Having thus gainedLepidusinto
ufe of his authority
his meafures,he made
and
the oppofite
his forces,to harals and terrify
ty,
partillhe had driven the Confpirators
out ot the
with
City: and when he had ierved his purpoies
him at home, contrived to (end him to his go*
manders
to keep the Provinces and the Comvemment,
abroad in proper refpedto them ; and
down with his army in the nearefl:
that,by fitting
part of Gaul, he might be readyfor any event,
in

which Ihould

his helpin Italy.


require

Tut

Dw-

P" ^9f

^So" "57*

"^*

lie Hi%r

lo

A; Urb. 709.

^^*p'
M.
u8.

Anton
IP" Cor.

KELius
LABiLLA.

Do-

of the Life

OKY

while had forin the mean


Confpirators
the death of Caefar ; but
mcd no fchcmc, beyond
^^i^ed to be as much furprized
and amazed
at
what they had done, as the reft of the City:
of their
to the integrity
they truded intirely
that it would be fuiEcient of
^^f^
fencying,
itfelfto efFe"i:
all that theyexpededfrom it,and
Th

draw

an

univerlal concurrence

their common

Liberty;

to

the defence of

takingit for granted,


the heightof all his

and

that Caefar's fate,in


would deter any of his Partifans from
greatnefs,

aimingat the fame

power : theyplacedwithal a
of which
great confidence in Cicero's authority,
they aflured themfelves as their own, and were
he refoldifappointed
; for from this moment
ved at all adventures to fupport
the credit of the
leftof
and their a"b, as the onelymeans
men,
recoveringthe Republic. He knew, that the
peoplewere all on their fide % and, as longas
removed, that they were Matters of
.fofx:e
was
the City: his advice therefore was, to ufe their
prefent
advantage,and in the conftemadon of
not

Caciar'sparty, and the zeal and

union of dieir

Brutus ^ziri
^f?tf/
Caffius,as Prators^Jhould
and procede
^allthe Senate into the Capitol^
tofome
own,

quillity
trandecrees^
ofthepublic
vigorous
for the fecurity
[e]. But Brutus was for mardiingcalmof
to the authority
ly, and with all due refpeit
the Conful ; and havingconceived hopesof An^
to bim^ to
a deputation
tony, propofedthe fending
exhort him to meafuresof peace : Cicero remonbe prevailed
would
ftrated againftit; nor

with

to

bear

part in it: he told them

plainly,
*'

[i]Mcmintfti
illo

me

that

clanare, fid potneruBt,l^tantibus om-

ipfo primo Capitolinonibus bonis, etiam fat bonis,

die, Senatum in Capicolium fraAis latronibus? Ad


aPrstoribusvocari?
Diiim14.10.
mortalesiq^itetm opera ef*

Att.

ofM. tULLIVS
**

that there could be

*'

that

**

would

**

fears were

**
*'

iafe treaty with him

no

over,

be like

would

; A. Urb.

^q^^*

he
his ^^

himfelf,and

709,

us.

antoni-

P. Cor^^^

performnothing: fo that while the other con- f^^ J^^*


LABILLA.
fular Senators were
goingforwards and back''*""'

wards

*'

his

"

ii

long as he was afraid of them,


promifeevery thing; but, when

as

*'

^^

CICERO.

in this officeof

mediation,he ftuckto

point,and (laid with the reft in the


picol,and did not fee Antony for the
firftdays [/]/'

Th

two

what Cicero foretold :

confirmed

event

Ca-

of peace or of any good


Antony had no thoughts
to the republic
to feize the
: his fble view
was,
to himfelf,
as (oon as he (hould be
government
in condition

to

do

it i and then

on

pretence of

all thole^
revengingCa?far's death, to deftroy
who were
to oppofehim : as his bufinefs
likely
therefore was, to gain time by diflembling
and
the Republican
deceiving
nion
party into a good opi-

of him

moderate;

lb all his anfwers

were

mild and

fincere inclinadon
a
profefling

to

public
peace, and no other defire,than to fee the Refettledagainon it'sold bafis. Two days

pafledin mutual afliirancesfrom both fides,^f


their difpofition
and amity; and
to concord
Antony fummoned the Senate on the third,to
the conditions of it,and confirm them by
adjuft
fome folemn aft.

Here

dation
Cicero,as the bed foun-

ia
lafting
quiet,moved the aflfembly
the firftplace,after
the exampleof Athens, $0
^cree a general
tr d"t tfoblivion^
forall
amnefty^
that was
ato which theyunanimoufly
;
pajfed
greed.
of

fimilem te
timere defiifles,
tai.
liberatoribus noflrh, futurum
Itaque cum
pitolio
Confulares
caeteri
ad
ircnt,rcot
te ire vellcnt,
cum
me
juldefendendam
Rempab. te dirent, in fententia manfi :

[/]

Dicebam

illisIn Ca-

ac

illodie,neque

adhortarer,
quoad metaeres"

neque

fimol
iMmuatepromiffarum,

fterovidi. Phii" 2. 35.

te

po-

Tie History

ifi

of the Life

greed.Antony feemed to be allgoodneis


*, talk*
^c ff^ cd of nothing,but healingmeafures; and, for
of his fincerity,
moved, tbaUhe Conjpia proof
M. ANTONtto take pari in their deli^
rotors JhouU he invited^
p. Corvs.
their
andfentbis Son as an Hofiagefor
r^^lY! ^^" ^^^^^i^^^y
LAEBLLA.
which theyallcame
down from the
: upon
fafety
with Lepidus*, Caf*
; iMidBrutus fupped
Capitol
fius with Antony \ and the day ended to the uniwho imagined,that their
veriaijoyoftheCity,
crowned
with certain peace [^].
now
was
liberty
feveral thingshowever very
Th ere
were
and carried by Antony, on thie
propofed
^tfully
wards
concord, of which he afterpretence of public
nude a moft pernicious
ufe; particularly,
ofall Caefar's a"ts :
^ decree for the confirmation
this motion was fufpefted
by many, who ftuck
upon it for fome time, and called upon Antony
how far it was
to extend
it,and fpeciiy
to explane
A. Urb. 709-

:
"

he affured them,

than what

meant,

that no

'*

other afts were

known

were

to

every bo-

CaBfar*sr^ifter
on
:
dy ; and entered publicly
if any perfons
weretobereftored
theyaflced,
from exil *, he faid, one only and no xnort :
whether any immunides were
grantedto Citiesor Countries : he anfwered,none ; and,
coniemed, that it Ihould pafswith a reftri"i-

"*
*'

^'

*"
*"
^*

^'

[?] Ia

4^0

tempIo"quan-

futt,jecifanda-

turn

in

menta

pacts, Athenienfiumrenovavi vetus


exem-

qae

me

p]um : graecom
ufarpavi,
^uo

etiam verbum
turn

dis difcordiii erat

in (edan-

ros

ejuscum

on,

pneftantiffimi

civibus confirmata eft" .Phil*


i.

i.

Qaae fait oratio de concordia ? tuus p^rvulus


filiiuia
"

te taiffnspacts
Capitoliam
a

Q(a civitas obies fait.

SenaCus die
memoriam
ilia,
laetior? quo popolusRoma*
omnem
atc^oe
nus?
difcordiaramoblivionefempi- turn denique liberati

Quo

yidebaPneper viros fortif^ii|"M


clara turn oratio M. Antonii, mar,
iili
at
vpluerant,
quia,
etiam voluntas :
liberutem
egregia
{qqnebatar.
pax

ternadelendamcenfai.

pax

deniqueper

eum

" per hbe-

ia firot.*^
Ib.13.
yiif^Plotir.

TULLIUS

tfM.

CICERO.

13

A. Urb. 709;
Sulpicius
j that no
after the Ides
^Q\p.'
grant, which was to take plaoe
of Marcbj ihould be ratified [b]:*'this was
m. Antoni{o
and
reafonable,
generally
thought
Antony'sus. P. ConDomb^-^vs
ieemingcandor had made fuch an impreflion,

*"

propofedby

on,

Ser*

**
**

faw the mifchicf of it,durft not


as there was
a
oppofe it : efpecially

tlmt thofc who


venture

to

*'^"*'-^^-

for it in the cafeof Sylla;and as it


precedent
folto the veteran
was
fuppofedto relate chiefly
it was
not
diers, whom
to
poffible
oblige,oc
keep in good humor, without confirmingthe
and pofleiBons,
which Casiar had granprivileges
ted
But Brutus and his friendshad
to them.
reafons for entertaining
a better opinion
private
of Antony, than his outward conduft would jufev^
ufed him roughly on
: Caeiar had
ftify
occafions [i]; and they knew his refentment of
it; and that be had been engaged
witb Trebonius,
return from Spain,in a defign
on CaBlar*s laft
mhe did not performthat
: and tho
gain^ bis lifr
engagement ; yet theythought it an obligation^
in the fame
as well as a proof of his continuing
it : which was
mind, thai be bad not difcovef-ed
the rcsSon oftbeirfaring biniywben
Cxfar was
and of TreboniusV
killed^
on
takingbim ajide^
pretence of bufinefs,left his behaviour on thac
occafion niight provoke them
kill him
to
too

[k].
But

{^3
ea"

Samnia

qua:

conftantia ad

qusefita
erant,

re-

nos

qua

volait,ne
Sulpicio
tabula pollIdus Martiat

Ser.

tarn, nifi ulliusdecrcti Caefarb avt be*


P^il. u i" ^
omnibus, neficii figeretur.
^ood erat notom
C. Csfaria commentariit
f /] Philip.
2. 29.
in
oum
repenebatur:
\k] Quanquam fi interfici
quiexules

fpondebat:

r^ituti?
terea

nihil

unum

neminem.

aicbatypraeNum

im-

Csefarem

voluifle crimen eft"

vide

qusefo,Antont* quid
(ibi foturum fit, quern 9c
Narbone hoc coDfiluim com
.

nanitates

datae ? nullas,re-

fpondebat.Afleatiri ctiam

Tie History

H
A. Urb. 709-

"

^Coff?'^^y
MLius

Cicero often laments, theyhad aP


ruined their caufe,by givingAntony leiT,

as

^"'^ ^

rccoUeft himfelf, and gathertroops about him, by which he forced upon them feveP. CorDo- ral other decrees
their will ; one of them
againft

M. Am'Toniwi,

of tbe Life

LABiLirA.

he had
jjjj^^^j.^" ^^^ veteran foldiers^
whom
about the
drawn up for that purpofein arms

Senate

lowance
and another ftiliworfe,for the al-

[/];

if

to Cafar ; wbicb Atpublic


funeral
both to Cicero
ticus bad been remonft
ratifyagainft
and Brutusj as pernicious
to the peace oftbe City
but it was too late to prevent it ; Antony was
refolved upon it ; and had providedall diinjgs
of inflaming
the
for it,as the bcft opportunity
fome comand raifing
ibldiersand the populace,
motions
of the Republican
to the difadvantage
tus
caufe ; in which he fucceded fo well, that Bruand Caflius had no fmall difficulty
to defend
tbeir lives and boufes
from tbe violenceof bis mob
[m]. In thistumult, Helvius Cinna, one of the
friend of Cae"ir,was
Tribuns, and a particular
in pieces
torn
by the rabble ; bemg miftaken
for the Praetor of that name,
who, as
unluckily
it is iaid above, bad extolled tbe a^ of killing
tbe Roftra: this to alarmed
Cafar in a fpeecbfrom
a

all thofe, who

had

any fimilitude of name


with any of the Confpirators,
that Caius Cafca,
adver^
another Senator, thoughtfit by a public

tbe diftin^ion
to fignify
tifeniUnty
of bis perfonand
principles
notifficepifie

Ad Att. 14. 14.


confilii
eft," ob ejni
nHun'
["r]MeosiniAine te clamtfi fanere
mterficcre- re, caafam periiffe,
focietatem,
cam
elatui effet? at ille etiam In
tar Cafar, turn te a Treboaio Tidimm fevocari. lb. 14. foro combuftus, laudatafqtM
C. Trebonio

[/]

Nonne

omni

ratione

""

niferabiliter;

"
fervique

^teraai, qui armati ad^aat, gentet in teAa


"

cum

no"
pnefidii

icintt9"

nihil babe-

defewkndi foenmt?

iaimifi. Ad
fiictbtts
10^ I4"

t-

noftra cani

Att. 14*

Pluur, in Brot.

^e

i6

of the Life

History

counltls^
unarmed, and purfuing
pacific

A. Urb. 709. a party


Cic 65.
and

their cruft and

in the
fecurity
J^^^ ^f ^^"' caufc. Cicero calls it a Con/piAM-^NiM
[p],who were the chief
P. Cor^^y of Cafaf^sfreedmen
V9.
DoMv"ivs
managers of the tumult : in which the Jews ieem

placingall

LABEt^LA.

jij^ygjjQrn a confiderable part 5 who, out of


hatred to Pompey, for his aiSrontto theirCity
iQ

attached to Csefar,
zealoufly
in Rome^
and, above all the other Foreigners
of
themfelves,by the expreffions
diftinguifhed
their grieffor his death *, fo as to fpcndwhole
de^
at bis monutnentj in a kind of religious
nights
votion to bis memory [y],
Th IS firfttaftof Antony'sperfidy
was
a dear
what littlereaibn
warning to the Confpirators,
theyhad to dependupon him -, or to expedtany
in the City,where he had the foverein
iafety
command, without a guard for their defence
;
which, thoughD. Brutus demanded for them^
theycould not obtain : whilft Antony, to alarm
them dill the more,
took care to letthem know,
and the populace
that the foldiers
were
Joenraged,
that he did not think itpojjible
for any of them to
he fafe[r]. They all therefore quitted
Rome:
Trebonius ftole away privately
for Afta,to take
pofiefiion
and

Temple,

were

{f\Nam
torum

iftaquidemliber- ciTet, demonftrtvit , peffima


Ceiaris conjuratio
fa- fcHioet " iii"ddifliim. Nam

ciJe opprimeretur,
firedle fa-

peret Antonius. Ad

Att. 14*

5.

[f] In

fummo

lupublico

Au exteranim
gentium,multitudo circulatim^fao quaeque more, lamentata eft,
prae-

cipuequeJudci, qui
iiodii"ua continuis

etiam

mihi proviDciam
fe neque
dare poife
aiebatyneqae arbitrariycuto in urbe efle
adeo
noftmm
qaemquam
,
efle militum concitatoi ani"
mos

"

plebia.Quorum

u-

trdmqueefle falfum

puto

animadvertere

placicunx

"

voe

ut liceret
poltulare,
nobis
Romas
efle
publico
freqoentarunt.Sueton.J.CaBr.
:
84quod illoi nobis
prsefidio
[r]Heri apud me Hlrtius concefluros non puto
Ep"

buftum

eft mihi

"

fuiti qua

mcnte

Antonius

ftm" zi"

i*

ofM. "tUL

LIUS

R 0.

CICE

17

which had before A. Urb. 709*


of that prorince,
pofleflion
been aflSgned
to him ; beingafraidof being
preCoff
of Antony : D. Brutus,M. ANToirtvented by the intrigues
himfelf of /i"^Ci/al'
for the fame reafon,poflcfled
P. Co"vs.
Do*
""^^'^s
pineor Italic Gauly which had been conferred
""^"*^*'^
upoh Wm likewifeby Carfar,inorder to ftrengdiall events, and by his
himfelf there againft
en
Co Rome^ to encourage and proneighbourhood
teA allthe friendsof liberty
Brutus,accom: M,
pani^ by Odfius, Hetired to one of his villa^s
'

Lanuvium^

near

conduft, and

to

deliberateabout their future

take fuch meafures,as the accidents

to

of the times and the motions of their ene-^


mies (hould make neceflary.
Bu

as

ibon

as

were
the Confpirators

gone,

his Nbfk, and as if the lateviolences had been accidental onely,and the fudof a vile mob, profcfled
den tranfport
the lanic

Antrniyrefumed

affeded
with the grcateft
of Brutus and
refpeft
moderation

as

before, and

to

ipeak

Camus

and

by him
by ieveral ieafonable adb, propofed
fo much
to the Senate,appeared
to have nothing
other
at heart,as the publicconcord : among
and
decrees he offered onejwhich-was
prepared
drawn up by himfelf,
to dbolijhfor
ever the name
and offiee
(f Diff^ton this ii^emed to be a fitf-e
and gave an unipledgeof his g6od intentions,
verfal latisfeftion
it,
to the Senate 5 who
pafled
without putting
it
as it were,
by acclamation,
the vote
houfe for it to
to

even

and decreed the thanks of the

wards
Antony, who, as Qcero aftertold him, bad fixed
indelible
an
infamyhy
it M Cafar^ in declaring
to the worlds that for
the odium ofbis government^ fucha decree was ^rand ppular [j].
botb necejfary
come
Vol.

III.

[i]Didbturaniy
quae vim
jam

rat, fundit^ e
obfede- lit. De qua
regispotcAatis

Cicero

Repob.fuibi*
ne

fententias

qttid"m

He

i8
A.Urb.

vs^ P.
wcLius

LABILLA.

Caflius [/],not
^^

I-

CorDo-

tbe

Lift

foon afterBrutus and


littlemortified to fee things

by the bdolcncc of their


occsifion to
gave him frequent
lay,that the Ides ofM^rdti bad produced
notbingy
but
the
which pleafed
of
bimj
ibefaSl
day; wbicb
executed indeed with manly vigor but fupwas
thro*
counftls
["].As he pafTed
portedbycbtldijh
the country, he found nothingbut mirth and
in all the great Towns, on the account
rejoicing
of Casfar's death : ^Mt is impoflible
to exprefs,
fayshe, what joy there is every where : how
all peopleflockabout me : how greedythey
^^ wrong
friends ; which

turn,

**

**

^^

hear

to

are

of it from

account

an

do we
ftrangepolitics

what

**

folecifm do

^*

diofe,whom

^^

his ads, for whole death

**

Tyranny to live,when
and the Republic
to be loft,when
ty is recovered [x]/*

*^
"

we
we

me

yet

purfue? What

"

commit?

To

have

fubdued;

be

afraid of
to

defend

rejoice
\ to fuffer
the Tyrantis killed ;
we

our

liber-

Atticus
ftnlta
'neiqae itaqoe
jam Idaum marquidemdlzisnus
C.
tiammeftconfolatio. Animis
verbii per S.
amplijfliinis
"

maxi-

gratias
egimiis
-

Anton

alfo leftRome

Cicero

109.

^c ff^
M.

History

illnd,quod Dh

autem

mom

.^tursB

mftulifti:

nomen

luBc innfta eft a

te

mor-

ufi fomut
Tirilibut;
mihi
confiUtty
crede,puerienim

libus. lb. 1$. 4.


[x] Dici enim noa

poteft

ad ignomi" quantopere gaodeant,ut ad


niam fempiternam^
kc. Phil. me concurrant, utaudirecnI. I. 13.
piant-verba mea ea de ce...
tenerimrfie enim mif^dlfuk^f nt
[/]Itaquecun

tuo

Caefari

bem

nota

viderem,nee
parricidis

viftoi metueremaa"

enim

^nihil

mlKuxfiPfquam
in ccslo efie,
armis oppref- lu^fVKrifm
fa^
-Ad
defendi"
lam ab Antonio, mihi quoque
Tyrtnni
ipfiefle ezcedendttm putavi.Att. 14. 6.
Ad Brut. 15.
O Dii boni! rivit tyrantein ea,

nee

Cafiittm tuto efTe

tam

pofTe,eamqne
.

["] Sed
nihil

tamen

de1c"bt

martias.[Ad

adhuc

me

praeter Idus
Att. 14^ 6, 21. J

nis, tyrannut occidit. Ejus


interfe^i
morte
calaetamur,
defendimu""
jusb"z
ib.9.

ffM. rULLIUS

CICEHO.

19^

fcnt him word of Ibmc remarka- A. Urb. 709.


ble applaufe^
which was givento the famedC(h
Y'
f
or
he
the
what
had
faid
median^Publius^
upon
m.,AntoriAtti

c u $

^'^

ftage^in

iavor of the

publiclibernr} and that vs. P. Conom


DoL, Caffius,
the brother of the Conpiratorj
then nilius
^abix-x-a.
ac^
of the TribunSytvas receivedwith infinite
clanuuionsupon bis entrance into the Theater [j;]
;
which convinced him onelythe more
of the miflake of their friendsin fitting
and trufting
ftill,
to

the merit of their caufe,while their enemies

ufingall arts

were

to

them.
deftroy

This

neral
ge-

which declared itfelffb freely


inclination,
the fide of

liberty,
obligedAntony to aft
with caution,
and as far as poflible,
to perfuade
the City,
that he was on the fame fide too : for
which end he did another thingat thistime both
to death the
prudentand popular,in putting
returned to
Marius^ who was now
Impojior

on

he gave out, the death of


his kinfinan Casfar: where fignalizing
himfelf
the chiefIncenat the head of the mob, he was

Rome^

to

revenge,

as

diaryat

the Funeral, and the fubfcquent


riots,
and threatened nothinglefsthan deftruSion
to the
whole Senate : but Antony, havingferved his
main

with him, of driving


Brutus and
purpofe
the reftout of the City,ordered him to befeized
and bis bodyto be dragged
andftrangledy
through
the Streets[z]: which gave him n-elh credit
with the Republicans
i fo that Brutus,tc^ether
widi Caflius and other friends,
had a perfonal
with
conference

fed

him about this time, which

pat

mutual iatisfaftion
[a].

to

ly] Ex prionThcatnun,

By

[z]

Uncnt

Inpidui eft

illi,qat C.
cognovi,bona fugicivo
Publinmqpe
invaferat.Ph3.
nomen
fignaconleiitieiitisniQltitadi-

Marit
i. 2.

nil. Plaofos vero, L. Caflio


[ii]Aotoniicol]oqmumcam
datua bcettiimihiquidem
vi- noftrisHeroibni pro re nata
fus eft. Ad Att. 14. a.
Ad Att.
incommodum.
"on
Infinito fratrittui plaQfit
6.
^

14.

dimmpitiir.
la.a.
Bp.fiuii.

72^ History

jlp
B

A. Urb. 709.

^C ff'
M. Aston
vs.

I-

p. Cor-

wELiui
LABBLLA.

Do-

thefe

of the Life
the

amufe

Antony hoped to

arts

and induce them to layafide all


Confpirators,
what he moft apvigorouscounfils ; e(pecially,
prehended,that of leavingItaly and feizing
fome provinces
abroad, furnifliedwith troops
^^^ mottcy ; which might put them into a condition
to aft offenfively
: with the fame view he
^

wrote

artfiilLetter

an

conient

to

Cicero, to defire his

to

the reftorationof S.

the chief
Clodius,

agent of P. Clodius, who had been feveral years


in the
in baniihment,for outrages committed

whofe
Cicero himfelf,
on
ag?iinft
City \ chiefly
he was
condemned.
account
Antony, by his
marriagewith Fulvia, the widow of P. Clodius,
of all that femily,
and the
became the proteftor
Tutor of young Publius,her fori; which g^ve
himfelf in
him a decent pretence of interefting
this afiair. He
aflfuresCicero, *' that he had
**
procureda pardonfor S. Clodius from Cae'^
'^

lar

but did

not

intend

to

have made

it,tillhe had obtained his conient

ufe of

and thxf

^'

he

"*

all Caelar's afts 5 yet 1^ would not infifton


this agsunft
his leave
that it would be

**

thoughthimfelf

"

*^
"

to young
Publius,a youthof
obligation
the greateft
hopes,to lethim fee,that Cicero

did

*'

friends

^^
*^
'*
"*
^^
**

"

an

^^

"*

obligedto fupport

now

extend

not

his revenge

to

his Father's

layshe, to inftill
thefe fentiments into the boy ; and to pcrfuade his tender mind, that quarrels
are
not
"

"

permit me,

in families : and tho' your


perpetuated
to all danger;
condition,I know, is fuperipr
a quiet
to enjoy
yet you would chufc,I fency,
to

be

honorable, rather than

and

turbulent old

I have a fortof rightto afk this


laftly,
age
favor of you ; finceI never
refuied any thing
if I do not however
with
to you :
prevail
"

**
""

**

you

ofM. rULLIUS
**

grant itto Clodius ; that you


is with me :
great your authority

fee how

"

may

the
(hew yourfelf

"

%i

I will not

you,

"

CICERO.

on
placable

more

that

ac-

[h]r

count

Cicero

q^q'
m. AntoniP. Cor.
us.

givinghis f^J;^y*
P^'
LABELLA.

hefitated about

never

A. Urb. 709.

'

**"*

'^

confent,to what Antony could and would have


d$ne witboui it : "the thingitfelf,
he knew, was
fcandalous

^^

ed

**

would

never

pardonfaid to be
forgery; and that

and the

by C"far,

"'

have done

grant*
Caefar

it,or fufferedit to be

of that kind beforgeries


every day from Caefar*s
gan to be publiflied
books, that he was almoit tempted,he fays,
anfwered
to wifli for Casfar again[r]." He
him however with great civility
", and in a ftrain
of complaiiancewhich correfponded
but little
of the man
with his real opinion
: but Antony's
public behaviour had merited fbme compli*
under the prefent
ftate of his powments
: and
er,

done; and ib many

'^

**

'^

"

and

the

uncertain condition of their

party, Cicero refolved

to

own

obferve all the forms

with him ; tillby fome


acquaintance
the public
he Jbouldbe
a"l againji
wert
intcrefij
him as an enemy \d].
forcedto confider

old

of an

Antony

3
Antonto

facilHmum me pr""
bai.
Etenim
ilk, qaoniam
tertheigtlu
femel
animum
ad
in
(ibi
indaxit
Antonias
me
fcrip[r]
Clodii:
licere
fit dt reftitutioneS.
quodvellet,feciiTetniad
hilo
minos
horiorifice
invito. Ad
me
me
^am
quod
.

[hiAd

Att. 14. afterLet-

Att. 14. 19.


attinet,ezipfius
litteriscogBofces" quam"Ufrolate,quam [/\Ego tamen

Antonii in*
fine ulla oflfenfione

ita perni- veteratam


etiam
araicitiam retinere fane volo.
Csefar defiderandiuefTevide- Ep. fam. 1 6. 2 3
Cui
quidem ego (emper
atur, facileeziftimabis : quae
amicus fai"antequam
i]lum
enim Caefar nunouam
neque

turpitur,quamque

eiofe,ot nonnunquam

feciiTet^
neque pa"uatSkt,ea
"UBC

ex

falfisejuscommen-

intellext non

modo

apeite,

fedeciamlibentercumRjepabw

tarlis
Egoautem bellum gerere. Ib.zi. 5.
profcruntor.

Tie History

22
K

Urb. 709.

An

^Coff ^"8
M.

P. Cor-

*iBiiu"

but

Life
rq)Iy", ha-

cold

in the mean
time, of fomcperhaps,
him in his condud.
thingwhich did not pleafe
and ckmency
He told him onely,that bis eafinefs

Antoni-

vs.

him

made

tony

tie

Do-

h^^'d

he a
azreeahUto btm^ and tnigbihereafter
to bimfelf
[e].
p^eat pleafure
wasin
the ^een ofEgy^^tj
Cleopatra,
killed; but beingterrified
when Cafar was
Rome
diforby that accident,and the fubfequent
with
ders of the City, (he ran
away prefently
Her authority
and credit
great precipitation.
with Casfar,in whofe houle fhe was
lodged
^cff

LABELLA.

her infolence intolerable to

made

fhe feems
foot with her own

whom

have

to

the Romans

treated

Egyptians
; as

on

the

the lame

of
fubjefts

ablblute power, and the flaves of a Mafter,whom


fhe commanded.
with
Cicero bad a conference

of
; where the baughtinefs
Cafafsgardens
her behaviour gave him nofmalloffence.
Knowing
his taft and character,
fhe made him the
of fome prefent,
but difpromife
very agreeable,
him the more
it: he
by not performing
obliged
her in

does

not

tell us what it was

but from the hints

or
drops,it feems to have been Jlatues
curiojities
of Us
from Egypt, for the ornament
which he was peLibrary; a fort of furniture,
culiarly
fond of. But her pridebeingmortined
by Ca^far'sfate,fhe was now forced to applyto
him by her Minifters for his affiftancein a particular
that
fhe
the
to
fuit,
was
recommending

which

he

Senate,in which
The

aifFair
feems

Son^ whom
called

by

Clodio

leoitatem "

be concerned,

have

related to her Infant


and
fhe pretended
to be Casfar's,

his

to

name

{i]Antonlos ad me
de

refiifedto

he

and

to
laboring

get
him

fibiefle gratam, " mihi mag*

tantnm

meam
refcripfit,

dementiam

was

n"

fore.
voluputi

14. 19*

AA

ktU

^History

24
A. Urb. 709.

^C P'

"
*'
"

M.Antonius.

P. Cor-

KELius
LABBLLA.

Do-

my

charafler

of the Life
fo that I ftiould not

fcruple

proclamethem from the Roftra. Her


but
other Agent, Sara, is not onelya rafcal,

^^

"

has been

""

Houfe

*"

^j^^^ commands
^jjjy^

**

that*he

"

prideof

*'

Gardens, lean

"

fentment:

rude

but

to

once

the

never

and when

faw him

at

I afked him

my
ci-

he had for me, he laid,


look for Atticus. As to the

to

came

me.

Queen, when
never

I faw her in the

think of it without

re-

nothingtherefore

1 will have

to

theytake me to have neither


**
left[b]"
even
nor
feeling
fpirit,
AntoKy
hayingput his affairsinto thebeft
train that he could, and appointedthe firft
of
of
order
in
for
the
Senate,
a meeting
to
June
took the
deliberate on the ftateof the Republic,
of that interval to make a progrefs
opportunity
the quarters
for the fake of vifiting
thro* Italyy
and engagingthem to
of the veteran
foldiers,
his fervice,
by all forts of bribes and promifes.
of the Cityto DolabelHe leftthe government
Csefar,upon his intended expedition
la, whom
and nominated to the
to Partbiay had defigned
: and though Antony had protefted
Confullhip
and refolved to ob"againflthat delignation,
ilruftits effeft,
yet after Ca^far's death, when
Dolabella,
**

do with

them

mihi
Retinaeliiga

non

eum

omnino

domi

mes

vidL

lefti.[Ad Att. 14. 8.3de


Cum
fnolefla
ex
eo
quae^i\offJftH
etiam
Atti"
de
efiet,
Regma v^lim,atque
quid opus
rerem,
fe dixit quaerere. SuCaefare illo. [ib.20.] R^ffj-cam
odi. Me

jurefacere (cit perbiamautem ipfiusRegins,


fponforpromiflbnim ejus cum clTct trans Tibcrim in
Ammonius } quas quideme- hortis, commemorare
fine
nam

dolore non
poflum.
^/AaAoyx, Sc dignitatis
magno
Nihil
condone
di^
vel
ifils
: nee
ut
in
meae,
igiturcum
cere
Saram autem"
animura me, quam vu;
tarn
auderegi,
nefarium
ftomach^m habere ^bitn^I^
paeterquamquod
nominem
cognovi, praetcrca tur. K).

rant

15. 15,

ijim9

9ontumaccm"

Sexnel

ofM. rULLIVS

CICERO.

25

A.
of the general
conDolabella,by the advantage
the enfigns
and ajfumed
fufion,feized
ofthe office^

the hahit.and charaSer

ofthe

Urb. 709,

^J^
^'

ConfuUAntonyqui-m. Astoki.
and acknowledged
bim as fucbat the
P..Correceived^
etly
Donelius
next meeting ofthe Senate [i ].
^^*^^^^*
had alwayskept up a fair correCicero
with his ion in law, tho' he had long
fpondence
him to be void of all virtue and good
known
: but he had now
principles
greater reafon than
for infinuating
as "r as he was
able,
himfelf,
ever
us.

into his confidence

as

in order

to

engage

him, if

the intereds of the

to
pofHble,

uie him

check

upon

the

Republic,and
of his coldefigns

IcgueAntony ; in which he had the greater proof fuccefs,


the account
of their declared
on
Ipeft
ed
enmityto each other. Dolabclla gready confirmthefe hopes; and as foon as Antony had left
think themielves
the City,niade all honeft men
fure of him, by exerting
a moft fevere,as well
as feafonable ad of difcipline,
upon the difturbers of the public
For the mob,
tranquillity.
headed by the Impoftor
Marius^ and the freedmen
bad erehed an altar in the Forum^ an
of CtsfaTy
burnt ", with a
the fpotwhere Cafar^sbodywas
Pillar of Numidian
Marble^ twentyfeetbigh^in^
Father
to
the
country.
of
his
Jcribed
Here theyperformeddaily
and divine
facrifices
rites; and
altar
meaner

uie

of

humor

at thisnew
worihipjping

htfpn to fpreaditfelfto
fort,and

the

(laves,as

uSi
to

among

the

endangerthe

peace and fafety


of the City: for the multitudes
which

flocked

to

the

place,fired with

kind

of enthufiailic
rage, ran furious about the ftreets
committingall forts of outrage and violence

againft
r/l Tunm

de"
CoIIeffam,

oblitusaapoiicis
bimicitiisy
te ipfi"
fjpicia,
Augure

aiia-

ciante,illoprimo die Colletibidie ? oluiiit"


-Philf
gam
1.

13.

Tie History

26
A. Urb. 709.

^c ff
M.

Aktoni-

vs.

wBLivs

P. CorDo-

X.A1ELLA.

of fbt Life
of

againftthe fuppofedfriends

liberty.Bat
Dolabella put an end to the evil at once, bydethe
the Pillar and the AUar^ and feizing
fMliflAng
authors
\ and caufing
fuchoftbem^
ofthe difordcn
as
were
free^to he thrown down the Tarpcian
and tbe^
This gave
2J(?f^,
flavesto be crucified.
iiniverfaljoy to the City: the whole body
an
and
attended the Conful
of the people
to his houfe
\
in the Theaters game him the ufual
teftimony
oftheir
thanks^ by the loudeft acclamations [k].
with this aft,
CicsRO
was
infinitely
pleafed
fince it
and enjoyedfome (hare of the praife,
was
generally
imputedto the influence of his
^

Letter upon it to Atticus -, " O


call
admirable Dolabella ! layshe, 1 now

counfils : in
^'

my
him mine

^^

for,believe me, I had fome doubt


before: the faftafFo^ matter of great
;

^'

of him

'^

: to throw them down the Rock ; to


fpeculation
the Pillar ; pave the area ;
crucify
; demolijh
in Ihort,it is heroic. He has extinguifhed

**
^^

allappearance of that regret for Qefar, which


was
fpreading
every day fo "11, that I began

^^

^"
^^

to

apprehendfome danger to

^^

killers: but I

**

ceive better hopes,"c.

our

agree with you,

now

Tyrant*
and

[/]. Again ;
**

folidim
poftea
EPIebi"
prope ^ds^nd
inam

pe-

con*

the

brave

in urbe
Nam cam
ferperet
infinitaiii
malani"^
qaoti-

die magis mtgiiipie


perditi
dttmltpiduNumididmFoParenti homines cum
fai fixnilibut
ftatuic*
rcripficqae
k
eandem
t
c"ti$
urbit
Patri"" apud
longo fervis,
templis
fufucrificare*
talis
ammadver*
vota
minarcatur;
tempore
fio fiiitDolabells, com
In
cipeiccontroverfiasqaafdam,
aodaoet
fenrosp
fceleratofqoe
interpofitojKrCsfaremjarero

torn in imparos " nefarios


jurando,diftrahereperfeveravit. Suet. J.Caef. 8;.
dves, talifane everfio illiua

Manabat
lam

enim

illud ma*

urbanam, Sc ita

borabator

conro-

ezecratae
t.s."

coiumnae,

recxndajne,qaaBfe"O

quotidie"nt

labeUa"confenfum
ego
qaidem " arbi it otio diffide- atri^-vid. ib. 1 2.
rem

urbano.

Ep. bm.

12. i.

"c. Phil*

[/]Ad

Att

illam tkfi"

14. 15.

tJM.

TULLIUS

CICERO.

hraire aft of Dolabella ! what

27

docs A, XJrh. 709.


profpeft
ceafc praifing
itgiveus ? I never
and exhort^'^pI
dare
him
Brutus,
our
ing
fay,might m. Antoniwalk
now
fafely
throughthe Forum, with a us. P. Coa-

**
"*
**
"
**

crown

of

gold upon

moleft him, when


be their fate? and

"

his head

the rock

:
or

for who
the

dares

is to
crofs

"ei-ivs

*'^"*^*'^

the very lowed of


the peoplegivefuch proofs
of their applaufc

**
**

when

?" He wrote
at the lame
[i"]
approbation
from Baia
the following
JLetter to Dola^

and

**

time

bella himfelf.
Cicero

Though

"'

Dolabella

to

was

content,

Conful.

my

Dolabella,

with your glory,and reapeda fufiiciency


of
but own,
from it,yet I cannot
that
pleafure

"*
**

joy,to find the


inexprefllble
alfo ibme fhare in your
world aicribing
to me
I have met with no body here, tho*
prailes.
I fee fo much company
every day (forthere
for
now
at this place
are
worthymen
many
it gives me

**
**
**
**
**

an

the fake of their health,and many of my acfrom the great towns) who, after
quaintance

**
"*

extolling
give
you to the fkies,does not
thanks prefendyto me;
not
doubdng, as
theyall fay,but itis by my precepts and ad(hew yourfelf
vice, that you now
to be this
admirable Cirizen,and fingular
Conful : and
though I could afTure them with great truth,
that what you are doing flows whollyfrom
your"lfand your own judgment,and that

**
**
"*

"*
^^
**
**
^^

'*

[m\ O

Dolabellaenoftrii-

ti^^l qaantaeftJVAduff

B"m
"

laudarc
c^oidem

boitan

Don

quidemvidetur

^m

v"l

coronam

enm

defifto" mihi
Bmtus
auitam

noOer
per

forum ferre pofle


:

you

qniienim

andeatvioUrCypropofiticruce
taatit
ant iaxo ? pradertim
tanta approbattione
planfibas

infimonun?

ib. lo.

Do-

'28
A.Urb.
Cic.

^eHidTORYoffbe
7^"

63.

"*
4C

Coin
M. Amofiu
V3.

P. Cor-

niLius
labilla.

Do*

"*
c"
^(

Lift

the adyice of any one


not
you want
neither whollyaflent,leftI ihould

than
glory,
a

ought to

diminution

But

be.

to

you^

("

honor

CC

Kings, to

CC

while itwill be

iC

Conful, the icholar,as it were,

CC

in
pline,florifhing

CC
CC
CC
CC
CC
CC
"c
CC

CC

to

even

have

Neftor

to
glorious

Dolabella

*,

my Sifter'sSon,
be fafe: but as

CC

C(
CC
CC

of it \ and

CC
CC

the

King

of

to

me,

fee a young
of my difci-

of

fhould all now

to

your

Dolabella,I both

and thank him

fince

he is the
Confulfliip,
can
trulycalla Conful :

ner
your aft,and the mandeclared,that nothingwas

greater, nothingnoUer, nothingmore


to the flate : and this indeed is the
falutary

ever

voice of all.

common

I
a

Altow

me

therefore,

beg of

you, to take fome fhare,tho* it be


falfeone, in the pofieflion
of another man's

glory-, and admit me in fome degreebto a


of your praifes.
But to be ferious,
partnerfhip
been king,
joI would fooner transferall the credit
that I have to
have any, than
you, if I really
rob you of
any part of yours : for as I have
my

CC

an

for his counfeUor

Antony, we

with him,
congratulate

CC

CC

was

for if I had the fame credit with

onelyone, whom we
he then enlarged
upon

CC

which

applaufe.
L. Csefar,when I vifited him lately
fide at
with painin every
Naples^though oppreflfed
fapart of his body, yet before he had even
lutcd me, could not forbear cryingout, O
with you on account
my Cicero! I congratulate
of the authority,
which you have with

CC

CC

that

ver
ne-

the midft

from the time of your

CC

derogate

can

Agamemnon,

CC

CC

yet I

from your merits by making it (eem to prony


cede from my counfil 5 nor do I Rronglydeit, beingmyfelfperhapsmore
greedyof
oe

CI

Dolabella,for hidierto

I have

"

always

efM.
""

TULLIUS

CiaERO.

29

that fincereaflfe"ionfor you,


fo now
which you have been no finuiger,
fo charmed by your late condud, that
am

alwayshad

love

ever

was

ardent.

more

A. Urb. 709.

^q^^*

I
no

j^ AvToirt.

For, believe

there is nothingafterall more

me,

to

vt.

P. Coa*

engaging,vslivs

Do*

beautiful,
nodiingmore
nodiingm"Mie love- """"""'"*"
lythan virtue. I have ever loved M. Brutus,
you know, for his incomparable
parts, fweet
lingular
probity,and firmnefi of
difpofition,
mind : yet on the IdesofManbj fuch an acmade to my love, that I was furceffion was
for increafe in that,
to find any room
prized
which I had long ago taken to be foil and
Who
could have thoughtit poffiperfieft.
ble, that any addition could be made to my
has been added,
love of you ? Yet fo much
that 1 feem but now
at laft to love,before
have

to

onely efteemed

thereforediat I muft
it to

you.

What

exhort you
and
purfuethe path "^ dignity
now

is it
to

? Is

glory?

thofe do, who ufe to exhort,fhali I


I"opofeto you the examplesof eminent men ?
And
I

as

can

think of

ielf. You
contend

none

muft

imitate therefore

yourfelf
; for

with

thingsdone,

eminent

more

it would

be

than your

yourfelf
;

after fuch great


to
difgrace

you
Since this then is the
to be like yourielf
not
cafe,there is no occafion to exhcxt, but to
you : for that has happened
fcarce ever
happened to any

with
congratulate
to

you,

man,

which

that

by

the utnxyft feverity


of

punifh-

odium, you are be^


ing,inltead of acquiring
come
popular; and not onelywith the better
fortybut the very mcar.eft of the City. If
this was
owing to fortune,I Ihould congratulate
but
it
was
owing to the
;
your felicity
of your courage, as well as of your
greatnels
"

parts

1/
^

parts and

A. Urb. 709.
Cic. 63.
Coff.
M.

I have

read your

into the reafon of your aft, and retire


that the cafe itfelf,
in the
from it fo artfully,

P. Cor.

HILIVS

For

wifdom.

Ipeechto the people: nothingwas ever more


and graprudent: you enter fo deliberately
dually

Antoni-

vs.

of the Lifi

Tie l{i%TOKY

3'

Do-

LABBLLA*

opinionof all,appears
You

mcnt.
cc
**
**
**
^^
*'
**
**

ripefor punifh-

dangerand our fears,and have done an


aft of the greateft
fervioc,not onelyto the
times, but for the exampleof it alfo
prcfent
You are to confider,that the
to pofterity.
Republicnow reftsupon your (houlders ; and
but
that it is your part, not onelyto proteft,

our

from whom
have readorn thofe men,
we
of our liberty
ceivcd this beginning
: but of

to

(halltalk

this we

*^

I hope we
again,as

**

while, fince you

**

dian both of the

"*

be

have freed us thereforeboth from

**

*^

to

care,

are

now

make
his Son

from

excurfion

an

at

common

guarall,take

us

dear Dolabella, that you

this retreat

the

Republicand of

efpecially
your

more

my

fullywhen we meet
fhall fhortly
: in the mean

more

to

own

Rome

fafety
["]/*
he had

Greece^and pay

Albens^ whofe conduft did

him, and leemed

guard
mind

to

vifitto

not

pleafe

bis prefence
to reform
require
andfetit right
[0].But the news of Dolabella's
behaviour,and the hopeswhich it gave of gaining
the onely
and
a Head
thingthat was wanted^
Leader of their caufe^
armed with the authority
of the ibte, made him refolve to fbiy
at leafl:
tillafterthefirfi
^June, leflhis abfence (hould
be interpreted
did he
as a kind of defertion: nor
intend indeed to leave Italy tillhe could
ever
to

do
Ep. hm. 9.

14.

Att. 14.

1).]magni

intereft

Quod fentto valde efle


utile ad conlirmatioiiein Ci-

vel mehercnle

ceroniSyineillocTenire.
[Ad

intervenin diTcenti.lb. 16.

CkeroDis, vel mea


potius"
Qtriaibue"me

ja
A. Urb. 709.

^c

whom

"

doing my endeabut lives with


vour
: he talks very honeftly,
Balbus ; who
talks honeftly
far
too : how
theyare to be trufted,
you muft conlider [j]."

ff

us.

AntoniP. Cor-

KBLius
LABELLA.

Do-

of the Life

"

**

M.

History

"
**

Brutus dabbed

raakt him

^^

better,I

to

as

their defiring
me

am

of all tiiisfetof men,


Matius was the
in condemning the a6t
moft open and explicit,
BuT

of the

fo
Confpirators,

as

to

put Cicero

out

of

humor

irreconcileable to the
with him, as a man
libertyof the Republic. Cicero called upon

his way from Rome


into the Country,
and found him fuUen, defponding,
and foreboding
him

on

the
as
nothingbut wars and deiblation,
of Caelar's death.
certain confequence
Among
of their converfation,
other particulars
Matius
which Casfar had lately
told him fomething
faid
both of him and Brutus ; that he ufed to fayof
of great conlequence
it was
whidi
Brutus,
*^

**
"
""
^*
""
""
**

finoe whatever he had


way he ftood inclined,
mind to, he purfuedwith an impetuous
a
this of him
: that he had remarked
eagernels
in his pleading
for Deiota*
more
efpecially,
be Ipoke with a furat Nicaa 5 where
rus
prizingvehemence and freedom : and of
Cicero, that when he was attending
Caciar,
in the caufe of Seftius,
Cseiar perceiving
him
utting
"

[q] Miliime enim obTcu- fimnl $c defiflemot tioiere.


illinudo faiile:
eft,quidiftimoliantur : Clementnm
rum
xneus

hodie
amat

vero

qui
difdpalusy

valde
camat,
apud
ilium,quem Brutus nome

qua

fi ufus

non

eflet,nihil

tale accidere potuiife.


Ad
Att. 14. 22.

iter fauciavit," fi queris,


Qgod Hirtium per me meenim plane,timent
llorem fieriYolunt, do e^uiperfpexi
otium. vVodtnr autem
dem
hanc
operam" " illeoptime

lubent,^
eamque
runt,

virum

prae

fe fe-

dariffimum

terfe"luffl,
totam
illiusinteritu
irrita fore,qu"

in-

Rempub.

fed
loquitur,
Balbo

vivit habitatque

qui item bene


loquitur.Quid credas fide*
c"m

pertuibatam: ris. lb. 20,21.


iUe

egiiTetf

rULLIUS

tfM.
*"'
"

CICERO.

33

and
the room,
called, faid ; can I doubt

waitingtillhe was A. Urb. 709.


of my
beingex^*^^Cicero fits waiting,
m, Antoni-

in
fitting

**

treipelyodious,

'*

and

"

be

""

"

me

get accefs to

cannot

me

yet if any

man

U3.

P. Cor-

Doeafyenough to forgiveit,itis he, though nehus


but dut he really
hates ^^"'^''^do not queftion,
[r]/*

There

were

feveral reafons however, which

it neceffary
to thefe men,

made
at

when

this time

as

much

as

ever

to

court

for if the

he
itfelf,

Cicero

lic
Repub-

of all men

was
happenedto recover
the moft capableto protedthem on that fide :
if not, the moft able to afiiftthem againft
Antony,
-and fuccefs they dreaded
whofe defigns
have a new
ftillmore
: for if they muft
mafter,
for the fake of Caefar,to
they were difpofed,
We
preferhis Heir and Nephew Odavius.

find Hirtius and Panfa therefore very affiduous


in their obfervance of him : theyfpent
a great

part of the fummer

with him

at

differenttimes

in his Villa's,
affurangivinghim the ftrongeft
and difpofition
of their good intentions,
to
ces
be the Arbiter of their
peace, and that be Jhould
: and
though he continued ftill
futureConfuljhip
to have fame dtjiruji
ofHirtim^ yet Panfawholly
bim, that be wasfincere
[/].
perfiaded

^OL.

[r]De

HI.
Bruto noftro" Ca-

farem folitam dicere. Magni


refert hie quid velit : fed

qaicquidvult, vsdde vult.


animadvertiiFe
idque eum
Deiotaro
Niceas
cum
pro
valde vehementer
dizerit

Brutus

in
ego dubitem quinfammo
odio fim, cum
M.
Cicero

fedeaC,nee
conventre

fuo comxnodo

me

ft

poflit?Atqui

hic eft :
quifquamell faeilis*
tamen
dubito, quinme
non

male oderit. Ad Att. 14. i


Panfa vizi in
vifum*
eum
[i] Cum
Pompeiano. Is plane mihi
Atque etiam proxime cum
fe bene (entire Sc
fuif- probabat,
Seft'iirogatu apudeum
fem, ezpeflaremque(edens cupere pacem, "c. Ad Att.
.

8c libere dicere.

quoadvocarerj

diiilTccum;

14.

20,

it. 15.

i"

^^

34
A.Urb.

^P ^3M.

AtrroNi-

us.

P.

KELius

LABELLA.

ConDo.

and Cafiius continued ftillnear

Brutus

109.

of the Life

History

La^

of Cicero* j Villa
nuvium, in the neighbourhood

^ft^^^9 of which, at Cicero's dcfire,they


fometimes made ufe [/]: being yet irrefolute,
what
meafures they (hould take ", they kept
thcmfdvcs
quietand retired,cxpeftingwhat
time and chance would offer ; and waitingparticularl

^^

to

be in

at

the

fee what
next

humor

the Confuls would


with

meeting of the Senate,

regard to themfelves and the Republk::and


driven from the difchargeof
fincc they were
in the City,
their Prsttorfhip
theycontrived to
put the peoplein mind of them from time to
time by their edids, in which they made
the
of their pacific
difpofition,
ftrongeft
profeflions
that their conduiSt ftiould give
and declared,
and that they
handle for a civil war;
no
**
would fubmit to a perpetual
exil,if it would
*'
contribute in any manner
to the public
con**
cord, beingcontent with the confcioufiiefsof
*'
their aft, as the greateft
honor which they
could enjoy["]." Their prefent
defignwas
to come
on the firji
to Rome
ofJune, and take
their places
in the Senate, if itfhould be thought
advifeable ; or to prefent
themfelves at leaftin
the Rojlra^and try the affcftionsof the people,
for whom
Brutus was
a fpeech.
preparing
They
font to know Cicero's opinionof this projeft,
with the copy alfo of that fpeech
which Brutus
"

*'

**

made

[0

Velim

mthcrcule

A*

belliciviiisprebituros
mate*

fturat Brutas.

[Ad Att. 14. riam, plurimnm fibihonoris


apud me faifle efle in confciencia fa^li fui"
gattdeo:modo "" libenter Ac. [Veil.P. 2. 6a.] Ediiuerit ft fat diu. lb.
aum
Broti ie Caffii probe.
15. 3.
Teftati
["]
cdiab^ liben- [Ad Att. 14. 20.] Deqoibtis
ter fe v"] in
fpem te habere figperpetoe exillo tu bonam
dnm
nificaspropter edi^orum huvi^uroa,
Reipob.con1 1

.] Brotum

flaretconc"rdig,ncc

alhtfA

BUnitatem. lb. 15.

i.

ofM. "tULLIUS

CICERO.

35

A. Urb. 709.
dayofCa/ar's
deatby
bis reveal
and correction ofity in order to
begging
^^q^'
if 5 being
of
it m. Antonipuhlijhed.Citcro, in his account

fHode in the

the

on
Capitol

is drawn

to

Atticus,lays,** the Oration

**

the utmoft

eleganceboth

""

ftile;

were

*"

fire. You
fliould work
it up with more
know the charaftcr of the focaker: for which
reafon I could not correct it. For in the
in which ouf friend would elccell,
and
ftile,
to the idea, which he has formed
accofding
of the beft manner
he has fucof ibeaking,

"*
"*
**
""
"

yet

ceded

*"

but whether I

**

""
**
**

**
"
"*
**

**
"

of fentiments and

handle

to

die

lb wfcll,that ftotning
can

"'

am

of

in the

am

with

rightor

quitedilftrent taft.

vs.

"k*-'^'

^^""^'

I
fubjeft,

be better:
the wrong,
I wifh how-

read it, if you have


and let me
know what you
not
already,
think of it: thoughI am afraid,leftthrough
of your name,
the prejudice
you fliouldfliew
much
of the Attic in your judgment:
too
yet if you remember the thunder of Demoftthat the greateft
henes, you will perceive,
of Attic
force may confiftwith the perfedtion
ever,

that you

would

M."
elegance
AttIcus

the

manner

did
too

likfethe fpeech;
he thought
cold and fpiritlefs
for fo great
not

occafion ; and beggedof Cicero to draw up


another to be publiftied
in Brutufs name
: but
Cicefo would not confent to it, thinkingthe
an

and knowing,that Brutus


thingitfelf
improper,
would take it illiy]f In one of his Letters on
"
the fubjeft,
Though you think me in the
wrong, fayshe, to imagine,that the Re**
public
dependson BfUtus,the faft is certain""

"
**

lyfo :

there will either be none


will be laved by him wid his
D

[jr]Ad Att. ij.1.

at

all,or it

acdomplicei.
*"

["] lb. J, 4.

P. Con-

A$

^^'

^e

.36
A. Urb. 709.

^c ff^'
P. Cor-

NELius

LABELLA.

Do-

write

"

As

*'

^"^* ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^

"

^^'"^'^^^^^' which

by

"

found

that there

M.Antonius.

of the Life

History

"

tc

to

urging me

your

or

be true,
Orator, who

^^

himfcif

""Rafter
the

defire : I liked mine

*'
"

"

"

think

Poet

preferable
with bad

then of Brutus

learning?efpeciall
late experiment
of him, in the calc

**

at

wit and

of the edi6l

"

was

even

*'

"

never

thls is the cafe


we

fpeechfor

Atticus, as

one

lias both

"who

"^y

thought any

fhall

what

^^-ones:

gcI
have
long experience

"^^*

to

to

I drew

one

for him

at

your
when
his
he
: befides,
;
his earneil follicitation
I addrelTed to him
:

Treatife

up

he
manner
beft
of/peaking^
wrote
word, not onelyto nie, but to you too,
that the kind of eloquence
which 1 recomLet every one
him.
mended, did not pleafe
therefore compofe for himfelf
I wifh onely
that it may be in his power to make
a fpeech
he can appear againwith
at all ; for if ever
have gained the viftoat Rome^ we
fafety
my

on

the

"

''

"

"

*^

ry
1 N

[z]:*^
this interval a

Aftor

on
appeared

the

tho* hitherto but littleconfidered,

who,
.ftagc,
foon made

new

the firftfigureupon

it,and drew all


peopleseyes towards him, the young OlfaviuSj
who was
left by his uncle Cafar, the heir of Iiis
name

and eftate. He

before

had been fent a few months

2l celebrated Academy,
or
Apollonian
fchool of learning
in Macedonia^ there to wait

to

for his uncle


in which

he

on

was

his way to the Parthian war,


to attend him : but the news

of Caelar'sdeath fbon

broughthim

back

to

Italy^

fortunes he could carve for himfelf,


by die credit of his new name, and the helpof
his uncle's friends. He arrived at Napleson the
to

try what

eighteenth
of April, whither Balbus

went

the
next

{z\ Ad Att. 14. aa

rULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

37

morningto receive him, and returned the A. Urb. 709.


feme day to Cicero near
Cuma^ having firft ^^ flf
condu6bed 06lavius to the adjoining
Villa of bis m, AntoniFatber in law Philip:Hirtius and Panfa were
P. Corwith Cicero at the fame time,to whom
theyim- ffJ;"yf
P^'
LABBLLA.
with
Oftavius
the
mediately
ftrongeft
prefented
the part of the young
tbaS
on
profeflions
man,
be would be governed
bybis direSlion [^.]
intirely
fole pretenfion,
which
The
he avowed
at.
prefent,
was, to affert his rightto the fucceflion
and to claim the poffeflion
of his uncle's cftate,
of it: but this was
dy
thoughtan attempt too harand dangerous
for a mere
boy, fcarce yet
above eighteen
years old : for the Republican
of him, left
party had great reafon to be jealous
next

us.

'*"'"'

the inheritance of the Eftate, he fhould


grafpat the power of his uncle ; and Antony

with

who

ftillmore,

deftined that fucceflionto

had

feized the effefts,


leftby
himfelf,and already
of all that wealth,Oflavius might
the advantage
be in

condition

make

head

againfthim.
The mother therefore and her huftjand Philip,
for his fafety
him to fufout of concern
prefled
vidious
p0ndbis claim fora wbile^ and not ajfumean ina

to

name^

before he could fee what

turn

the

publicaffairs would take : but he was of too


of caurelilh any fuggeftions
to
tion
great a fpirit
and infamousto think himit bafe
; declaring
filfunworthyof a name^ of which Cafar bad
there were
him worthy[b']
: and
thought
many
D

about

[(]
[tf]0"laviusNeapoHmvenit a.xl. ziiii
Kal. ibi eifin
Balbus mane
; eopo(lrIdie
in
die
Camecum
demque
Hie
mano.
[AdAtt.14.10.]

Balbus,Hirtius,Pan
venit 0"lavius,8e

mecum

fa. Modo

quidem in prozimam villam


mihi
Philippi,
lb.

II.

totus dcditus.

Non

Atiae
placebat
vitrico,
matri, Philippoaue

adiri nomen
ns

invidiofs fortucoeleftis
fprevit
humana confilia"di-

Caefaris.

animus

"

fkitansnefas tSc,quo nomine


Cxiari dignuseffet vifus,fi*

bimetipfumvideriindignum*
Veil. P.

2.

60,

Ti/ HisTORV

jS
A. Urb. 709.

^C flf
*

M^AntohiV9.

P. Co"-

KELius

LAiELLA.

Do-

about him

of the Life

conftantly
pulhinghim

throw

to

on,

himfelf upon the afFcftionsof the City,and the


before his enemies had made themfelvea
army,

llrongfor

too

be

at

Rome^ and

termined

and

ing of
"

"*
**
"
**

him

fo that he

into adtion

enter

fire

on

was
;

to

beingdc-

the credit of

hopes on

troops of his

the friends and

he leftthe country, Cicero fpeak-

RE

" F o

to

rifleall his

to

his name,
uncle.
B

him

Atticus,fays,** Oftavivisis ftill

to

with. the greateft


with us, and treats me
re: his domeftics givehim
ipeftand friendlhip
of Cseiar

does not i nor for


Philip
for him,
that reafon do I. It is not polfible
in my opinion,to make a good Citizen ;
die name

fo many

threaten

about him, who

"*

there

"

the death of

**

what

*'

will be the cafe,think you, when the


deliverers
to Rome^ where
our
boy comes
(hew their heads ? who yet muft ever
cannot

*"
"
**
"*
"
"
"

are

friends: they declare,that

our

they have

done

can

be

never

forgiven.

What

be famous, nay,
nefs of their ad

in the confciouf-

happy too,
:

but

as

for us, unlels I

am

deceived,we fliallbe undone. I long thcrcfore to go abroad, where I may hear no more
of diefc
A

6fc. [r]."
Pclapida,

foon

produced to

Odavius came
the peopleby ope

and

fpeechto

made

Rome^ he was
of the Tribuns,

to

as

them

from

tbi

Rofirnj
which

Nobifcum hie pcrhp- ccnfe,cam Romam


pucr wk tinic"!Oftavius :
abi
noftri
liberatores
nerit^

norince

qoemqaidemfuiCaeraremfa-tuti efie non poflunt? oui


iu- quidcmTempererunt
lutabant,Philippas
clan ;
non
faflifuictlconfci^ntia
nos
que nc
quMcm; qocm
vero
"

ncgopoflcbonum civcm, iu
multi circumtlant,qui
quidem
noftris

mortem

minitantur.

am

betti: fed no3,

nifi me

fallit,
aveo
jacebimus.Itaque

ex!re"abinecPelopldarum'"-

NeganthaecfcrripoffcQuid
adAtt.

if

i".

^n"e History

40
A.

of the Life

Urb. 709.

Knights teftifiedtheir applaufeby a general


^C ff^ ^^P' -^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ account of this to Cicero,
which was
to him
[^] : but he
very agreeable
M.AwTONiwith Oftavius's conduft,
P. Cornot
was
at all pleafed
DoMELIUS
(ince it indicated a fpirit
determined
to revive
us.

L ABELL

A.

^j^^mcmory,
and

he

and

bad

which

he had

made

him

Matius

was

to

hear alio,that

pleafedto

upon him the care


fii^c it confirmed
the
before conceived

that
apprehenfive,

illCounfellor

feems

the death of Caelar

taken

Jhews [i"3"

he

avenge

the le"

was

Matins

to

of tbefe
fufpicion,

of Matius

he would

be

and
an

Odavius, in which light


young
have reprefented
him to Brutus.

to

informed

complainedto

their

of Cicero's unkind

of thefe

and
fufpicions,

friend Trcbarius^

common

ment
treatopinionand unfriendly

lowing
of him, which gave occafion to the folapologyfrom Cicero, and the anl'wer to
it from Matius ; which is defervedly
valued,

onelyfor the beautyof its fentiments and


to us a name
compofuion,but for preferving
and charad^er,
which was
almofl loft to Hiftowho
ry, of a moft efteemed and amiable perfon,
livcd*in the firftdegreeof confidence with Casand virtue,was
far,and for parts, learning,
not

fcarce inferior to any of that age.


takes .pains
Cicero
Matius,
to perfuade
that he had faid

nothingof him, but what was


confident with the ftrifteft
fi-iendlhip
j and to
his apogainthe eafier creditwith him, prefaces
logy
with a detail and acknowledgementof
and obfervaifceof
Matiu"'s perpetual
civilities,
him

thro* life,even

when

in the

of
heigth

his

power
[g\ De

Sella CsGirts,bene
TribunL
Praeclaros etiam
xiv. ordincs. Ad Att. 1 5. 3.

[hiL^idorum ejusappafa-

tus, k

Matins

procuratores
Att. 15. 2,

nOD

ac

Poftomiut

placentA4

ofM. rULLlUS

"

"
"*
^^

"'
^*
^^

^^
**
**
**
*^
"*
'*
**

**
"'

**

and obferves
tenderly,

onelyin

general,
]^. Antohi^
That as Matius's dignity
expoledevery thingus. P. CoitDowhich he did to public
notice,fo the malice w^i-iu*
Isabella.
fome of his ^"t%
of the world interpreted
more
hardlythan they defcrved : that it was
his care
always to give the moft favorable
but you, fayshe, a man
to them
turn
of the ^reateft
are
not
learning,
ignorant;
in
faA a King, as I indeed
that if Caviar was

it very
**

Cflciar: but when

^CoC

to

comes

41

he A, Urb. 709,
he touches
the pointof the complaint,
credit widi

and

power

CICERO.

look upon him to have been, there are two


the cafe of your duty :
ways of confidering
either that,which

commonly take, of exand humanity,in (hewtolling


your fidelity
ing fo much aflfeftioneven to a d^ friend ;
fome peopleufe ; that
the other, whkh
or
the liberty
of our Countryought to be prethe lifeof any friend. "I wilh that
had heard with what zeal h ufcd to de-

ferred
you

to

fend you in thefceonverfations

but there

are

that make
the princithingsefpecially,
which na nun
palpart of your praife,
fpeaks
of more
dian 1 5
frequendydr more
freely
"'
that you, of all Qeiar's friends,were
the
^'
moft aAive both in difluading
the civil war,
^^
and in moderatingthe vi"ory; in which I
"**
have met with no body who does not agree
"*with.me, fcfr.[i]/*
two

^*
**

'

Mativs
**

**

tO.ClCSRO.

Your

Letter gave me
by
great pleafure,
fee
that
favoftill
retain
that
me
lettiftg
you

"*

rable

**

indeed
wiflied -, and tho' I had never
any doubt of it,yet for the high value that

^*

opinionof

me,

which

I had

ped and

[Q Ep.fam. 21.

17.

alwaysh6-

Tie Hist

4a
A. Urh. 7#9.

p'
^JS*

"
^^

vf

?. Cor*

to

"

honeft

man

c"

of your great and excellentacperjfan


could be induced to take any
compliihments
without reaibn,efpecially
one, who
a^iinft
had alwaysprofeffed,
and ftillcontinued to
to you. Since all
a (incere good-will
profefs,
this then ftands juft
as I wifh it,I will now
give an anfwer to thofe accufations,from
which you, agreeably
to your character,
out
of your fingular
have
goodnefsand friendihip,
fo often defended me.
I am
no
to
ftranger
what has been faid of me
by certain perfons,

^^

i"Lius

LABiLLA.

Dd-

I fct upon it, I was very follidtous that it


ihould remain alwaysinviolable: I was con-"
fi^ous

**

Ant^vn

M.

of tie Life

OKY

^'
^^

^*
^^

""

^"
"^

"*
"*
^^

myfelf,that I had done nothing


which could reafonably
give offence to any
\

and did

imagine therefore,

not

jj^j^j
^

they call it a crime

"^

fince CasfaPs death

"^

me,

^^

that the man


whom
intimate friend,and ibrry
with ib unhappy a "t}e : they
I loved met

^^
*'

^"

that I

am

it evident,that his death

"^

: but
Republic
myfelfnot to

**

an

fay,that our Country ought to be preferred


made
to any friendihip,
as iftheyhad already

"*

**

for the lofs of

concerned

in

I will
be

not

of fervice to the

was

deal

arrived

at

: I own
craftily
that degreeof

did I yet follow Caeiar in our


but my friend; whom, thrf
diflenfions,

wifdom

"Mate

nor

with the thing,I could not de"rt :


difpleafed
"for
I never
approved the civil war, or the
caufe of it ; but took all poffible
painsto
ftifleit in itsbirth. Upon the victory
there-

^^

*^

*'

^'

fore of

f^

thcr

*"
'*
*^

"'

familiarfriend,I

was

not

^er

ei*

ador
i^dvance,
to enrich myfelf:an
vantage, which orhers,who had leisintercft
with him than I, abufed to great excels. Nay,

my

to

circumftances

law,

to

whofe

were

even

kindnefs the

hurt

by Caefart

greateft
part of
"

thofe.

ofM. rULLIUS
*"
*'
**
*'

**
**
""

""
"*
**

*^
*'
^*
"
*^
"
**

CICERO.

43

A. UA. 709/
at hi" death" owed
rejoice
theirvery continuance in the City. J foUi- ^q^P'
with the m. antohicited the pardopof the vanqqiflied
lame ?calfas if it had been for myfelf.Is it ui. p. Cq^t.
Oq*
wbI'Iu*
for mc, who labored to
thcr^fpre
poffible
pro- ^^^^^^^*
the lafety
of ajl,not to be concerned for
cure

thofe,whp

now

the death of Wmi

from whom

I ufed to prothe very fame men,

when
it? cfpecially
who were the cavfeof making him odious,

cure

him. But
the authorsalfoof deftroying
I (hallhave caufe,theyfay,to repent, for
daringtp condemn their ad;. Unheard of
t that itibould be allowed to fome
infolence

were

glorym a wicked aftion,yet not to others,


But
even
at itwithout punifliment.
to grieve
this was
alwaysfree even to (laves,to fear,
will, not
and grieveby their own
rejoice,
to

which

yet thefe men,

"

that of another

"

call themfelvesthe authorsof

"

deavouringto extort from us


their threats: for
terror. But theymay fpare
from performing
no
me
danger fliullterrify
my dutyand the officesof humanity : (ince it
that an honeft death
was
alwaysmy opinion,

*"
*"
**
"(
**

**
"
^^
"

**

was

never

tp

-,

who

cnarc
liberty,
by the force of

be avoided, often

even

to

fought.But why are theyangry with me,


wilhingonely,that theymay repent of

be

for
their

si"ti 1 wiflithat all die world may


regret
CaefaP? death* But I ought, they %, as ^

member of civilfociety,
to wi(h the good and

of the Republic.If my paftlifeand


(afety
** fiiture
hopesdo not already
prove that I wilh
V it, without my (ayingfo, I will not pretend
""
I beg of you thcreto evince it by argument.
**
fore in the ftrongdlterms, to attend to fefts
**

**

*"

ratherthan to words : and if you think it the


in my drcumitanots, that
moft vJtiiHto me
"* what

A;Urb.

709*

^c ff^

what

"

"

P. Cor-

w"Lius
'

LABBLLA.

Do-

rightfliould take place;

is

Ima-

never

g'^^"^hat I can have any union or commerce


1 afted the fame
with ill-defigning
men.
where to miftake would
part in my youth,
undo it all
have been pardonable
; (hallI then
dein
my principlesmy
again,and renounce
do
dining age ? No ", it is my refolution to
it
nothing that can give any offence ; except

*'

M. Antoniif".

of the Life

Tibe History

44

"

*t
*'

*'
**

the cruel fate of

I lament

be, when

*'

friend and illuftriousman.


rent fentiments,I would

**

**

If I
never

were

dear

in diflfe-

difown

what

doing; Jefl I Ihould be thought,not


onelywicked for purfuingwhat was wrong,
it. But
but falfeand cowardlyfor diilembling

**

*'
"

was

of the (hews, which


the care
I undertook
of his
exhibited for the viftory
young Caefir
of
not
affair of private,
an
uncle : this was
what I ought to have
it was
:

"

'*

*'

publicduty
performedto

*'
**

dead

*'

**
**
*'

friend

and honcH* of my
the memory
and what I could not therefore

hopes^and fo
deny to a youthof the greatcft
highlyworthy of Caefar. But I go often alfo
complito the Conful Antony'sto pay my

men
go
yet you will find thofe very
refleft
who
*'
oftner to aflc and receive favors,
**
dilaffedled to my Country.
upon me for it,as
Casfar ne*'
But what arrogance is this? When
I would ;
*'
whom
from vifiting
ver hindered me
he did not care for ; that
thole whom
f ' even
"'
they, who have deprivedme of him, Ihould
**
by their cavils to debar me from pla-'
**

ments

attempt

Bulf
I think prq^er.
not
afraid,that either the modeflyof
life Ihould not be fufRcient to confute alf

*'

cing my

''

*'

"

"'

**

am

my

where

cfteem

felfcreports of me
who do not love

far,would

not

for the future,


or that

they,

for^
to Caemy conftancy
chufe to: have theirfnends reme

*^ftmblc
,

CICERO.

(?/M TULLIUS

rather than themfelves.

iemble me,

*'
"

own

45

part, if I could have

wilh,

my

my

A. Urb. 709.

I would

^qJ^'

For

of my days in quietat m. antoniRhodes: but if any accident prevent me, will us.
P. CorDolive in fuch a manner
at Rofne^ as always to melius

fpendthe remainder

"

*'
"

"

dcfirc that what

*'

obligedto our
greatly
givingms this aflurance of your fincere and
friendly
regardfor me, and for making it my
and obferve a man,
whom
I
duty to refpeft
had efteemed always before with inclination.
Take
of your health,and preferve
care
me
in your affeftion
[*]/*

"

*'

**
**
*'

"

is

rightmay

prevail. I am
friend Trebatius,for

all this while

Antony

was

^^^^^^^*

idle ; but

not

defignswith great vigorand addrefs : in his progrefs


his bufithrough Italy,
nefe was
to gather up Casfar's old foldiers
from
the fcveral colonies and quarters in which they
fettled; and by largebribes,and larger
were
and
promifesto attach them to his interefts,
on
puflied

his

great bodies of them towards Rome to be


readyfor any purpofe,that his affairsfliouldrequire.

draw

In

City likewife

the

he

negleftedno
which his Confular authority
offered,
means,
how
unjuftor violent foever,of ftrengthening
his

[i] Ep. fam.

XI.

Cn. Matius lived


wards

in fuch

28. This

long after-

hvox

and fa-

milbrity with

Auguflus,as
diftiaguiOied
by the ti-

and luxurious life,


fplcndid

which

was

the

genera]taft of

that age. For he firlltaught


how
to inoculate and
propa-

form of their cur tout and


Vtt
tltof Augatttai's/riend,
foreignfruitsi and introduhe (eems to have declined all ced the way of cuttingtrees
forms:
publichonors and bufincfe, and groves into regular
which
remainhe
the
and to have fpent
on
fubjefls publifh*
der of his days in an elegant ed feveral books, which are
to be

and

retreat
pleafurable

ployinghia
in

time

em-

and fludies

of garthe.improvements

as well
deningand planting,
the delicacy
of
as in refining

gate

mentioned
by the later wriColumcl.de re rulh
tcrs. Vid
I. it. c. 44. init. Plin. Hift.
I

12.

2 :

15. 14.

A. Urb. 709.

his power

^Cofff^^^^
'

M.
us.

AntoniP. Cor.

wELius
LAiELLA.

Life

17jeHlkT6tLYdffk

46

Do.

fee,for whit
dicree^to which the

and let all peoplenOw

^'^ ^^^

providedthat

Senate had confented for the fake of peace, of


a"ts: for beingthe mafter botr^
Cafar's
confirming
of C^C^s

Faberius,
papers J and of bis fecretan

he had
written (/],
^^j.g
j^y ^j^^gj ^^^^ ^j^^y
and inferting
of forging
at pleaan
opportunity
fure whatever

he

found

of ufe to him

without any referve or


praftifed
; felling
publiclyfor money,

he

immunities

Princes,or
had

which

management
whatever

defired,by Countries, Cities,


Men, on pretence, that tbey
private
were

entered into his


fliocked all honeft

grantedhy Ccefar^and

been

books. This alarmed and


but knew
who faw the mifchief,
men,

dy:
reme-

no

cree
Antony had the power, and their own dehad juftified
it : Cicero complainsof it
in many of his Letters,and declares it,
heavily,
times betterto die,than to fuffer
it \m\
a tboufand
Is it fo then ? fayshe \ is all,that our Bruhas done, come
tus
to this,that he might
*'
"
"

live

**

roads to his
might ftealaway throughprivate
all the ads, writings,
? That
fayprovince
ings, promifes,thoughtsof Caefar (hould

*'
**

at

laft

Lanuvium

at

That

Treboniils

**

have greater force now,


than when he him"
felf was
?"* All which he chargesto
living
that miftake of the firft day, in notfummonlng
tbe Senate into the

where they might


Capitol^
have done what theypleafed,
when
their own
uppermoft,and tbefeRobbers^as he
party was
Calls them, dtfperfed
and dejeSted
["]. j
Among

r/] T"

fjl
iSmfJivificiTA
[m] Cp. fam.

/kiuAd///i^4iv
AvT^viQ0
fl5
t^f9 3^i'y^fMTidL

MitrttfS^
0aC%aopf
w

"!

529.

if Wr-

mnHfJifior*
App. 1. 3.

Atr. 14. 9.
["] Itanevcro?

la.

!"

Ad

hocmeus

Brutus egit,
ut LanatU eiTct? uc Trebonius iti*

" tuus

neribiis

^e

4$
A. Urb. 709.

^c ^
M. Antoni-

us*.P.
MELIUS

LABEL

CorDo-

LA.

offb^ Life

History

any other of theirMailer's friends:


^^ ^'^ King, it feems,was beforehand with

Cicero,or
^^

death,than
ofCafar^s
he feized upon his dominions againby force.
He knew it,faysCicero,to be an univcrfal
taken
that what Tyrantshad forcibly
right,
^^^
^^^^^y

f^o

fooner heard

"

((

"

the

away,

true

recover
mijght

owners

when-

he afted like a man,


theywere able :
whilft we
hate
but we
contemptibly
-, who
the author,yet maintain his afts [/"]." By
amaffed infinite
thefe methods Antony prefently
"

ever

"

**

"

fums of money ", for tho' at the time of C2efar*s


death he owed, as Cicero told him, above three
hundred thoufand
than a
founds^
yet within lefs
the whole
ithe had paidoff
after
fortnight

debt [^].

another inftanceof his violence,


which gave ftillgreater offence to the City; Ins
which Casfar had dcthe public
feizing
treafure^
for the occafions of the government, in
pofited
There

the

was

TempleofOpis^amountingto

lionsand

above fivemil-

halfofour money -, befideswhat Caltreafure^


purnia,Caefar'swife^from his private
had delivered into his hands,computedat about
another million. This
was
no
extraordinary
a

fumm , if we confider the vaflnefsof the mine


from which it was drawn, the extent of the Roman
Empire; and that Caefar was of all men
the
ea
\f]Svngnpha H. S. cenquag Tyrannieripuiflent,
ii qai*
legatos,(ioenoftra* Tyrannisinterfe6lis"
bus crepta eflent"
finereliquorumhofpitumRerecuperain
fadla
Ille vir fuit,noa quirent
gisfententiay
gynaedem contemnendi,quiaudio: quo in loco plurimx
res
^o

tiesper

"

"

-Rex
nullis
ipfefua fponte,

venierunt,Sc
cnim

veneunt"

rem
mns.

odimus, adbi defendiPhil. 2. 37.

fimul
Caefarisy
[q]Tn antem quadringentiesH. S. ^uodIdibus maratque audivit ejusincerituxn,
fuo marte
tiis debuifti,
res Aias recuperaquonam modo
coromentariis

Tit.

Sciebat homo

debere
fapiens,ante Kalendas Aprilis

|u8fcmperhoc faiiTei
\kX,

s. 37.
defiftif-^-Phil.

t"fM. rVLLIUS
the moft

CICEJtO.

49

in extorting
it ", Cicero, alrapacious

A. Urb. 709.

in which it was railed,


calls
^^S;
ludingto the manner
^3and deadly
it a bloody
treafurcy
gatheredfrom the y^ Antoniand ruin of the fubjedls
it were
P. Cor) wincb^ if
ipoils
Donslius
it oughtto be, to the true owners^
wa
as
reftored^
^-abblia.
to the public^
tovUgbthave been ofgreat feruice
wards eafing
them oftheir taxes [r].
But
ims,
Antony, who followed Ca5far*s maxus.

took

care

to

fecure it to himfelf

the ufe

foldiers; and he was


purchafe
now
in condition to outbid any Competitor
: but the
that he made with it,was of bis
firftpurchafe
CoUegueDolabella,who had long been oppreffed with the load of his debts,and whom, by a
and the promife
of a farther
part of this money,
of the Empire, he drew in-^
fliarein the plunder
from Cicero and the Republicanparty,
tirely
.meafures. This was an acquifition
into his own
worth any price
inclination
to him : the general
both of die City and the Country was
clearly
Town
him
of
the
Puteoli^one of the
:
againft
chofen the
had lately
moft confiderable of Italy^
Tkvo Brutu/s and Cajftus
for their Patrons [j],
and there wanted nothingbut a Leader to arm
the whole Empire in that caufe : Dolabella feemed to be that very perfon,tillbribed^as Cicero
but
feys,byforceofmoney^ he not onely
deferted^
overturned the Republic
[/].

of it was

to

These

millies quod Caffium k Brutas Vu


[r] Ubi eft fepties
Phil. 2*
H. S. quod in tabulis,quae
tronos
adoptalTent.
? funefont ad Opis patebat
41
ftae illius quidem pecuniae,
[/]Ut ilium oderim,quod
fi iss,quorum efed tamcn,
cum
Rempub. me au^ore de.

nt"
a

non

fendere ccftpiflet,
modo
nos
non
vindicare.
de(enierit"
poflet
emptus pecunia,

reddefetur,
quae

tributia

?hil. 9. 37. it. Phil.


Plutarch, in Ant.

I.

7. it. fed etiam

quantum

in

fuit,CTCrterit Ad Act

[i] Vexatyit Poteolanos, 15.

ip(b
i6.

^he Hi

5Q

ST

(f tb^ Life

ojLY

These

which were preparatoproceeding^,


meetingof the Senate on the
^y ^^ ^" appointed
^c ff
fi^fi
eTJunc, began to open Brutus's eyes, and
M. An^'toniconvince him of the miftake of his pacific
P. Conmea*
PS.
Do- furcs, and favorable
wfiius
thoughtsof Antony: he
LAB9LLA.
^^^ j|^^j^^.^ ^^ ^^ g^^j j^ ^ eXpcftod
^^^
AUrb.

109.

from

him,

influence :

under his
from the Senate itielf,
and thoughtittime therefore,
in con*
or

with Caflius,to

accoutii
an
require
explicit
and to expoftulate
of his intentions,
with him
Letter.
gentlyin the following

cert

Brutus

M.
**
"
"*
"

"

*'
"
"

"

If

and

we

were

to
Praetors,

Conful.

of
perfuaded

not

fincerity

your

fliould not have


written this to you \ which, out of the kind
that you bear to us, you will take
difpofition
without doubt in good part. We
inare
formed that a great multitude of veteran SoU
diers is already
come
to Romej and a much
greater

If

we

we

us,

expectedthere

could

we

harbour

on

any

fhould be unlike

ly, after we

had

and

power,

by

friends,whom

ic

s s i u

Antonius

good-willto

you,
cc

and

the firftof

June.

fear of
or
fufpicion
ourfelves : yetfure-

put ourfelves into your


advice

your

had

we

about

difmified the
us

from

the

great Towns, and that not onelyby public


Eduft, but by private
Letters,we deferve to
be made acquainted
with
defigns
; efpeyour

in an
cially
We beg of
cc

your

affair which

ai:e

you think tliatwe


of f^eUrans ? Who
even
C(

can

ourfelves.

you thereforeto let us know

btentions

of

relates to

with

can

regardto

what
Do

us.

be fafe ia fucKa aoud

have

hear,

tlwughts,we

the Altar ;
rebuilding

which

no

dcfireor approve, who wiflicsour

man

lafety
"'

aad

ofM. rULLIUS
**
**
**
*'
**
*'
**
"'
**

honor.

and

That

to
certainly
agreeable
dk
: but no
man
tegrity

not

to

deceive

us.

that

**

pulhed on

**
**
''

view

A. Urb. 709"

your

virtue and in-

has it in his power


and (halltruft to
trufted,

We

neliu*

^^**^^^*

you alone. Our friends are under the great*


eft apprehenfions
for us : for though theyare
of
perfuaded

*'

other

no

^^p'

*'

^^

had

we

51

from the firftbut peace, nor foughtany thing


elfe but the public
the event
(hews. m. Antoniliberty,
No bcidycan deceive us, but you ; which is us.
P. Cor*

*'

**

CICERO.

your integrity,
yet
multitude of Veterans may

theyrefleft,
fooner be

violence

by others,than
We
defire an
reftrained by you.
explicit
anfwer to all particulars
for it is filly
and
:
to tellus^ that the Veterans arc called
trifling
the
together,bccaufe you intend to move
Senate in their favor in June : for who do
to

any

think will hinder it, when it is certain


that we (hallnot ? No body ought to think
you

**

^^
^'

us

too

pra
ofaU

to

fond of liie,when
nothingcan hap^
us, but with the ruin and confufion

things["].""
During
Cicero's ftayin the Country,where
he had a perpetual
relbrt of his friends to him,
and where his thoughts
feemed to be alwaysemployed
the Republic,
on
yet he found kifure to
which
write fevcralof tho(e Pbilofipbical
pieces^
and benefit of
Hill fubfift both to the plcafure
mankind.
For he now
on
compoled bis Treatife
the Nature of the Gods^ in three boohy addrejfei
of all the
the opinions
io Brutus ; containing
who had ever written any thing
Phiioibphers,
the attention
that argument : to which he befpcaks
on
of the laft
of his readers,as to a fubjcft
importance;which would inform them what
ce^
ibeyoughtto think ofrel^vm^pety^ fan"ity^
**

(iQ Cp. fasL xi. s.

remonieSf

Do-

7Z"f History

52
A. Urb. 709.
Cic. 63.

us.

"c. Jinceall ihefe


oaths,temples,
remonies^faith,
included in thai Jingle
quefiion
ofthe Gods

^gf^g

He

M.Ahtoni-

drew

P.CoiL-/w",

HELius
LABBLLA.

Do-

of the Life

up

likcwife his difcourfe

on

[x]"

Divina-

and
the foreknowledge

prediction
offuture
bywhich it toasfup^

or

al ways
events, and the fever
communicated
^^ ^^ acquired
or
p^jj,^

to

man

explanesin two books whatever could


be faid for and againftthe aftual exiftence of
written
itfelf. Both thefe pieces
the thing
are
in the way of dialogue; of which he givesthe
Since Carneades, fayshe,
account.
following
has ai^ed both acutely
and copioufly
againft

where

he

*'

*'

*'

Divination,in anfwcr

to

I am
the Stoics,

now

what judgementwe ought to form


inquiring
concerningit : and for fear of giving my affent ralhly
either felfe in itfelJ,
or
to a thing,
underftood,I think it beft to
not
fufficiently
do, what I have alreadydone, in my three
-** books on
the nature
of the Gods, weigh and
"'^
all the arguments with
diligently
compare
**

*'

*'

**
**

*'

^^

each other

for

as

rafhnels of aflent and

er-

is in all cafes fhameful,fo moft of all in


that, where we are to judgewhat ftrelsis to
ror

**

and things
aufpices,
ofa divine and
nature
religious
-, for the danger is,lefteither
^*
by n^leftingthem, we involve ourfelves in
""
old
an
or by embracing them, in an
impiety,
**
alfo
woman's
iuperftition
[jy]." He now
his pieceon the advantages
wrote
ofold age, cal*
led Cato, from the chief fpeaker
in the Dialogue
Atticus,as a lefture
: he addrefled it to
of common
comfort to them both, in that gloo*
cntring;
my fcenc of life on which theywere
he fays,in wri^
havingfoundJo much pleafure,
him of all the comtingit, that it not onely
eafed
even
plaints
agreeable
of age^ but made age itfelf
*^

be laid on

**

and

[xj De

Nat. Deor. i"6.

(jQ Jk Divin. 1.
.

CICERO.
ofM. rULLIUS
53
added foon after A. Urb. 709*
to bitn [z]. He
and cbearfull
of the fame kind to Atticus, a
anodier prefent
^q^'
he
:
a fuhjeSj
on
Trealife
fays,iotb m. Antonifriend/hip

adaptedvs. P.
worthyto he known to all^and peculiarly
I melius
to the cafe
: for as
of their particular
intimacy
^^"^^^^*
have already
written ofage an old man
to an old
in the perfonof a ftncere
tnan
friend^I
\ fo now
^

This is written
to my friend.
onfriendfhip
of which is
in Dialogue,the chief fpeaker

write

alfo

Laelius

in

who

convcrfation with

his

two

fons in law, Fannius and Scaevola, upon the


frienddeath of P. Scipioand the memorable

fhipthat had

fubfifted between

them, took

oc-

cafion,at their defire,to explaneto them the


and benefits of true friendfliip.
nature
Scsevola,
who

lived

to

old ftoriesto
with

to retail his
great age, and lovjed
ufed to relate to them
his fcholars,

pleafureall
which

the

Cicero

of this Dialogue,
particulars
havingcommitted to his

drefled up afterwards in his own


ner
manmemory,
form \a\ Thus this able
into the prefent
agreebook, which when confidered onelyas an
is one of the moft entertaining
eflay,
muft needs affedt us
piecesin antiquity,
more
warmly, when it is found at laft to be a
hibiting
Hiftory,or a piduredrawn from the life,ex-

invention or

the realcharaftersand fentiments of the


beft and
wrote

of Rome.

men
greateft

his difcourfc on Fate


E

[z] Mihi quidem

ita

ju-

He

which

now

was

the fub-

jeft

3
ut

alfo

turn

ad fenem

confe^io Sene"luce, iic

fenex de

libro ad
cunda hujus
amicom
amiciflimus de amiabfuit, ut non modo omnes
" cum
Scaevola
fenefiutis
citta
fierferit
moldlias*
fcripfi
iibrt

hoc

"

etiam "
fed effeceritmollem
jucundiimfenedlatem. Cato.
I.

\a\ Digna
omnium

mihi

res

tum
cognitione,

turn
no-

vifaeft*"fed
ftrafamiliaritate

fermonem
Lxlii de amicitia,habitum
ab illo Tecum, " cum
altera
genero C. Fannio, "c." de
nobis
^-expoluic

Amicit*

"

CorDo-

'54
A. Urb.

709.

^c ff
M. A

NT

ON

P. CorDowBLius

vs.

ISABELLA.

offie Life

converlation with Hirtius,in his Vilk


Puteolu where theyfpcntfcveral days to-

of a
je"El
'^^^'^

I.

History

he is

and

gatherin May:

have

fuppofedto

fi-

Tranjlalion
ofPlatcfs
famous Dialogue,called TtmauSy on the Nature
^^j Originofthe Univerfe.
nifliedabout the fame time

he

employinghimfclf

was

work

of

upon

his hands

different fort,which

rather of his

conduft

own

the

to

power

ciallyCaefar
Anecdote 5
Ihewn

Craffus.

work

not

Theopompus,

an

him
down
to

to

times j

or

had abufed their


This

be

calls his

he

but
publifhed,

inveftive flile[b].Atticus
to

it,and

thro* Casfai*s government

referve this laft part for

which

long

to

be

few friends,in the manner


of
HifVorian,famed for his (e-

put the lafthand

to

been

fullof free and fe-

thofe, who

and

and

had

of the Republic,
efpeoppreflion

onely to

vere

alfo upon

Hijlory
ofbis own

rtfleftionson

vcre

to

urging

was

continue it

but he chofc

diftinfthiftory,
in

the juftice
to vindicate at large
defigncd
with feveral hints
a Tyrant.We
meet
of killing
of this defignin his Letters : in one to Atticus,
he fays, I have not yet polifhpd
my Anecdote
he

**

"

"
**

"

**

**
*'
"

'*
"

"

"

my mind :
add , it will
to

what you would have mc


volume : but
a (eparate
require
as

to

believe me,
I could fpeakmore
and
freely
with lefsdanger againft
that detdfcd party,
whilft the Tyranthimfelf was alive,than now
when

he isdead.

For he, I know not why,


but now,
which
indulgedme wonderfully:
ftir,we are called back, not
way foever we

onelyto Caefar*sadls,but to his very thoughts,


Again -, I do not well underftand what you
would
have me write : is it,that the Tyrant:
killed according
was
to the fbidt laws of Jufticc?

"

[i]Ad

Att.

2.

6.

Dionjf. Halic. Prooem.

t.

Ti"f History

56
A. Urb. 709.

^C ff^
M.

Antoni-

us.

P. Cor-

NELius

i-ABELLA.

Do-

did

of the Life
with-

think it prudent
at that time,when

not

ufe, it would onelygivejea*


particular
to the
Antony. But the nearer he came
from the
he was
City, the more
difcouraged
of entring
it: he underftood that itwas
thoughts
thither at^1^^ foldiers
tended
j^ii^^
; that Antonycame
by aftrong
bodyofthem ; that all bis views
bent on war
to tranfwere
; and that he defigned
fer the Province of GaxilfromD. Brutus to him[/]. Hirtius difluafelf bya vote ofthe people
ded his going, and rcfolved to (layaway him-

^"^

^"y
lo^^yt^

felf-, Varro

fent him

word,

that the Veterans

talked defperately
all thofe
who
againft
vor

them

did not
him ,
Grasceius alfb admonifhed

fa*
on

the part of C. Caffius,to be upon his guardsfor


that certain armed men were
provided
forfome at-

All thcfe informations determined

tempt at Tufcuhim.
him
but

laft

at

not

withdraw

to

to

venture

to

himfelf from

nate
the Se-

that

City,

he had not

he fays,
with the
florifhed^
onely
but lived even
a flave^with fome dtggreatefly
nity[g]. The majorpart of the Senate followwhere

ed

Puto enim

[/]
nuvium

cundum*

siulto fermonc

placere,fe
O

nobis La-

non

conveniri.

me

odiofam

fine

Brnto enim

"

erat^ Yetennos
eos" qut rejiciantor^" improbiffime
loqui)
Romae
ut magno
periculo unC

futuri"qui ab

eonun

pardboa

lb. c.
bilem ! puto me ergo itanim
Graeceias ad me
fcripfit
Antonii confilianams
C. Caffium ad fe fcripufle,
tarbulenta
fed mihi totum ejus hominet
comparari,qui in
confilium ad bellum fpe^lareTufculanum armati mitterenrem

"

inezpHca- di^entire videantnr.

"

"

videtur" fi quidem D. Bruto

tor."-

Ad
provincia
eripitur.

Tidebatnr

Att.

15- 4-

quidem mihi
;

non

fed cavendufflta"

lb. 15. S.
Mihi vero deliberatum eft*
nunc
quidem eft,abefte ez
modo
non
urbe, in

men.

[f] Hirtius jam in Tufcu*


lano eft;

Id

mihique,ut abfim,

vehementeraudoreft;

"i]le

ut
ea

qua

quidem pericuHcaufa-^-Var- florui cum


verum
lumma,
noder ad me
autem
to
digepifto*etiam fervivi cum aliqua
lam milit" in qua

fcriptum nitate. lb. 5*

cJM. TUtLIUS

CICERO.

S7

example,and fledoui ofthe City^forfear A.


the Confuls,with a few
leaving
cffome violence^
what decrees theym.
of their Creatures, to make
us.
thoughtfit [A].

cd his

Th

of affairsmade

turn

I s

Cicero refolve

more

no

in whole

he had

him

therefore

wrote

the grant of

and leftAntony,

an

an

to

Dolabella

to

cure
pro-

honorary
Lieutenancy
;
he calls him,

as

angry man^

he wrote
to him too
Jbauldthink bimfelf
flighted^
the fame fubje"t.
Dolabella immediately
on
named
him for one ofhis own
which
Lieutenants^
anfwered
his purpofeftillbetter,for without
him to
or limiting
obliginghim to any fervice,
to go whereany time, it lefthim at full liberty
cvei* he pleafed
: fo that he
it,
readily
accepted
and preparedfor his journey
[i]. He heard

in the
would

mean

while from

Balbus, that the Senate

be held

comagainon the fifth


", when
miflions would
be grantedfeverally
to Brutus
and Caifius,to buyup corn in Afia and Sicily,
for
the ufeof the Republic
and
that
it
be
de^
would
:
creed alfo
at the fame time^ that Provinces fhould
be affigned
to them^ with the other Prators^at the
expiration
ofthe year [Jc].

Their
Kalendis Junlis
com
{!?]

Senatam,
tmn,

venire

ut

erat

iracandus homo

in

conftitu-

vellemus, meta

tur"[Ad
heus tu,

"

[i] A

8.]

Sed

Dolabella me
fibi
ib. 1 1
Balbo redditae mihi

"c.
perterriti
legavie,
repente difiiigimuf
2. 42.
Philip.
Edam
ad Anto[/}
fcripfi
ninrn de legatSone,
ne, fi ad

commovere-

Att. 15.

Antoni-

P. Cor.

^^^^^^^*

tilltheir fucceflbrs entered into office;


adminiilration he beganto placeall his

hopes.He

1^'
^^

w^^ius

to

his
long been projefting,
with
voyage to Greece^ to fpenda few months
He defpaired
ins fin at Athens.
of any good
from thefe Confuls, and intended to fee Home

what
profecute

Urb. 709.

litters,fore Nonia Senatam,


nt Bnitas in Afia, Caifius in
fromeatum emcndum
J"oIabel2amfolomforipfiflem^
Slcilia,
"

Do-

TleHisroKYoftl^

58

Url^709.Their

A.

^Coff?*^^^
M.
vs.

NEnus

Anton

I.

P. CorDo-

cafe

at

Life

very remark*
in Rme
to fee Pnt^

this time

was

'^^"Swhollynew
^^^ driven out of the City,where their refidence
was
abfolutely
necef"ry,and could not legally
be difpenfed
with for above ten daysin the year :
but Antony readily
procureda decree to abiolve
from the laws [ / ] ; being glad to fee
them
of
them in a fuuation fo contemptible
ftript
;
their power, and fuffering
a kind of exil,and
depending,as it were, upon him for their pro*^

'

te"ion

friends therefore

their

had

Rome

at

the Senate for fome eictraordinafolliciting


ry employment to be grantedto them, to cover
of
the appearance of a flight,
and the difgrace
livingin baniftiment,when invefted with one
of the firftMagiftracies
of the Republic[w].
This
the ground of the commiffion juft
was
mentioned
feemed however
to buy corn
; which
been

be below

to

affront

their charafter,and

contrived

as

an

by Antony, who affeiftedftill


r^to fpeak of them
always with the greateft
fpe"l["]" But their friends thoughtany thing
better for them than to fitftillin Italy
; where
their perfons
were
expoledto danger from the
who
all now
in motion ;
veteran
were
foldiers^
and that this employment would
be a fecurity
for the preient,
to them
as well as an
opportuto

them

nity

"adorbexnmittendumcanrent.

codcm

tempore decrctam

rem

mtferamt

oef9{7""fr"Tr" ijuili hf
ait, (dm^^MLgmM pJkynP rofiiiri, ^wit. Appian. Bell. Civ.

utiis"reliquisPraetoriupro1.4. 62a. it. 1. 3. e3o.


lb. 9.
["] Framentam uiponere

vincis decernantor.

[^

Car

M.

Brutus, te

re-

eft folutus,
fi
ferente,
legibua

-njuod munus

in

Rep. fordi*

Att. 15. z] Patriaeliberatoresurbe carebant


ip(iConfules
hjuos tamen
dius?

[Ad

ab urbe plufquamdecern dies


abfuifletf Phil. 2. 13.
[m] Kmm ttUToic m\ ciiTpi-" in condonibus
"

Wiw

i Huhi

nrt

ie in omni

f^rrifed (^mone Juadabant,Phil. 1. 1^

TULLIUS

tfU.

CICERO.

59

for their future fafety,


nityof providing
by en- A. Urb. 7094
now
ablingthem to execute, what they were
^^offf
of leizing
fome Provinces m. Antoni*
a defign
meditating,
abroad, and arming themfelves in defence of the us. P. CorDo*
Republic: which was what their enemic? were ""i''v"
'"^""'''"^'
moft afraid of, and chargedthem with publicly,
in order

time,

mean

mended
^*

^'
*^
*'

Cicero in the

defire,had again recohlintereftsto Hirtius,who gave him


their

at

their

odious.

anfwer.
following

the
"

tnake them

to

I wifli that Brutus

with by
prevailed

and

Caflius could

be

to lay afide
eafily
all crafty
obtain by you
counfils,
as theycan
from me
whatever theydclire. They were
leavingItalyyou fay,when theywrote to

you

as

"
*"
*"
"*
**
"
"*
^*
""
**
""
"
"*
"*
*"

you:
them

whither?
go,

or

wherefore?

I befeech you,

fufFer the

Republicto

my

do

not

let

dear Cicero

whollyloft ;
though overwhelmed indeed already
by thefe
rapines,burnings,murthers. If they are
afraid of any thing,let them be upon their
:
guard; but aft nothingofFenfivcly
they
will not, I am
confident, gaina tittlethe
more
by the moft vigorous,than the moft
meafures,iftheyufe but caution. The
pacific
laft
cannot
ftirring
thingswhich are now
of war, will
long ; but if made the fubjeft
(bength to hurt. Let me
acquireprefent
know your opinionof what may be expeftnor

ed from

them."

that be would

"

"

be

Cicero lent him

word,

anfwerdble
for their attempting
informed at the fame
nothing
defperate
; and was
time by Balbus, that Servilia^
Brutufs mother^
bad undertaken thattbeyjhould
not leave Italy
[d].
he

SerBiKil lUot
\A Coi refcripfi
calMos
cogitare,
idqaecon-

(rmavi" Balbus ad me-"Scr-

Tiliuiiconfirmare noa diJIcef-i


forot. Ad Act. 15.6.

Tie History

6p
A. Urb. 709.

^C ff^
M. Antonivs.

P. Cor-

UELIU8
lABELLA.

Do-

Servili

A,

of fbe Life

though fifterto Cato,

^^ Ca5lar*s Mtjlrejfes^
and

^^^

the n^^ft beloved

of them

next

to

had been

Cleopatra,

all : in the civil war

he gave her feveral rich farnis out of his Pom^


pgianconfifcations ; and is laid to have bought

finglejewel for her at the priceof about


of fpirit
and
/" "p ]. She was a woman
50,000
in great credit with the Cafareanparty^
intrigue,
the EJiateand
and at this very time poflfefled
Villa of Pontius Aquilajone
of the Confpirators^
which had been confifcated and grantedto her
the folacifms
by Caefar. Cicero reckons itamong
of the times^that the mother of the Tyrant-killer
Jhouldhol^ the pjlate
of one of her forfsaccom^
plices
[q]: yet Aie had fuch a fhare in all the
^

Cicero the lefs

counfils of Brutus, that it made

inclined
with

to

enter

whom

one

into them,
he could not

or

to

be concerned

truft : fVhen he is

fomuchj faysbe, by his mother's advice,


influenced
her entreatiei,
at leaft
or
why fhouldI interpofe
myfelf[r]F
their defire however

At

he

went

over

to

Antium, to adifl at a feledt council of


friends,called to deliberate on what was proper
for them to do, with regard to this new
comThere
miffion.
were
others,
prefentamong
Favonius, Servilia,Porcia, Brutus'j wife,and
bis Sifter
TertuUa, the wife of Caffius : Brutus
them

at

much

pleafedat his coming, and after the


deliver his
firft compliments,begged him
to
opinion
was

[p\ Ante
Brut]

matrexn

alias dilexit M.

Pontii

Serviliam,"
-

a matre
Neapolitanum
Ad
Tyrannodloni
poifideri.

SezagiesH. S.

margari- Att. 14. 21.


tain mercatiu
eft,"c. Suet.
[r] Matris confilio cum uprecibus,
J.Caef. 50,
tatur, vcl etiam
[f3 Quin etiam hoc ipfo quid me
interpouam? Ad

cui

Att. 15. z.
tempore multa 'CvoooAoiJC^:

CiCEttO.

TULLIUS

o/M

6i

of their A. tJrb.709.
opinionto the company on the fubjedt
advifed, ^^S;
meeting. Upon which he prefently
pthe
what he had been confidering
on
road, j^^ Antoni"'
"*
**
*"
"*
"*
*"
**

**
**

for their

jicbaia*
him

**
""

faifety
", that

intended

was

to

*"

us.

their

a cerwas
fafety
'here Caftain benefit to the Republicfius interrupted
him, and, with great fiercenefe in his looks, proteftcd,
that he would
not
nor
go to Sidfyj
accept as a fevor, what

*"

""

under-

and
jifiaj

to

go

"

Romej

affront ; but would

an

go

"Brutus faid,.
that be would
if Cicero thought it proper

"

for him

as

to

go

for

but Cicero declared it impoflible

be fafe there

but

fuppofing,fays he, that I could be lafe: why


then, faysCicero, I (hould advife it by all
the beft thing,which you could
as
means,
to

do, and better than

"

any Province

after

"

difcourfe and

**

much

**

of

**

all the

*^

that though that

"*

paft; and as the cafe


but to folthen ftood,he law nothingleft,
low his advice
to which theyall at laft
when
feemcd
Servilia
to
agree, efpecially,
undertook by her mediation, to get the affiur

**
'*

to

complainingfor the
for which Caflius
their opportunities,
blame

oh
was

talk of what

lofs
laid

D. Brutus, Cicero faid,


in vain
true, yet it was

was

'

^*
*^
**

of the

**

Brutus confented,that the Playsand Shews,


with which he was to entertainthe CityIhort-

*"

com

leftout

of their commidion

**

ly as Praetor,fhould

**

his abfence

"*
**

"

P. Cor-

Dothat the onelynelius


take the afiair of the corn;
"-ab^^i-athing to be done at prefent
was, to provide

"*

**

Ihould

that Brutus

"

"

be

and

proxy in
his leave,

^ven by

Cicero

took

but
pleafedwith nothingin the conference,
the confciouihefs of having done his duty:
for as to the reft,he gave all,he fays,for
"

loft ;

A.Urb.
Cic.

709-

]oft; found

cc

63.

Antoni-

KELIU8

fo that if he had

P* CORDo-

onely broken^
neither prudence,
they were doing :

vef"l, not

pieces and
defignin what

reafon^or

"C

V8*

the

but (batteredto

Coff.
M.

of the Life

Tie HiSTORV

62

"

doubt

any

before,he had

longed to get abroad as foon


[i].".
aspoffible"
Oct
his coming to Rtmie^
A VI
us,
upon
was
very roughlyteceived by Antony : who
of experience,
his age and want
was
defpifing
him as CaefarV beirjor gifo far from treating
ving
of his eftate,that he openly
him poflelTion
threatened and thwarted him in all his pretentions,
fuffer him to be cbofen
would
Tribun^
nor
with the feemingfavor of
he afpired,
to which
of that Cinna, who
the people, in the room
killed at Caslar*s funeral [/]. This necefwas
drew the reg^d of the Republicanparty
iarily
towards him-, and Cicero
began to take tl^
notice of him in proportion,as Antony
more
and more
formidable : at prefent,
he
grew more
of him,
Odtaviaccount
givesthe following
has parts and fpirit,
I perceive,
and
anus,
feems to be afiedted,as we could wifh, to^'

none

but

now,

"

"

^^

*^

Heroes

but how

far we

truft

*'

wards

^^

his age, name,


fucceflion,education,is a
of great deliberation: his Father in
matter

"

law,

"

not

our

who

at

came

all.

He

to

fee

muft

me

at

may

Aftura^ thinks

be cherilhed

however,

if for

nothingelfe,yet to keep him at a diftance from Antony. Marcellus afts nobly,


if he inftillsinto him a good difpofition
to-

"

**

^*

^^

wards

our

friends: he feemed

to

be much

fluenced

"

Ad

Att. 15. ii" 12.


veriknte conatibus
(/JIn locum Tribani pi. Antonio Confule
forte demortui candidatam
X. Dio*
Aafi;aft"
"

fais M.
Sueton.

272.

fe oftendit"ledad*
ptticorcm

500.

in-

App.

^e

64
A, Urb. 709.

63.

C^.
M

Anton

u""

LABELLA.

dition of the times, and the


Qj.

in ^{iat circumflances

when,
uncertainty
theyfhould meet again,

melancholyrcfledions in them
both, which, as foon as theyparted,drew many
Cicero an
tears from Atticus,of which he gave
^^^^^^ feveral

i-

P. Cor-

NELius

of fb^ Life

KisfoKY

Do-

follow him
with
"

hear of the

left me

Cicero

into Gr^tfr^:

equaltendernefs ",

to

*'

Letter, with

in his next

accouttt

had

done

you

promifeto

anwered

"it moved

which

tears

him

layshe,

me,

you Ihed after you


it in my
I
prefence,

droptperhapsall thoughtsof my
journey. That put however pleafesme
with the hopes
where you comfort yourfelf
of our
: which
meeting again fliortly
expeftation indeed is what chiefly
:
me
fupports
I will write to you perpetually
an
; give you
of every thing which relates to Bruaccount
fend you very fliordymy Treati/e
on
tus;
Glory5 and finifh for you the other work, to
be lock'd up with your trcafure,
(^c. [z].
fliould have

**
*"

"*
"*
"*

**
**
"
**
"

These

[2] Te, at a me difcefle- and publifhedin ttf^o books,


and
molefte fere- was
a"biallypreferved,
ras, lacrymafle,
bam.
Qaod fi me praefentefabfifting*
long after the infecifTes,confilium totias iti- vention of printing,
jet hap*
neris fortaflemutaflem.
Sed
for
pened to perifh
unhappily
illad prasclare,
of beingproducedinto
want
quod te confolata eft fpesbrevi tempore
publiclight,by the help of
congrediendi:quae qaidem that admirable art." ^tf/"w;yezfpeAatio me

mazime

ilentat.

tibi litterae

non

bam

Me"

fu-

deerunt. De Bruto fcriad te omnia.


Librum

tibi celeriter mittam


ria, Ezcudam

dt

N.B.

aliquid
'H^lb. 27.

mentioned

The
en

fent or
as

it to

made

he tellsthe

ftoryin

his

old and poor"


the relief of
into fome

Treatife here

whence

Glery^which

recover

he fent foon after to Atticus, man^s

pre-

Petrarch^ who,

lent it
eplftles,
Schoolmafler,
who"
g/o-

K^eiJiep,quod lateat in thefauris tuis.

Jks Suterantius

to

pawned

of
his

being
it for

his neceflities

hand,

unknown

Pf/r^rj" could

it, upon
death.

one

never

the

old

About
two
centuries

tfU.

CiCEkO.

rVLLIUS

65

litde paffages
from familiar Letters,A.17rb.709;
the real charaders
of
llluftnitemore
efFectu^ly

These

^^q^^*

and pul" m. Antoni-'


than any of their'more fpecious
men,
P. Coi;*
*Jicafts. It is commonly tlwughtthe J)attof a vs.
'Dio*
ftatefman, to diveft himfelf of every thingna- ^s^-'^^
''^"*^^^tural, and banifh every paffionthat does not

fervd his' intereft


a

ambition

or

quitedifferent charafter

ftatefmen

the world

of

but here
of the

", one

and
cherifliing

in himfelf the foft and

fee

we

greateft
ting
cultiva-

focial afFedions of

friendfhip
; as knowing them t6 be deby nature for die comfort' as Well
fignedequally
life.
of publicas private
wis as
whofe philofophy
Atticus
likewiie,
with all afFeftions-that
ambidon
as
incompatible
did not
terminate in himfelf, was
'frcquentljr
drawn
by the goodnefsof his.nature to cofrcft
He
the vicioufnefs of his principle.
had* oftdi
reproved Cicero for an excels of love to his
daughterTullia, yet he^ no foonef got a little
Attica of his own,
than he began to difcover the
love and

fame

fondneis

repay his

which

gave Cicefo occafion

to

with great politenels. I reraillery


F
"joicc,
"

apj^ted

centuries after, it
wriconld" into his own
the ori"
to have been in the poueffion tin^, had deftroyed
of
and

Bemardus
for fear of a dilcovery
;
Juftinjatuts,
^inal
mentioned
in the
it being obferved by tl^ Criwas

Catalogue
which

he

MonafUry
when

of

books

bequeathedto
of

it could

in that

his

bat

Nuns;
not

be

found,

monafteryafter the

ftriftefl
fearch,it was

tics,that in his book de Ex*


ilio^there were many bright
not
pailages,

the

with

which

well conneded

reft of the work;

feemed

to

be

above

genegenius. Vid.
Petrus
Petrarch. Epift.
1.1 5. i Rer.
rally believed, that
who
Senilium.
Paull.
Mannt.Not,
was
Phyii'
Alcyonius,
and
had
Ad Att. 15. 27. Bayle Dldt.
to that Houfe,
cian

his

tafl and

Alcionins.
free ufe of the library, in
had flolen it ; and after tfanVol IV. p" g6.

the

of itas
as much
fcribing

he

Menagiana.

fh

66
A. Urfe. log.

^r P'

*?
**
**

tC AwTompa,

?" Cor-

HB^ivs

tApsi.9.A.

Do-

HisroKY

of tbe Life

that you take fo


jpicc,fayshe, to perceive
"^^^'^
delightin your littlegirl. I love her
aJneadymyfclf,and know her to be amiable,

Adieu

fcen hen

then

"

tho* I have

"*

EpicureanSchool. In
with
another Letter ; I am
mightilypleafed
for your little
the fondnefe that you exprefe
dat^hter\ and to fee you feel at laft,that

(c
**

"*

"
*'
"'
^*
"*

never

to

Patroy and all your

the love of our children docs not flow from


habit or fafhion,but from nature : for if that
fo, there
between one man
be

not

muft
all fociety
T H

B R

was

can

be

no

natural

conjunftion

and another,without which


be diflblved [a].*'
neceflarily
of thq
expectation

great

now

Jbews and playswhich Brutus, as Prastor of the


nual
City, was going to exhibit,accordingto ancuftom, in honor of Apollo,on the third rf
tient
July ; and all peoplewere attentive and impareocibe
would
manner
to fee in what
they
Brutus wrote
ved"
to Cicero, to beg thai be
would grace them wUb bis prefence
: but Cicero
abfurd, nor at all agreeable
thoMghtthe requeft
anfwer was,
to Grutus's ufual prudence. His
that he was
got too far upon his journeyto
**

**

**
*'

have

itnow

be very
in Rome

in his power

",

improperfor him,
fince it was

had

who

not

been

filled with fbldiers,


not

^*

fo much

"*

dignity,to run thither on a fudden to fee


plays: that in fuch times as thefe,though it
for thofe to give plays,whofe
was
reputable
office required
it,yet for his feeingthem, as

^*

"*
**

of

and that it would

out

regardto

his

danger,as

"

tibi jam Ro-

[4] Ftliolam
mac
jucuadam

efle

camque,

nanquam

dij tamen

quam
"

amo^

gaudeo1
vi-

" amabl-

his

it

efle certo fcio. Edam


etiam valete Patron "
at"jae
Ad Att. 5.
tui condUcipuli.
km

i9"-Jt.7.

ao"

rULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

67

fo neither would it be A. Urb. 709.


neceflary,
[b]** He was heartily ^^off^'
thought decent
follicitoushowever, that they might meet
with j^. Antohi*
all imaginable
and charged At- vs.
P.- Cor'
encouragement,
Doz
ticus to fend him a particular
of what w^^-'u*
account
labiila.
pafledon each day from their firftopening.
**

it was

not

**

"

fuccefs of

The

anfwered

them

all their

hopes, for theywere received with an incredible


applaufeby all ranks, though Antony'sbrother
Caius^ as the next Praetor in office,prefided
at
of
the
them : one
playswas Tereus,a Tragedyof
Acdus \ which having many ftrokes in it on the
chara"ers
and a"s of Tyrants, was
infinitely
clappedby the people. Atdcus performedhis
account
pent to Cicero,and fent him a pun^hial
of what pafledevery day \ which he conftantly
communicated

Brutus, who

to

was

in his

now

neighborhood ; in NeJiSy a littleIfle on the


Campaman (hore,the feat of young LucuUus
"

In lus anfwer
**
**
**
**
^*

to

Atticus,

"

Your

Letters, fays

to Brutus : I fpent
very acceptable
feveral hours with him, foon after I received

he,

were

them

he feemed
of Tereus

account

it, than

**

dcd

at

^^

this

Ibrt,the

it.

and

the Praetor

**

to

be

But

Antony, who

foa

prefi-

more

more

"to

[tl hk quibnsunnm
fummi

made

]oj you fend us of


it givesme"
indignation

the

enom

with the
delighted
thought himfclf

the Poet Accius, who

obligedto

more

to

all- qaam
pradentn^ lados

fabito ad
dignitatis,
venire.

Tali enim

tem-

id eft illtid,
ut

fpe6temludot pote ludoa facere ilii honefcilicety


pri- ftom efl" cai neceiTe eft :
Referipfi
ut
\ jam profeAuniy
fpedaremihi, nt non eft neBon
ineegrnmlit. Dcin**-?*- cefle,fie ne honeftum qui*
eft. Eqaidem illoscedem
Tra^TttTvr
efte,me,qaiRomam
." efle quam
luec
lebrari,
non
tMnnino
arma
gratiffi*
poft

fooi.

flcceieriin,
ncque id
ficDii mei

tarn

pe-

m(Si

mirabiliter

caofii fecerim, Att 15. s6.

copio""i"Ad

A. Urb.

of the Life

7^^ History

68
709.

^c P'

peopleemploy their hands


the Rc^^ clappingplays,not
in defending
public.This perhapsmay provokeour enemies to difcover themfelves before they inI care
tended it ; yet if they be but mortified,
^^j jj^ ^ {pctchmadc
^^^
^y ^^^^ ^^^^^
afterwards to the Senate, he urges this judgment
of the City, as a proper leffon to Aiitony,to
teach him the way to glory. O happyBrutus^
iayshe, who when driven from 'Romt byforceof
in the hearts and bowels of bis
arms
reftded
ftill
amends for the dbCitizens^who made themfelves
fence of their deliverer^
applau^
by their perpetual
fesand acclamations [d].
But
there was
one
thing,which thro' the
the conof Brutus's managers,
or
trivance
inadvertency
of the Praetor Antony, gave Brutus
for proclafome uneafinefs ; that in the EdiH
ming his (hews, the months inftead
ofQuintiiis,
was
fiiled
given
July by its new name, lately
of
in
honor
it
raifcd
Caefar
for
it
to
:
great fpethat Brutus
culation,and was thoughtftrange,
fhould acknowledgeand confirm an
by "di(^,
"

fee the Roman

to

'*
"

M.

Antoni-

vs.

P. Cor-

NiLius

LABBLLA.

Do-

"

"

.1

4C

aft,
[c\Bruto

litterasgra-

tux

Fui enim
tae
erant.
apud
illum multas horaa in Nende,
cum

paulloante

tuas

modo
m

accepifTcm.Deleflari

ludorum

Tereo

monia

niihi
habere
videbatur; ic

majprem Accioi qtram Antonio,gratiam. Mihi aatem

lum

Sc moIeftiK

Romanum

rum

animi

incendi etiam

ad

2.

teftiplauHu,^
vel^

potius,

"judicla poparum

magna

beatos illoa,

adeiTe

eft,popuarmorum
manos
fuas, aderant tamen"

in defendenda
non
Repub.
fed in plaudendoconfumere.
Mihi quidem videntur, ifto-

Att. |6.

Quid? ApoUinarium

videbantur?
vim

dum

dolealiqaidi

doleant

puli Roman!

quobetioraAint, eoplusAo- qui cum


machi

tamen

onodlibet. Ad

ant

litteras

Sed

faam.

tem

ipfia
propter

licebat,

non

"

lispopuliRomani

in medulac

vifceri-

bus haerebant ! nififorte AcBracio turn p]audi.-""


non
to

repr"fentandamimprobita-

"c.
putabatis,

Phil. 1.15.

rULLIVS

ofM.

aft, contrived

as

upon

condejR:enfion *,

mean

be remedied

not

as

the

to

of

Ty-

A. Urb. 709.

^^off?

difturbgreatly

that it would
him, iniagining,

ed

69

perpetuate the honor

to

littlecircumftance

This

ranny.

CICERO.

be

reflefted m. Anton
iand fince it could us.
P. Cor-

plays,he rcfolved

nb^-'^*

to

correft it for the reft of the fhews ; and gave


immediate
orders, that the buntings
of the wild

^^**''^^"

which were
to follow,
Jhouldbe proclamed
beajlsj
[e].
for the thirteenth ofQuintilis

continued

in thefe parts, he
(hare of his time with Brutus ;
fpentthe greateft
Whi

and

Cicero

they were

as

to

came

"

one

with

them,

day together,L. Libo


Letters juftreceived from

young S. Pompey, his fon in law, with propo"ds of an accommodation, addreil(xl to the Confuls,on which he dcfired their opinion, Cicero
with

drawn

them

gravityand
of expreffion,
a few inaccu**
excepting
propriety
racies,and advifed only to change the addrefs ;
and injiead
alone theywere
to whom
ofthe Confulsj
with the
direSedy to add the other Magijlratesj
the Confuls
Senate and people
fhould
of Rome, left
onelyto themfehes.
fupprefsthemy as belonging
Thefe Letters broughtin fubftance, that PomMailer of feven Legions5 that
now
pey was
aJled Borea^
a Town
as he had juftftormed
thought

great

"

**
"

*'

he received the

wonderful

^*

caufed

"

thro' the Province

**

of

^^

of his demands

^^

mand

peopleto

of C2elar*sdeath

news

joy,and changeof
of

Spain,and

which
afiairs

concourfe

from all parts. The fumm


was, that all wiio had the com-

him

of armies fliould difmils them


F

;
""

but to

Libo

[^] Qaam ille doluit de etiam* quae poftrkUeludot


Noma
f mirifice eft Apollinarea
futura eft"pro*
Juliis
coDturbatua. Itaqae
feiefcrip-icriberent,1 1 1 Id. Qgintl];
turum

aiebat,uc vcnationem

.^Ad

Att. i6. 4.

^o-

70

^Coff

"

reftored to him, he would


were
poflfefled,
agree to nothing[/]/*
from Pompey was
This
overture
procured
by the mana^ment of Lepidus[^J ."
chiefly
who
havingthe Province of Spain ailignedto
him, where Pompey was very ftrong,had no
mind to be engaged in a war at fuch a diftance
^'

M. Atnokiwf.

now

"

p. Cor.

"tlY!

of tbe Life

that unlcfe his Father's


Libo he fignificd,
Eftate and Houfe at Romej whidi Antony

"

A. Urb.709-

History

^^"

tABBLLA.

from Rome^ and drawn


.

off from

to the
attending
main pointin view, the event of afiairsin Italy
:
for which purpofe,
on
pretence of the public

quiet,he

the

made

olFerof

rable
treaty and hono-

that,on condiPompey, and


of layingdown his arms, and quitting

terms

"

to

*'

tion

"*

the Province,he fliould be reftored to all his


eftatesand honors, and have the command

^*
*'

of the whole

"

fame

naval power of iJ^Ji^,in the


as his Father had it before him :

manner

ail which

and recommended
to
propofed
the Senate by Antony himfelf [by* Where
due refpeft
Cse"r's jl"fSj
to preferve
a
to
by
which Pompey*seftateshad been confiicated,
it
was
decreed,ibal tbe fame fummy for wbicb tbey
had been fold^
Jhouldbe givento bim bytbe public^
**

was

""

enable bim

punbafe tbem again: This amounted


to dbovtjivemillionsand a balf
ofour
Plate andfurm-'
exclufiveofbtsjewels^
money
ture ; wbicb
beingwbollyembezzled^be was con*
tent to lofe
[t]. On thefe terms, ratifiedby the
authority
to

to

Ibid.

defendimuSy
Pompeiofua do"

t3i
[ej Philip.

$. 13, 14, "c.

it Phil. 13. 4, 5" "c.

[If]App.

p.

528. Dio.

1. 4?. 275.
[/]Salvis enim

mus

eamque
patebie,

minoris, qaam
mity redimet
tantam

aAis Cae-

iaris,quae concordiae caufa

quantam

non

Antonius edecreviftis

pecuniam Pompeio,
ex

bonis

in
patriis

inimicas
diiEpationc
prsedae
Yi^or

A. Urb. 7091

^Coff
M.Antonius.

P. Con-

MELIUS
LABELLA.

9it History

.0

yft

Do-

q/ tbe Life

The

Father, oyerjoye4^ this change, carried


^'* ^^^ ^^ Cicero, to perfuade
him of his fince-

rity"^d
to

cus,

knew

^^

Atti-

his intercefTionalfo with

beg

be reconciled

but Cicero, who


perfidyof the youth,

him

to

the ficklcnefs and

jj^j^ cTcdit to him ; takingthe whole for


^^^
a contrivance
onelyto draw money from them %

he wrote
yet in compliancewith their requeft,
what they defired to Atticus ; but fent him another.
time with his real
Letter at the fame
the

thoughtson
"

"

matter.

Nephew Quintus,fays he, promi-

OvR

fes to be

Both his Father


very Cato.
he have been prefTingme,that I would
a

and

"

"

"

"

dertake for him

yet fo, that you


had
Ihould not believe him, tillyou yourfclf
feen the effeftsof it. I (hall give him thereto

*'

fore fuch

**

but

"

this,left you

ihould

"

yed myfelf.

The

"

performwhat
common
joy

to

^^

*'

of

un-

Letter

let it not

to

move

you

you

as

have

he would

you,

imaginethat

written

for I have

am

mo-

grant that he may


for it will be a
he proraifes
;
Gods

us

a"U. I will fay nothing

of it at

(^c. [w]."
prefent,
But
Quintus got the better at laft
young
feall Cicero's fufpicions
^ and after fpending
more

veral
ie idcirco
turn

ad
profugere
voluiiTe,
quod cum

Brufibi

oegotium daret Antonius, ut


Di6l" Coram
efiiceret,
cum

praeiidium
occuparet,
cuiafTet;recufane

id

re-

Ce,

tibi

fponderem:

turn

crederes, cam

nofces.

fed its,ut

Huic

ipfecog-

ego
dabo.
arbitratu
ipiius
te

moverint;

has

litteru
"ae

ne

in
fcripii

motum
partem, ne me
nepatrisanimumoffenderct;
putares. Dii fazint, ut faComfibi ilium hoftem.
ciat ea" quae promittit.
ex
eo
AdAtt.
enim
mune
gaudium. Sed
15. 21.
nihil dico amplios. Ad
w ] Quintus filius mihi
autem

earn

"

ego

Jlicetur
fe Catonem.
pollicc
Egit Act. 16.
autem
U Pater " Filius,ut

cfM:fULLIUS

GICERO.

veral

days with him,

whole

behaviour

and

very

ed him
^

'^

^'
**

Brutus,

to

^^

to

make

^^ p^

was

the ofFcr of his

was

in

mbi-iw*

*'

fo well fatisiiedwith him, that he gave


full credit,without fuffering
be
me
to

him

*'

his

^'

you in the kindeft manner,


parting,embraced and kiffed him.

fponfor:

in

commending him,

he

tioncd

*'

fore, tho* there

^'

late, than

**

whatever

*'

the weaknefi

^'

became

**

he

his A. Urb. 709.

onely recommended
m.AntoniP. CorAtticus, but prefentus.

''

*'

by

If he had not whol- ^^"^^^*


perfon:
ly perfuadedme, fayshe, that what I am
fayingof him is certainly
true, I Ihould not;
have done what I am
going to tellyou : for
I carried the youth with me
to Brutus, who

fcrvice to him
"

not

aSeAionanelyto

alfo

him

convcrfation,that

in earneil: fb chat he
him

convinced

73

now

to

he

is reafon rather

entreat

may

to

have done

and

at

Wherc-

congratu-

yet 1

you,

men*

beg,

that

hitherto,thro*

of age, with more


levitythan
him,'you would believe it all to be

over,

(^c,["].**

Qu I N T u s kept his word with them ; and


fo
to give proofof his zeal and
was
fuicerity,
take
hardy, before the end of the year, as to underto accufe
AiUonyto the people^
forplundering
the Temple of Opis [p]. But this accident of

changinghis party, which gave fo much joy at


to the whple family,tho' owing rather
prefent
to

[jv]Quod

nifi fidem mihi

feciflet,judicalFeinqQe
hoc
auod
dico firmum fore, non
teciiTem id, quod diflnnu
fum.

Duzi

dokrcentezn

enim

mecum

ad Brutum:

a*

Eumque

laudans

tai mentionem

amiciffime

feccrit Com-

dinufeplexus,ofculatufque
rit.

Ad

Att. |6.

^.

[0] Quintus icnbit^fe ex

fie Nouis lis,quibos


nos

magna

^dem Opisezpli*
probatum eft,quod ad te geflimus,
ifcribo,
ut ipfe
crediberit,
me
caturom, idquead populum.
Ibid. 14.
fponforemaccipere
noluerit;

ei

Do-

J if
A. Urb.

769. to

("fthe Life

History

of temper, than any good prin*


giddinefi
^Cofl?^P'^" proved fetal not long after both to the

M.

AHTONf-

vs,

P. CoRw

NBLIU8

LABBLLA.

Do-

and his Father

man

young

been the moft

fcribed and

it (eems

as

have

to

of their being pro-

caufe
probable

murthered

the year following,


by
with
Cicero
himfelf.
Antony*sorder,together
Cicero

and

had

was

there
from

Galleys

or

his attendants

and

but

as

rfeportof Legions arrivingdaily


abroad, and of Pirates alfo at fca, he
a

was

thought it

would

with Brutus

and

his voyage

providedthree littleTatchts

himfelf
tranfport

to

ready for

now

be

fafer

CaflSus,who

fleet of

the coaft

to

fail in company
had drawn together

good force,which
al
\^f]. He ^vt fever
received

fignto Brutus, who


he expeftcd
; and

feemed

uncertain and

the time of his

lute about

folved therefore to

layupon
bints of this deit more
coldlythan
now

going.

own

embark

irrefoHe

re-

lay,
without farther de-

about
to the laft,
though in fome perplexity
of the voyage, and jealous
the expediency
of it's
being cenfured,as a defertion of his country :
but Atticus kept up hb Spirits,
him
by aflfuring
in his Letters,that all people
conftantly
approved
it at Rome,
providedthat be keptbis wordy of
by the firft
returrdng
ofthe new Tear [j].
Hb

[p] Legionesenim
Hsec

dicuntur.
habet
navigatio

tare

advenautem

quafdamfa-

perindeatque

ego

arriperevifus

elt

Confilium

meum

putarain,
"

[ib.5.]
quod ais

fpicionespericali. Icaque quotidiemagis laudari,non


conftituebam uti o.e/dTAcitf. mo]e((e fcro ; expe6labamque,
oflendi Brutum"
quamaudiebam. ^amCaffii
Paratiorem

"

claiTem, qine
non

numero

Ib. 16. 4.
W] Bruto

ciftem

de

^uidad

enim

me

fcriberes. "go

fermones in*
Qain eciam idcirco

in varios

planebella e((,

cidebam.

ultra fretram.

trahebaro,utquamdiutiffime

cum

integrum cflet. [ib.".] it,


facpeinje- Ep. iam. xi. 29.] Scribis c-

itw^r^olA,

non

nim

in coelum feiri profefti*


onem

f"fM. rULLIUS
H

CICERO.

75

failed flowlyalong the coaft towards


afhore every night to
Friend or Client : he fpentone

Rbegiumj going
with

fome

Feliaythe native placeof Trebatius

at

he

wrote

kind Letter

A. Urb.

lodge ^^off
day ^f. Antohi-

whence

him, dated the nine-

to

us.

feentb

melius

him by no means
to fell
cf July; advifing
he then defigned,
that family eftate^
as
fituated
and affording
and agreeably^
venient
cona
fo healthfully
retreat from the confufion
ofthe timeSy awho intirely
loved him [r]. At
mong a people^
he began his ^reatife
this place
ofTopicsor the
of findingarguments on any queflion
art
: it
abftraft of Ariftotle'i pieceon the fame
was
an
fubjedJ which Trebatius happeningonce to
with in Cicero'i Tufculan
meet
Library^had
b^ged of him to explane. But Cicero never
j

reminded

was

tillthis voyage,

it

of the tafk

in which

though he had neither Ariftotle,nor


other book to helphim, he drew itup from
memory,
to

he

by thejight
^yelia;

and

came

any
his

before he
and finifhed it as he failed,
tius,
Rbegium; whence he fent it to Treba-

with zJjetter dated the twentyfeventh.


He
excufes tl^e
of itj from the nature of the
obfcurity

requiring
great attention to underto reduce it to praftand, and great application
ctice
affift
in
which however
he promifcsto
:
him, ifhe lived to return^ and foundthe Republic
[j].
fubftfting

argument,

Im

meam,

onem

Kal.

Jan.
qnidem ceite
Ea

mente

Kalendis

fed ita,fiante
redeam.
cnltar.

Quod

[ib:6]

otadeiTem
difceffi,

Jan.quod

cogendi Senatua
batnr.

P. Cor-

''^"*^^^-

found leifurefor

initium

fore

Philip1.2.
Ep. fam. 7. 20.
Itaquent primam

[]

vide-

navi^re coepi inftitui

lia

TopicaAriftoteleaconfcribe*
re,

abipfaurbe commonitus,

amantiifinia tui

19.
Ve-

Eamlibruro

Rhcgio fcriptum
iliares fcriqaam pleniilime
bi potait,
"c.
Ep^ fam. 7.
tibi mifi

709.

Do-

76
A. Urb.
Cic.

63.

p. Cor

MELIUS
XABBLLA.

709.

Coff.
M. Antonius.

T!h" History

Do

ing
voyage, happeningto be lookhis Trcatife on the Academic Pbilofopby^

the fame

over

of the Life

Prefaceof the third book to be


the fame that he had prefixed
to his book on Glo-// was
fent to Atticus.
ry, which he had lately
bis cujlotnj
it feems, to prepare at leifure
a num^
ber of different
proems^ adaptedto the general
and ready
view ofhis JiudieSj
to any
to be applied
publifh
;
of his works^ which befhouldafterwards
K) that by miftake he had ufed thispreface
twice^
without remembering it: he compofed a new
therefore on Ihip-bord,
for the pieceon GIoone
he obferved

the

ryy and fent it to Atticus, with orders, to bind


it up with his copy in the placeofthe former pre^

face [/]. So wonderful

his

was

induftryand
love

[/]
meam

ed
yet adaptnegligenttamwork" theywere
of hU
the
view
De
Gloria
to
cognofce.
general
Nunc
ad

librum

prooemium
Acadcmico
ob

eam

mifi, at in

te

id eil,

quod

eo

in

tertio. Id evenit

quod habeo

rem,

and contrived fewritings,


to ferve the different
verally

propofedby
publicationof them.

ends, which
the

vo-

Thus
prooemiorum: ex eo
eligerefoleo, cum
aliquod lion

Jtaque

Tufculano, qui non

in

jam

he takes

in fome

lumen

auyyptnifJLA inftituL

he

to

of his
whom

occa-

praifcs

the

celebrate

friends,to
principal
they were addreifed $

ifto in others, to enter into a general


id in eum
defence of Philofophy,
procemio,conjeci
in anfwer to thofe who cenlibrum, quern tibi miii. Cum
for fpendingfo
in navi legeremAcaAired him
autem

meminiflem

abufum

me

demicos, agnovierratum

itaquellatim

um,

prooemium
Ad.
N.

exaravi

he

(late of the

of

manner

miferable

proper

in a
Republic,
to

alarm

beforehand, Citizens,and roufe


Prefaces
prepared
and
for

calculated
any

aiTert their antient


indifferently

treatife
,

thought perhaps a
and

fantallicalway

pofing but tho'


:

will be

in

drange give
com-

they had

no

them

his
to

liberty:

others, he contrives
a

of

fome,

times,and fub-

verfion of the

Collcaion

it : in

the
reprefents

novum

fi"
tibimi-

Att. 16. 6.

B.

time upon

much

me-

to

of
beautifuldefcription

fome of his Ft //as $rgardtns^


logue
the fcene of the dia-

where

laid: all which the


the fubjefl
reader will find very agreeaof any particular

necc

ilary connexion,

with

was

bly

of M.

CICERO.

TULLIUS

77

that neither the inconvenience A. Urb. 709.


love of letters,
he alway hated, nor the bufy
which
of failing,

^^^'

thoughtswhich muft needs intrude upon him, jif.Antokicould diP.Cofcon


Italyin fuch aconjunfture,
leaving
^"'
fturb the calm
and
regular purfuit of his *^^^'^'
us.

"-*""*"

ftudies.

Rbegium^ or rather Ltucopetraja


clofe by it, he pafiedover
to Sypromontory
racufeon tbefirjl
of Auguft: where he ftaid but
ted
devoone
night,though in a City particularly
under his fpecial
to him, and
:
protection
but he was
unwillingto giveumbrage or fufpicionto thofe at Romey of havingat^ views a^
broad, which concerned the public[ul : he fet fail
thereforeagainthe next morning towards Greece \
driven back by contrary winds to Leubut was
From

copetra; and aftera fecond attempt with


forced

fuccefe,was

to

ter
bet-

no

repofehimfelf

in the

VtUa

Valerius,and wait for the opofhis friend


portunity
of a fairwind [""].
"Here
the principal
inhabitantsof the Country
their compliments-, fome
came
to pay him
of them freflifrom Rome^ who brought great
of an unexpcfted
of affairsthere tonews
turn

wards

h\f executed

in the Prefaces

ad meos
repentiniis
pieces; neceflarios adventas fafpicioPhilorophical
ponnei^ed
fo nis aliquid
fieflem
are
afFerret,
yet

ofhb
which

with the treatifes


that
artfolly
follow them, and lead us fo
into the argument,
natQrally
if they had been

ly contrived for

the fal^eof

na

100

me

commoratus.

[x]

Cum

me

Phil. i. 3.
Siciliaad
ex

Leucopetram,
quod eft proas
agri Reghini
,

venti detoliflent; ab

eo

loco

confcendi,ot tranfiniuerem
nee

ica multum

prove^ias,

plusuconjundiffima,

aaftro fum in eum


rejeflus
locum
ibicum
ipfnm
[ibid.]
ventum
expe^tarem: erat cnim
villa Vaierii
noftri,ut

retinere
cupiens
fom ,
Veritas
potuit.

fimiliaritereflem, " libenter


-"Ad
Act 16. 7.

Syracn(as
"quae
athi

mens

original-montoriam

it. Vid. Tafc;


introducing
Difp. Init. de Div. a. i.
dePin. i. f.deLegib.2-1.
[ii]Kalendis fextil. veni
-"

ne

no^e

tamenurbt

"

He

78
A.Urb.

709-

Cic. 63.
Coff.
M. Antonip. Cor.
vs.
VELIUS

LABfiLLA.

DO-

That
Antony
;
generalpacification
feemed difpofcd
to liftcn to reafon,to defift
from his pretenfions
to Gauly f^binitto the
of the Senate ", and make up matauthority

wards
"

"

**

"

**

ters

"

of the Life

History

circular Letters

ten

had writ-

with Brutus and Caffius ; who


all the

to

Senaprincipal

beg their attendance in the Senate on


"^
and that Cicero*s abthe firllof Septembers
and even
fence was
regretted,
particularly
This agreeablamed at fuch a crifis [y]"
ble
of thingsmade
him prefently
account
drop
of purfuinghis voyage ; in which
all thoughts
he was confirmed likewife by Letters from At"

tors,

to

"

"

ticus, who,
him
prefled
to

Fclia

his former

to

againto Rome.

the

by

the fame

before taken, and

he had
on

advice,

terms,
ftrongand pathetic

returned therefore

which

in

now

back

come

contrary

came

courfe,
back

to

feventeentb
^ Auguft: Brutus lay

within three miles of it with his fleet,and hearing


of his
lute him:
"

^^

^^
*'

^'

^*
"

^*

to faon foot
immediately
declared himfclf exceedingly

came
arrival,

he

"

with
pleafed

Cicero's

return

owned,

that

approved,though he had not


diiTuaded the voyage;
thinkingit indecent,
of his experience
to giveadvice to a man
;
had
efcathat he
but now
told him plainly,
his chara^r
on
ped two great imputations
;
the one, of too haftya defpair
and defertion
he had

of the

never

caufe

common

the other, of the


**

[y] Rheginiqvidain"illuftrcfhomines
Roma

eo

fane recentes

venerant,
baec af"

ferebant,Edidlum

Bruti

"

rogare. Summam

va-

nity

fpem nao-

ciabant, fere, lit Antoniaa

cederet,rea conveniretynoftri Romam

itdirent.

Ad-

freqnentem debant etiam me defiderari,


Senatum Kal. a Bruto " Qaf- fttbaccufari,
ftc."" AdAtt.
fio licterasmiilaaad ConfuUibkL
Caflii; "

fore

rea Se Prstorioi1 at

adeffcnt.

fbe Hisf

8d
A. Urb. 709.

\M

lot,or by

OR

of ii)eLife

decree of
extraordinary

an

^r ^' Ca^far had intended Macedonia for


thefe
A"fi".Syria for the other ; but

VS.
MBLivs

the one,
were

as

P. Cor-

Do-

LABELLA.

the moft

important

and would
^

(ij^g^^^en

fures

get

throw

their enemies

fo

other Provinces

two

inferior kind,
',

Crete

the

ot

and

Empire,

takingmea-

were

contrived

Antony
decreed

them

to

of

to
an

Brutus, and

Cyreneto
people,procured

to

by a law of the
and Syriato be conferred upon

and

Macedonia

of

two

into their hands,

great power

dcftroythem,

to

Caflius

commands

the Senate.

him-

ielf,and his CoUegue DolabeUa ; in confequence


of which, he fent his Brother Caius in all haft
and Dolabella to
himfelf of the firfl,
to
poITefs
fecure the fecond, before their rivals could be in
condition to feize them by force,of which they

uking it for granted,that


the projed,which Brutus and Caflius
this was
now
were
meditating. Caflius had acquireda
in the Eaft, by his condud
in
great reputation
and Brutus was highlyhonorthe Parthian war,
ed
afraid ;

much

were

in Greece^ for his eminent virtue and love of


therefore to flight
: they refolved
Philofophy
were
granted to
petty Provinces, which
them, and to try their fortunes in the more

the

diat Cosfar had

promifedthem ;
and with that view had providedthe fleetsabovethemfelves to thofe
mentioned, to tranfport
countries,which they had deftined for the fcene
powerfullones,

'

of a6tion

Brutus,

Syria\

where

give a

farther

Cicero

we

to

Macedonia^ Caflius,to

fliallfoon have

account

of their fuccefs

in the

mean

journeytowards Romej
the lafl of the month

[0

occafion

while

on

his

[b].
purfucdhis

he arrived

where

to

on

approachto the
City,

Plutar.in Brut. App. 5271 533.

Phil. a. I3" 38.

CICEkO.

rULLlUS

rfM.

St

him, A. tJrb.769/
that the whole day was fpentin receiving
/ifv ^Col^'
and congratulations
compliments
as m. Antoniof bis friends^
he paflcdalongto his Hdufe [r]. The
Senate
P. CorDo*
h"liu3
the next morning, to which he iHras partimet
labeii^a*
cularlylummoned
by AntoiSy,but excufed hittt*
ielf by a civil meflage,as being
too much
indifpff:^
fedby the fatigueof bis journey.Antony took
this as an affront,
and in great rage threatened
be pilled
openlyin the Senate, to order bis boufeto
down^ ifhe did not come immediately
by tbe
; ////
be was
interpofition
oftbe ajfembly
dijfuaded
from
ufingany violence\d\
bufineisof the day was, to decree fomc
The
and extraordinary
honours to the memory
new
of Caefar,nsoitb
to bim, as
a religious
fupplication
deternlined not to
Cicero was
to a
Divinity:

City, fuch

multitudes flocked out

to

meet

us.

in it, yet knew

concur

thrttan

would
oppofltion

but dangeroxis
onely be fruitlels,
; and for
that realbn ftaid away.
Ant6ny, on the othejf
hand was defirous to have him there,fencying,
into a comthat he would either be frightened
pliance,,
not

would

which

leilen him

With

his

own

intended^
oppofingwhat was
make himfelt odious to the foldiery
; bUt as he
without any con-"
was
abfent,the decree pailed

party,

or

bv

tradi"flion.
again the nej^t day, when
Antony thoughtfit to abfent himfelf,and leav^

The

Senate

met

ftageclear to Cicero [^]; who accordingly


delivered the firftof thoie fpeeches,
appeared,and
which, in imitation of Demofthenes, were calthe

VoL.

III.

Platar. in Cicer.

tr]
^] Camqae

de via Ian-

led

G
aadiebtibus
domum

meam

cuA

fabris("f

ventunim

Phil.

elFd

"c.
(" 5..
d^cit,
mihique difplicigoeiemt
Vcni
mifi
amicitia
aai
poftridic
ipftf
[^J
rem,
pro
,
koQ d diccrct,at Wk, vobis noa venit. Phi]. 5. 7.

"

The HiSTd^RY

82
A. Urb.

109.

^C ff^
M.AntoniP. Corus.
NELius

LABBLLA.

Do-

of the Life

he opens it with a
led afterwards bis Philippics
of the motives of his late
account
particular
of his interview
voyage, and fudden return;
"

With

Brutus, and his regret at leavinghim


VeliUjlayshe, I faw Brutus : with what

"

At

"c

J f^^
g^J^f

^^

but think it icandalous for me,


to return
which he was forcai to retire,
to a City,from
where he
and to find myfclffafein any place,

*"
*'

hJjj,J ^^

^^

(^Jj y^^

J ^^^^

not

be fo

yet Brutus

half ib

*^

could

**

much moved with it,as I, but fupported


by
the confcioulhefsof his noble aft,(hewed not

*'

not

for his

not

was

*"

the leaft concern

**

the greateft
for yours."
expreffed

cafe, while he

own

"

declares,*' that he

came

to

fecond

He
Pifo

then
and

accidents,of which many


furround him, to leave that day*s

**

in cafe of

*'

ieemed

*"

fpeechas

*'

[/]. Before he enters


Republic,he takes ocupon
cafion to complainof the unprecedented
violence of Antony'streatment
of him the day

**

*"
*'

to

any

of his

monument

his country
the ftateof the

lityto

would

have

**

before, who

^'

with him,
pleafed

**

he fliould never

"

Republic with fo deteftable a

"

blend

^*

of

"

"*

^'

**

fideperpetual

been

better

prefent for
the
to pollute
and
religion,

he been

"

have confented

honors

the

dead

had

not

of the Gods

with

thofc

he prays the Gods to forgive


both the Senate and the People for their fora

man

ced confcnt

to

it" that he would

never

have

decreed it,though tt had been to old Brutus


himfelf,who firftdelivered Rome from Re-

"

galTyranny, and,

'*

turies,had

*"

ftock,

to

at

the diflanceof five cen-

a race
propa^ted

do

their country

from the fame


the lame

fer-

vice

[/] Phaip,i.4,

"*

vice

**

what

[g].

He

83

CICERO.

rULLIUS

ifM.

thanks

returns

to

Urb. 709.

Pifo, for A.
be-

he had faid in that placethe month

^^q^*

to le- m.
fore; wiihes, that he had been preient
cond him; and reproves the other Confulars,vs.

*^

^^

AntoniP. Cor-

^"^
him. ""^"''"
dieir
deferting
b
y
dignity
betraying
^^""''''^he dwellschiefafiairs,
"As
to die publick
ly on Antony'sabufe of their decree,to confirm Cat"r's ads; declares himfelf ftillfor

for

**
"
*^
*'

the confirmaticm of them, not that he liked


(^ the
them, butfer the "ke of peace ; yet
afts onely,foch as Cslar himfelf had

*^
*^

genub
completed;

^^
^*

not

notesand meimperfoft
pocketbooks ; not every

the

of his
morandums
forapof his m'idng; or what he had not ewritten, but fpoken onely, and that,
yen
without a voucher*^ chargesAntony with

*^
^
^^
**

fuch a
in pretsending
ftrang^inconfiftency,
the moft
zeal for Cxfar^s aSts^ yet violating
of
folemn and authendc of them, bis laws\
diinks it
he givesfeveral examples:
which
to obligethem to the performintolerable,
of all CaslaPs promifes,
yet annuU fo
ance
facred
to be held the mdt
what ou^
freely
he had
and inviolable of any thing that
to
he addreffe himfelf pathetically
done :
both the Confuls,though Dolabella onely was
that they had no rea; tells them,
prefent
half
the befo freely
on
fon to relent his fpeaking
of the RepuUic : that he made no per-

^'

*^

*^

^^

^^

^^
*^

*^

*'

^'

"i

^*

^^

^*
**
"*
**
"

touched their chafonal refledtions


; had not
: that if he
rafters,thdr lives,and manners
offended in that way, he defired no quarto his cuftom, he
ter [*]: but if,according
delivered himfelf with all freedom on public
that they
he begged in the firftplace,

af"irs,
would

not

te

angry
G

[rf

Ibid, s, 6.

in the next,

that if

"

[*] Ibid*7,

ii.

they

7Zv H

84
A. Urb.

709.

^c ff^"

they were,

"

"

methods:

P. Cor-

"

deed,

NBL^us
LABBLLA.

Do*

"

would

'^

'

'

*^

'*

*'

"*

of the Life

exprefstheir anger,

Citizens, by civil,not
that he had

not

be allowed

to

military

admoniflbed

been

exped,

to

that the fame

him,

the enemy

in-

liberty
of Cae-

indulgedto Pifo, his


refent
Father in lawj that Antony would
whatever was
faid againft
his will, though
free from perfonal
if fo, he muft
:
injury

'far, which
'

they would

became

"

M.ArroNtws.

I s T

bear it,

as

had

been

well

as

he

could

"

then after

the Temple of
touchingon their plundering
Opis^ of thofe fumms, which might have
been of great fervice to the ftatc,he obferves,
that whatever the vulgarmight think, mowas

ney

not

the thingswhich

that their Ibuls

were

too

they aimed

noble

had

greater delignsin view


quite miftook the road to

at

for that, and


[t]: but diey

glory, if they
man's having
thoughtit to confift in a (ingle
than a whole people
that to
more
power,
be dear to our
Citizens,to dcferve well of
beour
Country,to be praifed,
refpefted,
^\ loved, was
trulyglorious
; to be feared and
hated, always invidious, deteftable,weak
and tottering"
that Caefer's fate was
a
warning to them, how much better it was to be
'^
'^

^*

"

^*

^'
^'
^*

'*

^'

"

"

^*

"

^'

^'
''

loved, than

to

be feared : that

no

man

could

live

happy, who held life on fuch terms,


that it might be taken from him, not onely
with impunity,but widipraife
[*]. He puts
them in mind, of the many
publicdemonftrations of the people's
difafFeftionto them,
and their conflant applaufes
and acclamations
to
thofe, who oppofed them, to which he
begs them to attend with more
care, in or"

CO

Ibid. 12;

[*] Ibid

14.

dcr

rUXLIUS

ofM.
"*
"*

85

CICERO.

Urb. 709.
the way how to be truly
great and A.
that
glorious.He concludes, by declaring,

dcr

Icam

to

^r ^'

"

**
^^

reapedthe full fruit of his return,


of his conftant
by givingthis publicteftimony

he had

now

the intercftsof his country: that


ufe the fame liberty
oftener,if he

**

adherence

"*

he would

**

found

that he could do it with

*"

would

refcrve himfelf,as well

*"

of
better times, not fo much
out
himfelf, as to the Republic."

"

to

fafety
;

us.

*'^*"''*'**

to

regardto

In fpeakingafterwards of this day'sdebate,


he

lays,

**

behaved

"*

lelfto be free; and

^^

with

the reft of the

that whilft

"

like (laves,he alone

though

lefs freedom

than

he

Senate

(hewed

him-

fpoke indeed

it had

been

**

cuftom

to

do, yet it

was

with

his
than

more,

dangers,with which he was threatned,


ieemed to allow [/]." Antony was
gready
and
his
another
fummoned
cnragol at
fpeech,
where
meetingof the Senate for the nineteenth^
he again required
Cicero's attendance, beingrefblved to anfwer him in perfon,and juftify
his
for which end he employed himfelf
Condud:
own
als
duringthe interval in preparingthe materiof a fpeech,and declaimingagainft
Cicero
**

the

**

in his Villa

near

Ttbur.

The

Senate

met

on

the

appointedday, in the TempleofConcord,whither


with a (hong guard, and in great
Antony came
he had
expeftadonof meeting Cicero, whom
endeavoured
by artifice to draw thither: but
diough Cicero himfelf was ready and dcfirous
to go,
yet his friends over-ruled and kept him
G

qnam mea
lint tamen

at

Philip.
|"oftalabant.
5. 7.
la Comma
reliquorumTerequidem libere,
fui. Ep.
coniuetndo, libe" vitute liber umis
mifam. 12. 25.
qoam pericoli

[/] Locntus
pab. minus

fom

de

Re-

nse

P. Cor-

**^"^"

if not,

he could,

as

|^^ Antoni^"-

86
A. Urb. 709. at

^CoC
'

M. Atnoni.
vs.

P. Cor.

wELius

LABBLLA.

Do-

History

of the Life

intend^
home, bei^gapprebeHftve
offame defign

^"^^-^^^ ^^^^^^'
Antony's fpeechconfirmed thdr sqiprehenfiin which he poured out the overflowings
ons,
of his fpleenwith fuch fiiry
him, that
againft
ciccTO, olludingto what he had done a little
before in public,fays,that be feemedonce more
He
rather to fpew^ than to /peak[w]
produced
Cicero'j Letter to him^ about the reftoration
of S.
Clodius, in which Cicero acknowlec^edhim,
not
onclyforbis friend^but a good Citizen ", as
if the Letter was
confutation of his fpeech,
a
with
and Cicero had other r eafons for quarrelling
than the pretended
fervice of the pubhim now,
lic
ged
[0]. But the cluef thing,with which he urhim, was, his beingnot onely
privy to the
murtber of CaeJar,
but the Contriver ofit^as well
the author of every ftep^which the confpirators
as
bad fincetaken : by this he hoped to inflame the
ibldiersto fbme violence,
whom
he liad planted
for that purpofeabout the avenues
of the *!tempk^
and within bearing
even
oftheir debates. Cicero
in his account
of it to CaflTius,
fays,that be
to own
Jbouldnot
ajbare in the a"Jj ifbe
fcruple
could have a Jhare in the glory:but tbat^ ifbe
bad really
been concerned in it^ theyfiould
never
the work hciffinifhed
bavs left
\^p\

^^

Hb

W
cos

torn

Quo die,fi per ami- Tomerefaomore^nondicere.


mihi cupicnti,
in fena* lb. 2.
venire licuiilet,
caedisi\o'\Atque etiam Htteras,

nicium fecilTeta

me.

Phil,

5. 7.

Meque

cum

elicere vellet

in caedis caufam,
fet iniidus.

turn

"p. fam.

omnibus
[n\ Itaque

iiu,ut

ad

te

antea

fibi mifiiTe diceret,


Phil. 2. 4.
"c.
rccitavit,

quas

me

[/] Nullam

aliam obcauf-

centa-

fam

25.
eftvi*

iarisinterficiendicrimmatur,

12.

me

auflorem

nifi ut in

tentur.
fcripfi,

3"4-

me

Caefui4[e

veteran! inci-

'"p.fam"

12.

2.

rA%

Sd
A. tJrb.709.
Cic. 65.

History

Brutus

Prastors to Antony

and Cassius

Coff.
M.

of the Life

ConfuL

Antoni-

P. ConDoNE).iys

"If
to

us.

LABfiLLA.

of

us.

to

are

you
We

good health,it is a pleafure


have read your Letter,exaftly
in

ening,
piecewith your Edi"t, abufive,threatto be fent from
wholly\inworthy
you
For our
ver
us.
part, Antony, we have nedone you any injury
imagined,that
; nor
that Praetors and
would think it ftrange,
of our rank fliould require
any thingby

you
men

Edift
that

of

we

leave

to

Conful

but if you arc angry,


have prefumed to do it, give us
be concerned, that you would not
a

at leaft to Brutus and


indulgethat privilege
ing
Caffius : for as to our raifing
troops, exactarmies, fending
contributions,
folliciting
exprcffes
beyond fea; fince you deny, that
you ever complainedof it, we believe you ;
and take it a? a proofof your good intention
:

we

do

not

indeed

own

any fuch pra-

when
jected
ftices5 yet think it ftrange,
you obnothingof that kind, that you could
from reproaching
contain yourfelf,
not
us

with

the

death

whether
yourfelf,

of Gaefar.
it is

to

Confider

with

be endured, that

the fake of the

publicquietand liberty,
PrsBtors cannot
departfrom their rights
by
en
threatEdift, but the Conful muft prefently
Do not think to frighten
them with arms.
with fuch threats : it is not agreeable
us
to
charaftcr to be moved
our
by any danger:
muft Antony pretend
to command
thofe,
nor
by whofc means he now lives free. If there
vil
other rcafons to difpofc
were
us to raife a citor

your Letter would have


hinder it : for threatscan h^ve
war,

no

no

eflPeCt
to
influence
**

on

ofM. rULLIUS
**
**
'*

**

**

CICERO.

89

thofe,who arc free. But you know very


for us, to be driwell, that it is not poffible

on

will ; and for


our
thing againft
perhapsyou threaten, that whatdo, it may fecm to be the effeft of

to

v"i

'

m. Amtoki-

ever

"**''"'

we

Thcfe

then

^'

wi(h

*'

in

**

rel with

^*

your bufineis to
conAder againand again,what you attempt^

fentimcnts

our

we

fee you live with honor and fplendor


free Republic
dcfire to quarno
", have
to

than your

and

are

us*

what

you

yet value

our

more
liberty,

It is
friendlhip.

you

can

maintain

and

to

refleft^

long Casfar lived,but how fhort a


time he reigned: we
pray the Gods, that
be falutary,
both to the
your counfils nuy
wifh at
; if not,
Republic and to yourfelf
Jeaft,that they may hurt you as little,
as
and dignityof the
may confiftwith the fafety
Republic[qy
OcTAVius
perceivedby this time, that
there was
nothing to be done for him in the
City againfta Conful, armed with fupreme
both civil and military
fo far
; and was
power
ceived,
provoked by the ill ulage,which he had rethat, in order to obtain by ftratagem
what he could not gainby force,be farmeda
and afluaUy
Amofvfs life^
difign
againft
provided
certain flavesto affaffinate
bim^ who were difcovered and feized
with their poignards
in Antonf%
boufe^as theywere watchingan opportunity
to
their plot. The ftcxywas
execute
fuppofed
by
bis treatto be forged
ment
by Antony to juftify
many
bim eftbe
of OStaviuSy and Us depriving
ate of bis uncle: but all men
eft
offenfe^as Cicero
favs,Utb believed and applaudedit\ and the
*'

not

how

**

*^
'*

"

^'

"

greateft

^f]Bp, fiun.zL

3.

P. Cor-

*'^"*''^^-

fear.

*^

^Cofff

any
that rcafon

**

^'

A, Urb. yog,

^^'

The History

90
A. Urb.

709.

^Cofffdoubted
M.

P. Cor.

HiLivs
LAiBLLA.

Do-

faft

They

Antomi.

vs.

of the old writers

greateft
part

'

dreaded

on

treat

it as

an

un-

[r].
of them

both

were

the Senate

by

of the Life

the

equallyfufpefbed
but Antony more
immediately
of his fuperior
account
power,

credit with the foldiers,


whom
j^jjjfuppofcd
had ibrved with throughall the late wars,

feverai occafions

on

commanded.

diief ftrength
lay ; and

he
and

Here

his

himfelf the
ingratiate
with them, he began to declare himielf
more
and more
the
more
openly every day ag^inft
them in bis EdiSls^
Confpirators
threatening
;
and difcovering
a reiblution to revenge the death
of Caefar ; to whom
he eredted a Jiatuein the
Roftra^and infcribed it,to the moft worthyparent
Cicero
of
this
in
bis
fpeaking
Country.
of
Letter to Caffius,lays, Your friend Antoa
furious,as you fee
ny grows every day more
from the infcription
of his ftatue ; by which
he makes
not
onely murthefers, but
you,
Parricides. But why do I fay you, and not
to

"

*'

**

"*

**

? for the inadman

rather

^'

the audior of your nobk a"5t. I wifli that I


have
had been, for if I had, he would
not

**
^^

us

been fo troublefome

affirms

be

^^

as at

to us

to

me

this time

[j].*^

OCTA-

[r]Deqnomuhitodiaifi"luia ab AAtoniQ

Crimea

vi-

detur,ttt in pecuniamadolef-

impetum fiiceret.Pru-

centis

dentcs

autem

ie boni viri k

[i] Aaget taus

roiem

tua,

amicns fb-

in Stiindies,primam
in
Roftns*
quam poiuit

Parenti
infcripfit,
merito.

Ut

non

optime

modo

fica-

probant. rii"fed Jam cttam Parricide


23.] Infidiis judicemini.QuiddicojudiM. Antonii Confulis latns pe- .cemini? jadicemur potias.
fa"U
tierat. [Sen.de Clem. 1.1 .9.] Vefbri enim polcherrimi

credunt fkAom
TEp. fam. 12.

Hortantibos

"

itaqiienon-

nulliflDercuiTores ei fubomavit.

Hac

fraude

illefariofus me

di*
principem

cit fuifle. Utmam

dej^vhenlayfuifTemymoleftos

"c.Sueton.Auguft.x.P]utar.
Ep. fam.
in Anton.

12.

3.

quidem
non

eflet.

rULLIUS

ofU.
Oct

A VI

\cfs adive in

not

was

us

CICERO.

91

A. Urb. 709;
foUiciting
painsnor
^q^'

his .Uncle's foldiers,


fparingneither
that could tempt them to his fervice; m. Avtohimonejr
and by outbiddingAntony in all his offersand vs.
P. Cor^
bribes
was

them,

to

met

fo
expefted,

and

of Veterans,
furniihodwich all neceflariesfor pre*

firm

tinie, a

as

with greater fuccels dian ^nivt


in a fliort^^**^^^*
to draw
together

oom^tely

But

fent iervice.

regulararmy
he had

publiccharader
this condud, which in re^ar times
to
juftify
have been deemed
So he paid
would
treafonable.
the gftattr court
tx" the RepublicanChiefs, in
hopes to get his procedingsauthorized by the
Senate ^ ;widby the influence of his troq"s, procure
now

as

no

the command

of the

therefore

continually
prelfingCicero

by Letters
fupporthim

was

and

fi'iendsto

war

to

to

come

himfelf

Rme^

he

and

with his authority


their common
againft

to gisnjcm Um*
Antony ; prwnxfti^
advice.
in every fiepby bij(
jlelf

enemy,

Cicero

could

to
perfuaded
into his affairs: he fufpeAedhis youth
enter
and that he had not
of experience,
and want
ftrcngthenough to deal with Aatony ; and above all,that he had no
wards
togood di^xxfition
he thou^t it impoflithe Conipirators
:
hie that he fliould ever
be a fi^nd to them,
and was
perfuadedrather,that if ever he got

But

the upper

not

yet be

hand, bis Uncles a"fs would be

more

and bis death more


re^
violently
enforced^
cruelly
venged^than by Antonyhimfelf
[/]. Thefe con-

fiderations

[/]Valdc
muituQi

tibiaflcndor,fi

pol"cOdaviaxnu"

miiJto finniiM a"la

Tyranoi

comprobatam kit quam

Telliirii,
atqtte id

in

coAtia

Brutom
vene

fore" fed in \"o

^nanquam

auAoritatis panim

Att. l6. 14*

tnimi

Ja-

iatia"
eft. AA

D""

^e

gz
A. Urb.

709.

Anton

P. Cor-

vs.

NiLivs
L

I-

ABBLLA.

Do-

of the Life

fidcrations withheld

^Coff^him,
M.

History

from

him

with

union

an

tillthe

of the Republicmade it
exigencies
did he confent at laft,
neceflary
abfolutely
; nor
without making it an exprefscondition, thac
Oftavius ftiould employ all his forces in defence
^^ ^j^^common
and particularly
of Brutus
liberty,
and his accomplices
and
his chief care
: where
him
caution ftill was,
to
arm
onely with a
fufficient to o[^refsAntony, yet fo
power
checked

and limited,that he fhould

be able

not

opprefsthe Republic.

to

is evident from

This

Atticus;

to

06tavianus

"

I had

*'

on

of his

many

Epiftles

Letter, fayshe, from

the firftof NcFoember

his de-

fignsare great : he has drawn over all the


Veterans of' Cafilinumand Calatia : and no
He
wonder, he givesfixteen pounds a man.
propoiesto make the tour of the other colo^
nies : his view plainly
is,to have the comof the war
mand
againft
Antony y fo that
Ihall be in arms
in a few days.But which
we

*'
^^

'^

^'
**

^'

"

of them

"

ftiallwe

his age
conference with

^'

name,

*'
^^

childifh

*'

I gave

to

him

follow ?

Confider his

"

begs to have a private


it : *tis
at Capua^ or near
me
:
imaginethat it could be private
to

he

underftand,that it was

neither

He fent to me
one
pra"ticable.
CflBcina ofVolaterra^who broughtword, that
Antony was coming towards the City with
the Legion of the Alauda [li]
: that he rai-

*^

nor
neceflary

*"
"

"

fed

"

[u] Thm
JUudit

was

Leeion
fim

of the

raifed

by

J. Caefar, and compofed of

the

save

He

called

and

tie bird with

manner,

to

which

he

it

by

AUud^e

name,

nified

of Gaul^ armed
after the Rodifciplined

of Rome.

freedom

the Natives

nan

"

kind of

rifin^
upon

Gallic

which

Lark,
tuft

figor

or

it's head;

Ut-

creft
in

imitation

TULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

93

led contributions from

A. Urb. 709.
all the great Towns,
with colors difplayed
: he aflced

p^'^-

marched

and

he fliould advance

my advice, whether
him to Rome^ with three thouland

"c

before

|^^ antoni-

Veterans,

keep the poftoi Capua^ and oppofe his


there,or go to the three Macedonian
progreis
LegionS) who were
marchingalongthe up*
per coa"k, and are, as he hopes,in his int"reft
diey would not take Antony's moaffronted
ney, as this Cascina lays,but even
and lefthim while he was
fpeaklngto them.

us.
^

el

"

Ihort, he offers himlelf for

In

thinks that

"

and

"

adviled him

"'

likelyto have the

^^

and

**

better fort

"'

What

*'

^^

fomethmg
your

**

too.

Brutus, where

forcfee this

indeed

like it would

advice

ftay where

for he fecms

meaner

doft
opportunity

an

**

Rime

to

peopleon his fide ",


good what he promiles,the

if he makes

not

ought to fupporthim.

we

march

to

Leader,

our

(hall I
am

thou lofe ? I did

thought that
happen. Give me
yet

come

or

thou ?

art

retire

Rome

to

away

Arpinum ?

to

I Ihall be the fafeft. I had

^'

where

*'

left if any thing fliould be done, I


flioukl be wanted : refolvc therefore for me :

**
**

at

Rome^

was

never

Again
*^

rather be

from

"

in greater perplexity
[x].'*
I had two
Letters the lame day

Odavius

he

pre"s

to

me

"

imitscioD of which, thuLe"


wore
a creil of ftathert
the helmet ; from which

Claisof

come

im-

mediately

Judges,to

be drawn

gion

from

originthe

gion, and added to the other


two
cf tbi Stnators and

word

was

adopted

into the Latin tongue. Antony, out of compliment to


thefe troops, andfto aifure
himfelf of their fideKty,had
made
lateljr

by which

latOt
judiciary
he ercAed a third
a

the Omcers

on
of thit Le-

Knigbts; for which Cicero


often reproaches him
as
a
moft infamous
prollitution
of the

public
"

dignityof the
Phil. 1.8.

[x\ Ad

Att. i6. 8.

Re-

11; s

"-a"*"-^-^-

"

'^

P, Conor
Do-

A. Urb.

709.

Ck. 63.
Coff.

^^

^^

ANTONi-

VS.

p. COR-

VBLIUfl

Do-

LABBI"LA"

to Rome
mediately
; is refolved,he fays,to
I tellhim^
do nothingwithout the Senate
that there can be no Senate tillthe firftoija^
"

^^

M.

of the Life

Tie History

94

'*

^*
*^

^^
^^
^^
*^

*^
^^

*'
^*

^*

^^

"

^^

**
*^

{Oy

witbout

fior

urges
do not

I take

which

nuaryy

he adds al*

In

he

word,

truft his age


his real intentions; will do no-

know

Panfa

thingwithout

prove too
willingto ftirfrom
ny

true

advice*

my

hang back

be

to

may

cannot

afraid that Anto-

am

ftrongfor

him

and

un-

the iea ; yet would not


have any thing vigorousdone without me.
of the boy ;
Varro docs not like the conduA
has firm troops, and may join
with D. Brutus : what he does, he does openbut I do.

He

ly ;

mufters

than

fhall have

we

I hare

'^

0"kavianus
him.

time

at

war

Capua

pays

I iee inftant-

[yY

ly
Again
to

his foldiers

at

Letters

undertake

; to

Capua

Urg*d

^^

Whilft

to

the

his afiairs\

from

to come

(ave the ftate a fecond

to

he refolves to

ever^ day

come

to
direftly

'tis(hameful
fight,

to

Rome.

refuie,

fear yet prompts


the fafer part
chufe.
Horn. U. t.
"

to

"

has hitherto a"tod, and a"ts ftillwith


with a great
to Reme
vigor; and will come
He

boy : he thinks the


Senate may be called immediately
: but who
"rillcome
? or, if they\jo,
certainty
who, in this unof affiiirs,
will declare againft
tony
An? he will be a good guard to us on the
firftof January: or it may come
perhapsto
force.

cc

Yet

he

is but

blows before. The

great Towns

favor tha,
""

[j]

Ibii 9*

boy

Tie Ui

96
A. Urb. 709.

of

Antoni-

v%.

P. Cor-

KELIU8

LABELLA.

Do-

he
authors of their diiafieftion,

beingthe

^r ff'* dercd

of tb^ Lifi

otiY

ST

of*

be

maffacredin bis own


lodgings^
^^ ^^^ number
of three hundred^while he and bis
their
wifeFulvia floodcalmlylooking
on^ to/atiaie
brave men
cruel revenge by the blood ofthefe
: af*
back towards Romcy ty
whlch he marched
^^
the Appian road^at the head of the fingle
legion,
them

fubmitted

which
took

to

their

rout

to

him

alongthe

whilft the other three


Adriatic

out
coafl, with-

for any fide [hi].


06bi*
returned full of rage both ajgainft

declaring
yet
Hb

yius and
make

and
Republicans,

the

ufe he could of the remainder

what

the
in wrefting
Confulfhip,

of his

tary
and mili-

out

lifiiedat the fame time


cning
**

Provinces

edicb, in whkh
of

name

icveral fierce and threat*


*'

he gave

06fcavius the

him
reproached
Spartacus,

with the

of his birth ", charged


Cicero
ignoblened

^^

to

of the hands of his enemies,


them to his friends. He pubdiftributing

commands

and

determined

with

being the author of all his counfils ; abufed


wretch, who
young Quintus as a perfidious

^*
^*
"

had offered

**

cle

*'

to

kill both hb

Father

and

the brother

three of the

of the

Carfiilenus
Confpirator,
"

[^] Ad.

d.

Brundifium

Un-

Tribuns, on painof
appear in the Senate, Q^Caffius,

forbad

deadi,

^'

to

VII

erat

Antoniusy obviam

Id. OAob.

nzoris

profe6lu9,bat.

fegioiiibua

Cum

and

rerperfumefie coaftaPhil. 3.

2.

ejus promiffis
legi*

Maccdonicis
11 11
quas libi ones fortimoiae reclanaileiit*
ad fe venire jufik
conciliare pecuniacogitabaty domum
adducere.
eafquead Urbem
fom.
Ep.
12. 23.
te*
Q^ippe qui in hofpitis
Ais

Bnindiui
cives

fortiifimosvi-

Centuriones"quos

bene de
fentire
Repub.
cognoverat,

eoiqueante pedesfuos, uxofuae*quam fecum grarifque

optimos,jugular! vis Imperatorad exercitum


Phil.
juiTerit:
ante
pedes duxeratyjugularicoegit.
quorum
8.
ejusmorientium Anguineos
5.
ros,

"TULLIUS

ofM.
**

[c]/'

and Cariudus

mon'd

with

CICERO.
In this humor

gj
he fum-

ibe twentyfourthofOftober,
fevere threats to thofe who
fliould abfcnt
the Senate

themfclves

A. Urb.
^

himfelf

c^^f
*

'

on

yet he

m.

AirroNi-'

P.
negleftedto come,
melius
and adjournedit by edift to the twenty-eighth:
but while all peoplewere
in cxpeftation
of ibme ^^"*^^^*
decrees from him, and of one
extraordinary
ticularly,
par;

us.

he had

io declareyoung
prepared,
Cafar a publicenemy [ i] ; he liappened
to re-t
that two
ceive the news,
of.the Legionsfrom
and that which was
catBrundifium, tbefcurtby
led the Martial^ bad affudUydeclared for 0"iaA
viusy andpfied tbemfelves
i7/.Alba,in the mighbourbood of Rome
[^j.- This fhoqked him ib
inftead of profecuting
what he had
much, tfiat
projeded,he onelyhuddled .over what no .body
to Lepidus
oppofed,the decree of a fupplication
\
and the fame evening,after he had dijQributed
to his friends,
by a pretendedallotment,the ieof the Empire, which few or
veral provinces
of them durft accept from io precarious
none
a
title,he changed the habit of the Conful for
that of the General, and left the City with preH
Vo L. III.
cipitation;
which

'] PrihiQm in Cscfarehi aditu- prohibcreCapitolK'"


ib.9.
laledidacongeffit-^igno*
C. Caefaris
liutem objicit
[d] Cum Slenatum vocafin
fet,adhibuifTetque
Confula;
g]]o^[Ph]L3. 6.] quern
CaeEdi^lis Spartacum appellat.rem,quifuarententiaC.
farem
frahoftem
judicaret-^
[ib.8.] (i^Ciccronem,
ediPhi). 5. 9.
tris mei filiam compellat
Appu 556^
hunc
"to^" aufus ell fcribere,
\e\ Poftea vera quam Lede Patris "

Patrui

parricidiogio Martia

7.]quidautem
cogitafle.
[ib.

Am

attinuerity
Q^Caflio

niii uc

"

tem

denanciare

turn

veniflet.

num

"

minb
tium"

eSenatu

ii in SenaD.

urn

vidit,nihil

vi Sc mortij

Canu-

tempiofolum^ fed

prxdantifegitaliud*

liberi effealiquando

quameiiimitataquarta

mua:

Carfule: Legio. Phil,

: Tib,
ezpellere

non

mor*

dtfcem

Atquc
Albs,

"c.

ca

5. 8.

Legio

confcdit

Phil. 3. 3.

769.'

CorDo""
'

fte History

981

vf t"e Life

to put himfelf at the head of his arcipitation,


himfelf by force of Cifdlpine
and poffeis
^Giffl:*
my^
to him
Gtf"/"ailigned
by a pretendedlaw of the
M. Athoiii.
the will of the Senate C/3*
P. Coavs.
peopleagainft
Doii"Liu8
of his retreat, Cicero pidcntly
O N the news
LAiBLLA.
his books and the Country, and fct out
quitted
he ieemed to be adled by the
cowards Rome:
voice of the Republic to take the reins onoe

A. Urb.

709.

into his hands.

more

The

field was

now

open

therewasnotaConful, andfcaroeafrngle

tohim;

City,nor any troops, from which


arrived ra tbi
he oould apprehenddanger. He
conferred
December, and inrunediately
Mff/ifr^
with Pan"i, for tKHius layvery illjabout the
meafures proper to be taken on dieir approaching
into the Confulfhip.
entrance
his leavingthe Country, 0{^iiis
Before
him againto under*
had been with him, to prefs
take the afiuirsof Oftavius, and the protefticm
Praetor in the

of his troops: but his anfwer was,


^^that he
^^
could not confent to it, unkfs he were
firft
*^

that 0"bavius would


affiired,

^^

but even
a friend to Brutus : that be
enemy,
could be of no fervice to O^tavius tillthe firft

*'
^'

not

onelybe

no

of

January^and there would be an opportunitybefore that time of tryingOAavius's dit


in the cafe of Cafca, who
had been
pofition
named
by Caviar to the Tribunate, and was

*'

^^

'*
**

upon it on
for if 0"bivius did

to

*'

the tenth of December

enter

oppofeor difturb his


be a proofof his good

not

admiflion,that would

*^

*'

[/] PagerefeftliunsS. C
de

Supplicadone
per difcefBfecit

intentions

tio" L. I^ntulns Sc P. Nafo


nullam fe habere provinciam, nullam Antonfl forti*
"

tamen
praeclan
tionem
fiiifle judkarunt.
die
ipfo vefperciiui,
ford- Phil. 3. 9, s.
proviadamm religiob
onem

S. Cta.

"

eo

CICERO.
ofM. rULLiVS
intentions [g']" Oppius undertook

**

99
for all A. iJrb.709.

this on the part of Odavius, and Oftavius


felfconfirmed it,and fuffcred Cafca, who
the firftblow

Casfar,to

to

enter

gave m. Antoni*
into his vs.
P. Cor^
quietly

office.
The

HELIUS

in the

newTribuns

abience of the

meeting of
had

^p ^"

him*

called
fuperior
Magiftrates,

the Senate

refolved

time, in the

mean

the mneteetab

Cicero

appear there any more,

to

not

on

''^""*'"-**

till

Confuls ;
fupportcd
by the new
but happeningto receive the day before,the
EdiS ofD, Brutus, by which be prohibited
tony
Anthe entrance of bis Province^and declared,
him iyforce and
that be would defendit againfi
it in itsdutyto the Senate^he thoughtit
preferve
for the public
fervioe,and the prefent
neceflary
(hould

he

be

encouragement of Brutus, to procure,


fome
poffible,

as

foon

as

in his favor:

publicdeclaration

thereforeto the Senate very

which
early,
being obfcrved by the other Senators,prefently
drew
of
a fullHoufe^ in expectation
together
hearinghis ientiments in fo nice and criticala
lituationof the publicaflairs[b"].
he

went

[g]Sed, Qt

fcHbif oertiifi- Nos

autem

eflevideo difcrimenCaf-

mum

He

ante

Id. Decetnb.

ejusvoluntatem perfpiciemus

noftriTrfbanatuni:dequoin Cafca. Mihi valde afleofas eft Ad Att. 1 6. i ;.


qaidemipfodizi Oppio" cum
me
hortaretur,ntadolefcenpleb.e*
[ir]CamTribani
cz

"

Senatus adefleta. d.
temqne toUmqoe cau(ain,ina- dixiflent,
ncimqoe

veteranorum

pleAerer,me
cere
n\
pofle*

eflety eum

tum
non

inimicnm

com-

nollo modo
mihi
non

fa-

in
1 3 Kal. Jan.haberentque
Confulam
animo de praefidio

referre,quinexplora- defigoatorom
modo

qnam

tyrannodkonis,ante

in Senatam
venire :
Kal. Jan.non
die
edicum
eo
ipfo
llatueram

amicum
etiam
fore; tamen
illediceree,
eOet,
itafuturum.
"tnm tuom
proix"ritum
liabceile
ita
Quid igicur
feftlnamns ? in- nefas
duxi" aut
venim

cnm

quam.
ante

ri Senatum, ut de tui5 divlIlli enim mea


opera
Kal. Jan.nihD opus eft. nis in Remp. meritis filere^

tur^

Do-

T^^e History

100

A.Urb.
Cic.

M.

63.

Antoni-

xjs.
MiLius
LABBLLA.

709.

P. CorDo-

faw the

of the Life

in
commenced
aftually
the fuccefs of which
on
Italy^
war

y^j.y bowels of
P"^dcd the fate oi Rome:

tainlybe loft,and
lie,if Brutus

with
not

was

that Gaul

would

the
decer-

it probablythe

Repubthe fufupportedagainft

periorforce of Antony : that there was no way


of doingit fo readyand efFeftual,
as by ing
employand bis troops: and tho' the entrultwould
with that commiflion
throw a

Oftavius

ing him
dangerous power into his hands, yet it would
be controuled by the equal power,
and fuperior
be
to
authorityof the ^wo Cotifuls^who were

joinedwith
Th.e

him

in the fame command.

being affembled, the

Senate

Tribuns

ing,
them, that the bufinefs of that meetacquainted
of
to providea guard for the fecurity
was
nate,
of the Sethe new
Confuls, and the proteftion

in the freedom

of their debates

-,

but that

they gave a libertywithal of takingthe whole


Jlateof the Republicinto confideration. Upon
this Cicero opened the debate,
and reprefent"

**

**

*'

**

**

"

"

"

ed

condidangerof their prefent


of fpeedyand refolute
tion, and the neceffity
counfils againftan enemy,
time
who loft no
in attemptingtheir ruin. That theyhad been
the

them

to

ruined

indeed before, had it not been for the


courage and virtue of young Caefar,who contrary

to

all

defired

even

**

fiblc for him

"

and
thority

*'

Veterans,

and
expedtation,

without

being
thought pof-

do, what no man


to do, had, by his private
au-

to

raifed a ftrongarmy
of
expence,
and baffled the defigns
of Antony ;
"

tnr,

nifi que in Senattim veni


quod fa^lum.cfTetJ

ego

vcniflcm,

quid de

tc

ceretur,

me

non
non

aut

etiam

(i

honorifice diadcfle. Ita-

Quod

cum

that
mane,

cflet animadver-

Scnatores
fum, frequentiflimi
convcncrunt.

Ep. fam. xi.6.

rULLIUS

ofM.

Antony had
with
prevailed

*.*

that if

*'

and

*'

he

have

would

and

blood

CICERO.
fucceded

at

legionsto follow him,


filled the City at his return
flaughter:that it was their

with

**

part to authorize and confirm


him
had done i and to empower

by employing his

**

of the ftate ;

*'

alfo for the

"

for him

*'

tus, who

**

Gaul

*'

public;

*'

had

^*
**

**

"

"

**
*'
"

"'

excedcd

even

their merit

^^^^^^*-

nay,
for the firft

expelleda proud King ; he a fellow


proud and profligate
: that
fubjc6tfar more
Tarquin, at the time of his expulfion,was
making war for the peopleoi Rome -,
aftually
the contrary, had adlually
but Antony, on
That it was
b^un a war againftthem.
receflarytherefore to confirm by publicauthority,what Brutus had done by private,in
the Province of Gaul^ the fiower
preferving
and the bulwark of the Empire" [/t],
of Italy^
after largely
Then
inveighingagainftAntony's charafter, and enumerating particularly
them

violences,he exhorts

to aft with coumanner,


pathetic
in defence of the Republic,
or die brave-

in

rage
the time eiwas
ly in the attempt : that now
their liberty,
ther to recover
live for
or
to
flaves

ever

"

and Rome

*'

was

that if the fatal

dcflined

day was come,


perifh,it would be

to

fhame for them, the Governors


H

[/] Phil.

3.

I, J,

3.

ot die

world,
''

not

Ibid. 4. 5.

P. Cor-

melius

Brutus

**

*'

us.

of the Senare, that he

the imitator of his anceftors

all his cruelties and

'*^

Antoni-

Legions which had declared


againftAntony [t]. As to D. Bruhad promifedby Edift to preferve

*'

*'

do more,

m.

Citizen, born for the good of the Re-

was

*'

to

Caefar

709.

^Coff

two

in the obedience

*'

*'

what

Urb.

troops in the farther fervice


and to make a fpecial
provifion

*'

Brundiftum^A.

the

**

*'

loi

Do-

A. Urb.

109.

courage as Gladiators
rather
dignity,
"^^^ ^^ ^^" ^"^ ^^^ ^*
^^^^
puts them in
^^^^"^^^^ ^^^*^ difgracc.He
advantages,which they
mind of the many
their hopes and rehad towards encouraging
of the people alert and
thc

"'

not

^c fl-^'

*'
*'

M.AirrowiP. CorVI.
wiLius

LABBLLA.

of the Life

^Tbe History

102

Do-

"
"t

fall with

to

body

fojution}

it

much

as

young Cssfar
Brutus of Gaul ; two

in the caufe

*^

eager
of die

in the

guard
of

ConKils
City;
virtue,concord between
the greateft
prudence,
had been meditatingnothemfelves ", who
but the pubthingelfe for many months paft,
his
all which he promifes
: to
lie tranquillity
both day and
attention and vigilance
own
the whole
night for their fafety[/]. On
that
he giveshis vote and opinion,
therefore,

"
**
**

**
^^

*'

"

"

the

"*

Confuls, C. Panfa and

new

(hould

"

take

care

"

**
**

"

"

**

that the Senate may


the firft of January :

that it (hould be declared

*'

him

**

laft

confequenceto

''

Brutus and

"

*'

*'
**
"
**

"

*'

Hirtius,
meet

that
on
fecurity
D. Brutus, Emperor and Conful eledk,had
of the Republic,
by defendmerited greatly
of the Senate and
and liberty
ingthe authority
the Towns
that his army,
peopleof Rome:
and Colonies of his Province, (hould be pubto
for their fidelity
thanked and praifed
licly

with

**

A,

to

be of the

Republic, that
(who commanded

the

L. Plancus

D.
the

as
farther Gaul) Emperor and Conful clefl-,
of
had the command
well as all others who
Provinces, (hould keep them in their duty

appointed
the Senate, tillfuccefibrs were
the
pains,virtue
by the Senate : and fince by
Casfer,and the afliftand conduft of young
foldierswho followed him,
of the veteran
ance
and was ftill
had been delivered,
the

to

Republic

"

"/] Ibid.

14, Sec.

dc-

^e

I04'
A. Urb. 709.

**

^C ""'

'*

"

Mr Anton
vs.

Do-

NELius

Lab

EL

LA.

"

"

I s T

their blood

as
agreeable,

^^^ ^X^

I-

P. Cor-

as

to

That

portents and
union

"

the

Gods
fuch

fince

before

by

by

however

foretel his

to
a

of all raliks againft


him

have been efFefted,


.but

io

fport was

no

feemcd
prodigies

fpeedy downfall,

tc

whom

fee Citizens butchered

to

"""^

tf the Lffe

ft Y

confent

could

and
never

divine influence.

.which ftand the ibird and


fpeeches,
were
tremely
exfourthin the order of his Philippics^
well received both by the Senate and
People: fpeakingafterwards of the latter of
them
the fame people, he fays,if that day
to
bad ,pulan end to my life^
I bad reaped
fufficient
fruitfrom it^ when you all with one mind and
voice cried out^ that I bad twice faved the Republic
broken all meafures
[p}. As he had now
of a reconwith Antony, beyond the poflibility
ciliation,
fo he pubJilhedprobablyabout this
time his fecond Pbilippicy
which had hitherto
whofe
been communicated
onelyto a few friends,
it had received.
approbation
These

T
was

of this turbulent year


and troops for the
fpentin preparingarms
H

fhort remainder

guard of the
ftate : and

the
with
that

the

the greater

new

levies

was

oppofehim

with

ail his

in the

that

carried

were

for
diligence,

brought to Rome^
Modena^ into
allyhefieging
to

the defence of

Qonfuls, and

new

the certain

Antonywas

which

on

news

aifu-

Brutus, unable

field,had

thrown

Town
forces,as the ftroQgeft

himfelf
of his

Province,

{n^ Ibid. 4. k.c.


[3] Quo quidem tempore,

eti.im

ii ille dies vitx

linem

mi hi ftllatarusefTetjfatis
magnum

ceperam

frudum,

cuin

vos

univcrfi

voce

iterum

tam

e/fe

PhiL 6.

una
a

me

mcntc

ac

conftrva-

Remp. conclamaftis,
i.

^ULLIUS

ofM.

Caefar,

fiege. Young
cxpefting

out

in

into

take

well

with

as

to

vigor,

grand

army,

the

while,

mean

the

which

troops,

an"f

in order

all occafions

encourage
till the
which

Brutus

Confuls

they

were

Senate,
he

marched

fultain

to

ftep,

Province

the

and
as

his

105.

provided
of

orders

the

every

of

head

the

in

of Cicero^ by

ibe advice
himfelf

bcft

the

and

Province,

CICERO.

but

of

followed

of

diftrcffinghim

could

his

bring

preparing

709,

antohi-

us.

P.

^^^'"^

Cor-

^^'

^^bella.

Antony

obferve

to

j^f

at

to

Urb.

^'^'
p'

wiib

Rome

defend

A.

with-

governed

now
out

tions,
mo-

himfelf
up

the

for

his,

relief.

SECT.

of the Life

ffbe History

io6
A. Urb. 710.

^'1;^

SECT.

X.

C. ViBItJS
Pan"a.

A. HiRTius.

^^^ Opening

^^^
yj

of the year, the City was


fee what meato
expedtation,

in great

fures their
been

Confuls would

new

fchool,as it

at

were,

purfue: theyhad
all the fummer

to

Cicero, formingthe plan of their adminiftrati-

takingtheir leffons of governingfrom


him, and feem to have been broughtintircly
the peace
into his general
view, of eftabliftiing
of the Republicon the foundation of
and liberty
to Caean
Amnejiy. But their great obligations
with
that party,
far, and long engagements
to which
they owed all their fortunes,had left
fomc fcruples
in them, which gave a check to
with more
them
their zeal, and difpofed
to ad
tion
moderation againftold friends,than the condi-

on,

and

of times would
of arms,
a

With

treaty.

allow

and before the

periment
ex-

try the gentlermethods of


thefc fentiments, as foon as
to

beration
theyentered into a deliinaugurated,
ftate of
with the Senate, on the prefent
what had been
the Republic,in order to perfeft
refolved upon at their laft meeting,and to contrive
of the
for the fecurity
fome farther means
publictranquillity.
They both fpokewith great
ders,
and firmnefs,offering
themfelves as Leafpirit
die liberty
of their country,
in aflferting
the affemblyto courage and reand exhorting
folution in the defence of fo good a caufe [/"]:
and when
they had done, they called up Q^

they were

Fufius Calenus,

to

deliver his fentiments

the

firfi[ p] \Ji
animum

me

que attuHt

oratio
um
non

Confulum

confcrvanda
,

vcnim

ctiam

erexit,fjiem-dignitatis
priftinae
recuperaimodo

(alatb

dae.

Phil. 5.1.

ofM. rULLIUS
firft.He

CICERO.

had been Conful

Caefiu*s nomination, and


Pania, which by cuftom

107

four years before


father-in-law
was

by

A.

to

'

Urb^jio

^^q^

a fufficient
was
ground c. Vibivs
that compliment:Cicero's opi-Pans a.

paying him
nion was
alreadywell
for

known

he

for the ^

was

Hiariu^.

of

coming at their
end, by declaring
Anttmy a publicenemyy and
him by open
widiout lols of time afbinc againft
force : but this was not rdifhed by the Confuls,
who called therefore upon Calenus to (peakfirft;
that as he was a faftfriend to Antony, and fure
the moderate fide,he might inftilfome
to be on
of that fort into the Senate, before
femiments
CaCicero had made
a
contrary impreflicMi.
lenus's opinion therefore was, that before
they
to alts of boftility^
theyfiyould
fendan
proceeded
him to deftfi
to Antony^to adnunAJh
embajfy
from
bis attempt upon Gaul, andfuhmit
to the authori^
of
ty ofthe SenaU : Pifo and feveral others were
it to be unjuft
and
the fame mind, alledging
till they had firft
cruel to condemn
a
man,
readieft way

ihorteft and

fayfor himfelf.
Cicero oppofed this nK"tion with great
But
vain and foolifh,
but
warmth, not onelyas
he declared itdif^
dangerousand pernicious:

heard what

he had

to

^^

^^

^^
^*

*^
^'

^*
^'
^^
^
^*
**
'*
^'

with anyone,
who was in
his country, untillhe laid them
againft

honorable
arms

down
man

to

treat

and fued for peace; in which


moderate or
would be nx"re

himfelf :

cafe

no

equitable
effc^pro-

diey had in
clamed him an enemy
and had noalready,
thingleftbut to confirm it by a decree,when
of
of the great Towns
he was
one
befieging
Itafyja Cblony of Rofne, and in it their
eleSlyand General Brutus: he obfcrConjiil
ved firom what motives thofe other opinions
rekfi-iendfliij^,
proceeded
; from particular

than

that

"

tions.

of^tbeLife

^be History

ic8
.

-, but that
obligations
tions,private

^. Urb. 7IO.

""

^C ff*

**

to

''

^^^ ^^^ ^^

C. ViBiut
Pansa.

A.HiRTiuf.

''

*"
**
**
*'
*'
**

*'

their

"*

who

**
**
*'
**
**
''
*'
**
''

**

"

"^

"

*'

**

**

^'

*'

*'

whether

was,

"

came

^'

i^int before them

all:

them

to
fuperior

was

Antony fhould be fufFered to opprefs the


to
Republic; to mark out whom he pleafed
deftru6tion ; to plunderthe City,and enflave
his folc
the Citizens" [y]. That this was
view, he fheWed fix)m a long detail not onely
declarations
of his ads, but of his exprcfs
for be had faid in the Temple of Caftor, in
it
the hearingof thp people,that whenever

*'

"*

Country

regard

to

blows,

no

man

fhould remain

alive,

fpecch;
he
of his Confulfliip,
that when
would keep an army ftillabout the City, and
he thought fit: that in a
it whenever
enter
did not

conquer
he was
out

"

and in another

Letter, which Cicero himfclf


of his friends,he bad him
one

feen,

had
to

mark

to

out

for himfelf what eftate he would have, and


have
he Ihould certainly
it was,
whatever
it [r]: that to talk of fendingEmbafladors

betraytheir ignorance
of the conflitution of the Republic,the majeftyof the Roman people,and the difcipline
of their anceftors
[i]that whatever was the
purpofeof their meflage, it would fignify
nothing: if to beg him to be quiet,he would
him, would
defpifeit; if to command
good,
not
obey it that without any poffible
it would be a certain damage ; would neceffarilycreate delay,and obftruftion to the
of the war -, check the zeal of the
operations
of the people;whom
damp the fpirits
army,
to

fuch

an

one,

was

to

"

"

theynow

faw

fo brifk and eager in the caufe


"
"that

Phil. ?, 1, 2, 3.
Ibid. 9.

[r] Ibid. 8,

12.

TULLIUS

ofM.
*'

*'

**

**

*'

*'

**
**

**
*'
*'
**
**

**
**
**
""
**

"*
*'

CICERO.

109
Urb. 710'.

A.
revolutions of affairswere
grcateft
efieftcd often by trifling
incidents;and above
^^-^4which
all in civil wars,
were
generallygo- c. Vibius
vemed
that how
by popularrumor:
vigo-Pansa.

the

"that

rous

foever their inftruftions were

bafladors, that theywould

be

to

A. Hirtius.

the Em-

little

regarded : the very name


of an Embafly impliedd
Sufficient
diffidence and fear,which was
to
cool the ardor of their friends [/]: they
might order him to retire from Modena \ to
quitthe Province of Gaul \ but this was not
be obtained by words, but extorted by
to
arms

that while

"

the

Embafladors

were

and

coming, people would be in


about the fuccefs of their
doubt and fufpenfe
and under the expeftation
of a
negotiation,
doubtfull war, what progrefs
could theyhope
make
in their levies? that his opinion
to

going

"

therefore was,
to make
of an Embafly 5 but

to

into
inflrantly

enter

*'

adion

**

all civil bufinefs ; a publictumult proclathe fliops


and
that inflread
{hut up;
med;
of their ufual gown,
they ftiould all put on

**
"*

that there

farther mention

no

fliould be

habit of

and

cefliaticm of

that levies

'*

the

*'

of foldiers fliould be

**

through Ilaly, without any exceptionof


difmiffion from
fervice
that
or
privilege
the very fame of this vigor would
reftrain
the madnefs of Antony, and
let the world
he prefee, that the cafe was
as
not
tended, a ftruggle
onely of contendingparties,but a real war
againftthe Commonthat the whole Republicflioulcibe
wealth

**

Sagum,

or

war

in

made

Rome,

and

"

*'
*'
*'

**
**
"

"

''

committed

to

the Confuls,

to

take care, that


".

[/] Ibid.

10.

it

7%e Hi

no
A.

of tb^ Life

BTOKY

that pardon
received no detriment
Ihould be offered to thofe of Antony's army,

Url^7io. it
"*

^Cofl?

**

*'

who

(houid

**

of

February

C. V1BIV8
Pans

A.

A.HiETius.

c(
"

*'

their duty before the firil

to

return

that if theydid

"

not

perhaps,or lefseffeftual ["].*'

to

of what

the fumm

was

towards

their conduft

ceded

Antony

he advifed
:

he

were

ordered

laftmeeting;

and

began with

to

*'

"

rorj

Gaul in the power

^^

ofRomei

*'
*'
**

pro;

tbe

D. Brutus,as Con-'
befides many high
decree

to

Whereas

eleSt^now
Confid

"*

as

he decreed at their

eleU ; m favor of whom,


fitl
he propofeda
of praife,
expreffions
this eflfedk

next

of their debate
fubjeft

the other

bofwrs which

**

to

come

jiji5rcfolution now,
theywould be forced to
do it afterwards,when it would be too late
This

to

"

"

D. Brutus, Empeholds the Province of

of the Senate

and

People

andby thechearfullaffiftanceofthe

of his Province, has


in a fhort time ;
drawn together
a great army
and regularly,
that he has done all thisrightly
Towns

and

Colonies

^^

and for the ferviceof the ftate : and that it is

"*

the fenfe thereforeof the Senate and

*^

Republichas been relieved in a mo(t


difficult conjuncture,
by the pains,counfil,
virtue of D. Brutus, Emperor^ Conful tk"ty
ojf
and by the incredible zeal and concurrence

*^
"*
^'
"

People,

that the

the Province

of GauV^

He

moved

alfo for

honor to M. Lepidus,who had


extraordinary
but
to it indeed from paft
DO
iervioes,
pretenfion
beingnow at the head of the beft army in the
in condition to do the moft good
was
Empire,
of any man.
This was
the ground
or illto them
of the compliment
; for his faith beingfufpedted) and his union with Antony dreaded, Cicero
hoped,
an

\m\ Ibid. 10.

12.

^e

1 12

A. Urb.

71

o.

^c P'
C-viBius
Pansa.
A.HiRTius.

of the Life

History

by their order in the Roftra, or any other


P^^^^^ ^^ Forum, which he fhall chufe
M^
next
to young
Caefarj
comes
L^]"
and
his praifes,
after enlai^ing on
propofes,
that they (hould grant him a proper comhis Troops,withmillion and command
over
**
"

"

"

**

*"

**

he

which

could

be of

ufc

no

them

to

"

and that he fliould have the rank and

*'

of a Proprator ; not onelyfor the feke


rights
but the ncceffary
of his dignity,
management

'*

'

out

**
'

"

all the

and the adminiftration of the


of their affairs,
And
then offers the form of a
war/*
""

Decree
*'

"*
*'
**
*'

**
**

"*

^*

*'

*'
*"
"*
*'

**

C. Caefar, the Son of


Caius, Prieft,Propraetor,
has, in the utmoft
diftrefeof the Republic,excited and enlifted
*'

"

"

Whereas

of the
Troops to defend the liberty
Roman
people; and whereas the Martial and
fourth Legions, under the leadingand authorityof C. Caefar,have defended, and now
of the
defend the Republic,and the liberty
Roman
people; and whereas C. Caefar is
the
gone at the head of his army to proteft
Province of Gaul j has drawn together
a body of horfe, archers. Elephants,under his
and the peoplespower ; andin the moft
own
dangerouscrifisof the Republic,has fupported the fafety
and dignityof the Roman
peofor
thefe
reafons
Senate
the
decrees,
pie;
Veteran

**

that C.

**

be
Propraetor,

"*

^'
**

**

**

vote

Caefar, the

Son

of

henceforward

in the rank and

placeof

Caius, Prieft,
a Senator, and
a

Prator

and

for any future Magiftracy,


foUiciting
the fame reg^d be had to him, as would
have been had by law, if he had been Quaeftor theyear before
[z]. As to thofe,
that in

"

-"

"

[jr]Ibid.

15.

[2] Ibid.

17.

who

CtC^ttO.

bfM. rULLIUS

fo A. Urtx.710.

thought thcfc honors too great for


and apprehendeddangerfrom
a man,

who

"

"'

U%

^ ^

young
his abufe of them, he declares their appre- c. Vibius
of envy, rather than Pansa.
henfions to be the eflFeft

"'
"*

fear; lince the

**

of

nature

thingswas

fuch, A.Hirtiu".

had once
that he, who
got a tafte of true
dear to
glory,and found himfelf univcrlally
think
the Senate and People,could never

""
**
"*

equalto it : he wifhes
any other acquifition
that J. Cselar had taken the lame courfe,
himfelf to the Sewhen young, of endearing
that,
and honeft men
nate
; but by neglefting
the force of his great genius in ache

*'
**
"*
"'

fpent

*'

having no
; and
quiringa vain popularity
regard to the Senate and the better fort,
opened himfelf a way to power, which the
virtue of a fi" peoplecould not bear
that there was
nothingof this kind to be

'*
**
"

**

^"

"

the Son

''

feared from

"

fuch admirable

"
**

be, than

**

invidious

**

proofof
boy,any ground

after the

""

there

"

nor

prudencein a
be lefs
would
to imaginethat hb riperage
could
for what
greater folly
prudent

**

**

an
prefer

to

ufelelspower,

an

althe luft of reigning,


greatnefs,
to true, wcighand tottering,
ways flippery
hint
if diey fufpefted
ty, folid glory?
as

an

fome

to

enemy

moft

of their beft and

Citizens,theymight layafide thofe

"

valued

**

fears,he had givenup all his refcntments

'*

the

"

all his a6b

**

ward

'*

his credit for him

"

would

"

would

**

fuch
Vol.

Republic",
"

her the Moderatrix


that he knew the moft

made

"

fcntiments of the youth ; would


to

the Senate

and

to

of
in-

pawn

Peoplej
he

pfomife,engage, undertake, that


was
;
alwaysbe the fame that he now
and defire to fee
as they ihould wi(h
hi.

**

him

fhe History

114
A. Urb.

710.

^c ff^

"

**

**

C. Villus

Pansa,

"

A. HxRTivs.

""

"

"
"

him

"

[a].

"

cf the Life
He

public teftimonial

alfo to give a.
prooedcs
thanks
ot praifcand
to

^' Egnatulcius,
for bis fidelity
to the Republie, in bringingover the fourth Legion from
Antony to Caeur ; and moves, that it might
be

pieceof fervice,

for that

him

granted to

iuefor and hold any magiftracy


three years
before the legaltime
as
[b]. L-aftly,
to the Veteran
Troops, which had followed
to

""

**

authorityof Caefar and the Senate, and

**

the

**

the
cfpecially

moved,

"

Ihould be decreed

"

except in the cafe of

**

mult
A.

**

lands in

"

ded

to

war

was

"

"

**

**

that

and

to

Gallic

or

(ion

as

C. Caelar

all be

provide
ht divi-

to

as

prefent
difcharged,
the

fumms

wi^pt'.vcr

had

prou II...;o them


nrft declared for him.
"

This

the fubftance

was

Oi

tu-

and

C, Panfa

elfcwhcre

they fhould

over,

domeftic

or

of them, (hould

one

an.! that

fervice

them and their children,

the Confuls

Campania^

them

punftuallyreceivr

money

they

an

that

Hirtiiis,or

*'

Legions

exemption from

he

and

Fourth

**

and

Martial

of

when

"

in
lils fpeech
",

the latter part of which, the propcvJ of honors,


the Senate readily
agreed with him : and tho'
thofe which

decreed

were

fo
.

to
extraordinary
thoughtit proper to

yet there were


thought them

to

Cicero
make

an

Oftavius, feemed
himfelf, that he
apology for them,

others of the

firft rank

who

enough ; fo that Philippusadded the honor of a Statue j Ser. Sulpicius, /iW Servilius,the privilege
offuingfor any
earlier than Cicero baa propoMagiftracyftill
fed
not

great

""] Ibid.

18.

[b}IbkL

19.

tfU.

CtCMRO.

tULLlUS

fid fc}. But

115

affemblywas much divided A. Urb. ^lo.


about the main queftion,
a deputation^'^"
offending
^^
Senators were
to Antony : fomc of the principal
c. VIbius
and
the
for
Gonfuls
themfelves
it
faPansa,
warmly
;
A.Hirtivi.
avtnded to put it to the
vored
it, and artfully
vote [d] ", which would otherwife have been carried
his
on
by Cicero, who had a dear majority
fide. The debate beingheld on tillnight,was
adjournedto the next morning, and kept up
for three daysfucceflivewith the lame warmth
Jy, while the Senate continued all the time in
Ciccro*s opinion,and would
cree
have paffeda deconformable to it, had not Salvius the Trif
tun put bis negative
upon them [e]. This firmnels of Antony's friends prevailed
at laft for an
Senators were
Emhafjy; and three Confular
preL. Pifo/
fentlynominated to it, S. Sulpicius,
and L. Philippus
but their commiflion
:
was
and drawn up by Cicero him**
ftridjylimitecl,
fclf ; givingthem no
tony,
power to treat with Anbut tQ carry to him onelythe peremptory
of the Senate, to quit the fiegeof
commands
in Gaul j
Modena, and defift
from all bofiilities
ry
theyhad inftruftionslikewife,after the deliveof their mefiage,to fpeakwith D. Brutus in
and his army, that
Modena^ and (ignify
to him
the Senate and Peoplehad a grateful
Senfeof their
I 2
Services^
the

de\c\ StatQam Phtlippas

jampridemde manibits

natui

Crcvit, cclcritatcm

pctitionisarma cccidlflcnt. Phil. 14,7.


primo Scrvius, poftmajorem
\/\ Itaquchsec Senteotia
fie valait, ut
etiam Servtiiat: nihil turn
per tridaum
nimiam

videbatar. Ad.Brat.

elt,

15.

\/\ Has
I
cere

Confules

in fententias meas

difceffionem fa-

voIai/Tent,omnibus

tamen

onines

rentar.

Iftis p. 559.

latronibosaaflorltatcipfii
9"-

difceifio
fafla noa

qaamquam

prxter paucor,

mihi

afTenfuri vide*

Phil. 6.

1.

Appt

llje History

ii6
A.Urb.710.
Cic. 64.
Coff.

C. ViBIUS

Pansa,
A.HIRTIU8.

would

ServiceSywhich
to

of the Life
day bi

one

great honor

[/].

them

lengthof thefe debates greatly


of the City, and drew the
raifed the curiofity
whole body of the peopleinto the Forum, to
exped the iflbe-, where, as theyhad done alio
not
long before,theycould not forbear calling
and give
out upon Cicero with one voice to come
them an
account
of the deRberations [^]. He
from the Senate into the
therefore diredlly
went
Rojira^producedby Appulelus,the Tribun,and
in a Speech with the refult of
them
acquainted
their debates,
that the Senate, excepting
a few, after theyhad flood firm for three days
with
had given it up at lafl:,
to his opinion,
lefs gravityindeed than became
them, yet
not
meanly or (hamefully,having decreed
fo much
not
an
Embaffy as a denunciation
of war
to
Antony, if he did not obey it :
T

unufual

"

"

which

appearance of fevehe wifhed onelythat it had carried

carried indeed

rityi and
no
delay

that

"

would

been

had

warn,

and

Antony

Antony, he

obey it,nor

never

had
who
power,
that he would do

he

an

to

own-

in the

placewhat
Senate -, teftify,

them

before-hand,that

performno

part of what their


of him
require

were

to

fent to

"

[/] Quamquam

non

^ft

fed denanciatio
ilia legacio,

belli,nifi

their

therefore in that

declare

Embafllidors

fubmit

been in his

never

doing

would

ever

fure,

was

Dantur
ut

that

mandata

D. Bnitum"

legatis*
emilittfque

parueritmittun-

jusadeant,"c. ib. 3,
qui nuncient,
[il Quid ego de univerfo
deli";na-populo R. dicam ? qnipleno
oppugnet Confulem
Mutinam
ne
eum,
obfideat,ac referto foro bia ne una
tur

ne

"

enim

ne

ProiMDciam

"Phil.

6.

2.

depopaletar.

mente
onem

atque

voce

vocavic.

in conci-

PhiL

7. 8"

**

**

**

**

**

"'

**

**
**

**

"

*'

**

**

*'
**

CICERO.

rULLIUS

ofM.

A. Urb. 710.
that he would ftillwaft the country, befiege
Modena^ and not fufFcr the Embafladors
the Town,
or
fpeakwith c. Vibius
themfelves to enter

^q^*

Brutus

fayshe,

believe me,

^"

violence, the impudence,theaudacioufnefs


then make
Embaffadors
let our
the man
"

haft, which I know

refolved

they are

(hall

we

certainly
put

it

on

he will

[A].

a"lion^"

**

"

**

**

"'

**

**
**

**

never

afraid,when

not

am

hear, how I have


fore-hand,that for the fake

of

ry

never

it -, will

do

not

envy

will chufe rather,that you


wife, than him modeft**

he

this be-

declared

to

comes

me,
confuting

will

**

do

obey : we (hall lament the lofs of fo many


days, which might have been employed in

*'

**

to

habit ; for
but do you prepare your military
it is a part alfo of our decree,that if he does
not
comply, we muft all put on that garb :

**

*'

the Pans

I know

fubmit.
me

this

He

glo-

fhould think

he obferves,
have been better to fend no
"

me

that tho* itwould

from it
meflage,yet fome good would flow
the Embafladors
for when
\
to the Republic
will
(hall make the report, which they furely
make, of Antonyms refufal to obey the Pcoas
pie and Senate, who can be fo perverfe,
as a Citizen ?
to look upon him any Ibnger
Wherefore
wait, layshe, with patience,Ci"

"

of the Embafladors, and


the inconvenience of a few days : if on
digeft
prejutheir return theybring peace, call me

tizens,the

return

Then
provident[ i]."
vigilance
of his perpetual
them,
after afluring
and applaudingtheir wonfor their fafety,
in the caufe, and declaring,
dcrfal alacrity
**

a,

of A.Hirtivi.

he ftiould change his mind, and

**

117

diced

if war,

"

"

"

**

"

"

I 3

[*] Phil.6.

1,2,

3,

[0

Ibid 4, 6.

that

^e

ii8
A. Urb. 71".

^c ff^'

of the Life

History

"f

that of all the affemblies which

"

^^ ^^^

*'

C. ViBius

Pansa,

*'

^.HiRTius.

^t
*'

*^
*'

known

never

he h^

fo fi^ll
an

one

fcen,
as

the

The fealbn of
he thus concludes,
prefent,"
lais now
come,
liberty
my Ciiizcas,much
the peopleof Romei
ter indeed than became
be deferred
that it cannot
but fo ripenow,
"

What

moment.

was

owing
born

to

we

have hitherto fuffercd

kind of

well

which
fatality,
could

we

but if any

**

have

"

fuch cafe {hould

he

^'

owing to
peopleof liom^ to

the

^*

as

as

we

happen ^ain, it muft


for
oiirf^lves
: it isnot
poffible

the Gods
be (laves,whom
of ail nations :
die command

*"

have deftined

^*

the afiairis

"*

is for liberty
: it is your
ftruggle
be
part either to conquer, which will furely
the fruitof your pietyand concord, or to
fufFerany thingrather than live flaves : other
nations may endure flavery
; but the proper
end and bufmefs of the Raman
peopleis liberty/*
mediatel
The
Embafladors prepared
themfelves im-

*"
*'
.-.

^*
^*
^*
"

mity ',

to

now

reduced

to

the laft

extrc^

the

to

execute

their Commiffion, and the

morningearlyfetforward towards Antony,


tho* Ser. Sulpicius
ftate
in a very declining
was
of health. Various were
about
the fpeculations
the fuccefsof this meflage
: but Antony gained
certain advantage
one
by it, of more time, eiither to prefsthe fiegeof Modern^ or to take
fuch meafures as frelh accidents might ofier 2
his friends without hopesof drawing
were
nor
from it ibme pretence for openinga treaty with
him ; fo as to give room
the chie" of the
to
the
CafarianFaction to unite themfelves ag^inft
Senate and Republican
party ; which feemed to
be infpired
by Cicero, with a refolution of exall the remaips of the l^teTyranny.
tinguifliing
next

"

For

72^ History

i.ao
A. Urb.

71Q.

Cic. 64.

C. ViBius
Pansa,
A.H1RTIU8.

**

the fame fide \ their armies

all Italy
on

c(

pared;

"

^^'^

of the Life

their Generals
^^^

""""

ready to

anfwers
f^^'^

prethe

take

for Antony, and

applaudthem, as if they had fent Embaflabut receive conditions fiom


dors not to give,
Then after expofingthe danger
him/*
the
of fuch praftices,
and rallying
and iniquity
abettor of them, Calenus, he adds^
principal
"

"

"

"

"

*^
"

that he, who


and

promotor

all his lifehad been the author

of civil peace

he was,

whatever

owed

who

he had

it; his

**

whatever

"

honors, intereft,
dignity
5

*'

lents and

"

adviferof peace^
yet I, fayshe, the perpetual
where
for no peace with Antony"
am

**

abilitieswhich

he

nay,

"

he

"

^'
"

^*
"
^*
"*

**
'*
"*
"

"*
'*

^'
**

be heard with great

tion
atten-

procedesto explancat largethro*


a

peacewould

difhonorable,
dangerous,ana could not
fubfift
he exhorts the Senate
poffibly
therefore to be attentive,
preparedand armed
before-hand ; fo as not to oe caughtby a
fmooth or fuppliant
anfwer, and the falfeapdo
: that Antony muft
pearance of equity
to him, beevery thingwhich was prefcribed
fore he could pretend
afk any thing", if
to
the Senate which proclanot
not, that it was
med war
die iiflhim, but he againft
againft
man
people, But for you. Fathers, I give
before
yoi| warning, fayshe, the queftion
the liberty
of the peopleof
you concerns
Rotne^ which is entrufted to
concerns

neft

**

which

"*

be

*'

**

ta^-

mailer of

was

the reftof his fpeech," that fuch


*'

the

even

"

himfelf to
perceiving

to

man

care

it

the lives and fortunes of every hoauthority


; it concerns
}
your own

you will for


retrieve it now

f anfa \

your

ever

foytho* you want

lofe,if you do

not

I admonifli

you too,
np advice,in which
*"

you

CICERO.

ofM. rULLIUS
'*
*'
*'
**
"

**
*^

excel,yet the beft Pilots in great ftorms

you
are

121
A. Urb. 710.

: neby paffengcrs
and
of arms
provifion

Cic.

fomecimes admonilhed
fuffer that noble

vcr

64,

Vibi'ui

to no; Pans a,
you have made, to come
before A.Hirtiu8..
thing; you have fuch an opportunity
had : by this firmnels of
ever
you as no man
of the Equeftrian
this alacrity
the Senate

troops which

*"

order, this ardor of the people,you have it

Republicfor ever
danger [/],'*
while were
Confuls in the mean
taking
The
of the eifed of the
care, that the expe"bation
their preparations
EmbaiTyihould not fuperfede
thai
and agreed between thenifelves,
for war;
to Gaul,
one
of tbem JbouU march immediately
with the troops which were
alreadyprovided,
levies^
and the other flay behind to perfeUthe new
"

^*

in your power
from fear and

which

to

free the
"

great fuccefsboth
the Country : for all the capital

carried

were

on

with

City, and
of Italy
Towns
were
vying with each other
contributionsof money and foldiers
in voluntary
;
who
to thofe
and in decrees of infamyand dtjgrace
into the public
^m].
fervice
to lift
tbemfelves
refufed
The firftpart fell by lot to Hirtius ["] ; who,
though but latelyrecovered from a dangerous
marched away without lofs of time
indifpofition,
in the

brave army ; and particularly,


of the t%j(^Legions^the Martial and the fourth^
of
which were efteemed the flower and ftrength
of

$it the head

the whole, and

command

now

put themfelves

under

of the Conful.
and aufpices

the

With

thefe,
ViA

ft]
m]

An

Phil. 7.
cum

Munidpiu

ftudia
pax erit,quorum tanta
cognofcunturin decretis familitibui dandis,p^
ciendis,

cuniis
tota

haec jam
polHcendifr"

Italia fiunt. Phil. 7, 8, 9.

[/r]Conful
lum

fortitu ad bel-

A. Hiniu""
profe^lus

Phil. 14.

2.

7%e History

122
A. Urb.

710.

^c ff^
C. ViBius
Pan3a.
A.H1RTIVS.

of fbe Life

thele,in conjundion with 06lavias, he hoped

deCgns of Antony, and pre^^^5 gainingany advantageagainft


^^"^
Brutxis,
tillPanfa could join them, which would make
them fuperior
in force,and enable them
to give
him battel,with good affurance of viftory.He
^^

obftruft all the

contented

himfelf in the

while

mean

with dif-

poffefling
Antony of fome of his pofts; and dihis quarters, and
him, by ftraitening
ftreffing
of forage
he had fome
opportunities
; in which
in a Letter to his Colfuccefs,as he fignified
to the
legue Panfa, which was communicated
Senate ; / have pjfejfed
fayshe, of Cla^
myfelf^
: bis borfe
ternay and driven out Antonfsgarrifon
routed in the a^fion^ and fome of them
'Were
flain[p]: and in all his Letters to Cicero, he
aiTured him, that be would undertake nothings
caution \ in anfwer probably,
without the greatefi
Cicero
was
to what
not
inculcating,
conftantly
tillPanfa could
himlelf too forwardly,
to expofe
come
up to him [/"].
Embafladors returned about the beginThe
ning
of February^having been retarded fomewhat longer than they intended, by the deatb of
Ser. Sulpicius
happening when they
", which
were
juft arrived at Antony's camp, l^ the
Embajfy maimed and imperfeU^as Cicero fays,
of the
by the lofs of the beft and ableft man
three [q]. The
they made to
report, which
the Senate, anfwered exaftlyin every pointto
what
Cla[0]Dejecipnefidium,
fum,
fugatiepotitus
commilTum,
quites,
prselium
occiii aliquot.Phil. 8. 2.
[p] Hirtius nihil niii con-

batur.

"p.

[f] Cum

terna

tate
omnea,
totam

fam.
Ser.

i x.

c.

ae*
Sulpicius

illoa anteiret, fapientia

fubito ereptus

caufla

legationemorbam

te

fidence, ut miht crebris lit- debilitatam reliquit.


Phil. 9.
teris

a"luru9
fignificatt

vide"

"

tlfU. rULLIUS
^hat

had

Cicero

CICERO.

foretold

perform no part of what


them

123

Aniony would A. Urb. 710.


nor
required^
Juffer ^'^'
p"
that

was

fpeakwith Brutus^ but continued to


Town with great fury in tbetr prejence:
to

even

batter the

he offered however

fome

ii^hich,contrary

to

their inftrudtions,
they were

weak

receive from

enough
the

to

Senate

conditions of his own,

purport of them
was,
(hould afUgn lands and re-

^^

wards

^^

other

all his troops, and


grants, which he and

**

made

in their Confulfhip
: that allhis decrees

'^

from

Cse"r's

'^

firm

**

of the money

taken fix)m the

^^

pis;

inquirymade

**

of the

"*

vide

^*

law fhould
that his judiciary

**

on

confirm

to

nor

books
account

no

any

feven

and papers (hould ftand


(hould be demanded

to

to

to

di-

foldiers; and

the Veteran

he offered

thefc terms

of O-

into the conduft

Commiffioners, created

the lands

all the

Dolabella had

Temple

be

:
repealed
give up Cifalpine
might have the

not

""

Gauly provided, that he

**

greater Gaul in exchangefor five years, with


an
army of fix Legions,to be completedout

"

of the troops of D. Brutus [r].**


the Senate to confider the
Pans
fummoned
A

"

report of the Embafladors

which

raiied

neral
geand
indignation
through
City,
gave
all poflible
ing
advantageto Cicero, towards bring;

the

the Houie

he found
expeftation,

to

but contrary
Calenus*s party ftill

into his fentiments

ftrong
[r] Ante
que
tinam

Confulit ocolof-

Icgatonimtormentii Muverberavtt"

ne

pun-

Senatui ,
dixiflentque

non

difilium c Gallia non


cenfuifTemus,
uti
fe^
ceffiiTe,

modo

quidemreceffifle,
ne a Mutina
cum
quideoiteraporis*
fibi
l^ti adcfient, oppugoatio potellatem D Bruti con"c. vid*
veniendi non
fuifle,
illi con*
lefpiravit cum
Phil.
8. 7" 8" 9.
revenilTeDt,
umpti Sc rejcAi

"tum

"

a.

A-Hirtivi.

the

that the Senate

that

Pans

fore
him, and lay be-

^^

c. Vibivs

^e

124

of the Life

History

ftrongenough to give him much trouble,and


him ; all tend^c ff* ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^"^ pointsagainft
*"8 ^^ foften the rigorof his motions, and give
C. ViBius
favorable towards Antony.
them a turn
more
Pans
A. Urb.

710.

A.

JV.HiRTius.

moved

He

the Senate

to

decree,that

war

or

commenced : they carried it


aSlually
for a tumult : he urged them, to declare Antony
an
enemy : they carried it for the foftertcrnf, if
[i]: he propofed,that all perfons
adverfary
from going to Antony :
ftiould be prohibited
Varius Cotyla,one of his Lieutenants,
they excepted
then in the Senate, takingnotes
who was
of every thing which
in thcfe votes
:
paffed
and all the Con/ular
Senators conPanfa bimfelf^
who thougha true friend
curred ; even L. Casfar,
to
liberty,
yet beingAntony'jUncle^ thought
the
himfelf obligedby decency, to vote
on
milder fide [f].
But
Cicero 'in his turn
threw out,
eafily
what was warmly prefled
the other fide,the
on
propo/al
Embajfy; and carried likewife
ofa fecond
of requiring
the main queftion,
the Citizens to
bit
changetheir ordinary
gown, forthe Sagum or haof war : by which they decreed the thing,
the name.
In all decrees of
while theyrejedted
this kind, the Con/ular
Senators^on the account
of their dignity,
excufed from changing
were
rebellionwas

their habit

fiblythe
wave

the

but Cicero, to inculcate more


fendiftrefs of the Republic,refolved
to
;

his privilege^
and

the

wear

reftofthe City["J.

In

a'

fame

Letter

robe with

to

Caffius,
he

hoc honore ufi togad


eft in fagb
foleat cffc,cum
civitas ; ftatuitamen
a vobis,
civibus ia tanta aalii caeterifquc
diftrocitate tempdris" non
7.

[i] Ego princepsSago-

auam

rum
: ego fcmperhoftcm
apaliiadver(arium :
cum
pellavi,

femperhoc bellum,
tumultum, "c.

cum

Phil.

12.

Phil. 8. I, 10.
P. "" quamEqttidem"

[/]Vid.

(:
W]

fcrre vcftitu. PhU.

8.

il.

TULLIUS

ofM.
he

CICERO.

fliortaccount
givesthe following

of

this time

thingsat

Confuls, but

**

brave Senate ; but


nity,the braver:

*'

*'

than

*^

but

"'

than

**
**

**

EmbaflEidors, Philip and

our

Pifo:

fent

when

from

accord, intolerable demands

wherefore all the world


and

am

into

folved

form,

and

caufe.
falutary

again the
what
perfeft

met

him

flock about mej

now

popularin

grown

Senate

The

draw

day,

next

had been

to
re-

debate : when Cicero,


upon in the preceding
in a pathetic
fpeech,took occafion to ex-

with
poftulatc

for their

them

imprudentlenity
He
(hewed the abfurdity
of
the day before:
about votinga ctvU war
their fcruples
: that
the word Tumulty which
they had preferred,
"

**
"

"
*'

"

real difference,
or if any,
of all things
implieda greater perturbation
[ j^]: he proved from every ftepthat Anto-

either carried in it no

*'

ny
'*

had

taken, and

thingwhich

the

taking; from every


the Towns
Senate,the People,
was

"

EgregtosConfnles

ha-

S. C.

ez

Semus, "d tnrpiffimos


con*

rent

fulares: Senatum

nulli

fortem, fed

cam

ad

forriusynihil aieliu8"Italia-

concurritor

univerfa.

Ksdius

autem

Philippoic Pifone le-

gatis, nihil
cum

Nihil

qui
flagitioiios:

eflent mm,

xx

Ant9nio

nos

res

illccarum

of

nuncia*
rerum

ab illo

intokrabilia

retulenint.

re

cerUs

ultro
paruiiTet,

ittfimo qucmque
honore fortiffimum. Popolo vero nihil
cue

Vibius

dig- Pans

onely to carry the orders of


of which
he
the Senate to Antony, none
would comply with, brought back, of their
own

"*

in

they are

a.

nothing firmer and better A.Hjrtius.


the people, and all Ilalyuniverfelly:
deteftable and infamous,
nothing more

who,

^'

*'

the lower

710.

^'^p-

excellent

fliamefiillConfulars

moft

"

of the ftate A. Urb.


have

We

"

125

poftulaU
Itaque ad nos
: fattique
jam in

(alutari popnlares
fumus^

Ep. fam.

1 2.

4.

[jp]Phil.

8.

I.

^e

126
A. Urb. 710.

""

^Coff*

**

**

ViBiua

Pahsa.
A. HiRTius.

6f the Life

History

of

Italywere
doing and decreeingagainfi
in a
^^^ ^^ *^y ^^^
^"^^y^'^^ properly
^^ fift'^
which had hapft^^c ^f ^^"^^^^''
and the moft defpe*
pened in dieir memory,
all being the firftwhich was
fate of them
ever
raifed,not by a diflenfionof parties
conin the Republic,but
tendingfor a fuperiority
to enflave and
ag^inftan union of all parties,
opprefsthe Republic[z]. He procedesto
with Calenus, for his obftinate
expoftulate
adherence to Antony, and expofes
the weaknefs of his pretendedpleafor it ; a love of
"

"

""

"*
"*
**
"'

*'
**
**
**

t"

^^
**

*'
**
*'

*"
**
**
"*
"'
*'
**
*'
**
*'
^*

**
*"

peace, and
zcns
was

"

no

for the lives of the Citi-

concern

he puts him in mind, that there


caufe of takingarms,
than to
jufter

\ that fcveral other caufcs indeed


repelflavery
did
: unlefs he
were
juft,but this neceflary
take himfelf to be affefted by it, for the
not
hopesof fharingthe dominion with Antony :
if to, he was doublymiftaken ; firft,
for prea
ferring
privateintereft to the public;fccondly, for thinkingany thing fecure, or
in a Tyranny
worth enjoying
that a reof Citizens was
a laudable
gard for the fafety
if he meant
the good, the ufefiil,
principle,
"^

the friends to their country : but if he meant


tho* Citizens by nature,
to fave thofe,who,
were

enemies

there between

by

choice

him

that their Anceftors

and

what

difference was

fuch Citizens?

"

had

quiteanother notion
of the care of Citizens ; and when ScipioNafica flew Tiberius Gracchus, when
Opimios

^^

flew Caius Gracchus, when

**

tuminus, theywere

"

eft and

Marius

all followed

killed Sa-

by the

the beft both of the Senate


"

\z\

Ibid. 3.

greatthe

and

People

^e

128
A. Urb.

710.

^c ff^

"

fwcr

"

place,or

'*

^^^

C. ViBius
Pansa.

A.HiRTius.

of the Life

History

*^

he would

return

the Senate with-

to

^^ ^^^^ recites and

"""^

ridicules the

"

fevcral demands

""

abfurdity:and
rogance, ftupidity,
of fuch
men
proves Pifo and Philip,

**

made

**

for the meannefs of

**

when

"*

mands

*'
^^

^'

^^

*'
*'

*'
*'

""

**

of that

before he ftirred out


inftantly,

by Antony

their

[c] redignity,

bringingback conditions,
fent onely to carry comthey were
he complains,that theypaid
to Antony's Embaflador, Corefpeft
'

more

tyla,than he to theirs : for inftead of (huthim, as they


tingthe gates of the Cityagainft
ought to have done, they admitted him into
that very Temple where the Senate then fat ;
where, the day before, he was taking notes
faid,and was care"d,inevery man
vited and entertained by fome of the princiof what

pal Senators,who
their dignity,too
after all

had
much

their

to

the

little regard to

too

what

*"

end

"*

the other unavoidable


wap defirable,

""

to

"'

itfelf

""

confular Senators,

""
"*
**
"*
"*

either in

flyfrom
"

"

was

danger?

danger. But

**

*'

ar-

or
liberty

death

was
bafely,

death

which
the

muft
al-

one
:

while

worfe than death

that it ufed to be the character

of

be

attentive,
vigilant,
always thinking,doing, or propofingfomethingfor the good of the public; that he remembered
old Scasvola in the Mar/u war,
how in the extremity
of age, oppreffed
with
years and
every
w^ys

to

he gave free accefs


infirmities,

body ;

was

never

feen in his bed

the firftin the Senate

^*

diey all would

**

leaft not

**

they had

envy
now

fuflSsreda

at
induftry
; or
did [d] : that fince
a
ftx years Jlavery^
longer
**

Ibid"

8,9.

ec
al-

he wiflied that

imitate fuch
thofe who

to

[d] Ibid;

la

n
CICERO.

rfhi.rULLIUS

129

than honeft and induftriousflaves A. Urb. 716.


what foUiciferve ; what watchings,

"*

term
longer

"*

ufed

"*

for the
tude,what painsoughttheyto refufe^

^^ ^*

to

vibius

to the Roman
givingliberty
people?"pInsa.
He concludes^by addinga claufc to their laft A.H?rtiv5.
decree ; "to grant pardonand impunity
to all
who fhould defertAntony, and return to theif
dutyby the fifteenthof March : or ifany whd
"*

lake of

**

""

"*
*"
**
**
*"
*'

^^

continued with him , fhould do any fervice


worthyof reward ; that one or both the Confuls fhould take the firftopportunity
to move
the Senate in theirfavor

but if any

perfbn

fi"om this time fhould go over


to Antony,
the
that
Senate
would confl*
except Cotyla,
der him as an enemy to his country.
Tub
publicdebates being thus adjufted,

Panfa calledthe Senate together


againthe next
day, to deliberateon fbme proper honors to be
of Ser. Sulpicius,
decreed to the memory
who
died upon the EmbafTy
he fpokelargely
itl
his praife,
and advifed to pay him all the honors,
whkJi had ever been decreed to any, who had
""

lofttheirlivesin the ferviceof their country : a


and ftatue.Servilius,
public
fepulcberj
funeral^
and monument^
fpokenext, agreedto a funeral
but was againft
a ftatue^
as due onelytd
in the difthofe,who bad been killedby violence^
tent
of their EmbaJJies.Cicero was not conibarge
of
but
with this,
to
out
private
friendfhip
the man, as well as a regardto the public
feN
who

vice, rcfolved to have all the honors paid


to
:
him, which the occafion could poffibly
juflify
anfwer
therefore
he fhewed with
in
to Servilius,
his ufual
*"
"*

""

the cafe of Sulpicithe fame with the cafe of thofe,who


us
was
of their Em*
had been killed on the account
that
eloquence,

bafnes:

Vol.

*'

that the EmbafTy itfelfhad killed

IIL

"

himj

A.Urb.

710.

^c ff^'

cf the Life

fbe HisTOKY

130
"

**

C. Villus

Paksa,

**

A. Hzarivs.

""
"*
*"
**

**
""
""

but the caufe of the death, which their


cauied by the
Anccftors r^;arded
: if it was

to
ww"wi^"l,
Embalfy, theygranteda ^i/i"V
encourage their fellow Citizens,in dangerous
with
undertake that employoEient
to
wars,

chearfulneis:

"*

ereAed

"

merited

**

could

"*

killed him;

"*

out

ner,

""

**

fo weak

a
upon it in
condition, that though he had fonae hopes
of re"^ coming to Antony, he had none
turning: and when he was juftarrived to. the
in the very adt of executing
congrcfs,
expired
his Commiffion
[e]: that it was not the man-

fee

that he

him:

**

been

that feveral ftatues had

had crer
which none
that account;
better than Sulpidus" -that there

on

be

doubt, but that

no

the

EmbaflTyhad

and that he had carried

out

death

along with him, which he might have efcaped


by (layingat home, under the care of his wife
children

f/]. But when he faw,


of the
obey the authority

**

and

*'

that if he

"

Senate, he (hould be unlike

""

if he did

"

he

**

lie,rather to die, than feem to decline any


do: that h"
fervice,which he could poffibly

"
**
^'

'*

"

**
"

*'

had

""

did

not

'^
**

himfelf

*,

and

lofe his life;


obey, muft neceflarily
chofe, in fo criticala ftate of the Repub-

many

of refrcihing
and
cpportunities

rc-

pofinghimft"rin the Cides, throughwhich


he paiTed,
and was
prefiedto it by his Cdlof his diftemper,
Icguesi but in fpite
perfevered to dearfi in the refolution of urginghis
to performthe comjourney,and battening
mands of the Senate
that, if they recol"

^*

to

*^

how he endeavoured to excufe himfelf


le"fced,
from the tafk, when it was
firftmoved
in the

Senate, they muft needs think, that diis ho"*

Phil. 9.

"

!"

[/] Ibid. 3,

nor

CJtCERO.

tfU. fULLlUS
**

to

nor

**

amends

"*

to

"^
""
"'
^^
""

**
""
*"
*^
*"

for the
to

we^

*^

durft

not

**

**

*^
"*
*'
"*
^^
**
*^
**
"*
^'

A.
ncceirat7

he muft fay it

be faid,vet

"

^qJ^
c. Vibius

was

throu^admiration
venture

to

of his

oppofehis

tenderlymoved,

nor

leis; yet both of

virtue,

will : his Son

was

my

concern

obligedto
of his mind, and
give way to the greatnefs
the fbroe of his rcafoning
to the joy
^ when
of you all, he promifed,that he would do
much

us

were

iwhatever you prercribed,nor


would decline the
dangerof that vote, of which he himfelf had

lifetherefore to
him, from whom
you have taken it : for the
of the lilife of the dead is in the memory
been the

~-rcftore
propofcr"

ring: take care, that he, whom


you unwillin^y fent to his death, receive an immorttlityfrom you : for if you decree a ftaiue to
him

in the Roftra, the remembrance

of his

[^]-*'
Emhafl^will remain to allpofterity"
the great virtues,talents^
Then after iUuftracing
he obferves,
and excellentcharada* of Sutpiciua,
that all thefe would be perpetuated
by their
"*

*^

71 ""

that it Pansa,

"

^^

Urb.

A.Hirtiui.
they,whohaakillcdhim, by over-ruling
his excufe, when they faw it grounded^not
but a real ficknefs: and when
a feigned,
on
to their remonftrance,the Conful Panfa joined his exhortarion,with a gravityand force
of fpeech*which his ears had not learnt to
hear ;" then, fiiys
he, he took his Son and
that he could not
oie
afide,and profeffcd,
his own
to
help prderriogyour authority

life:

^*

was

"*

**

but

wa*

which theyhad done


injury,
t for, though it was
living

him* when

harih

dead,

him, when

131

own
was

merk

and

the mmumsnt

and
efieflts,

that the ftatue

radier of the
K

Ig] Bad

4. 5-

of
gratitude
""

d"c

^be

132
A.Urb.
Cic.

710.

64.

*"
"c

Pansa,
A.H1RTIU8.

the Senate, than of the fiune of the man


; of
rather than of a private
j^ public,
figniBcati-

of Antony'saudaciteftimony
oufnefs j of his waging an
aimpious war
gainfthis country 5 of his rejeaingthe Em[b]:' For which
bafly of the Senate
that a ftatue
rcafons, he propofeda decree,
**

C. ViBius

of the Life

History

an-eternal

^""

"
"

"*

"

**

of brafs fliould be ercdked

to

him

f * ftra,by order of the Senate, and


**

"
**

infcribed
vice
on

on

the bafe

in the Rothe caufe

that be died in

of the Republic
-, with

an

area

tbefer-

of five feet

all fides of it, for his children and

pofte-

that
rityto fee the (hews of Gladiators
funeral fliould be made for him
a magnificent
at the publiccharge; and the Conful Panfa
(hould affignhim a placeof burial,in the
feet cfield,with an area of thirty
Efquiline
itbe granted publicly,
as
a
to
very way,
pulcher for him, his children and pofterity.*'" The Senate agreedto what Cicero
defired ; and the ftatue itfelf,
told by
arc
as we
his
to
a writer of the tbird Century remained
time, in the Roftraof Auguftus [i].
of a noble and patrician
S UL p I c I us
was
family,of the fame age, the fame ftudies,and
the fame principles
he
with Cicero, with whom
kept up a perpetualfi-iendfliip.
They went
throughtheir exercifes
together
whenyour^^ both
and at Rhodes, in the celebrated
at Rome,
fchool
Molo
he
Pleader
whence
became
eminent
:
of
an
of caufes,and pafifed
ces
throughall the great offiof the ftate,with a Angularreputation
of
rer
wifdom, learning,
integrity
; a conftant admiof the modefty of the ancients ; and a reprover
"*

*"

"

"

*^

**

*'
**

"

of the infolence of his

own

times. When
he

[bl Ibid. 5, 6.

[i\ Pomponiusdc Originejurii.

ofM. rULLIUS
he
as

could
af)

not

arrive

at

CICERO.
the firftdegreeof

Oratory he refolved

to

133

fame, A.

excelJ in what

was

Urb. 710.

^'^^

Wit, the charafter of a Lawyer ; chufingc. Vibius


rather to be the firftin the fecondart^ than the Pans a,
: leavingtherefore to
his A.Hietiui.
fecundmely in the firft
friend Cicero the field of eloquence,
he contented
hirafelfwith fuch a fhare of it, as was fiiffi*
and adorn the profejfton
dent tofiiftain
of the law.
In this he fucceded to his wiih ; and vizsfar
ftibad
who
it,
to
in
ever
perior ally
profejfed Rome 5
beingthe firftwho reduced it to a proper fcienccy
and method to
or rationalSyftem
\ and added light
ly
tbaty which all othersbefore
hiniyhad taughtdarkand confufedly.
Nor was his knowledgeconfined
the effeftsof the
to the external forms, or
MunicipalLaws : but enlarged
by a comprehenfive view of univerfal
equitywhich he made the
of it*s(andtions,
and the rule of all
interpreter
his decifions ; yet he was
always better plealed
amicable end to a controverjy^
to put an
than to
direS a proces at law.
In his political
our
behavihe was
ty
alwaysa firiendto peace and liber; moderatingthe violence of oppofite
parties,
and difcouraging
every fteptowards civildiffenfo bufy in confion ; and, in the late war,
was
triving
accommodation, that he
an
proje6t^of
of the Peace Maker.
gainedthe name
Through
of
a natural timidity
temper, confirmed, by a
next

and courfe of lifeaverfe from arms,


profeflSon
though he preferred
Pompey's caufe as the beft,
for it ; but takingCaehe did not care to fight
low
fuffered his fon to follar*s to be the ftrongeft,
while he himfelf continued quiet
that camp,
and

neuter

yet could

for this he

never

be

From

continued ftillto

yras

induced

by Casfar,
vernment.
approve his go-

honored
to

the time of Crelar's death, he


advife and promote all meaK

fures.

Tj"f History

"34
A. Urb.
Cic.

710.

64.

CofT.
C. Villus

fures, which fecmed


lie concord

likelyto

died

and

eftbe Life
at

eftablilh the

pi^

laft,as he had lived,

making [k].

in the very aft and office oi feacc

The

Pansa,
A. HjRTIVS.
Non
[k"^

facilequern dixeplusStudii qoam ilium

Confalatum fttifle.
["p."m"

4. i]
The
old Lawyers
iV. B.
ad dicenduin, " ad omnes
tell a rtmaikable llonr of the
bonarum
rerum
dirdplinas
fame and
" in iifdem
tdhibuiifc : nam
originof Salpicius's

rim
"

skill in the law: that going


one
day to consult Mucius
profe^lusSc^vola ibmit feme pomt,

cxercitationibus ineunte

fuimusi

tate

dum

ille etiam

una

melior effet k doAi-

eft,quo

ic Jnde

or:

tur

x-

pofteaRho-

fc

ut

rediit,vide-

roihi in fecunda

he

was

after explaning

cfle malaifle,
quam in it to him twice
fortalTe Mucins
could
fecundus*"
fed
prima
maluit, id quod eft adeptus, (aying" // li a

longe omnium
modo

Stat

ejuidem NoklemMMi

non.

is, fed

corum

e-

jureci-

tiam aui fuiiTent,in

of Mucius*s

ing the meaning

mus anTwer"that
pri-

arte

apprcliend*

fe dull in

and

and

Pleadtr

or

not

thrice^
forbear

/9r s
flfame
a

Pairidan,

to
ofcaufes^

whUb
ignorantofthat lattf^

hi
hi

to unierfiand. Th"
princeps juriscivi- profeffis
ufum
"
lis magnum
apud reproachftang him to the
Scaevolam
ic apud moltos
quick,and made him apply

vili CMC

"

in hoc

fuifTe,artem

hic enim attalitbanc


lucem ad
?[uafi
ufe ab aliis

ea,

uno~

artem"

qux

con-

himfelf to his ftudieswith fuch

induftry,that he became the


ablellLawyer in Romi ; and

refpondeban- left behind him mar a hun"


tur
aut
agebantur [Brut. dredandeigbtjbooks written
262, "c ] neque iJIemafris by himfelf on nice and diffi*
of law. Digeft.
coniultusyquam jufUtue cult queftions
lit: ita ea quas proficifce"
1. I. Tit. a. ptrag. 43
ban tur a legibus
and
Tefuits Catrou
Sc a jure ciThe
vili femper ad facilitatem aeRouille have put this Sulpireferebat: neque
of the Con*
cius into the m
quicatemque
auc

"

iuris

"

conllituere

licium

malebat, quam
tollcre.

aflionei

controverfias

[Phil.
9. 5
Pacificatorcum

Scrvius

killed Csb-

who
fpirators,
iar

but

moderate

with
quaintance

the

ac"

chara*

CiAxo Haerof the man,


or with
brariolo videtur obiifleJcga- ceroV writings,would havu
tionem.
[Ad Art. 15. 7 J fiiewn them their error, and
vero

cnim
of Concognoram
jam abfens, that there was none
ha^c mala multo ante
te
fular
rank,butTrebonius,con*"
providcntcm, dcfcnforcm pacis cerned in that aflair. Hift.
" in Confuiatu tuo " poft Rwii. Vol.17.
Not.a.

p$43.

fhe History

136
A. Urb.

710.

^C ff^

fentimcnts

the firft:

Pansa,

fpcech, delivered
ledgedBrutus's
ly drawn ", but

A. HiRTius.

tt

"

C, ViBius

from

**

^*
"

acknowt-

"

propcrhe had done, was

fince what

and
commiiTxMi
public
any
that he fhould be required
to dcauthority,

without

liver up

"

writing,

letters to be well and

'*

done

qf the Lif^
who, in a prcmeditBtod

his forces

the orders of the Se-

to

of the Prothe proper Governors


**
and
vinces ""["].
Cicero fpoke next,

nate,

or

began with giving the thanks of the Houfe


that
them together
to Panfa, for calling
on
day, when they had no expeAatipnof it
and not
a moment
a
to givethem
deferring
(hare of the joy, which Brutus's lettershad
brought.He obferves,that Panfa, by fpeakof Brutus, had
'Mng io largelyin the praife
ihewn that to be true, which he had always

**

^*

^^

"

*'

**
"

*^

tbaf

envied

**

taken

*'

therms virtue
y

**

preventedhim, to whom, for


his intimacywith Brutus, that talk fccmed
from fayingfo much,
to belong,
particularly
that fubjeft'*" then adas he intended, on
What
himfelf to Calenus, heafks,
drefling
could be the meaning of that perpetual
war,
the Brutus's? why
which he declared againft
he alone was
always oppofing,when every
elfe was
almoft adoringthem ?
that
one
drawn,
to talk of Brutus's lettersbeingrightly
not
Brutus, but his fecretary
was
to praife

*'

**

**

"
**

^'

"

**

to

that he

be

fo,

who

man

no

was

ever

confciaus
of bis

"

own

had

*'

""

"

ano-

"

"

did he

"

when

"'

that Letters

^*

*^

'*

ever

hear of

decree in that ilile,

properlywritten : yet the exdid not railfrom him by chance,but


prefTion
and broughtin
was
defigned,premeditated,
writing""[(?].He exhorts him to confult
were

"

Phil.x. I, 2,3.

Ibid. a.

witfi

CICERO.

rULLIUS

tfM.

"*
**
"*

prcfervehis charafter :
that he could not helppitying
him,
profeflb,
the people,that
to hear it given out
among
there was not a fecond vote on the fide of him,
himielf,if he

^5

who

^*

cafe

gave
he

the firfti

which

believed

in

would

from

^'

of C.
off from the traiterous defigns

^^

and

**

lie fervice : you


it were,
more,
^

engaged by

his

wou|d

you betray or
will you honor ? whom

^*

^*
"'
"*
"'
**
**
^'

^*
"*
"'

'*
*"
""

him

fcnt once

forlorn : but for you.

**

^^

have

into banifbment,naked

and

^'

Antony,

in the pubauthority

own

**

Ids

the

take away,
fayshe, the Legions
Brutus, even thoie which he has drawn

^'

Fathers, if ever
4efert Brutus^ wh^t Citizen
will you

you think thofe, who

favor ?

un-

offer

Kingly Piadems, worthy to beprefervcd;thofe whoaboliih the name


of King, to be abandoned.
He
proceedsto dilplaywith great force the
merit and praiies
of Brutus } his moderation,
of injuries:
mildnefs,patience
howftudioufly
which
avoided
could give
he had
every ftep,
the City;
a handle to civil tumult^; quitting
the
livingretired in the Country ; forbidding
refort of friends to him; and leavingItaly
itfelf,left any cauie of

war

fhould artfe

on

his

long as he law the Senate


refolvcd
to bear every thing,he was
difpofed
he perceived
them into bear too ; but when
of liberty,
with a ipirit
he then exerted
fpired
himfelf to provide them fuccours to defend it
Ip2 that ifhe had not defeated the delperate
attempts of C. Antony, they had loft Maceand Greece \ the laflr of
Jonia^ Illyricumy
account

-^

that

as

"

*'
**

Pansa,
A. Hirtiui.

would

You

"

c. Vibivs

days debate.

that

^^

''

be

"

[^]

Ibid

3,4,

which

Urb. 710^

^*^*
^^"

would

'*

with A-

Panla ofiener than

** with his fon in law


"*

137

A. Urb.

710.

^C ff^

afforded cither

i"

which

**

^^

"

of
beft opportunity

"*

by

C. ViBius

Pans A.
A.HiRTius.

of tbe Life

7%e History

ijS

Brutus*s

driven

when

Antony,

commodious

out

of

rrtrcat

hal}\ or

the

invadingit: which now.


being ftrongly
promanagement,

as
vided with troops, ftretched out it*sarms,
and offered it*s help to Iialy.**[qj
it were,
through the ProvinThat Caius's march
the allies,to fcatter waft

4i

"*
"'

"

*"

plunder

to

was,

CCS

paflcd,to empeople againft

he
dcfolation wherc-ever
ploy the armies of the Roman

and

**
**
"*

the

"*

it

peoplethcmfelves
a

whereas

law, whercfoever he

made

Brutus
to

came,

difpcnfc

him :
to all around
light,hope, and fecurity
forces to prethat the one gathered
in ftiort,
the Republic:
fcrve,die other to overturn
that the foldiersthcmfelves could judgeof this,
the Senate; as they had declared,
as well as
who by that
by their defertion of C. Antony,

"*
"*
"'
"*
*'
"'

either was,

time

*"
**
**
*'

*'

*'
**

[r] that there was no apprehenfion


prifoner
of dangerfrom Brutus*s power ; that his Leabove
gions,his Mercenaries,his Horfe, and
for the
all,himfelf was whollytheirs; formed
exas well by his own
fervice of the Republic,
derived from
cellent virtue,asakindof fetality
"

Anceftors,both

**

his

"

theirs fide

that

"

**
"*
**

"

"

"'

"

"

be Brutus*s

foon

would

or

for any
wardnefs

on

none

the Fathers and the Moblame him


could ever

thing,unlefs
and

for

averfion

too

to

war

great
;

back-

and his

not

in their eager
humoring the ardor of all Ilaly
which
"that it was a vain fear,
thirftof liberty
that the Veteto entertain,
fomc pretended
fee Brutus at the
to
would be difgufted
rans

head of
rence

an

anny

as

between hb army

any diffeand the armies of Hir,

if there

were

"

[f] Ibid

5.

{r] Ibid.

6.

tius,

CICERO.

rULLIUS

tJM.
""

tius,Pania, D.Bnitus^ Odayios;

**

had

"^

"^
""

"*
"*
^*
"*

^^
"'

**
"^
^*

;
angry with Dcdmus
provedit,were more
him, of all others,thelaft,who
as thinking
alltheir
ought to have done it: yet what were
Decimus
armies now
doing, but relieving
[j] that if there was any
from the fiege?
real danger from Brutus, Pania*s fagacity
find itout : but as they had juft
would eafily
"

from his

heard

"*

"r from

"*

pf th" Veterans

that he

*'

valour, but would

difi:our^ed,

**

tcrans

**

come

*^

becomingmy

C(

will
out

every

good defign!
their

encourage
endure their

arro-

who

now

are

be
the Ihackles of our fervitude,
if any one tellsus, that the Velet that then
have it fo ?

"*

"*

dangerous,
firmeft fupport

lays he,

Shall we,

gance.

to

never

breakingoff

**

lb

be

to

always readyto

was

^'

^*

was

"

**

*^

he

that he looked upon it as the


[/] that it was the
of the Commonwealth
to oppofe the
conftant art of the difafieded,
name

**

mouth,

own

thinkinghis army

"^

**

for

now

"*

all which

Urb

710.

^Cofl^
receiyed puhlick honors
fevorally
that M. q Vibius
their defence of the peopleof Rtme:
fufpe"ed by the Pansa.
Brutus could not be nx"re
the aft A.Hirtxui*
; for though
Veterans, than Decimus
of it was 00mand the praife
of the firutus*s,
them
both, yet tho(e,who diiapto
mon

"^

^^

139

"

not

from

at

me

laft,which istrue, and

fpeak*, that if the


of this Body muft be governedby
reiblutions
charaAer

the will of the Veterans

to

if all our

words

and

then
afts muft be r^ulacedby their humor,
which to
it is high time to wilh for death;
flaveto
preferable
ever
Citizens
Roman

ry

["]

was

"

that fincc fo many

chances of death
"

j] Ibid. 7.
["] lbid.9.

[0

sI""i"l'

furrounded

^e

140
A- Urb.

710.

^C s!*

furroundcd them

""

*'

Pans

**
A.

A. HxRTius.

**

day

and

'"*'^' much

night,it
lefs of

the givingup that breath


fcruple
he mull ncceflarily
to his Country, which
give up to nature [x] that Antony was the
all \
of them
enemy
fingleand common
though he had indeed his brother Lucius with
on
purpofe,
him, who ieemed to be bom
th^Marcus might not be the moil infamous of
alfo of defpe*
all mortals : that he had a crew
of the Re^
rate Villains gapbg afterthe fpoils
public that the army of Brutus wasprovithefe -, whofe fole will, thought,
ded againfl:
the Senate and
to protcdl
and purpolewas,
the libertyof the people-^who aftertrying
would do, found it ncin vain, what patience
force to force [J^]
at lallto oppofe
ceflary
that they ought therefore to grant the fame
toM. Brutus,which they had grantPrivilege

Roman^

"

C. ViBivs

all both

P**^ ^^

^^

^^

^^

of the Life

History

to

-^

*'

(^
*'

^^
'*
*'

"'
^'
**

"^
^^
*'
*'

**

"

"

**

ed before

**

confirm

**

been

to

Decimus, and

to

Oftavius

and

by publicauthority,what he had
counfil.**
doing for them by his private

purpofehe propofedthe followii^


Whereas
decree"
by the pains,counfil,induftry,virtue of Q^Csepio Brutus [z]. Proconful,in the utmoft diftrefsof the Republic,
and
of Macedonia^ Illyricum^
the Province
Greece^ with all their Legions, Armies,
For which

"

"

"

"

*'

"

in the power
Peopleoi Rome\

of the Confuls,

*'

Horfe,

*'

Senate

"

Brutus,Proconful, has adlcd herein well, and

^'

for the

now

are

and

that

Q^Caepio

to
good of the Republic\ agreeably

his

"

\x\ Ibid. 10.

hi3 Mothcr'a brother

\y\ Ibid.

Scrvilius

[z]

M.

1 1

Brutus,as appears

from

the ftile of this decree,

had

been

adoptedlatelyby

accordingto cuftom,
aflumed

(^

Cxpio,whofename,
with

the

he

now

pofleffion

of his Unele^a eft^te*

*'
*'

*"
"'
**
**

*'

CICEkO.

TULLIUS

ofM.

141

of his anceftors,
the dignity
and
hischarafter,
to

his ufual

wealth

and

of

manner

the
ferving

A. Urb.

^'^^4-

Common-

that his conduft is and

will

ever

and

and command

Greece

-*'

himfelf has

**

wants

*^

take

**

where

raifed :

which

that army,
that whatever

he

he
money
may ufc and

for

militaryfo'vice,he
it fix)m any part of the public
revenues,
it

can

beft be raifed ;

or

borrow

it

he thinks proper; and impofe contri?* butions of grainand forage;


and take care to
'"

where

**

draw

*'
**
**

all his troops

//tf
/yas

:
poffiblc
and whereas it appears by the Letters of Q.
CaepioBrutus Proconful,diat the publicfervice has been greatlyadvanced, by the endeavours and Virtue of Q^ Hortenfuis Proas

near

to

and that he concerted all his

*'

conful

"

fures with

**

that Q^
great benefit of the Commonwealth;
Hortenfius Proconful,has afted therein right-

"'

mea-

to
(^CaspioBrutus Proconfiil,

the

for the

**

and
ly, regularly,

"

that it is the will of the

**

tenfius Proconful,with

"

and Lieutenants,hold
quasftors,

publicgood ; and
Senate, that Q^ Horhis Quseftors,Prothe Province

of Macidoniay tilla fucceflbrbe appointed


by
'*
the Senate/'
fent this fpeechto Brutus, with
Cicero
he made on the firftof Januathat alfo,which
**
I
yy\ of which Brutus faysin anfwer to him,
**

"*
**
*'
"

vi^iiys

to the Senate
People of Pansa.
acceptable
That
Rme.
Q^Caspio Brutus, Proconful,A.Hirtiui.
be ordered, to protcft,
guard, and defend
the Province of Mif^^e7Wtf,IHyricum^and all

be

"

"

710'.

have read your two orations,the one on the


of
firft of January^the other on the fubjefl:
Calenus : you expeft
now
my Letters,againft
without doubt, that I fhould praife
them

^' I

am

at a

lofswhat

to

the moft
praife

in them

"

your

'

The Hisf

I4t
A.Urb-710.

^Cor

""
"

your courage, or your abilities: I allow yoil


as you
P^^ *" earneft to call them Philipfics^

iminuted

**

C. ViBiws
Pars A.

A. HiRTmi.

"

of the Life

oltY

^Thus

jocofclyin

the

of

name

iiave been thrown

former

Letter

["].**

which icems
Pbilippiesy

out

at

to

firftin gayety and jeft


and propagated
by his

onely^being taken up
title
became at laft the fixt and ftanding
friends,
of thefe Orations
were

which

yet for federal ages,

either PbUipfind, indificrently

called,we

picsor Antoniam [V].Brutus declared himfelf fo


with thefe two, which he had feen,
well pleafed
aU
ib(U Cicero prondfedto fendbim irftervkirds
the reft\/].
he firftleft Jtah^ failed diBnu
T u s, when
for Athens \ where he fpentiome time in
reftly
concertingmeafures, how to make himfelf ma^
fter of Greece

and

Macedonia

which

great defignthat he had in view.

was

the

Here

he ga"
Nobilityand

all the young


of
Gentry of Rotne^ who, for the opportunity
their education,had been fent to this celebrated
thered about

him

6at of learning: but of them


moft

notice of young

acqiuintance,
grew

Cicero

all,he took the


;

and after a little

very fond of him

admiring

to find in one
andjkrprized
and greatnefs
of mind^
Jo y$ungy fucb a generofity
mtb
fucban awrfum to Tyranny [d]. He made

bis parts and virtue ^

him

[a] Legt

oratione3

tuas

Ad
epiftola
jocansfcripiifti.

alteia Kal.

dvMf qnarom
Jan. Brut. 1. a. c.
i^fuaea ; "lten de litteria [f] M. Ciotro in primv
ita feriptma
snds, Q^ habita eft abs te AntoAiananim
contra

Nuncfci-

Calenum.

licet hoc

cxpeAtSydum

laudem.

Nelcio

Ineenii tui

animi

major

vocentur,

ut

vel

qood

an

in illiiH-

bellislaus contineaCur.

concedo,

eas

Jam

Pbilippiea
tu

qvadani

relimiit. A. Gdl.

15. i.
Oratb per-^
feretur,"}uonUm
tc video de-

[f]Haec ad

te

Ad
ledlariPiiilippicUnoftris
Brat.

2.

4.

[/J Vid. Plutar. in Brut;

^e

144
A. Urb.
CJc.

""

Vtltiis

Pans

worthy of

^^^^ ^^

"

of fi)eLife

okY

ST

for his, and efpecially


that he is ht
my own,
he is youf
fuch eftecm and reputation
: for as

**

710.

64.

Ut

"

him

Upon

A.

as

Cicero

A. HuTivs.

which

the

but look

cannot

E/^."

Brother

my

fo full of the greater afikirs^

was

were

you,

of
fubjeft

his Letters

Brutus,

to

that he had fcarce leifure to take notice of what


faid about his fon

was

in

ever

one

or

jufttouches

he

*'

Letters

two

if his merit be

"'

great

as

As

:
as

to

it how-^

Son,

my

write, I

you

rc-

joiceat it as much as I ought to do : or if


magnify it, out of love to him, even
you
that givesme an incredible joy, to perceive,
that he is beloved by you [g]* Again ; I
defire you, my dear Brutus, to keep my (m
with you as much as pofSble
: he will find no

**
**

**
*'

**
*'

better fchool of virtue, than in the


and imitation of you [A]/*
plation

**
"

Though

intimated

Brutus

contem-

nothingin

his

and
publicLetters, but what was profperous
cero,
accounts
to Ciencouraging,yet in his private
he fignified
a great want
of money and re^
cruitSy and b^ged to be fuppliedwith both
with recruits ; either by a
from Itafyy
efpecially
of the Senate,

vote

if that could

or

not

be had,

by
Filium tuum, ad Bracum
veni, videre non

[/]
turn

potui"ideo
Derna"

cum

quod jam

in hi*

erat
equitibus

Sed medius fidius


profeflus.
ea effe eum
opinione," tua
" ipfiua,
Sc in primismea
Caufa

gaudeo. Fratris enim

fcribis,
tanCam

fdlicetqnao-

debeo, gaudeo: "

turn

quod

eum,

amas

eo

B,

nUajon

ipfnm incredibiliter
Ad
a
gaudeo" te cum deligi.

ncis

id

Brut.

2.

6.

[^] Ciceronem

meom,

Brate, velim qoam

mi

plurimam

loco mihi eil,quiex te natus,


teque dignuseft. Vale. 11 11

Virtutis difciplinammeliorem
reperiet

Kal. Tun.

ndlam*

Ep. Fam.

[^j De Cicerone
fiumum

12.

meo"

14.
Sc

eft in eo" quantum

habeas.

tecum

onem
xiii

qoam

contempbti*

atque imitationem
"aL Mail. ib. 7*

tui.

ofM. tULLIVS

CICERO.

by fotne fccrctmanagement,
of

Panfa

tell me,

**

that you want


recruits and money
:

**

I know

*'

you.

without the

Cicero

which

to

no

145

anfwered,

A.
privity
*'

Urb. 710.

^'^^"

You

neceflary
things,
c. V"ius
it is difficult to helpPansa,
A, Hirtius.
other way
of raifing
motwo

be of ufc to you, but what


ncy, which can
the Senate has decreed, of borrowingit from

*"

*'

the Cities.

**

^^

As

be done

can

to

recruits,I do

for Panfa

fee what

not

is fo far from

grant*

ing any fliareof his army or recruits to you"


that he is even
uneafyto fee ib many voluntiers going over
his reafon,I take
to
you:
it, is, that he thinks no forces too great for
the demands
of our aSairs in Italy
: for as to
that he has no
mind ta
what many
fufpeft,
fee you too ftrong,I have no
of
fufpicion
Panla feems to have been much
it [i].**
in die right,for refufing
to part with any troops
of Ilaly^where the ftrefsof the war
out
now
lay,on the fuccefs of which the fateof the whole
Republicdepended.
"*

"*

^^

**

^*
*'

"'

"

But

there

bout the feme

of

news

came

diOerent kind

a^

ofDolahella^sfuc^
He left the City, as it
in Alia.
explrits
cefsfuU
of his Con*
is faid above, before the expiration
himfelf of Syria\ which had
to poflEels
fulfhip,
Vol.

time

to

Romej

III.

[f]Qjiod
egere

te

duabns

necedariu rebua icritus,


fup-

plementok

exerdtu

fuo

te

Non

enim

tribuat, ut
aliqaid

te

copiaanimit magarbitretur :
qtiomqdo

crovit, Qt peoanias a civitafinnetOB- De


tibos mukuu

nas

aatem

non

vi-

deo, qwd fieripoffit.Tanenim

mo*

quomodo-e*
facultates,qoidem ciedo* quod hit r^
poffevideam* bus quae in Italia decemuatur, nulias

tnm

eriam

mulcos ad

irevolantanos:

quas Senatas der


praeterillas,

fupplemento

deleflu tibi

aat

pecunia,difficile lefteferae,^m

eCL
confilbm
mihi OQCUrfant

mi
qaibfia

been

abeft ut Panfa de

autftmnniitirarpicantur^quod
te quidem nimis firmum'
ne
fu"
efle velir ; quod ego non
Ibid.
6.
fpicor.

^146
A,Urb.

71a

65..
^1^-

"

75"^ H

been allotted

s T

him

to

VCY

2^d

takinghis way
^^^" ^^ gatherwhat

Pansa,
A.HiRTius.

in

hopes of inducingthat
and

Trebonius,

by Antony's management:
throughGreece and Macedo^

money
raifcin thofe countries,he

C. V'iBitrs

of the Life

and

troops he could

Province

declare for him

his Emiflaries therefore before him


for

his

he
reception,

.where Trebonius

into

over
paffed

to

abandon

having fent
to

arrived before

refided,without

Afiay

any

prepare

Smyrna^
Ihew

of

forces fufEcient to give any great


or
hoftility,
than
to defire nothing
alarm.,pretending
more,
free paflagethrough the Country to his own
a
Province.
the Town

Trebonius
i

refufed

but confented

without
frejhments
paffedbetween
Dolabella's

to

to

admit him

fupplyhim

with

into
re*

ties
gates: where many civilithem, with great profefljons

the

part of

to
amity and friendfhip
Trebonius, who promifedin his turn, that if
Dolabella would depart
quietly
from Smyrna, be
Jhouldbe received into Ephefus,in order to pafi
this Dolabella
forward towards Syria. To
it impraelicable
ieeminglyagreedj and finding
to take Smyrna by open force,contrived to furtherefore Tre: embracing
prizeit by ftratagem
bonius's offer, he fet forward towards Ephefus
feveral miles,and
; but after he had marched
on

Trebonius's men,
who were
fent after to obfervc
retired ", he turned back iriftandy
him, were
in
the

night,and arriving
againat Smyrna before
day, found it, as he expected,negligently
of an
guarded,and without any apprehenfion
affault ; fo that his foldiers,
ders,
by the helpof ladprefenrly
mounting the walls, poffeffed
themfclves of it without oppofition,
and feized
Trebonius himfelf
in his ied^ before
be knew any
thingofbis danger[k],
Dolabella
[*]Appiaa.3.

p. 542.

tfM.

rULLIUS

DoLABELLA

CICERO.

treated

the utinoft A. Urb. 710.'

with

him

147

cruelty; keptbim two days under torture^ to ex^ ^^


bis
all
the
in
tort a difcovery
cujiody
of
; c. Vibiits
money
then ordered his bead to be cut off^and carried a- Pans a,
hout on a Spear5 and bis hodyto be draggedabout A. Hirtiu3.
and thrown into the fea [/]. This was
tbeftreets
the firftblood, that

Casfar's death

which

kind

upon

death

the avowed

on
fpilt

was

of

was

now

of

the account

revenged

in

the

Confpirators,
principal
and
who
the onely one,
of Confularrank.
was
It had been projefted
without doubt in concert
with Antony, to make
the revenge of Csefer's
caufe of their arms,
in order
the Veterans
their fide, or make
to

draw

to

one

them: and
at lead to a"t againft
unwilling
it gave a cle^ warning to Brutus, and his aflbto expeft, if their eneciates,what they were
mies
well as a fad prefage
as
to all
prevailed,
of the cruel effeftsand mercilefs fury
honeft men
of the impending war.

them

On
nate

the

of Trebonius's

news

fummoncd

was

death, the Scby the Conful, where Do-

unanimouflydeclared a public
enemy
Calcnus
himfelf
firft
and his eftate
conjifcated,
propofedthe vote, and faid, thalif any thing
e could be thought
fnore fever
of he would be for it :

labella was

the

of
indignatioo

City

the
L

eft Dola-

[/] Confccutus

was

fu inQamed,
that

Cum

verborum

contumcliis

belli; optimam virum incefto ore


bella, nalla rufptcione
verberibus ac
^-SectttaBCoUocutiones"mU
tarn
laceraflet,
Trebonio ; comfummae
benevolen*
plexufque

tormentia

tiae-^no"lurnu9 introttos in

biduum.

liares cnm

Smyrnam, quad

in hoftium

Trebonius
.Qrbein: oppre^Tus
ftatim
^interficerecaptum
"

solqity

ne

nimis, credo, in

habuit
qaaeftionem

idque per
pecuniaepublicae,
Poft cervlcibas

reliquumcorpus^tra^um
laniatum

in
abjecit

viftoria

fra"

caput abfcidit, idqueadfixum geftari


in pilot
juffit
Ab

liberaltsvideretur. Phil. xi" 2, 3.

mare,

"c

^C"

7%e HisTOKY

148
that he

A. Urb. 7IO-

^c ff^* humor,
C. ViBiuf
Pans

a,

A.WuTxus.

comply with the popular


hoped perhapsto put fomc difii-

forced

was

of thf Life

and

to

^^^^ ^P^^ Cicero,who, for his relation to Dolabella,would, as he imagined,be for modcratingthe punifhment.But tho* Calenus was
midaken in this, he was concerned in moving
cero,
another queftion which greatly
perplexedCiabout ibe choice of a General
to manage
Dolabella. Two
this new
war
opinions
againft
that P. ServiliusJhtmU
were
-, the one,
propofcd
he fentwith an extraordinary
Commijfton
; the
ether that the two Confuls
Jbould
profecute
jointly
with the Provinces of Syriaand Afia
that war^
allotted to them.
This was
to
very agreeable
Panfa, and puihed therefore not onelyby his
but by all Antony'sParty,who fancied,
friends,
,

that it would

take off the attendon of the Con*

fuls from the

war

Italy
5 giveDolabella time
himfelf in 4fta\ raife a coldnefs
to
ftrengthen
between the Confuls
and Cicero, if he ventured
front
above all,put a publicafto oppofe it ; and
Caflius -, who
by his prelencein
upon
thofe parts, feemed to have the beft pretenfion
to

of

that Commiflion.

The debate continued thro*

the firftday, without

adjournedto

was

Caffius's

mother

the
in

any iflue; and


In the mean
while

coming
next.

to

law^ Servilia,and

other

friends,were
to

cero
with Cito prevail
endeavouring
ting
for fear of alienadrop the oppofition,

Panfa
hazards
when

to

but in vain
defend

the debate

was

the honor
refumed

exerted all his intercftand


a

decree in his favor.


H

*"

in

%%

of

for he refolved
of Caffius
the

at
;

alj
and

morning,
to procure
eloquence
next

began his fpeechby obferving, that


their prcfent
grieffor thq lamentable fate
Trcbonius,the Republichowever would
**

"'

reap

rUtLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

149

faw A. Urb.
reap fome good from it,fince they now
the barbarous crueltyof thofe, who
had ta-

**

*"
**

ken

arms

two

Chiefe of the

againfttheir country

what
effefting

"*

the

*^

odier

*'

honeft

of aU

llruAion

prefcnt
war,

lefs than

nodimg

meant

fsr of the c. Vibius

the one,

by

the death

men

de-

would

nor

and

be

**

itfcemed, with fimptedeath, for


fatisfied,

**

that

*"

fbe rack and

the

was

**

that what

**

piAure of

**

were

**

Pahsa,

he wiflied,
had difcovered what A- Hifcnus.
aimed
at [ni]. That
they both

**

punilhmentof nature,
due

tortures

thought

their revenge

to

had

Dolabella

but

executed,

"

the

was

what

Antony intended : that they


pair,cxaftlymatched, marching

a true

equalpaces in the execution


this he illuof their wicked
purpofes'*
inftances from the conduct
ftratcs by parallel
the inhumanity
of each 5 and after difplaying
of Dolabella, and the unhappy fere of Trtfaonius, in a manner
nation
proper to excite indigand companion for
againftthe one,
by

and

concert

*"

"

the

other

he

(hews

**

needs fuffer more

more

**

than Trebonius

**

dy

**

which

**

whole

**

to

**

**

from

the

from

death the Senate

and

for in all other

his

As

to

to

mind,

can

there be

Peopleare eager
adjudgedto be a
of the Senate ?

vote

it is
tefpefts,

jury to Trebonius,
knows

is

muft

miferable ? he,

mod

revenge ", or he, who


traitor by the unanimous

**

was

of his bo-

tortures

fayshe,

is the

of them

Dolabella's.

*^

the two,
and
the guilt
of his

what doubt,

**

Dolabella

unhappy of

ftillthe

-"

that

**
,

"*

**

710.

^'^^"

**

the

compare
the one,

ingreateft
his lifewith
every

body

wifdom, wit, humanity,innocence,

of
grcatnels

mind

in

his country
freeing
L

Phil.zi. i"
[/97]

but

"as

f^

^e

150
A. Urb. 7x0.

^c ^^
C\ ViBius
Pansa.
A.H1RTIUS.

""
"
**

"

tt

"

"*
**
**
**

as
^

of the Life

History

the other, cruelty


from
his delight
was
'^y* ^^^ * lewdnefs fo (hamelefs and abanto

doncd, that he ufcd

to

value himfelf for do-

ing, what his very adverfariescould not objeftto him with modefty. Yet this man,
good Gods ! was once mine : for I was not
into his vices ; nor
very curious to inquire
(hould I now
perhapshave been his enemy,
had he
his
to

not

(hewn

Country,

himfelf an enemy
the domeftic

to

to

you,

Gods

and

"

Altars of

*'

manityitfelf["]. He

*'

thiswarninggivenby DolabcUa, to aft with


the greatervigoragainft
Antony : for if he,
who had about him but a few of thofe capital

"'
^^
**

*'

us

all ; nay,

and huexhorts them, from

even

to

nature

of rapine
and rethe ringleaders
incendiaries,
bellion,durit attempt an aft fo abominable,

were
theynot to expeftfrom
barbarity
who
had
of them in
the whole crew
Antony,
the principal
of whom
his camp ?"
he
and charafter; and adds,
d::fcribes
by name
thatas he had often diffentedunwillingly
from
to
Calenus,fo now at lafthe had the pleafure
*'

what

*'

**

"

*'

"

**
"*

"
**
**

agree with him, and to let them fee that he


had no diflike to the man,
but to the caufe :
that in this cafe,he not onelyconcurred with
him, but thanked him for propounding
a vote
fo fevere,and worthyof the Republic,
in de-

Dolabella an enemy, and his eftateto


creeing
be confifcated[(?]."'Then as to the fecond
the nomipoint,which was of greater delicacy,
fiationofa General to he fentagainft
Dolabella,
he procedes
the
to givehis reafons for rejefting
the one, for jen^ing
two
opinions
propofed
;
the other^ forthe two Confuh
of
Scrvilius,
**

"

"

-^"

the

Ibid.4;

("]Ibid,s, 6.

7^

^e

15*
A. Urb. 71

o.

^C ff^
C. ViBivs
Pans A,
A.

H^RTiui.

"
"

of tbe Life
intent on delivering
D. Brutus,yet the
was
would
force
of things
him, to turn it
nature
HiiTon-f

'^

ibmecimes

*^

he had

"
^^

^'
^^

^*

^*
^^
"
*^
^'
'^

^^
*'
*'
"

*'
**

*'

^'
*'

towards Dolabella; and that, if

minds than one, theyfhould all


be dircfted and whollyfixt on Modena [q]
:
he
his
had
in
that for his own
reGgned
part,
more

a rich and well furniflied


Province,
Confullhip
his endeavours to
that nothing
mightinterrupt
quenchthat flame,which was then railedin his

country: he wifhed that Panfa would imitate


him, whom he uied to commend
; that if the
however
defu^ to have Provinces,as
Confuls
had ufually
other great men
done, let them
firftbringD. Brutus fafehome

to

them

who

oughtto be guardedwith the fame care, as the


from Heaven, and was keptin
imagethat fell
of which
the Temple of Vefia^in the fefety
all fafe. That this decree would
they were
create
great delayand obftruAion to the war
Dolabella ; which required
a General
againil
inveftcd with
and already
equipped,
prepared,
who
had authority,
command : one,
reputaarmy, and a refolutiontried in the
that it muft
ferviceof his country [r]"

tion,an

"

**
**
"'
^'

thereforeeitherbe Brutus or Caflius,or both


of them"
that Brutus could not be fpared

from Macedonia^ where he was quelling


the
laft efforts of the "dion ; and oppreifing

^*

C.

"'

broken army,

**

confiderable
: that when
places

"

ed that work,

^'

Antony, who,
was

the remains of a
of fomc
flillin pofleffion
with

if he found

he had finilh-

it of ufe

to

the

Commonwealth, to purfuePolabella, he
^^ would
do it of himfelf,as he had hitherto
^ done, without waitingfor their orders : for
"
botI\
[^]Ibid, g,
[r]Ibid- lO.

f"fM. tULLIUS
*^

both

he and

"'

been

*"

fealbn of

**
**
**

*"
**
*^
*'
^^
^^

*^

*^

*'

to

Caflius had,

Senate

on

themfelves

to

155
occafions,A.

many
that
:

generalconfufion, it

in fuch

was

the times, rath^

governed by

be

rules

CICERO.

that Brutus

and

Caflius

held

ever

the A. Hirtiu*.

reaibn, derived to us from the Gods, injointhe contrary :


ing what is honed, prohibiting
the law

which

Caflius

when

**

this

*'

Syria; another man's Province,


if we
judge by written law ; but when thcfe
overturned, his own,
are
by the law of nabut that Caflius's aAs
ture
might be
of the Senate,
confirmed alfo by the authority
he propofed a decree to this efFeA ; that

**

*'

*'

"*

"*

*^
**

he

whereas
to

be

has declared

the Senate
an

P, Dolabella

of die Roman

enemy
him to

"*

ordered

**

the intent, that he may


due to him, both from Gods

**

obeyed,

into

went

people, and

purfuedby

be

", to
open war
fufferthe punilhment

and

men

it is

*"

the will of the Senate^ that C, Caflius, Pro-

"'

conful, Ihall hold the Province

**

the fame

manner,

**

rightof

law

as

and

if he had

that he receive the feveral

Q^MstfciusCrifpus,Proconful,

armies

^^

L. Statius Murcus,

Proconful,

^^

Lieutenant

they are

tQ

of

Syria, in
obtained it by

**

from

which

deliver to hin" : that with

A.

^'^^4*

neceflaryq^ Vibuti
than by Pansa,

of their country,
be the
to
iafetyand liberty
moft facred rule of afting[s]. For by what
law, fayshe, by what right have they hiin Greece, the o*
therto been afting, the one
ther in Syria; but by that, which
Jupiter
himfelf ordained, that all thingsbeneficial to
(houkl be efteemed
the Community
lawfull
and juft? for law is nothing elfe but right

was

Urb. 71a

AUienus,

hereby required
thefe,and what

^^

154
A. Urb.

710.

^C ff^
A.HiRTius.

forces he

he (hall purfue
procure,
land and fea : that for the

"

Other

"

Dolabella

both

"

occafions

of the war,

C. ViBius
Pansa.

of the Life

History

"*

to

demand

thingsufeful

**

thinks fit,in

*'

and

"*

*'

by

he (hall have

(hips,feamcn,

""

"*'

can

to

power
all

and

money,

him, from

whomfoever

he

Pontus
Syria^Afia^ Bithynia^
he

Province

that whatever

into in

comes

he fhall have an authothe war,


profecuting
to that of the proper Governor:
rityfuperior
that if King Dciotarus, the Father, or the

Son, (hall afliftC. Caffius,Proconful, with

"

their troops,

*'

**

"*
**

*'

peoplein other wars, their conduft will


to the Senate and People: that
be acceptable
if any of the other Kings^ Tetrarchs and Poman

(hall do the like,the Senate and Peowill not be unmindfbll of their fervices :

tentates

*'

pie

*'

that

**

**

''

*'
**
'*
*'
**

oft afliftedthe Ro-

they have

as

foofi

as

as

the

publicaffairswere

fetded,

Hirtius the Confuls, one or


both of them, fhould take the firftopportunityof moving the Senate about the difpo(al
C. Panfa

and

A.

of the Confular

Praetorian

and

Provinces:

while, they (hould all


and that in the mean
held
continue in the hands of thofe, who now
appointedby the
them, till fucceffors were
Senate

[/]/*

into
the Senate, Cicero went
direftly
of the
the Forum^ to give the peoplean account
the intere(b of
to them
debate, and recommend
Caflius : hither Panfa followed him, and ta
F

weaken

the influence of. his

declared
authority,

the Cidzens, that what Cicero contended for"


the will and advice of Caflius's nearwas
againft
of which Cicero
eft friends and relations

to

"

account
givesthe following

C4 ^W^

ih

in

^i

letterto CalBus.

CICERO.

rULLIUS

^JM.

155
A. Urb.

T. Cicero

M.

"'

*'

other

*'

would

**
**

**

*'

**
**
**

"'
**

^*
"*
**

*'

*'
**

*'
**

**

learn
you
friends, than from

your

with the

in the Si^nate and

ty, both
I would

"

C. Cassius.

to

zeal I defended

what

With

*'

timorous

The

was

woman

afraid,that Panfa

difgufted,Panfa indeed declared


to the affembly,that both
your mother and
brother were
againftif, but that did not
would

be

move

me,

other confiderations

I had

heart:

my
I have

alfo

the

people,in

muft

defire you

"'

for I

promifed,and

"'

them, that you

"'

for

**

in your own
way :
publicyourfelf
had heard nothing,either
we

"'

"^
"*
^

more

regardwas to the Republic,to


which
always wiflied well, and t"*
and glory.But there is one thing
your dignity
which 1 enlargedupon in the Senate, and

at

*'

"'

^* HiRxiuii.

in the Senate,
eafilyliave prevailed
had not Panla eagerlyoppofedit. After I
had propofedthat vote, I was
producedto
the people by Servilius, the Tribun, and
laid every thing,which I could of you, with
of voice, that filled the Forum
5
a ftrength
of
and approbation
and with fuch a clamor
feen the like bethe people,that I had never
I hope, fordowill pardonme,
fore. You
the will of your mother in law,
ing it againft

mentioned

*'

your

opinion

My

me.

our

decrees

to
to

make
in

my
a

neither had,
;

but

would

which

words

nor

good :
affurcd

manner

wait

would

defend the Reand

though

where

you

forces you had ; yet I took it


for granted,that all the forces in diofe parts

were,

or

what

confident, that you bad


alreadyrecovered the Province of JJiato the
yours

were

Republic:
*^

and

71a.

64.

digni-c. Vibius
People,Paksa.

rather from

have

**

"'

Cic.

was

let it be yQur c^re to outdo your*'

fclf.

7%e History

156
A.Urb.

710.

of tbe Life

felf,in endeavouring ftlllto advance

"

^C6ff**
**

glory.

own

As

C. ViBtus

tliteiflu^ of the

to

Pansa.

cell us,

A.HiRTius.

is evident

that it ended
from

your

["],"

Adieu

conteft,fome
Cicero defired

as

writers
:

but it

Letter, juftrecited, and


ftillfrom other Letters,that Panmore
clearly
fa's authorityprevailed
him, forgrants
againft
the

the

ing the commiffim td


however,

as

Cicero

litde

regard to

Rome

advifed

what

but undertook

foon

and

put

end

an

Confuls[x].

they

and

CaHius

declared, had

decreeingat
the whole affair himfelf,
Dolabella's triumphs,
to
were

will be tttentioned hereafter in it*s proper

as

place.
Tm

Statue

ofMinerva^ which Cicero, upon


dedicated in the

his

going into exil,had

by

the title of the Guardian

Capitot^

of the City^ was,

the end of the laft year, thrown down and


to pieces
by a tefiipeft
fhattered
ofthunder and lightning.
about

the later writers take notice of,

This

as

the fallofCicero bimfelf:


ominous^ and portending

tho* neither Cicero, nor any of that time, made


ever,
Senate howany fuch refleftion uJ)on ir. The
to him, pafled
a decree in
refpe6t
the eighteenth
of Marchy that
on
a full Houfe,
and rejiored
to its
the Statue Jhouldhe repaired^
place[y]. So that it was now made by public
authority,what he himfelf had defignedit to
that the
monument
to pofterity,
be, a ftanding
fafetyofthe Republichad been the conftant
of his'Counfils.
objeft

out

of

D.Brutus
[*] Ep. fam.
[*J Quum
creta

f 1.

7.

Coiifalibusde-

eft Aiia* Sc

[y]
vit,

ut

Eo

die Senatus decrcMinerva


noftn, Cq-

permifTum ftosUrbis, qutm

turbo

deje-

cft iis"ut dum ipfi


venirent; cerat" reftitueretur. "p. fam.
darent negotiumquiipfamob12.25. ^^^* 1*45*P"a7ft*
^c. Ep. tam. 12. 14.
(ineant,

of M.TULLIUS

CICERO.

157

by thistime to fuch A. Urb. 710.


in Modena^ that his friendsbegan to be
^^S;
i^raits
^'
for
a
larmed
him
itfor
greatly
granted,q yibius
i taking
that ifche fellinto Antony'shands, he would be Pans
D. Brutus

reduced

was

a.

created

better than Trebonius. The mention A.Hirtiu*.


no
diereforeof a pacification
being revived in th"

Senate, and
upon

an

that he

recommended

by Panla himfelf^
intimation given by Antony'sfriends,

was

in

now

to fubmic
difpo"tioi)

reafon, Cicero, out of

concern

to

for Brutus's

confented to the decree of afecondErnhf^


lafcty,
and ServiJiu3,
fy^to be executedbybimfelf
together
with three other Confular
Senators : but finding
that there appeared no fym*
upon recolJe(Jiion,
ptpn^s of any change in Antony, and that his
friends producedno proofsof it, nor any thing
new

had
was

in his condudt, he was


convinced that he
made
a falle ftep,an4 that npthiijg
tBore
than
time
intended
to gain
whiph was of
"

great ufe

tempts
Antony, as it wQuld reia^dthe atof relieving
Modena.^ and givQao oppor-ing
tunityto Ventidius to joinhim, who wa^i marchtowards hirn at that time mththree l^egions.
At the next meeting therefore
of the Senate, he
retra"");ed
his opinion,and declared ag^inft
the
late decree,as dangerousand infidious
; and in a
and pathetic
Warm
fpeechpre0edtben^ to reicind

it. He
*'
**
**

^^

to

Uiat it was iodcccni;


for gne^
whofc authority
theyhad fo often followed in
the moft important
debates,to declare himfelfmiftaken and deceived ; yet his comfort
was,

owns,

that it

and with

*^

that when

^'
"'

"

"

was

in

common

Conful of the

with them. alH


wifdom
greateft

Pifo and Calenus, who kjipw Anentertained


tony'sfecret,the one of whom

his wife and children


was

at

his houfe, the other

Letters
and receiving
perpetually
fending
'*

from

The

158

of the Life

HiSToAY

what they had


him, began to renew,
""
their exhortations to peace ;
^Coff!^*
long intermitted,

A.Urb.

71a

C. ViBius

""

*
"

Pansa.

""

A. HiKTius.

i(

"*
I

"'
*'
**
**
**

"*

from

thoughtfit to exhort the


whofe
fame thing, a man,
prudencecould
be ittipofed
not
eafily
upon, whofe virtue approved no peace, but on Antony's fubmifdeath
fion; whofe greamefsofmind
preferred
natural to imagine, that
to flavery
i it was
reafon for all this j
Ibme fpecial
there was
which
in Antony's affairs,
fome fccret wound
with : efpecially
the public
was
unacquainted
when it was
reported,that Antony's family
the Conful

and when

fome

under

unufual affliftion,
and

his

*'

were

**

friends in the Senate

*'

their looks

**

why

**

others

"*

for peace ? yet now,


edly,fo fuddenlymove
when
the Senate in a pathey had entangled
cific Embaffy, theyboth denied,that there
which inor
was
particular,
any thing new
duced them
be
to it [2]: that there could

"'
"
*"
*"

**

**

*'
**
*'

no

"

for

fhould

Pifo

why

at

in
betrayeda dejeftion
if there was
nothingin it,
and

Calenus, above

that time

occafion therefore for

there

why

fo

unexpeft*

meafures, when

new

in the cafe itfelf

nothingnew

was

",

all

"

"

drawn

in, and deceived by


they were
Antony's friends,who were fcrvinghis pri*
that he had
vate, not the publicintereft
feen it from the firft,tho' but darkly; his
for Brutus havingdazzled his eyes ;
concern
for whofe
if a fubftitute could be
liberty,
offer himfelf to be
he would freely
accepted,
that if Antony would
fhut up in his place
that

"

"
**
"
**

**

"

.**
^*

**

humble

himfelf, and

fue

for any
thing,he (hould perhapsbe for hearinghim ;
but while

he

flood

to

to

them

his arms,

and

afted

^* oflfen[2]

Phil. xii. !"

A, Urb.
Cic.
C

of tbe Life

Tie History

i6o
710.

64.

("

creed him

i"

money

**

ViBnr$

Pamsa.
A. HiRTius.

^'
""
"*
"^
*'

"'
""
""

to

five millions of

have embezzled

could fuch

waft be abfolved

from

chargeof fraud? that immunities, Pricfthoods. Kingdoms, had been fold by him;
could thoie bargainsbe confirmed, which
That if
their decrees had made void i[d]
they (hould grant him the farther Gaul and
what would it be elfe,but to defer
an
army,
the war, not to make peace? nay, not onely
but to yieldhim the vito prolongthe war,
it for this,fayshe, that
Was
dtory\j].
"

~"

have

taken

the robe of war,

"*

we

"*

that with a
youth oi Italy
\
and numerous
moft florifhing
army we fhould
fend an EmbafTy at laft for peace ? and muft
I bear a part in that Embafly, or afliftin that

*^
^^
"*

fent

put

out

on

arms,

all the

"*

counfii,where, if I differ from

""

peopleof

**

whatever

Rome

conceffions

mifchief

know

never

can

are

the reft,the

made

to

it? fo that

Antony, or

do hereafter,it
may
"*
muft be at the hazard of my credit."
He then ihews, ^^ that if an Embafly muft need3
""

whatever

he

"

^^

"*
*'
^'
*^
*^
*'
"

"
*'
""
'^
**

be fent,he, of all men,


the moft improwas
per to be employed in it : that he had ever been
of their
the mover
againft
; was
any Embafly
takingthe habit ot war -, was alwaysfor the
fever^ proceedings
both agauift
Antony and

bis aiSxiates
him

"

"

that all that party looked

prejudiced
5 and Antony would
be ofifendedat die fight
of him [/].-"That
if theydid not trouble themfelves,how Antony might take it, he begged them at leaft
him the painof feeing
to fpare
Antony ; which
upon

he fhould

as

never

to
fpeechlately

be
his

able

to

bear

who

when he was
parricides,
diftributing
"

[/] Ibid..5.

in

[e]Ibid. 6.

[/]

Ibid. 7.

""

**

""
""
""

""
""
""
""
""
""
"*
"*

""

rewards to die boldeft of them,


diftributing
had promifedCicero*s cftatc to PetilTius"
endure the fightof
that he fhould never
he could not have
L. Antony : whole cruelty
e(caped,but by the defence of his walls and

""

had been

"*

of
fidelity

"*

Rome

*"

apprehend

""

were

managed nutters
any

oft

were

"

if his life
the

where

to

Modena

the

the Aurelian
upper lea ;
middle
alongthe lower ; the Ctf^4""in the
ail of them befct by Antony's
that they were

along the

Flamiman

"

Lento

*"

relioH by the whole

**

not

three roads from Rome

**

*'

all the attempts


hitherto been able to

his friends,and the eyes of all


his guard ; what might he not
? that there
from fo longa journey

his
allies,

"*

A. Hiktius.

{oy that

That
[^].
attemptedat home,

harm

**

"*

Pahja.

Qnce, if he did not deceive himfelf, it was


lie, who by his watchings*cares and votes,

do them

*^

yj^^^

defpicable

"*

""

and

of their enemies had

**

^J"^

his crew,
yet fome regardfhould
be had to his life; not that he fet any value
but itought not to be thought
upon it himfelf,
by the Senate and Peopleof Rome :

Antony

"^

""

Urb.7i"x

of his native Town


: that
gates, and the zeal
himlelf^
tho* he might be able to command
and diflemble his uneafinefs at the fightof

had

"*

A.

"

""

""

i6t

CICERO.

efM:rULLIUS

own

utter

the Flamiman

enemies

the

byVcntidius

Cajfianby
;

the Aur-

family[A].
if
That he would (laytherefore in the City,
the Senate would
give leave, which was his

proper
others

Clodian

^"

and

feat, his watch

might enjoycamps.

ftation: that

Kingdoms,

mili-

take care of the


-, he would
tary commands
City, and the affairsat home, in partnerlhip
that he did not refiirethe charge;
with them
;

III.

Vol.

Ibid. 8.

i^lIbid. 9,

^*

but

^Hbe Hist

l62
A.Urb.
Cic.

710.

64.

but it was
for

no

the

man

of the Life

otiY

people,who refufed it for him


letstimorous, tho' none

was

Coff.
C. V1BIU8
Pans

A,

A.H111TIV8.

cautious than he
to

that

more

ftatefman

ought
of gloryin
him a reputation
:
reproachof error and folly
-"

"

leave behind

dying; not the


who, fayshe, does
it is hard indeed

fome who

are

fayit,that
not
keepinga

to

for
pitied,
a bale and
againfl:
be

bewail the death of

not

Trebonius ? yet there


to

fay,the'
lefs
is tli^

he

better

guard,

deteftable villain : for wife

that he who

tell us,

to guard
profefles
the lives of others, ought in the firftplace
his own
to keep
a guard upon
["]"-* That
if he mould
happen to efcapeall the fnares
fo fuof the road, that Antonyms rage was
rious,
men

that he would
alive from the
he
he

was

never

fufferhim

turn
re-

that when

congrels

"""

voluntier in the

young

to

wars

of

lialy^

conference of Cr. Pom-

prefentat a
pey the Conful, and P. Vettius the General
of the Marfi, held between the two
Camps :
there was no fear,no fufpicion,
lent
nor
any viowas

hatred
an

on

eitherfide

"

interview likewife between

that there

was

Syllaand

Sci-

pio, in their civil wars, where tho' "uth was


not
obferved, yet no violence was
ftriftly
offered [*]
but the cafe was difierentin
with Antony, where, if others could
treating
be fafe,he at Icaft could not : that Antony
"

would

never

"

come

much

into then- camp;

lefs

theyinto his" "that iftheytranfkded afiairs


by Letter,his opinionwould alwaysbe one
and the fame ; to reduce every thingto the
will of the Senate
to
prefented

Dl

the

Ibid.

10.

that this would

be mifre*

Veterans,as fevere and per*


"
vcrfcj
H] m.

"i.

ofU. rULLIUS
verfe

"*

and

might

*"

fome violence

"*

he, be rdcrved

**
"'
**
**

as

longas

**
**
**
**

perhapsto *" Urb. 710.


lifetherefore,
fays ^^off**

the ferviceof my country, c. V*biu"


either dignity
will allow : Pansa,
or nature
to

courfc of A.HiRTiwti
neceflary
fate; or if I mull meet it fooner,let me meet
it with glory
Since the Republicthen,
has no occato fpeakthe moft moderately,
fion for this Embaffy ; yet if I can undertake
it with lafety,
I will go ; and in this whole
affah* will govern myfelfintircly.
Fathers,
not
by a regardto my own danger, but to
let my

death fall by the

"

the fervice of the ftate; and after the moft

"*
*"

163

excite them
let my

"

**

CICERO.

"rillrefolve
deliberation,

mature

which

**

publicIntereft.""

do that

ufeflil
to the

the emrefiife
ployment,
abfolutely
that
yet he difliiadedit fo Itrongly,
thingwas whollydropt; and Panla, about
he did

Tho*
the

be moft

I Ihalljudge to

*^

to

not

the end of the month, marched


away towards
der
Gaul, at the head of his new railed army, in orto

joinHirtius

and

Odavius, and without


dccifive battel with

farther

delay,to attempt a
of
Antony for die delivery

D. Brutus.

the fame time, while he was


perplexingthe counlils of the Senate,by the
Antony

at

of his friends,
endeavouring alfo
was
intrigues
by his Letters to fliake the refolution of^Hirtius and Oftavius, and draw
caufe which they were
now

anfwers leem
him

them

off from the

: but their
ferving

have been fhort and

firm ; referring
of the
to the authority
conftantly
to

wards
now
drawing tothingswere
effort more
he made
one
a crifis,
upon
ter
Letthem ; and in the Allowing expoftulatory
them
with great freedom, for
reproached
diemand fuffering
their true intereft,
deferting

Senate:

yet

as

fdves

164
A.Urb.710.

^c ^'
C

V1BIU8

of the Life

History

duped, and drawn in by Cicero,to


Pompeiancaufe^and cftabliflia powin the end would
dcftroythem.

felves to be
revive the
which

^r,

Antonius

A.HiiiTius.

to

Upon the news


afFeded
equally
*'

"'

*'

**

*'
**
*'

**
"'
^*

it was

Hirtius and

Co^far.

of Trcbonius*s death, I was


both with joyand with grief.

of real joy to me,

matter

fee

to

vi^

Iain fufFer the vengeance due to the afliesof


the moft illuftriousof men
; and that within

the circleof the current


year, the divine prohas difplayed
vidence
itfelf,
by the punifli-

of

infliftedalreadyon fome,
parricide,
and ready to fallupon the reft. But on the
other hand, it is a futjcft
of juft
griefto me,
ment

(hould be declared

**

that Dolabella

*^

becaufe he has killed

*'

the fon of

**

than Casfar, the


peopleof i2(?"i^,

an

murtherer

enemy,
and that

Ihould be dearer

Buffoon

to

Father

the

of

"'
**

his country : but the cruelleftrefleftionof all


is, that you, Hirtius, covered with CaBlar*$

**

favors,and

*"

you y our felfwonder

*'

man,

**
*'

*'
"

**

who

leftby him
owe

in a condition,
which

at ",

every
allwhich
is in
doing

and you

too, young

his name,
are
power, that Dola-

thingto
your

bcUa may be thoughtjuftly


condemned
; that
this wretch be delivered from the fiege
; and
Caffius and Brutus be inverted with all
power.
You look upon the prefent
ftate of thingsas

*"

peopledid upon the paft; call Pompey's


*Vcamp the Senate ; have made the vanquilhed
Cicero your Captain
Ma; are
ftrengthening
adonia with armies ; have givenAfricato
Varus, twice a prifoner
fent Caflius
-, have
into Syria\ fufFered Cafca to aft as Tribun ",
the revenues
of the JulianLuperci
fuppreffed
;
**
**

*"

*'

**

**

abolilhed the colonies of Veterans,cftabliflied

"by

rULLIUS

ofM.
*"

"*

"*
"'

**
**

CICEHO.

i6^

the decree of the Senate

by law, and

Urb:
pro- A.

peopleof Marfeilles^^^ ^*
taken from them by rightof war
what was
; c. VtBrifs
made
of Pansa,
that a Pompeianwas
forget
incapable
A.HiRxius.
by Hircius*s law ; have fupplied
any dignity
Brutus with Appuleius's
; applauded
money
mife

reftore

to

the

to

to death
putting

Poetus

and

**

the

"*

he made
free of the
Caefai^s friends,whom
City, took no notice of Theopompus, when

**
**

and
ftript

banifhed

^^

Alexandria

**

armed

**

ftabbed

**
*'

Menedemus,

by Trebonius, he fled to

you fee Ser. Galba in your Camp,


with the fame poignardwith which he

C^far

have

foldiers,
my
and other Veterans, on pretence of deftroying
killed Caefar j and then employ
thofe who
;

enlilled

" *

them, before theyknow

**

againfttheir Quseftor,or their General, or


their Comrades
what have you not done,
which Pompey himfelf,were
he alive,or his
fon, if he could, would not do? in fhort,

*'
*'
"*
**
"*

**
"*
*'

*'
**
**
"

what

theyare doing,

"

you deny that any peace can


I fet Brutus at liberty,
or
this

can
"*provifions:
"'

yiow

be made,

unlefs

fupplyhim with
pleafethofe Veterans,

yet declared themfelves ? for as


have fold yourfelves
to your part, you
to the
flatteries
and poifonedhonors of the Senate.
But you come,
the troops
you fay,to preferve
who

have

not

their
befieged.I am not againft
beingfaved, 6r goingwhere-ever you pleale,
if theywill but leave him to perifh
who has
which

are

deferved

it.

You

**

mention

of concord

**

Senate

and
,

write

has been

five Confular

itis hard

word

me

revived

have driven

**

feted the laireftconditions,and

to

ap-

believe,that thofe who

pointed:

*'

me

in the

EmbaflUdors

**

to

that the

when
this extremity,

I of-

willing

was

^* CO remit fome part of them, ihould do any


M

"

thing

A-U"i", 710.

^c fl^

:
thingwith moderation or humanity
who
^^ probable,that the fame men,

""
"

Dolabella

*'

C.ViBius

Paws A,
A.H1RTIUS.

of the Life

History

i66

^'
""

fentiments with

*^

bufineis

^^

to

him.

voted

refle"t,which of the
uieiiilto

or more
eligible,

nK)re

is

moft laudable aA,


in the fame
who
am
it is your
Wherefore

for

forgiveme,

ever

can

enemy

an

nor

two

our

is the

common

death of Trebonius,
revenge the
i
equitable
and which the more
or of Caefar :
each other,that die Pcm-^
for us to aft againft
recover
peian caufe, fo often defeated,may
itfelfi or to joinour forces,left we become
of our enemies ; who, which
at laft the fport
fure to
of us foever may happen to fall,are
be the gainers.But fortune has hitherto pre*
to fee two
; unwilling
vented that fpedtacle
armies,like members of the lame body,figjiteach other ; and Cicero all the

intereft*,

*"
**
**
^*
""
^*
*^
**
*'
**
**
^*
**
"*
"*
"*
"*
**
**

to

ing againft
while, like a matter of Gladiators,matching
is fi"fiur
the Combat
: who
us, and ordering
"me
happy, as to have caughtyou with the
bait, with which he brags to have caught
refolved to fuffer
part, I am
or
my friends 1
afiront,either to myfclf,
hated j
to defcrt the party which Pompey
fee the Veterans driven out of their

Caefar. For
no
nor
nor

my

to

**

and dragged one


pofleffions,

"*

rack

nor

to

**
"*
*'

"*
"*

**

moft

by

one

to

the

break my word with Dolabella ;


violate my
leaguewith Lepidus,a

nor

to

man
religious

nor

to

betrayPlancus,

the partner of all my counfils. If the immorin


as I hope theywill,
tal Gods fupport
me,
of fo good a caufe, I (hall live
the purfuit
fate eacpeds
with pleafure
5 but if any other
however before-hand,in the
1 taft a

joy
: for if the
of your punishment
fure forefight
^ fmpeicms ^re fo fnfolentwhen conquered,
**

me,

"*

"*

bow

72v History

i68
A. Urb. 71

o.

put Cicero

^C ff^* ^^

afraid from

He

told them,

the firft,left an

*^^

"

infidious oiFer of peace fhould damp the comzeal, for thi recovery of their liberty:
mon

A,

A.H1"TIU8.

cxpofingall their arguments.

**

C. ViBiija

Pans

to

more

once

of the Life
the trouble of confuting

"

^'
*^

*'

^^

^^^

^*^

delightedin difcord, and the


from
blood of Citizens, ought to be expelled
kind : yet it was
of human
the fociety
to be

that whoever

"'

confidered,whether

there

were

^^

wholly inexpiable
; where

no

"*
*'
*^
^'
*'

foot

was

fettof

men

on
a

of this Ibrt \ undertaken


who

*"

and

fo-

opprefs,

reftore fuch to the City,was to deftroy


That theyought to
the City itfelf["].
10

"

what

decrees

remember

**

againftthem ; fuch as
a foreign
againft
enemy,

they had alreadymade


had

there could be peace


fonitude, was
as well as

or

"

**

to

to

their fellow-creatures^

murther

"'

**

wars

againfl:

natural enemies

were

itwas
ciety; whofe onelypleafure

plunder,and

*^

fome

peace could be
made, and where a treaty of peace was but a
of flavery[i"j
: that the war
now
ftipulation

'*

**

not

been

never

made

any, with whom


that fmce wifdom,

expeded from men


indeed could hardly
willingto confider

**

of their rank, tho* thefe

*'

feparated,
yet he was
and follow what wiidom
them ieparately,
the
cautious and guarded of the two
more
preicribed.
If wifdom then,(ayshe, fhould
command
to hold nodiingfb dear as life;
me
head ;
to decree nothingat the hazard of my
fure to
to avoid all danger,tho* flavery
was
be the confequence
that wifr
rejeft
j I would

**
^'
"*

be

"

**

^^
**

""
"'

**
**

dom,
us

to

"

be it ever

fb learned

lives,our

our
preferve

milies,yet fb, as

to

but if it teaches

fonunes,our

think them

fa-

inferiorto li-

"bertyi
["]

Phil 13,

1.

Ibi4.a.

f^M. fULLIUS
"*

**
"*
**
*"
**
**

CICERO.

169

enjoythem no longerthan
do it in a free Republic; not lo part
we
can
for them, but to tlirow them
with our liberty
for liberty,
all away
us
as expofing
onely to

bcrty5

to

wifti to

A. Urb. 710.

^^^^""
q

tho' there had

dus

than himfelf ; and

**

old

between them,
friendlhip

^*

him,

**

with young
Pompublic,in prevailing
and free his coun^
pey to laydown his arms,
try from the miferyof a cruel war : that the
from
Republichad many pledgesof fidelity
-, great honors
;
Lepidus ; his great nobility
High Pricfthood y many parts of the City
adorned by him and his Anceilors ; his wife,

"*
**
*'
**
*'
*"
"*
"'
*'
"'
*^
**

not

fo much

for that,

been

an

yet he valued
his fervices to

as

the

children, great fortunes,pure from any taint


of civil blood ; no Citizen ever hurt, inany

by him
preferved
in judgment, but
to

enemy

peace

could

his country.

never

That

"

might err
be an
wilfully

pian

his defvre of

laudable,if he could nuke

was

peace

that fuch

for them

now,

them.

as

That

when

he

fuch

reftored

for this they had

**

Pompey

to

^^

decreed

him

^^

givenbefore to any man, a ftatue with a fplenand a triumph evea


in abdid infcription,
fence [/"]. That by good fortune they had
fo, that Pompey's return
managed matters
of Caelar's afts,
might confiftwith the validity
which, for the fake of peace, theyhad confirmed \ fincc they had decreed to Pompey

"'
"*
"'

"^
"*
**

a,

it ; 1 would
then li- A.Hirtjus,
greater mifchief without
lien to her voice, and obey her as a God [p\
for Lepihad a greater refpcdk
That
man
no

**

^^

Vibiu*

Pans

"

greater honors, than had been

"

^^

the five millions and

^^

by the

half, which

raifed

was

iale of his eftaies,


to enable him

to
"

{"IIbid. 3.

[/] Ibid.4"

buy

them

7^

170
A.Vrb.710.

c"
**

CoiT
C. ViBius

**

Pansa.

""

A.H1KTIU8.

4C

**
"*
"^
"*

g/'/ift^
Uje

History

again: he dcfircd,that the tafk of rcof his Anceftors,


placinghim in the polfeflions
might be committed to him for his old friend(hip with his Father : that it fliould be his
firftcare to nominate him anAugur^ and rethem

fame favor to the Son, which he himpay the


felf received from the Father [q]: that thofe
at MarfeiUesy
brought
who had feen him lately
with his
that he was
word
readyto come
,

the relief of Modena^ but that he


afraid of givingoflence to the Veterans :

"^

troops

""

was

"*

which

**

Father, who

to

""

dcnce

^*

buGneis

"^

with

'*
""

**
""

him

to

be the

ufed

to

aft with

Ihewed

courage.

as

take care,

to

to

"*

""
**

"*
"*
"*
*"
**

that

"

that

dable, but would

*'

him

[r].

^^

^*

be

Lepidos's
thoughtto aft

them
frighten

without

"'

pru-

with his army,


"^
he ihould remember, that it was the army
the Senate and PeopleoiRome^ not his own
his authority
That if he intcrpofed
if he meant

*^

**

much

than became

arrc^ance

more

to

not

as

Son of that

it was

That

"

true

arms,

indeed the

was

lau-

more

hardlybe thought neceflktho* his authority


was
as great

For
ry.
with them, as that of the nobleft Citizen
unmindful of
not
to be, yet the Senate was
a grawas
theirown
; and there never
dignity
"

"

ou^t

vcr,
-"

firmer,flx"uterSenate, than

all fo incenfed

thgrwere

That

the prefent.

againft

that no
man's
the enemies of their liberty,
their ardor, or extort
could reprefi
authority
That theyhoped
from them.
their arms
"

"

the beft, but would


than live flaves [s\

dangerto

V he could

be
not

"

rather fuflcr the worft,


That diere was
no
^

apprehendedfrom Lepidus,fince
of his own
enjoythe fplendor
fortunes,
"'

03

lUd.

$.

[r] Ibid

"

[i]Ibid. 7,

rULLIUS

tfM.
"*

but
fortunes,
That

"
"

*'

*'

**

5*
*^

"*

^^
*'

with the

nature

confirms

fortune

CICERO.
of all honcft
fafcty

firftmakes
them

intereft of all

common

171

men

to

A. Urb.

honeft,but

""r tho' it

men.

Pansa.
fafety
of A.Hikthj"*
particularly

public,yet itwas more


thofc who were
happy in their fortunes.
That no body was nx"re fo than Lepidus,and
no
: of which
body therefore better difpofed
the peopleiaw a remarkable inftance,in the
which he exprefled,
when
concern
Antony
""

Caeiar,and chofe

**

ofiered

^'

his flave,rather than his Collegue


: for which
ad 9 if he had been ^ilty of nothing
fingle

**
**
**

Diadem

to

to

be

deieryed the worft puniOv


elfc,he had richly

ufuas
[/].** Then after inveighing,
clared
al, agsunft
Antony thro* feveral pages, he deall ibougbts
of peace V)Uh Um to be vain^
and for a freft"
proofof ii producedbis hji Let*
Ur to Hirtivs and O^aviuSy and read it publicly
it voortb
to the afiembiy:not that be thought
he fays,hut to letthem feehis traiterous
readings
avowed and confeffed
views openly
hyUmfelf He
read it to them paragraphby paragraph,with
and remarks upon it ; rallying
his own
comment
all alongwith great wit and fpirit, the rage,
the extravagance, the inconuftency,
the folly,
and the inaccuracy
of each lentence/' On the
whole, he iaya, that if Lepidushad feen it,
he woidd
neither have adviied,or thought
*'
That fire
any peace with him poffible.
ment

"

^^

*^

**

^^

**

"

*^

and

"'

ton/s

"*

the firftand beft

^*

"^

water

would

"

fboner unite, dian the An-

be reconciled to the

Republic.
"

That

thingtherefore was, to conthe fecond, to decline no danger for


quer;
the libotyof their country ; that tbm
was
"*

(/]Ibid

8.

^^^^'

the c. Vibius

was

the

promote

of the

710*

no

A. Urb.

of t"e Life

Tie History

tjl
710.

^C P

no

third

^^

fubmit

"

**

thing,but
to

the iaftand worft of all,

bafenefs,thro*

the utmoft

**

C. yiBius
Pansa.

^^^^ ^^

*'

red his concurrence

A.HiRTius.

"'

living.
"

de-

rcafons he dccla-

For which

with Servilius,in the

vote

Letters*;and propofcdan adLepidus's


ditional decree, either to be joinedto the
feparately.That Pomother, or publifhed
the Ion of Cnaeus, in offering
pey the Great,
upon

**
**

"

*'

his troops
Peopleof Rome^ had aded

his fervice and

"*
**

courage and
and to his

**
**

**

**

^^
**

to

the Senate and


to the
agreeably

zeal of his Fadier and Anccftors


own

and
virtue, induftry,

good

the Republic: and that the


to
difpofition
to the Seand acceptable
thingwas grateful
and People, and would hereafter be an
nate
honor

to

himfelf."

the debate, which ended as Cicero


wifhed, he fent the followingftiortLetter to
which, by the coldnefs and negligence
After

Lepidus,

defignedto
eafy
let Lepidus fee, that they were
perfeftly
and fecure at Ramej whatever meafures he might

with which

it is drawn, fcems

to

be

think fit to take.


Cicero

^^
*'

While

^^

did

^^

thanks

**
"*
*'
"
*'

Lepidus.

which I
refpeft
bear to you, I am
making it my particular
aidvance
as pofas mudi
your dignity
care, to
to fee,that you
to me
fible,it was a concern

"'

^^

to

not

out

think

of the great

it worth

while

to

return

your

the Senate, for the extraordinary


conferred uphonors, which theyhave lately
I rejoice
however, that you are fo
on
you.
defirous of making peace among Citizens : if
that peace from flavery,
you
you can feparate
the
of
Republic^
will confult both the good
to

and your

own

: but
dignity

if the effeftof it

TULLIUS

ffM.

reftore a

"*

be,

**

dominion

to

man
defperate

have

I would

death to
prefer
wifelytherefore

**

*^

meddle

an

173
A.
arbitrary

know, that
refolution,to

You

will aft

Pans

more

which

"

*'

"

**

"

Pl
and

is

not

redded

now

who

too,

ANGUS

near

commanded

in

Gaul^

Lyons^ at the Head

of

enforced

Lepidus*sadvice, by a
Letter likewife to the Senate on the fame fubje"t
the following
of peace ; to which Cicero wrote

brave

army,

anfwer

Cicero
"The
*'
"

"

"

*"

"
**
*'

**

to

account,

Plan

which

cus.
our

friend Furnius

broughtof your afFeftion to the Republic,


both to the Senate and
was
highlyagreeable
Peopleof iJ^OT^: but your Letter, when read
in the Senate, did not feem to agree with
Furnius's report : for you advifed us to peace,
of the greateft
when
your CoUegue, a man

befiegedby moft infamous


who
Plunderers;
ought cither to fue for
their arms,
if they
or
peace, by layingdown

eminence,

was

it with

fword

**

demand

**

procuredby viftory,not

*"

manner

*'

alfo,were

in hand, it muft be
treaty. But in what

Letters, as well as Lcpidus*s


received,you will undcrftand from

your

"

[*] Ep. fam.

X.

27^

that

a.

A.HiRTivi,

agreeableeither to the Senate,


the People,or
to
or
man
: but
any honed
you will hear enough of this from others, or
be informed of it by Letters ; and will be direfted by your own
prudence,what isthe beft
for you to do [u]**

**

710.

c.yiBiv9

in my
judgement, if you
farther with that afiairof peace :

no

Urb.

^'^*
p"

to

you

fcrvitude.

"

to

taken

of fenfe have

all men

**

CICERO.

174
A. Urb.

710.

""

that excellent

man

^Cbff!^*Furnius, "fr.
C

ViBiws

Pamsa.
A.

HiRTivs.

to

Ai^TON

whom

Y,

have retreated

from

brother, and

your

\x]r

"

C.

of the Life

History

mentioned

we

Cohorts
withyrt;^"

to

abovc^
ApoUonia,

daringto wait for Brutus's arrival,who was


now
out
to
advancing towards him, marched
Butbrotumj to feek his fortune elfewhere, in
fecure and remote:
but beingovertaken
quarters more
his march by a part of
and attacked on
Brutus's army, he loft three of his Cohorts in the
not

in

and

iecond

aftion

with ano^
engagement
ther body of troops, which young Cicero commanded,
routed and taken priibner:
was
intirely

which

niadefoutus
without

abfolute Mafter

ferther

any

\^y].
oppofition

frefli fuccefe gave occafion


from
Brutus to the Senate
makes

for

which

*'

This

fecoml Letter

of which

followingmention

the

of the Country,

Cicero

Your

Letter,
the Senate, fhews

read in

**

fayshe,

"*

the Counfil of the General, the virtue of your


of your officers,
and in
foldiers,the induftry

"*

**

"*

**

"*

"*
"

was

of my
particular
been willing
to
if it had

Cicero,

If your friends had


the Senate upon it ; and

move

fallen into moft

turbulent times,
fince the departureof Panla, fome juftand
not

proper honor
to die Gods

would

have been decreed

[2]."^"

for it

"

Thb
Tx] Ibid.

Nj

6.

de
pltcHiflet

PItttar.in Brat.

[z] Tux

litterxyqaae in

"urU

"

ki" litlerisre*

nlfi in tempoi tirpoftdifceflam

bulentiffimum

Senata recitataefunt, 8e Im*

Panfx

coniilittin Se mill*
peratoris

quejuftusacdebitoaDiiiim-

tum

virtutem, "

tuorum,

in

induftriam

quibusCiceronis

nei declaranc.

Qiiod fi tuis

honos quo*
incidiflent,

mortalibusdecrecaaeiTeC. Ad
Brut. 2. 7.

t:^]
^e History

176
**

*^

C. ViBiws
Pansa.
A. HxRTius.

the thirteenth of

"On

A. Urb. 7io-

^c ff^

of the Life

4P^^*Afayshe, your
meffengerPilus broughtus two Letters,the
^^ y^^^ name,
the other in Antony's;
^"^

"'

and

""

10

**

the

*'

much

**
"*
*^
**

*^

^^

them

gave

to

Serv^iliusthe Tribun

he

They were read


raifed
Antony Proconful^

Cornutus

the Prsetor.

Senate.
wonder

if it had

as

ia
as

Dola-

been
,

Emperor; from whom alfo there came


an
body, like your Pilus,
exprefe
; but no
fo hardy, as to producethe Letters,or
was
Your Letdeliver them to the Magiftrates.
read ; (hort indeed, but extremely
ter was
mild towards Antony: the Senate was amazed
bella

part, 1 did

For my

it.

know

how

**

at

*'

aft.

Should

"

What

if you

**

it to be

**

I chofe therefore

'^

rpadeibme noife,
had givenofience,I beand Pilus*s carriage
Angan the debate,(aid much of Proconfid

**

*'

^'
**
^^

*'

**
^'

^*
*^
^^
"

the next, when

that
to

to

to

forgpd?"

be

it? Should

I admit

for your honor.


be filentthat day. On
was

not

the affairhad

his part, and cb*


tony ; Sextius performed
what danferved to me afterwards in private,
ger his fon and mine would
taken up arms
they had really
con/ul.You know the man

be liable to, if
a Pro*
agsunft
;

he did

juftice

the caufe. Others alfo fpoke; but our


friend Labeo took notice,that your feal was
to

not

the Letter

to

put

nor

any

date added

had you written about it,as ufual,to


yoiirfriends; from which he maintained the
nor

Letter

*"

the Houfe

cc

ftiould own

genuin?

**

*"

I affirm it

not

tus,

the

to
war

to

be

and in (hort,convinced
It is now
your part, Bru-

forged\

of it.

confider the whole (late and


:

you

are

nature

of

1 perceive,
with
delighted,

think it the beft way


of prolenity
; and
ceding: this indeed is generally
right; but
"

the

ofM.
*"
*'

**

**

**

*'

"*

**

rULLtUS

CICERO.

placeof clemencyis, in cafes and


feafons very different from the prefent
for
:
what are we
doing now, Brutus ? we fee a
the
crew
threatening
needyand defperate
very

A.

Temples of the Gods

A, Hirtivs.

the proper

decide,
neceffariiy

whether

Whbisitthen,
what is it, that we

we

whom

not,
or

and that the

mean

*'

of thofe,who,
ing the fafety

*'

better, are

**

of

* *
*'

177

fure

not

to

arc

war
to

muft
live

Urb.710.

^*?-^"
c^ ViBrus

Paiisa,

or

wearefparing?
confuTtwe
are
if

theyget

the

leave the leaft remains

? for what

difference is there between


Dolabella and*any one of tKe three Antonys ? if
we
fpareany of thefe,wehave been too feverc
us

Dolabella.

It

owing diieflyto my
advice and authority,that the Senate and
People are in this way of thinking,
thougli
them to it :
the thingitfelfindeed alfo obliged
I fhall doif you do not approve this policy,
fend your opinion,but cannot
departfrom
the world expeftsfrom you noown:
my
thingeither remifs or cruel : it is eafyto moderate the matter,
to the Leaders^
by fcverity
to the foldicrs [r].'*
generofity
done every thing,that
had now
Cicero
human prudencecould do towards the recovery
of the Republic
: for all that vigor,with whicH
in*
it was
was
niaking this laft effort for itfelf,
tirely
owing to his counfils and authority.As
Antony was the moft immediate and defperate

*"

to

was

*^

*'
*"
"

**

**

*'

""

"*

enemy,

who

it, fo he had armed

threatened

a-

ftrengthof Itafyjand
raifed up a force fufilcient to opprefshim.
Young Odlavius, next to Antony, was the mof^
formidable to the friends of liberty;but from
and their
die contraft of their perfonal
intereftss

gainfthim

the whole

jcalouTy

[r] Ad

Brut.

7.

7^^ History

1^8

the

Life

Pan8a,

of each other's views, Cicero managed


jealoufy
the opportunity,
to the ruin
to employ the one
^^ *^ ^*^''
y^^ ^" ^ ^^ provideat the lame
time agairift
dangerfrom Oftavius,
any prcfent

i^.HiiiTivs.

by throwing

A.Urb.
Cw.

710.

6^.

C. ViBius

"

of power
luperiority

into the

being the
iate Minifters of Csefar's Tyranny, he had gained
to the interefts of libeity.But befides
over
with
which he had to ftruggle
the difficukics,
in bringingmatters
to this point,he
at home,
had greater difcouragements
abroad, from the
of the feveral Provinces:
Commanders
they
all promoted to thofe governments by Csewere
hgindsof the Confuls

-,

whom,

nrom

far, the proper Creatures of his power,

and the

[d\", and were now ftiU


of hopes,either of advancingthemfelvcs to dominion,
or to a Ihare of it at leaft,
by efpoufing
the caufe of (bme
more
powerful]pretender.
abettors of his Tyranny

Men

of this turn, at the head of great and veteran


be perfuaded
armies, could not eafily
to

fubmit

to a

Senate, which theyhad been taught

reduce the military


to
or
defpife,
power,
which had long governed all,to a dependence
the Civil.
Yet Cicero omitted no painsof
on
them
exhortingthem by Letters,and inviting
by honors, to preferthe gloryof favingtheir
Country,to all other views whatfoever. Thofe,
to

whom

he

moft

and
diftrufted,

for that reafon

moft

were
particularly
prefled,
Lepidus,Pollio,
and Plancus:
who
by the ftrengthof their
of Gaul and Spain^
armies, and their poffeflion
the beft qualified
were
to ferve or to diftrefithe
Republicancaufe. He had littlehopes of the
firft5 yet managed them fo well, hy repretwo
fenting

[i] Vidcs Tyranni

Satcl-

dcrt ezercitus in latere vetc-

vides ejiif-ranps.. Ad
Kttt in laperiis:

Att. 14. 5.

CICEkO.

rULLIUS

ofM.

ly^

fentirgthe ftrcngthof the honefl:party, the A. Urb. 71^.


unanimky-efthe Senate, of theConfuls, and all ^^off^
that
Ital^y

he forced them

at

leaft to diflemble c. Vzbius

their di"fieflion,
and make great profefixons
of Pans a,
their duty ; and above all,to ftand neuter
tillA- Hi"Txt;i"
the afiairsof

Italywere decided -, on which the


fate of the Republicfeemed chiefly
to depend*
Nay, he ieems to have drawn Plancus intirely
into his meafures
of him

to

appears from his account


Brutus [^],and from Plancus^s own
:

as

afluran*
Letters, in which he givesthe ftrongeft
of his

ces

io

and ofiers to
fidelity,
relief
(fMoAtn?i; and was

the

his march

towards

lead his troops

aAuallyupon

he heard upon the


Not long before
road of Antonymsdcfcat"^"

which, Cicero

it,when

lent him

ClCBRO
"

**
^

^
*^
"

our

defigp

"

tcl,whidi

**

pLANCtrS.

fblution was, widi regardto the Kepublic


;
yet after reading
your Letters,I was able to
of your whole purform a clearerju(^gpment
pofe. Wherefore,though the fate 6t Ae
Commonwealth

*^

to

Letter*
following

I underftood from the^CcOilntof


Though
friend Furnius, what y6ur
and "-

*^

*"

the

you

are

dependswhollyon

one

bat-

will be decided,I believe,when


readingthisLetter, yet you have ac-

quired great applaufe,by the Very fame,


whidi was every where forcad,of your good
Conlul

^^

intentions: and if diere had been

"^

Rfimey the Senate, by decreeingfome oonfi-^


derable honor to ycMi, would have declaredi

^'

ac

^^ how acceptable
yotir endeavours and prepataN

"*

tioM

Jut,iparam eiempluntiU
1Mb. cgre^unii leponei, mifliuiiarUtror, perfpican
Ai Iv^C
t. a.
""
potoifti.
"S litteris
Mud", copbtt
MnuidiafaiiimiuiReal-

i8o
A.Urb.710.

^c ff^

"

tions

**

y^^ P^^

*'

C. YiBivr

"P^

of the Life

History
But

were.

is notonely not

that time

^" "^y judgement even


with mc
^'^^after ali^
that alone pafies

"

'

^^^ ^^

"^'

^^ for honor, which is conferred on great men,


Pansa,
^.^iiLTiws. " not for the hopes of future,but the cxperiof paftfcrvices. If then there be any
*f cnce
which

honor

have

it'sprofor it, you mall

**

Republic,in

**

nay word
have your ihare pf the greateft
: though that,
which can trulyU called honor, is not an in^
but the reward of an
vitationto a

^^
**
**
*'
^^
**
^*

can

take
per lufler,

temporary,
habitual virtue* Wherefore, my d^ar Planthoughtstowards glocus, mrn
your ^ole

helpyour Country ", flyto the reliefof


diiswooderfiill con^
your CoUegoe; fupport

ry

*^

lent,

**

and
find

ever

of all natiOTs:
you will
the promotor of your counfils,

concurrence
me

thefavourerofyonrdignhy,andon all occaand faithfoU to


lions moflr friendly
yovz for

**
^
^'

all the other

to

motives of

our

\mxmi

our

mutual afieftion ;

good offices;old acquaint^


ance
Country, wluch is now^
; the love of our
added, makes noe prefer
your lifeto my own%

^*
*^
^'
**

a9th.[/]."

Mkf:.
P

I. A

Letter
and

c u^

in the

iecond^

the Senate, to allure them: of his zed'


relbludon to adhere to them ; and to ac-^
to

quaintthem

with the Heps, which he had

taken for their fervice:


him

time fent

mean

which

upon

already

theydecreed

fome

honors, at the motion of'


extiaordinary.
who fent him die following
Cicero,
of it,
account
Cicero
**

THOUGH

toPLANcus.
of

to the Republic,
r^^ard'
^ oyj greatefl:
joy ought to be, for your hringout

C/1 Bp. ^,

X.

lou

iSi

CICERO.

of M.rULLIXJ'S

'*"Urb. 71b.
to it,in a time aling fudi relief and lic^
I fo embrace you
^^q^'
; yet may
moft of extremity
of our Kberty,
and thetccovery
c. Vibiui
after viftory
that givesme the chief Pajtsa,
dignity,
as it is your
ivhich already
is,and AHunvs.
of
pleafure;
my
part
^ill be^ I percdve,as great as poffible.
ever
For I would not have you think,mat any

"*
""

"*

""
""

"*
"*
"*
.

**

"*
"*

L-ctterswere ever read in the S^ate of greater


wei^tthan yours ; both for the eminent meof your
and the gravity
rit of your icrvices,
words and fentiments : whidi was not at all

"*

new

"*

you, and
Letters to

"*

"'
**
**
"*
**

"*
**
"*
"*
**
**
"*
*^
"*
**

**
*'
**
*^
*'
**

who

to me,

fo wcM

was

remembered
me

the

with
acquainted
of your
promifes

and tmderftood the whole purcounfils fronx our Fumius : but


;

poleof your
than was
greaterto the Senate,
theyappeared
had any doubt
ever
; not that they
expe6ted
underof your inclinations", but did not fully
abje to do, pr
ftand,how much you were
in the
yoyrlelf
fer you would ejepofe
how
M, Varifidius therefore brought
caufe. When
the fcventh
on
me
yoOT Letters very early,
with joy upon
of AprHy I was
tranlportcd
mdtitude pf
readingthem ; and as it great
to attend
excellentCitizens were then waiting
I inftantly
gave them a^U
my going abroad,
while
In the mean
a
part of my pledure.
friend Munarius, accordingto cuftoro,
our
ihewed him
I prefcndy
:
to joinme
came
of which he knew
nothingbeyour Letter,
firflto me,- as you,
fore ; for Varifidiuscame
foon after,the
he faid,had ordered him:
other
feme Manatius returned to me with the
two

Letters; that, which

you

him, and that,to the Senate:

had
we

fent ^o
refolved

to the Praetor Cor*


laftdireftly
carry the

*'

to

"*

nutuss

who, by thecuftomofouranccftors,
N

**

fupplies

A.UH". 7x0.

of the
the place
fupplies

"

^G)ff^

Stoatc

was

Confuls in their abcalled 1


immediately

of your
^^ expe"bition
^^' upo'^ ^ ^^^
After they
fullHoufe.
Letters^made up a
objedbod
was
of religion
read,a fcruple
were

^*

C ViBKrt
A.Hi"Tiv".

^^^

^^^*

**

Fahsa*

rf the Life

History

i82

""

c"

of the GuardiCornutus, from the report

"^

to

""

ans

""

confulted the

of the Chickens

that he had

not

duly

confirmed
*, which was
aufpices
afiair
College: (b that the
likewife by our
day. On that day
to the next
was
adjourned
with
I had a great conteft about your digpity
to
who
procuredby his intereft,
Servilius,
the firil: but the
have his opiniondeclared

""
c"

"'
""
^*

the contrary
Senate left him, and all went
theywere coming into my
but when
way :
delivered the iccond j
opinion,which was
interpofed
the Tribun Tidus, at his requeft,
ib the debate was put off
his negative
; and

^'
**
*"

^'
^'
^'
'^

^^
^^
**
^*
*^
**
*'
^*
"'

^*
*'
*'

"*
*^

Serviliuscame

againto the day following.


though
his oppofidon,
preparedto fupport
in whoft Temple the
himfelf,
Jupiter
a^tinft
I handled him,
: in what manner
thingpailed
I had to throw off Titiand what a ftruggle
rather
I would have you learn
us's negative,
Letters ; take this howfrom other people's
from mine
aft widi
poffibly

ever

that the Senate

more

could

not

firmnels,and
gravity,

than it did on this ocyour honor,


to
friendly
is the Senate more
cafion ; nor
of
than the whole City: for the body

regardto
you,

all ranks and orders of men


united in the defence of the
are
wonderfully
boas you have
Republic^Go on therefore,
the

people,and

gun,

to immorand recommepd
your name
all thefe thinra,which, from
: and for

^^

tality

*'

the vain

"*

ibcw of

iplendor,
carry a
rfiemj lopk upoa
glory,6c(^]/k

badgesof

outward

^'

184
A. Urb. 710,

^c ff*'

""

i^Yor: but in truth, I dcfire nothing at all

*'

^^^

myfelfat prefent
; nay,
make
^^ willingly
you

**

^^ "

Paicsa,

"

of the time and

A.HiRTfuf.

"

think

C.

ofthf Life

HisTOEY

V1BIU8

**
"*

**

"'
*'

**

*'

the

fures from

"

bring, are
extremely firm.

*'

**

the arbiter both

thingitfelf:a

Citizen

can

which is givenby
nothinglateor little,
I pafledthe Rhone
his country.
with my
by great journeys, on the 26th of
army
Aprili lent a thoufand horfe before me by a
fhorter way from Vienna.
As for myfelf,if
Ihall
hindered by Lepidus, none
I am
not
: if he
complain of my want of expedition
oppofesqic on my road, I (hall take my mea-

**

^'

ag^nft

even

am

the troops, which I


for number, kbd, and fidelity,

the occafion

beg the continuance oif


your affeftion,as long as you find yourfelf
affured of mine.
Adieu [A]."
Fo

I o

likewife,who

conima(ided the

now

Spainwith three good Legions,though


he was Antony's particular
friend,yet made the
to Cicero of hit reiblution,
ftrongeft
profeffions
In
all Invaders.
(o defend the Republicagainft
of his Letters,after excufing
himfelf, for
pne
not
havingwritten earlier and oftener,he (ays,
farther

"*
*"

""
*"

^'
^*
"

**

^*

"*

both

and ftudies draw me


to the
nature
my
defire of peace and liberty
reafon
: for which
I always lamented the occafion of the late
war

of

but

as

it was

for
poflible

not

to

me

bs

party, becaufe I had great enemies evcwhere, I ran from that camp, where I

no

ry
could

not

be fafe from

the

of
treachery

an

Cr

being driven whither I Icaft da-"


fired, freely
expofedmyfelfto dangers,that
I might not make
a
contemptible
figurea^
nemy

."* ipong

and

thofe of my

rank.

As

fpr Caefar hinb'


*^

felft

ofM. rULLIUS
fclf,I loved him

CICERO.
with the utmoft

185
pietyand

A. Urb. jiq^

becaufe he treated me
^^S;
the foot of
on
fidelity,
^
known
his oldeftfriends,though
to him oneq^ v/biui
ly in the heigthof his fortunes. When I pInsa.
after my own
to ad
at liberty
was
mind, I A.HiRxiyi.
Ihould moft apaAed fo, that the bed men
plaud
I was commanded
to do, I
: what
me
did lb, as to fliew,that it was done by command,
and not by inclination. The
unjuft

odium, which I fuQered

on

that account,

has

convinced me, how fweet a thing


fufficioidy
is, and how wretched is lifeunder the
liberty

of another. If the conteft then be,


bringus all againunder the power of one s

dominion
to

that

whoever
: npr

my

be, I pro"fsmyfelfhis ene^

one

is there any

decHne,or wi(h

to

danger,which

I would

ty.
avoid,for the fake of liber-

cree
But the Confuls have not, either by deor Letters,givenmc
any orders wliac

1 have had but

Letter from Panla, fiiicethe Ides of j(^^b^ in which he ex^


horts me, to fignify
to the Senate,that I and
my army would be in their^wer : but when
to

do

one

declaring
openlyto his army"
in
and writing
to every body, that he was
the fame ioitiments with Antony, that ftep
would have been whollyabfurd and improper
for me : for how could I get foragie
for my
his will,in marchingthrough
troops agaiafl

Lepiduswa^

his Province ? or if I had furmpunted all o-^


thcr difficulties,
the JlpSf
could I flyover
?
by his garrilbns
poflfeffcd
body will deny, thsktI declared publicly

which
No
to

my

""-*

were

foldiers at Corduha^ that I would

deliver the Province


^*

were

commiflioned by

J? fott yoii vetp

not

unlefs ho
any man,
the Senate" "'"where-

to

199k v|)Qaiw, W"nc,

who,
4**
^

The HisTORV

i86
A.

^Coff

**
"

C.

extremelydefirom of
of all the Citizens ; in
peace, and the fafety
^c fecond, preparedto aflcrt my own
and
more
pleafed,
country'sliberty.I am
my
friend
Gallus
jjjj^ij
imagine,that my
yQy om
is fo dear to you : I envy him for walking,
and jokingwith you : you will afk perhaps,

Urt^7"o-in
"

ViBius

Pansa.
A.H1RTIUS.

"

cc
**

*^

cf the Life

the firft place,am

what

I value that

privily you

fliall

"

at

**

it be in our
it ever
by experience,
ftir
power to live in quiet: for I will never
that
one
ftep from you. I am furprized,
in your Letters,how I
figniiied
you never
Ihouldbeabletodothcmoftfcrvice,byftaying in die Province, or bringingmy army
into Italv. For my part, thoughto flaybe
fate,and lefitroublefome \ yet (ince I
more
fee,that in fuch a time as this,there b more
of Legions,than of Provinces, which
want
be recovered ; I am
refolved,as
may eafily
with my
Hand, to oome
thingsnow
away

*'

*'
**
**
*"
*"

^^
*^

*^
^*
^*

rate

know

**

army
March

**

Th
who
manner

Corduba

the fifteenthrf

[i].*"
r

written

from

"

feveralLetters aifb ftillextant,

are

this time fit"m Cicero

at

to

him
governedj^f^; exhorting
to

and
who

Cornificius,
in the "ime

firnuiefs in the
to

guard

public,
defence of the Revaders,
his Province from all In-

ihould

it fit"m
attempt to extort
him : and this man,
the onely
^fter all, was
Commander, who kepthis word with him, and
i)erfiH'medhis part to his Country; and loft his
lifeat laft in maintaining
that Province in it's
to the Republic[k].
allegiance

P.Ser"

'

fn Ep^fim.x. 31;

"c.

[ij Vid.

1. 48; 307*

Ep. "a.

rt.

24.

App.

1. f. 621. I"i9"

"f M.

rULLIUS

P. Ss"viLius,

CICERO.

187
menti- A. Urb. 71a,;

has often been

who

in the debates of the Senate, was


a perfon
of great rank and nobility
Conful e.
; had been

oncd

J. Oeiar,

with
war
.

near
conquefts

of liauricus.

name

the civil Pansa.

He

affefted the charader

but havinghad a particular


friendPatriot,
Ihipwith Antony, was much courted by that
party '9 who took the advantageof his vanity,

of

to

let him

in the maof publicaffairs: in which he ffe-

up

nagqnent

as

Rival

Cicero

to

quentlyobilrudled Cicero's mcafures,and took


thwart and diiappoint
whatever he
a prideto
propoied: Cicero had long fuffered this with
fervice\
patience, out of regardto the public
in the afiair
tillprovokedby his late oppofition
of Plancus, he could not forbear treating
him
and refentment; of
unufual ieverity
with an

which he

givesw

account

CiC"Ro
**

in

letter

to

/* I imagine,has been lent

to

you,

copy,
you will

^^

his excellent difpofition


towards
perceive

"'

with
Republic,

""

and
auxiliaries,

*'

peoplehave

**
*'

who,

*'

his

""

with

V
'"*

the

the condition OjPhisL^ions,


whole

forces.

informed you,

Your

own

guels,by this
and perpetime,of the levity,
inconftancy,
of your friend Lepidus1
tual difaflfeilion

**

"^

tus,
Bru-

Brutus-

to

Plancus's Letters,of which

From

next

near

to

his

own

the
relations,

brother, hates you,


moft.

We

aoe

anxious

reduced
which is now
expeftation
to the laft crifis: all our
hopes arc fix'don
of D. Brutus ; for whom
we
the delivery
For my
bayc been in great apprchenfion*
an

Vjbius

of that Scrvilius,
who
by his A- Hikxiui.
mount
Taurus^ obtained the fur-

the Son

of
b^inning

in the

^q^'

!' pvt.

i8S
A. Urb.

710.

^cP
*

Life
hands

pait^ I have bulincfs

**

home, wirfi the Madman,

**

' ^^^

*'

nity:

""

lie ; left I ihould give the difaffe6ted a

**

der,

"*

noble

*^

(tilldo.

**

wholly from

*'

an

*^

b^an

A.

A. HxRTius.

the

""

C: V1BIU8
Pans

History

**
^*
^*
*'

no

to

end

refort
But I

Lea-

himfelf, yet

tfey
him
alienating

I have

now

pot

forbearance of him 5 for he


my
that he looked upon
be fo infolent,
free. But in Plancus's debate he
as

to

man

mortified ; and after two days


ftrangely
conteil,was fo roughlyhandled by me, diat
he will be the modeller, I dare lay,for the

was

me

'^

Lentulus

in

^'

dig-

to

to

*'

Republic:

the

vered

**

for

not

was

**

"

my

ncvcrthdefs

which

to ;

the nineteenth of

became

afFefted indeed

well

not

^^

"*

at

but I did it for the feke of the Rmub-

foture.

"

my

SeiriHus; whoih

longerthan

endured

**

^*

enough on

In die midft of

our

had Letters deli-

Jpril^I

in the

contention,on

Senate, from

our

friend

^tf ; with an account of Caffius,


the Legions,and Syria; which when
I read
in public,
Servilius funk, and many
prefently
more

befides

rank,

for there

think

fpmc of eminent

arc

wickedly:butServillus was
moft fenfibly
chagrined,for the
Senate's agreeingto my motion aboiit Plaiiwho

cus.

The

The

news,

have

moft

part which
which

he

a"ts is mohftrous

is mentioned

in diis Let-

by Lentulus,of Caffius^s
foon after confirmed by particular
fucceis,
was
Letters to Cicero,fit)m Brutus and Caffius themfclvcs; fignifying,that Caffius had poflefled
himfelf of Syria before Dolabella arrived
there : that the Generals L. Murcus
and Q^
Crilpushad given up their armies to him :
1* that

ter

to

been

fent

"

"*
""

"*

[/] Ad

Brat.

a.

a.

ofM.

TULLIUS

CICERO.

1*9

Legion under CseciliuBBaffus A. Urb. 710*


ieparace
the will of thcif
had fubmicted to him agaihft
^'^'
^
Loader : that four othirLegions,fent by c.
VmuB
pInsa,
from
of
the
affiftance
to
Egypt
Cleqiatra
Dolabclla,under his Lieutenant AUienus, had A.Hietius*

*^

that

**
**

"^

**

all declared for him :'* and leftthe firftLet-

*^

theyoften did,fron" fuch


diftance,by paffingthro' the enemy's quar-

ter
a

ffaouldmilcarry,
as

tsrs, Caffius fent him

and diftinft account


Caffius Proconful

**
**
**
**

*^
""
*^
^"
^^
*^

fecond,with

full

a. more

of all particulars.
to

his Friend M.

Cicero*

to n)e,
you are in health,itis a pleafure
aUb very well. I have read your Let*
I am
ter, in which I perceived
your wondferful af^
feAion for me : for you not onelywiih mc
well, which indeed you have alwaysdone,-

^^

**

fake aad the Republic's,


bodi for my own
but entertain an uncommpn
concern, and fot
Udtttde for me.
Wherefore, as I ime^inedi
^

in die firftplace,that you would


think it
for me
and fee the Re^
to fit ftill,

impoi"ble

in
; and
publicopprelied
whenever you fuppofedme

the lecond-,that
to be in aiiSion^

be foUicitous about my fa"ty


and
fo, as foon as I was matter t"i the

"^

you would

^^

fuocefs*f

**

L^ons which Allienus broughtfrom ^%Xp/;


I immediately
wrote
to you, ftndfent fevoulI wrote
Letcets alio to
to Rcme:
expceflfes
die SenMe, but forbad die delivery
of diem^
tilldieyhad been fid):fliewn to yoii. If d"C6

""
*^

""
"^
*^

Letters have

*^

doubt but that Dolabdla, who, by the wic'^

^^

ked murthor

^'

and intercepted
has SdsBcd my meflaigers,
iii
I have all the armies whk:h were
dnQOU

^*

not

readied

you,

I make

no

of Trebonius, is nnafterof JJHa;

under my cornmaodiiand havingbeen


^ Sjri4'
''

forded

"

igo
A-Ur!x

710.

"

forad

^Coff^* 8^
**

**

C. ViBiut
Pansa.

**

A. HiRTius.

"*

**
**

^^
**
**

Historyto

the

Life

fitftilla while, tillI had difchar-

promifcsto them, am now readyto


take the field. I beg of you to take my hoiw
and intereftsunder your fpecial
nor
care:
^^

yQu know that I have never refufed any danger or labor for the fervice of my country :
I took
by your advice and authority
arms
againftthele infamous Robbers : that
I have not onclyraiied armies for the defence
of the Republicand our
but have
liberty,

that

the hands of the.moft

^^

(hatched them

"*

cruel Tyrants: which

if Dolabella had feized

**

before me,

have

"*

**
^^
"*

^^

'

from

given frelh Ipirit


to
Antony's cauie; not onelyby the approach,but by the very fame and expefiation of his troops : for which reafons,take
I befeech you, under your promy foldiers,
tedion, if you think them to have deferved
he would

**

well of the ftate: and let none

**

reafon

^^

the caufe of

^^

plunderand

^^

it is in your power, that due honor be


:
paidto the EmperorsMurcus and Crifpus
for Bafliiswas miferably
to deliver
unwilling

^^
^^

^'
*^
""
"'
"

**
"
"
"
"
"
^'

to

of them

have

repent, that

they have preferred


the Republic,to the hopesof
rapine. Take care alfo,as "r

as

up his Legion; and


fent a deputation
to
would

have held

if^
his

me

foldiecshad. not
of him,
in fpight

Apamea againft
me, till
it could be taken bv force. I beg thisof you,
which
not onelyfor the fake of the Republic,
of all things
the deareft to you, but
was
ever
of our friendfhip
alfo,which I am confident
has a great weightwith you. Take my word
for it,the army which I have is the Senate*s,
out

and every honeft man's, and above all,


yOurs :
for by hearing
of your gpod dif^
perpettially

pofition,
they have conceived

wonderful

a
''

afieOioii

^e

191
Jt.Urb. 710.

\li%T

viBiifs

Pansa.

A.HiitTius.

of tie Lift

of the Emprey
and
[/?]-,
liberty

fnand in any part

^r fl^' ^rf^^^^f ^^^^


C

ovi^

to

the

common

for his

pains,

malice of the faftious to


^'^ ^^^ ^^S^ "^
Thefe were
with at home.
particularftruggfe

^^^

ly troublefomc to him at this time, by fprcad-r


ing falfe reports every day from Modena^ of
what Was more
to be appreor
Jntonfsfuccefsy
hended,
with
the
bis
union
Confulsagainfi
of
D. Brutus

raifed fuch

which

thro* the

terror

to run
met
were
freparihg
City, that atl honeft
{(]. Cicero however
away to Brutus or Caffius
difheartened at it, but in the general
not
was
Confternation appearedchearful and eafy-, and,
to Brutus,hdd a perfe^
dence
confias he fends word
while the majority
in the Cbnfulsj
of bis
them\ and from the number
friendsdiftrufied

and firmnefs of their troOps, had but littledoubt


of their viftory,if ever
they came to a battel

Antony [rj. But what touched him more


was
a
fenfibly,
ftory,kept'up for fomc days
with great induftry,
that be bad formed
a
defigti
to make
mafietof the City^ and declare
himfelf
witB
Diilntor ; arid would appear publicly
bifhfdf
The report, as
within a daj or two.
the Fafces
groundlefias it was, feems to have difturbed
with

him;
qaidem non

me
ferebantUTy
[^]M"ets]rttens,mei5nuii-

cohortationibtiSyisaxime oontorbabant. Hit


cnim ezercicibust
ad
ducibufque
omnesy
qui ubiqueeiTent,
patriae
pndidiuzn czcitato*. quos habemus, nuUo modo
ciu, meis

Phil. 14. 7.

[7] Triduo

diffidere. Neoue
aflchti"bafmajoripartiHo*
poteranv

aut

vcro

tridao-" timore

quodam

cul(a civitas tota ad

te

fe

quapercum

Tulum

cbnjugibus8c liberisefioinde- quae


bat.

Ad

Brutum.

3. vid. it.

Fidem

xninom.

erat.

non

enim

Con*

condemnabain,

fufpeClavehementer
Deuderabam

nonDulIis

12. 8.
in rebus prudentiam" cck-,
Ep.
[r] Triftts enim dc Brulo' ritatcm. Ad Brut. 2. i.
nottro litterae,
nunciiqueaf-

fam.

ofM. rULLlUS
him

his

warm

it^

and

Appuleius,the Tribun, one of A. Urb.710.


friends,was takingpains to confute
^^ ^*
in
him
the
a fpeechto
juftify
people,c. ViBurt
cried

ibat Cicero

pIksa,

to do any thing but


deftgned
to the Re*
beftand mojlbeneficial

A. HiRTivt.

with

out

voice,

one

done, nor

never

what

193

but when

they all
baa

C1C"R0.

tbe

was

public[j]; this gave him fome comfort ", but


what brought him much
tain
greater was, the cernews
gainedover Antonyat Moof a viSlory
arrival within

which

dena,

Appuleius's
fpeech[/].
The
fiegeof Modena^
months,

was

which

of the mod

one

lew

hours after

lafted near

memorable

four
in all

for the vigor both of the attack and


antiquity,
the defence. Antony had invefted it fo clofcly^
and poftedhimfelf fo advantageoufly,
that no
fuccours could be thrown into it : and Brutus,
defended
though reduced to the utmoft ftraits,
it ftill with the greateft
refolution. The old
writers have recorded fome ftratagems,
which
are

faid to have been put in

cafion

*'

how

this ocon
pradlice

Hirtius

provided men

Letten

written

{killedin

**

diving,with

**

into the Town

**

through it ; tillAntony obftrufted that paf(age,by nets and traps placedunder water :

^*

**
**
**

which

gave

under

occalion

Lead, topa6
the river,which runs

to

on

another contrivance,

backwards and
fendingtheir intelligence
forwards by Pigeons["]/*
Vol.
III.
O
PANSiv
of

ItaqueP. Appuleias-^ [/] Poft hanc concionem


I/]
duabas tribafve horis optatiT-

oris mei concionem


dolor

mazimam"
*^ibenuv

habuit

fimi nuntii
me
^oa, cum
ibid
runt"
fafcium
(afpicione
in

"

litteneiv^e-

"

cnnfbi convoce
["]Frontio.de Stratagem*
1. 3. 13. Plin. Hift. N. L X,
nihil efie a me
cio declaravit,
nnqnam de Repub. nifiopt!* 37. Dio. p* }I5*

ireUet; una

me

cogiuton. Phi. 14. 6.

194
A. Urb. 710.
Cic.

6^.

C. V1BIU8

of the Life

History
now

was

s A

the

upon

Hirtius, with four Legions of


^^

within

few

miles

vanced

A.HiRTius.

drew
Antony privately

an

out

on

the road

him, if polfible,

draw

to

ad-

was

of Hirtius*s camp,
fome of his bcft

will.

his
agaitift

eng^ement

he

him
furprizc

to
troops, with defign
before that union, and

to

levies,which

new

but when

brought from Romey

Pansa,

pointof joining

We

have

of the action,in a Letter to


Cicero from Scr. Galba, one of the Confpirators

account
particular

Casfar,
againft

who

bore

in it.

command

Galba
**

principal
part and

Cicero.

to

the fifteenth of

On

Jpril^ the day

on

arrive in Hirtius's camp,


for I went
I was,
a hun-

*"

which

**

(inwhofe

**

dred miles

^'

his march) Antony drew out two of his Legions,the fecond and thirty-fifth
; and two

*"
**

**

**
Ci

Panla

was

to

company

Pratorian

to meet

cohorts

him,

on

haften

purpoieto

his own,
the other Silanus's,with part of the Evocati [x];
forward towards us, imagining,
and came
;

the

one

had

nothingbut four Legionsof new


Levies.
But in the night, to fecure our
march
to the Camp, Hirtius had'ientus the
Martial Legion, which I ufed to command,

that

we

and

two

Pralarian cohorts.

As

foon

as

tony's
An-

Horfe

(C

appearedin fight,neither the


Martial Legion, nor
the Pratorian cohorts,
could be reftrainedfrom attacking
them -, fo
"

-that

a
{x] The Ev9cati were
choice body of Veteran Sof-

invited to itagain*as a
fort of volanteers, by the

diers,who,

Conful

million from

after their dif-

were

or

Genenl, and di*

from
fervice,being fiinguifhed

yet vigorous and fitfor war,

the reft by

peculiar
privikgei.

f"fM.
'K"

rVLLIUS

that when

CICERO.

could

we

hold

not

them

195
in, we

A. Urb.

wilk.
our
obligedto follow them againft
^Coff^
Antony kept his forces within Cafiel^Franc. Vibitj"
and
have
it
CO [^] \
Pansa,
being unwillingto
A.Hirti^uu
known, that he* had his Legions with him,
(hewed onelyhis horfe and light-armed
foot.
When
Panla faw the Martial Legionrunning
forward againfthis orders, he commanded
of the new
raifed Legionsto follow him.
two
As foon as we
got throughthe ftraitsof the
were

CC

"*

"*

^*
"*
**
"*
**

"'
**
*'

**

*"

**

^^
**

**

**

"^

Morafs

and

the woods, we
drew
up the
twelve cohorts in order of battel. The other

Legionswere not yet come


up. Antony
brought all his troops out of the
immediately
village,
ranged likewife in order of battel,
At firftthey
and widiout delayengaged us.
both fides,that nothing
on
foughtfo brifkly
be fiercer : tho* the right
could poflibly
wing,
in which I was,
with eight Cohorts of the
Martial Legion^ put Antony's thirty-fifth
at the firftonfet, and
Legion to flight
purtwo

paces from
the aftion began : wherefore
five hundred

**

fued it above

**

obplacewhere
fervingthe enemy'shorfe attemptingto furround our wing, I began to retreat, and ordered the light-armedtroops to make head
the Moorifli Horfe, and prevent their
againft
while
coming upon us behind. In the mean
I perceived
myfelfin the midft of Antony's
and Antony himfelf but a littleway
men,

"'

"*
**
**

**
"*
**

behind

me:

*'

thrown

over

*'

horfe with all fpeedtowards

upon
my

[jI Ad

Forum

called

Gallonim

CaftilFranc$^a

imall village
on

the

which, with my (hield


(houlder, I pulhedon my

**

BOW

710.

tkc^miliM

the

new

Legion
'"that

and BiM^ma
logna.Cluver. XtaL Ant. L i"

way
c.

between

28.

A. Urb. 710.
Cic.

64.

of the Life

ftbe UisTonY

196

Camp :
were
j^nd ^hilft Antony's
men
purfuingme,
at me,
^"^ ^^^
^y "^ift^^throwingjavelins
1 know
how, by being
not
I was prefcrved,
foldiers. CaBfar*s
known
to
our
prefently
fuftained the fighta long
Pratorian Cohort

that

**

"i
*'

C. ViBiui

p1h"a,

"

A.H1KTIU8.

""
"

coming towards

was

the ^""7w"

"

time

"

which

*'

horts of the Martial

"
"
"

on

was

the

from

us

but

road:

the

leftwing,

our

of two
weaker, confifting

Co-

Legion, and the Praiarian of Hirtius, began to giveground, bcing furrounded by Antony's Horfe, in which
all our ranks had
he is very ftrong. When
I retreated

their retreat,

myfelf

**

made

*'

the laft to

^^

but
queror, fancied that he could take it;
in the atof his men
upon trial loft many
tempt, without being able to do us any hurt.

**
**
**
*'

good

Camp.

our

Hirtius in the

mean

marched

gagement,

Antony,

hearingof

time
out

routed
intirely

*'
"'

to

in the very fame placewhere they had


About
ten at
foughtbefore at CafieUFranco.

army,

nightAntony regainedhis camp

*"

with all his Horfe.

^^
**
**
*'

**

veteran

on

*'

*^

en-

Jus return,
fli^t his whole

Cohorts, and meetingAntony

**

put

the

with twenty

"

and

the Con-

as

at

Modena^

Hirtius retired

to

that

quittedin the moming,and where he leftdie two Legions,which


Antony attacked. Thus Antony has loft the

camp

which

Panfa had

greater part of his veteran


troops, yet not
without Ibme lofs of our Pratorum
Cohorts,
and the Martial Legion : we
of
took two

^'

Antony's eagles,and

*'

have

gaineda

Besides

fixtyftandards; and

confiderable

this Letter from

Letters alfo federally


from

advantage[2].**
Galbay there

the two

came

and
Conjuls

OSaviush
[zj Ep. fiun.z.

30.

iffM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

05taHntts\confirmingthe other
addition of fome

the

farther

197
with A.Urb.

account,

710.

that
^^ ^j'
particulars:
head of his troops^ Vir-'
c.

bravelyat the
Panfa fighting
bad received two dar^gerous
wounds
and was
Pansa,
carTied off the fieldto Bologna: that Hirtius had A.Hirtius.
fcarcelofta fingleman : and that to animate his
the better he took up the Eagle of the
foldiers
fourthLegion^ and cafried it forward himfelf:
that Cafar was
to the guard of their Camp :
left
where be was
attacked likewife
by another bodyof
the enemyy whom
be repulfed
with great lofs
[a].
him afterwards with running
Antony reproached
from this engagement in fuch a fright that
away
be did not appear again till two daysafter and

without

bis

General*

Horfe or

juftmentioned
Letters, that

declared

Hirtius

him

have

to

Cicero

count
ac-

from

Senate, in which

the

to

but the

givenby

was

read

were

habit

aded

with

the

greatdlcourage [*].
The

reached

news

where

April

Rome

it raifed

the greater, we may


which they had
whole

The

incredible joy ;

an

the twentieth

on

imagine,for

the

of

and

late

rors
ter-

fuffered from

body

ports.
contrary reof the peopleafTembled

about Cicero's houfe, and carried him


prefently
in a kind of triumphto the Capitol^
whence, on
O

[/}]Cam
Panfa

"

in primis
^ipfe

pugnarety

daobus

pe-

their

3
Csefar

^kdolcfcensmaximi

"

animi,

ut

veriflime

fcribic

rtcalons vulneribus

acceptis, Hirtius,cadra multarum Lefablatttse praelio"Phil. 14.


gionum pauciscohortibusttitatus
eft, fecundumque prs'
9.

aquilamqaar* Hum
Hirtiasipfe,
t"

Legionia

qua nullius

cum

inferret, 1.

pulchrioremfpc-

3.

fecit. Ibid. vid. App.


$71.

Antoni{f[ Priore praelio


fine
fcribit,
eum
ac
fugiile

Imperatoris
accepimu8" us
tribos Antonii Legioni- piludamentoeqaoque
cam
poft
demum
conflixic. biduam
bos, eqttitatuqae
apparuifle.

ciem

Jb.

lo.

Suet.

Aug. z.

Tie History

198
A. Urb.

710. their return,

Cofl? S^^^^hem

theyplacedhim

conducted

him

Pans

fo that in

A. H1RTIV8.

of the

account

an

C. ViBivs
A,

of the Life

Letter upon

it to Brutus, he

fays,

day the fullfruitof all bis


glory
fruitin true and folid

any

the
day following

The

that

ibat be
J

Roftra^to
vidtory\ and then

with infiniteacclamations

home

reapedon
toils if there be

in the

Senate

fummon-

was

by Cornutus, the Prsetor, to deliberate on


and OUavius
th^ Letters of the Confuls
; Servithat the City fhould now
lius's opinionwas,
quitthe Sagumy and take the common
gown
and
that
a
again;
public Thankfgiving

ed

*'

"

^^
"

(hould be decreed

*'

Confuls

^*

and

*'

Sagum

to the
jointly

Odtavius.

and

Cicero

fpokenext,
ftronglyagainftquittingthe

declared

firft delivered

till D.

Brutus

ficge:

that it would

was

the

of the

honor

be ridiculous

**

from

"

put it off tillthey(hould fee him in fafethat


ty, for whofe fake theyha4 put it on

*'

to

""

*'
"'

the motion
to

for

D. Brutus

**

that it would

**

Jiveredto

*'

had

**
"

it,flowed fix)m envy


quitting
of the glory
i to deprivehim
be

his name,
that the
pofterjty
to

put on the
refumed the gown
he advifqd them
Citizen

therefore

tinqe in their former

mind

**

*"

whole
on

dangerand

D. Brutus
that he

hope

ftrefsof the

and

"

tho* there

realbn

was

"

[r] Cum
ovantem

heflerno die
ac

prope
phantempopulusRomanus
sn

domo
Capitolium

domum

?JiiJ.14. 5.

rum

""

would

(hortly

laborum"-^"

meorum

frudlum

tulerit? modo

inde rcdm^it*"

to

Quo quldem die magno-

me

trium-

con-

the
thinking
to depend
war

fafe,or
already

was

to

of
,

*'

it de-

peopleof Rome
Sagum for the danger,and
for the prefervation
of one

-^

**

have

to

cepi maximum;

eft

fru"us
aliquis

folida veiaqoe

5nit. 3,

fi
ez

|kc*A4
gloriaj

7^

200

A. Urb. 710.
Cic. 64.

of the Life

History

""

lamentable

cc

call thofg

*'

^^ f"^

dreadful things?

Pansa,

**

fed

enlarge the number

A,HuTiu8.

cc

Thankfgiving,fmce

*"

to

**

whom

C. ViBius

**

**
**
^^
"*

^*
^'
**
**
**
"
*'
**
**

"'
**

"

**

"*
*'
**

^'
**
^*
*'

**

to

flight
5 and
nien

but

one,

to
theyfcruplc
whom
theyfear-

could

enemies^from

to

he then

"

it was

of
not

propodays of the
be decreed

to

jointly;to
would
givethe

three Generals

in the firft placehe

fince there had not been


Emperors
decreed without it for twenty
a fupplication
years paft: fo that Servilius fliould not either
have decreed it at all,or allowed the ufual
and unhonor to thofe, to whom
even
new
due [/]. That, if accordufual honors were
cuftom, die Title of Eming to the prefent
a tboucommonly given for killing
peror was
Gauls^or Thracians \
fandor two ofSpaniardsy
when fo many
how could theyrefufe it now,
Legions were routed, and fuch a multitude
for with what honors, fayshe, and
flain ?
fhould our
deliverers them*
congratulations
felves be received into this Temple, when
of what they have
yefterday,on the account
done, the peopleoi Rome carried me into the
Capitolin a kind of Triumph ? for that,aPter alJ,is a juftand real Triumph, when
by
the general
voice of the City,a public
Teftiis given to thofe who
have deferved
mony
titleof

"

"

well of the Commonwealth.

For

if in the

joy of the whole City,theycongratulatcdme fingly,


it is a great declaration of
their judgement: if they thanked me,
flill
be imagined
greater: if both^ nothing can
more
gk"rious that he was forced to fay
fo much
of himfelf againft
his will, by tho
which he had lately
itrange
envy and injuries
common

"

*'

"*

**

{/}

Ibii 4.

f\iflfere4

Sf
"*
**

**
.

^^
**

**
**

*'
**
**

**
**

**
**
*'

**

**

*'
*'

"*

**
**
*"

fULLIUS

M.

CICERO.

201

that the infolcnce of the Factious,A. Urb. 7i"j^


they all knew, had raifed a report and I'uf-

fuflfered

"

as

^^*^'

picionupon him,

of his

aiming at a Tyran- q^ ViBiaa


tho* his whole lifehad been fpentin -de- Pansa,
nyi
fending the Republicfrom it : as if he, who A.riiRxiirs,
had deftroycdCatiline,for that very crime,
of a fuddeu become
a Catiline hinifelf [g],
was
found

if the report had


City, their defignwas,
That

upon

his

perfon,as

by

upon

fudden

alEiult

Tyrant to have
that the thing itfclf
a

taken away his life


manifcft, and the whole
was
""

credit in the

affair fhould

be

laid open in proper time


that he had
faid all this, not to purge himfelf to them,
he Ihould be forryto want
an
to whom
apo~"

logy, but

admonifh

to

certain

perfons,of

minds, to look upon the


of
virtue of excellent Citizens,as the objcft
their imitation,not of their envy:
fince the
Republicwas a wide field,where the courfe
of glory was
[b]: that if any
open to many

jejuneand

man

narrow

contefted with him


he afled

government,

the firft placein the

if he
foolifhly,

oppofingvice

do it by

virtue

meant

that

**

to

**

fo
gainedby runningthe faflcft,
virtue was
onely to be conqueredby a fupethat they could never
rior virtue
get the
better of him by bad votes ; by good ones
perhapstheymight ; and he himfelf fhould
be glad of it
that the peopleof Rome
of their
how men
were
inquiring,
perpetually
rank voted and afted,and formed their judgeof them accordingly
that they all
ment

**

**
**
*'
*^
**
**
**

the

race

to

as

was

"

"

"

how

"

in December

lafl, he

**

remembered,

the author of the firftfteptowards

was

recover"

mg

'1"^45-

^'^^ ^'

^e

202
A. Urb.

^C ff^
C.

ViBiijs

Pans

"

710.

"

**
**

A.

A.HiRTius.

c"
"

*'
**

of fhe Life

History

from the firftofya: how


ing their liberty
watchingover
nuary he had been continually
of the Coramonwcalth
his
the fafety
: how
houfe and his ears were
open day and night
informations of all who

and

the advices

fQ

his

opinionalwayswas
an
againft
EmbafTy to Antony ; how he had
alwaysvoted him an enemy, and their prefent
to

came

him

how

but

oft

he

mentioned

"

ftate,a

^*

the Confuls had alwaysdropt


enemy or a war,
of thofe that
his motion, from the number

'*
**
**
**
**
*'
*'
''

war

as

as

propofed[i]: which could not however


be done in the prefent
cafe,becaufe he, who
had alreadyvoted a Thankfgiving,had unwarily voted Antony an enemy : fince a
been decreed but
Thankfgiving had never
afked or granted
enemies ; and never
againft
that
in what
was
properlya civil war
they (hould either have denied it, or muft of
were

"

*'
*'
**

defeat it vras

granted.
"

after florifli-

Then

merit
particular

the

of the three Ge-

**

nerals,Panfa, Hirtius,Oftavius

"

**

of
of

for whofe

be enemies

to

ing on

**

courfe decree thofe

*"

**

an

and Ihcw-

they had each deferved the


of Emperor, he decrees a Thankfgiving
name
of fifty
of the three jointly
daysin the name
[i]."In the laft place,he procedestofpeak
the rewards due to the foldiers,
and efpecially
the honors to be paid to thofe who had loft
ing

how

well

their lives in the defence of their country.


"
For thefe,he propofes
monument
a fplendid

"

"

"

*'

"

out

to

be erefted in

common

publiccharge,with
inferibed*'
into

"

kind

and in

to

their

them

names

all, at the
and

fervicea

recommending it,breaks

offuneralElogiumupon

them
"

[0 Ibid. 7.

[i] Ibid. 8" 9"

io" ii"

"

Ok

TULLIUS

ofM.
Oh
to

203

happy death, (ayshe, which when


paid to your country !
nature, was
but look

cannot

whofe

country,
Mars
to

CICERO.

as

this

upon
name

if the fame

City, for

the

as

you
is

even

due A. Urb.

^^q^'

for I

born for your


derived from

c. Vibivs
Paws

given birth alfo to you, for the good of this


is fcandalous ; in viCity. Death in flight
whilft thofe im*
ftoryglorious
; wherefore
piouswretches, whom
you flew, will fufFer
of their parricide
in the infernal
the puniihment
breathed your laft in
regions
; you, who
viAory, have obtained the placeand feat of
is
the pious.The life given to us by nature
of a lifewell fpent,
fliort; but the memory
not
: if it were
longer than this
cverlailing
life,who would be fo mad, at the expence
of the greateft
painsand dangers,to contend
for the prizeot glory? your lot therefore is
happy, O you, while you lived,the braveft,
now

the holieft of fbldiers; for the fame

of

either by the
be lofl:,
of thofe who are now
alive,or
fbrgetfulnefs
your virtue

can

never

the filenceof thofe who


fince the Senate and
raifed

to

hands

an

been many

fliallcome

great and

that we
done

have

Rome

their own

with

There

famous

have

armies in the

nor
yet no fuch hoI wi(h
done to any of them.
ever
could flilldo greater, (ince you have

Punicy GdUiCy Italicwars


was

hereafier ;

People of

you, as it were,
immortal monument.

the

fcrviccs
greateil

to

a.

A* Hiaxiua.
gave birth
of nations, had

God, who

good

710,

us

you drove

Antony, m^id with rage, from the City: you


him, when he attemptedto return :
repulfed
ficent
a Fabric therefore (hall be ereftcd of magniwork ; and letters engravedupon it,
the eternal wioicflcsof your divine virtue
"*

nor

^^

204
A. Urb.

710.

^c ff*'

""
**

nument,

ever

fee

inftead of this frail and

*'

life,you

have

"*

[ / ].""

He

A.

A. HiATius.

hear of your moof you : fo that


ceafe talking

will thofe who

nor

*'

C. ViBitfs
Pans

of the Life

History

*"
"'
*'
"'
*'
^'

"

condition of

mortal

now

acquiredan immcMrtality

then

renews

their former affu-

Legions,of

the old

to

ranees

or

punctualpayment
promifedto them,

full and

the

of all, which
as foon as the

had
war

been

fhould

and for thofe, in the mean


time,
who hfd loft their lives for their country, he
that the fame rewards which would
pr(K"ofts,
be

over

"'

ha^

*'

(hould be

been

given to them if they had liv*d,


to their parents,
giv6n immediately

"'

all which
children,wives, or brothers."
he includes,as ufual, in the form of a decree^
"

which

ratified by the Senate.

was

being cruellymortified by this


defeat,kept himfelf clofe within his Camp, and
refolved to hazard
nothing farther,but to a"
the
onelyon the defenfive ; except by haraffing
Antony,

with his Horfe, in whieh


perior. He ftillhoped to make
enemy

he

was

far fu-

himfelf mafter

of

Modena^ which wa9 reduced to extremity;


and by the flrength
of his works, to prevent
their throwing any relief into it. Hiruus and
0"tavius, on the other hand, elate with viftory,
were

determined

and after

at

all hazards

to

relieve it

three

days fpentin findingthe


moft likely
placeof breakingthro* the intrenththeymade their attack with fuch vigor,
ments,
that Antony, rather than fufier the town
to be
fnatched
out

The

two

or

laft out

of his hands, chofe to draw


his Legions,and come
battel.
to a general
at

fightwas
men,

tony's
bloodyand obftinate ; and Antho* obliged
to giveground,brave*

"/] lUd.

12.

CICERO.

TULLIUS

ofM.

ly difputedevery inch of it :
king the opportunityat the

20$

till D. Brutus, ta- A. Urb.

710.

fally ^^^^'
of his garrifon,
of the Town,
at
out
c. Vibiu"
determine
and
the
to
helpedgreatly
complete viffo* Pansa.
A.Hiatius.
Hirtius pufhed his advantage with
great
Z.irit,and forced his way into Anton/s Camp 5
but when
he had g^ned the middle
of it, was
killed near
the Generates Tent : Pon^
unfortunately
tius AquUa^ one
killed
of the Confpiratorswas
the
but
fame place:
likewifein
Oftavius, who
followed to fupportthem, made
good their at"
of
the Camp, mtb
tempt, and kept poflelSon
and deftruSlion
the intire defeat
of Anton/s hejt
with all bis Horfe^
troops: while Antony bimfelfy
towards
the Alps.
flea with great precipitation
Some*
writers give a different relation of m%
lame

time

to

the head

adion,

but from

the fafts and

circumflances of

it, delivered by Cicero, this appears

The ConfulPanfa died


genuin account.
of bis wounds at Bologna [m].
following

[m]

alia kndo"

Cam

8c

Ibi Hirtium

be the

to

the

day

quoque peri*

quod iile" Pontiom Aquuam, "c.


folum ipii Ep. fam. x. 33. vid. it. Ep"

accidifle,turn

fiudeo
rati eniptio

non

ialotarisfuityfed etiam maximo

ad vidoriam

Ad

Bnit. 4.

adjumento.

"101. zi. 13. "

Appian.1. 3.

p. 372,

SECT.

A.Urb.
cic.

of fi^ ^ifi^

The History

2o6
7iO*

64.

XL

SECT.
intire defeat of

Antony's army made


allpeopleprefendyimagine,that the war
of Rome
eftablilh*
was
at an end, and the liberty
ed : which would
probablyhave been the cale^
if Antony had either perifhed
in the aAion, or

THE

furvived it : but

the Confuls

the midft of their joy for

in
at firft,
fenfibly
the viftory,
gave the

all Cicero's fchemes

to

of the

felt fo

Confuls, though not


fatal blow

the death

and

was

the

immediate caufe of the ruin of the


Hinius

was

Republic[ja]^
timatel
politenefs
; in-

of lettersand

man

intrufted with Caelar's counfils,


and

ployed to

write his zSts : but

he

em*

the per
proof Csfar, and flxongly
infeded with
creature
^11bent on fupporung
party, fo his views were
the power that had raifed him, and ferving
his

Patron, not

the

public. In

of the civil war,

when

as

the

he

was

fore
beginningthere-

was

Tribun

of the

law, to exclude all^fvbo


a
people,he publifhcd
in arms
were
or
witbPomfey^from
any employment
in tbeftate
Office
[i]: which made him particularly
obnoxious to the Pompeians^who confidercd him as their moft inveterate
Panfa,
enemy.
whofe Father had been profcribed
by Sylla[f],
attached with equalzeal to Casfar,as to the
was
head

la] Hirtiam
Panfim

"

quidem 8c
Reip.

In confulatu

alieno fane tempore


falatares,
amifimus.

"p. "im.

ezponam.

Primum

omnium,

perturbationemrequantam
aficrat obitiu
urbanarum
ram

Confulum, Sec. ib. z.


2$.
Panraamiflb,quantum de[H]NeminemPompeianum
trimenti Ref^ub.
vivat tenere
aui
acceperit,
lege Hirta
non

12.

prxterlt.Ep. fam xi.

PhiL 13.16.
dignitates.
Qu.intofitinpericuloRe[^] Dio. I.45.278.
te

9.

fpub.quam potero brevii"me

A. Urb.

Cie.

of the Life

77)e History

2o8
710.

6f.

they had been before,theywere certainly


cero,
good Confuls ; and out of their affeftion to Ciand regard to his authority,
governed
thenifelves generally
in all great affairs,
by his
that the defign
maxims.
They were perfuaded,
public
of revenging
CaefaPs death would throw the Reagaininto convullions ; and flowed from
other motive, than the ambition of poflefno
fingCaefar's place; and refolved therefore to
lic
quellby open force all attempts againitthe pubFrom
their longadherence to Csfar,
peace.
in favor of
they retained indeed fome prejudices
that party j and were
loth to procedeto extremities,
meafures were
found ineflfetillpacific
ever

"tual.
but

This gave Cicero fbme


diftruft them

to

never

phlegm and

ofvigor

want

caufe

common

;
^

reafon

blame,

complainof

to
as

to

detrimental

their

to

the

yet while

they were generally


alwaysthoughtthem

fufpefted
by others, he
fincere,
thoughtheydid not
his wifhes.
of them

'

The

for

in allcafes a"t up to
confirmed his judgement

event

they both

onelyexpofed,but
loft their lives with the greateft
courage in the
defence of the Republic; andjhewed themfelves
which Cicero bad confiantly
to he the very men^
them to be ; and though he imputes
fome
affirmed
littleblame to Hirtius,yet of Panfa, he declares,
that he wanted neither
nor
courage from the firft^
to the laft
fidelity
[g].
:

not

If
r"] Qualcstibifaepe
fcrip-Mutinam
i\ Confules,
talesextiterunt.

ut

[ad Brut. 3.]

nonnulla

Sitisvchemens

in Senatu
" acer Panfa ;

in

hujus gene-

cum

ris, turn

cacteros

maxime

cui Confuli

rum:
mus

erat

ab

cxtremum

initio,non

in

gerebatur;nihil

in Caefare

reprehenderes,

in Hirtio"

ib. lO.

N. B, Several Medals were


ftruck by the Senate on the

Soce-

occafion of this vidory; par-

ani-

in honor
of
ticularlyone
the head of
Panfa, exhibiting

non

fides ad

defuit. Bellum

ad

the

GoddefsLihrt^^crown-

ed

rULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

209

they had lived to reap the fruits of their


viftory,their power and authoritywould have
I

been

fufficient to

bounds

of his

reftrain OAavius

duty ;

Republic,tillBrums
to

within

and

fudain

and

Caffius could

their affiftance; and

the

Plancus and

A.

die

tottering
D.

arrive
Brutus

unite themfelves in the fame caufe, and give ic


firm eftablifliment in their Confulfliip
of the
a
next

year

all whofe

arniies,togetherwith ibe
far

African Legions^were

to
fuperior

any

force

that could have been

broughtagainftthem. But
the death of the two Confuls placedOdlavius at
above controul, by leaving
him the mafter
once
of both their armies \ efpecially
of all the veterans
;

could

who

difafFefted to

were

be induced

not

to

D.

follow him

Brutus, and
-,

and

it fell

to allOftavius's views,
luckyand appofite
that they
as
to givebirth to a general
perfuafion,
bad receivedfoul'playand were
led
both of them kilby his contrivance : for he was obferved to be
ihe firftman
who took up Hirtiu/s bodyin the
Camp -, where fome imaginedhim to have been
killed by his own foldiers
s Pbyftcim^
; and Pan fa*
thrown
into Prifonby Tora"lually
Glycojwas
ving
of haquatuSy Panfa^s^ceftor^upon afufpicion
poifonedbis wounds [i]. But the chief
P
III.
Vol.
ground

out

fo

cd with

laurel,and

the

Libertatis ; and
icription,

inon

[h]Rumor

increbiit,am-

ejus occifos: ut
Antonio fugato,
Repub.Con-

bos

opera

the revcrfc,Roms fitting


upthe fpoils
fulibus orbata, folus viftores
of enemies,
on
holdinga Spearin her right exercitus occuparet. Panfe

fufpeflamors

hand, and a Dagger in her


left,with her foot upon the

quidcm

adeo

fuit, ut

toglobe, and viaory-flying

ftoditus

Glyco Mcdicus
fit, quafivcnennm

wards her, to crown


laurel; and the
C

Panfa.

Morel.

vulnerl indidiflct Suet. Aug,


xi. Dio. 1. 46. 317. App.
infcription.
her with

C. F. C. N.

Fam.

cu-

Rom.

Sec

p. 572.

Urb.710.
^4-

^^^-

^oe History

2IO

A.Urb.
Cic.

710.

64.

ground of

of the Life

that notion feems

coincidence

fortunate

have lain in the

to

of the fact with the inte-

credibl
thoughtit inand in the moft prefling
manner
ged
begof Cicero, to procure Glycdsenlargemenij
and prote"i
him from any barm ; as being
a wor; and
thy modejiman, incapable
offucba villany
tbe greatejl
wbo^ of all otbersjfuffered
lofsby
Panfa'sdeath [i].
of the dangerous
foon aware
Cicero
was
which this event
to giveto their
was
turn
likely
affairs ; and within a day or two
after the news,
of it to Brutus :
intimates his apprehenfion
Young Casfar,fayshe, has a wonderful difto virtue ", I wi(h that I may
pofition
govern
him as eafily,
in all this heigthof honor and
power, as I have hitherto done: the thing is
much
harder ; yet I do not defpair
of it :
now
for the youth is perfuaded,and chiefly
by
that we owe
to him :
me,
our
fafety
prefent

reftsof Oftavius

for M.

Brutus

**

"

**

**

**

**

*'

and

in truth, if he had not at firft driven


**
Antony from the City,allhad been loft [*].'*
But as he found Oftavius grow
and
dailymore
**

fo he began to exhort and implore


untraftable,
Brutus in every Letter, to bringbis army

more

vtto

Italy,as

the

onelythingwhich

could fave
them

[/] Tibi

Glycona

Panfx
commcndo;
cum

vcniffe

in

"

Medi-

cum

Torfufpicionem

mortc
Panfae,cufto
Nihil
ut Parricldam.
dirique

crcdcndum, "c. Rogo

"

quidcm valdc rogo,


piascum ex cuftodia.
te

"

^"t

ruica

eri-

Ad

6.

r^] Cafaris

facileeumfiorentem

" honoribus
diligentiffimc
audimus

"juato dc
minus

tam

nam

ac

tenere

vero

puerimi-

gratiarcgcre

ut
poffimus,

adhuc

illud
tenuimus \ eft omnino
difEcilius: fed non
diffidi-

adolefcentj,"
me,
vos:

eft enim

Pcrfuafum

mus.

nium

indoles virtucis. Uu"

"

ejus opera
"

maxime
nos

per
eflc fal-

ccrtc, niii is Anto-

ab urbc avcrtiffct,
periiflcntomnia.
Ad Brut j.

rULLiVS

ofM.
them

CICERO.

an

in their

circumftances : and to en- A. Urb. 710.


prcfcnt
force his own
authority,he procured a vote alfo ^'^- ^+of the SenaU^ to call him home "vith his Legions
the defence of the Republic[/].
to
A T Rome
the general rejoicings
however
ftifled all prefent
attention to the lofs of their Confuls \ and Antony's friends were
fo dejefted
for
fome
time, that they gave Cicero no more
opin
the
Senate: where he poured out all
pofition
imaginablehonors on the decejfed, Hirtius,
Panfa and Aquila; decreed an ovation to Ccsfar
;
and added a number of days to their Thankfgiving, in honor of D. Brutus : whofe deliverance
he decreed
happeningto fallupon his birth-day^
likewife,that his name
Jhould be afcribed
ever
Kalendars^
afterto that day^in the Faftior public
the
memorial
of
tony's
for a perpetual
viftory. Anadherents
which

number

dius

and

'y

alfo declared enemies

were

in

Servilius himfelf included Venti-

moved,

to

the
give Cajfius

command

DoJabella j to whom
Cicero
againji
joinedBrutus ; in cafethat he fbouldfindit ufeful to the Republic[m].
The
decree of an Ovation to Oftavius was
blamed by Brutus and hisfriends
["]; yet fcems
and artfully
been wifely
: for
to have
dcfigned

of the

war

while

Ciii cum
eflem
\J\ Te, cognita Sctiatas ^Polabcllam.
in Italiam addudecrevi hoc ampliauSoritite,
slffenfus,
exercitum

ccre

quod

idquematurares,

ceres,

noperc
Ad
ca.

defiderabat

ut

fa-

mag-

us,

tu, li arbitrarere utile

ut

hello
pcrfcqucrere

"

Refpubli-bellam, "c.

Brut.x.

[wJA.d.v

Ad

Dola5. it.

Brut

15.

Kalend.Maias

["] Sufp'corillud

minus

judica- tibi probari,quod ab tuis


familiaribus non
probatur,
pcffequertdis,

de iis,qui hofles

cum

ti funt, bello

fententis

ut

"

dicerentur, di^tit quod

Servtlius etiam
"

CiiSiu

de Ventidio,

ut

Ovanti

introire C"-

fari liceret,decreverim.

Brut.
perfequeretor

15.

A4

T%e History

212
A. Urb.

Cic.

71O.

64.

of the Life

would
appearance of honor, it
if he
have ftript
him of his power,
regularly
ufe of it : fince his commiffion
had made
was

while it carried

to

an

his army to be diflblhis firft entrance


into the City: but

expireof courfe, and

ved, upon

the confufion of the

of litde efFeft with

ftoms

with
difpenfe

to

power

cu-

had

the

abroad

were

fo ftruck

Antonyms defeat,that theyredoubled their

with

affurances
for the
had

thofe who

and

them.

Commanders

The

laws

made

times

caufe.

common

fuffered

zeal

Cicero of their firmnels and

to

who
Lepidusefpecially,

of his Lieutenants,Silanus and


Culleo, to carry fuccours to Antony at Mode^
excufe it in a civil and humble
fia , labors to
two

perfuadeCicero, that theyhad


done it againft
his orders ; and tho',for their
former relation to him, he was
to
unwilling
punilh them with the laft feverity,
yet he
had not fince employed them, or received
them
into his Camp.
He
even
acquaints
vince
arrived in his Prohim, that Antony was
with one
tude
Legion and a great multi-

ftrain,and

to

of

men

*'

which

unarmed, but with all his Horfe,

that Ventidius
; and
very 'ftrong
had joinedhim with three Legions: that he
was

was

marching out

forces ; and
and

Foot

dailydeferted

himfelf,he

duty to

that

againfthim with
many of Antony's

would

him.

never

be

the Senate and

the

thanks him

for

not

all his
Horfe

That

"

wanting in
Republic

givingcredit

"

for
his
-

the falfc

to

of him : and above


reports which wereYpread
all, for the late honors that he had decreed to
him
from

"

begs him

to

him, which could

expedlevery thing''
be expedtedfrom an
"

honcft

rULLIUS

efM.

and

honcft man*,

CICERO.
take him

to

213

under his

fpe-A.

[0]."
proteftion
ftill more
L L I o
explicidy, that there
for loitering,
time now
or
no
expefting

cial

"

Po
was

of the Senate

the orders
wiihed

the Empire, and the


preferve
very
of the Roman
people, ought to lend
That nothing was
prefenthelp.
dangerous,than to giveAntony leifure

name

their

to

"

more

himfelf.

recoiled

to

was

'

fuch

foon
Pl

all

grievedonely for

he wifhed
c

to

to

into that country,


without any confiderable
able

him, tho* he
or

if he

to

being
fo

come

[/"]."
was
taking
opprelsAntony, if he
"

came

be

not

his

6?r.
its relief,

fent word,

care
polfiblc

Ihould

nor

for his part,


furvive the Republic

diftance,that he could

as

That

"

neither defert

he would
at

that all who

"

that he
That

"

give

if he

body of
a

good

fliould be received

came

troops, he
of

account

by Lepidus;

force with him, would


that he (hould do no harm in thofe

broughtany

undertake

parts, tilltheycould fend him fuccours fuffithat he was


cient to deftroyhim
then
"

treaty with Lepidus,about unitingtheir


forces in the fame caufe,by the mediation of
in

Laterenfis and Furnius

nor

would

be hindered

from
to the man,
quarrel
by his private
in the
concurringwith his greateft
enemy
fervice of the commonwealth
ther
[q]" In anoLetter he fpeakswith great contempt of
Antony's Ihattered forces,tho* joinedwith
thofe of Ventidius, the Mule-driver^ as
calls him

Ep.

fam.

X.

Ibi4* 3S*

he

and is confident,that if he could


"
P 3
have
34.

[f] lb. xU
\

Urb.

710.

^^"^-^4-

52'^ History

214
A. Urb.
Cic.

7T0.

64.

**

have

met

*c

fto^

an

The

with

of the Life

them,

they would

hour before him

Conquerorsat
time

have

not

{r\r

Modena

were

much

cen-

for

givingAntony leifrom
fure to efcape
the begin: but Oftavius
ning
he
of
him
had
had no thoughts purfuing
:
alreadygained what he aimed at ; had reduced
^o
Antonymspower fo low, and railed his own
high as to be in condition to make his own
with him in the partition
of the Empire ;
terms
of which he feems to have formed the planfrom
if Antony had been wholly
this moment
: whereas
deftroyed,togetherwith the Confuls, the
Republicanparty would have probablybeen too
ftrongfor him and Lepidus; who, tho* Matter
of a good army,
weak General
a
was
certainly
[j]: when he was preffedtherefore to purfue
Antony, he contrived ftillto delayit, till it
late ; takinghimfelf to be more
ufttoo
was
to his interefts the
fullyemployed, in (ecuring
fured in the

mean

troops of the Confuls.


Cicero

tony's
at Anparticularly
difgufted
it
efcape,and often expoftulates
upon
with D. Brutus : he tellshim,
that if Antony
fhould ever
recover
ftrengthagain,all his
*'
come
great fervices to the Republicwould
it was
to nothing
reported,
fayshe, at
Rome^ and all peoplebelieved it,that he was
fled with a few unarmed, difpirited
men;
was

*'

'"

*'

-p"

**

**

"*

and

*'

be fo with him,

himlelf almoft broken-hearted:

but if it

I hear it is,that you

as

"

cnim iicontigif-Mulionis

[r] Mihi

fct, ut prioroccurtrcm
tonio, non

mehercule

conftitiflet :

tantum

An-

horaxQ
ego

can-

not

caflra dcfpido,lU

18.

[i] Cum " Lepidoonines


forent incli9rcs,
Imperatores

pihi conHdo, ic iic ptrcnlfaa " molds Antonius, dum era^


illiilj
fopias,Vcntidii^ucfobriw. Veil. PatwX. ^

^e

2i6
A. Urb. 710.
Cic. 64,

of the Life

Hi^roKY

moft difficult
country to march thro* r
miles from him, and Venwhen
I was
thirty
tidiushad already
joinedhim, a copy of his

yff^ja

ti

cc

""

broughtto

was
fpeech

""

of his foldiers to follow him

*'

and declares, that he afted in

"'

crofs the

begs
jilps;
with

concert

but the foldiers cried out, efpeciof Ventidius, for he has very few

Lepidus:
allythofe

"*

me,

he

in which

"*

theywould either conquer


in Italy
i and began to beg, that
perifh

^'

of his own,

that

"*

or

*'

he would

go

"'

over-rule

them, he put off his march

*'

next

*'

fent five Cohorts

*'

followed them

when

Polkntia:

to

this

day. Upon

he could
to

not

the

I prefcntly
intelligence,

before

Polkntia^ and

to

me

myfelfwith the army : my


detachment came
hour before
to the placean
Trebellius,with Antony'sHorfe : this gave
me
an
joy ; for I efteem it equal
exceeding
6ff. ["]/'
to a vidlory,
I N another Letter he fays, that if Caelar
would have been perfuaded
by him to crofe
the Jpennine^he could have reduced Antony

*'
**
^'
*'

"

"'
**

fuch ftraits,
that he muft have been deftroyedby want rather than the fword : but

*'

to

*'
**

that

*'

Caefar his
ftances

**

thentic
^

they could
were

troops
very

from

account

fafts,which
\

own

neither command

are

Caefar,nor

both which

circum-

bad, (^c. [x]." This


D.

delivered

Brutus

by

an

confutes

au-

two

old Hiftorian,

and

received by all the moderns


generally
; firft,
that Oftavjus,afterthe vOforyyre/u/ed
to have

any
M

Ibid. 13.
Quod G.

fer]
coninopiapotlusquamferro
me

Caefar

ficeretur. Sed neque

Cadari

liiudinet,atquf Apcninum
imperaripoteft,nee Cae"ur
in
(randfTet, tantas apguftias exercinu fuo : quod utruxn^ue

^Atonlum

u(
pe^w
coxp|"uIiir^|D|

cft.rrdb.
^

CICERO.

cfM.rULLIUS

217

with D. Brutus ; and that Brutus^ A. Urb. 710.


conference
forbadhim to enter bis Province^ C^^- ^+*
for that reafon^
that Pan/a in
to purfueAntony: fecondly,
or
ins laji
moments^ fentfor OSavius^ and advifed
union with Antonyagainiithe Senate
him to an
{_y'].For it is evident, that on the very day
of the viftory,there was
a conference
aftually
between the two firft; which paflfed
in fo amicable
Brutus of the jeahujy
to eafe
as
a manner,
conceived of OSlavius : and
which he bad before
Panfa^sdeath happened
fo earlythe next mornings
for the pretendedadvice and
that it leftno room
fpecchwhich is made for him to Oftavius : efince it appears on the contrary, that
"fpccially
inftead of Oftavius,Panfa really
fentfor D. Bruhe found himfelf dying, as if difpotusj when
fed rather to communicate
fomethingfor the
any

fervice of that caufe, in which


life. But both the ftoricswere

loft his

ged
undoubtedlyfor-

fave Oftavius*s honor, and


better color to that fudden change of

afterwards ,

give a

he had

to

from

meafures, which
to

this hour

he

mined
deter-

was

purfue[z].
C.An.

Vid.

[y]

par

"Rouill^.T.i7.1.4.
There

Medal

is

this

the

Head

of

fmall confirmation
notion

and

was

marching
Modenat or by

out

the

towards
Senate

after Panfa^s death, in


teftimonyof the firi"lunion,
foon

fhat iMh^SuA between

him

Albinas. For

fide,there is the
Siienust as it is
rather of Pan,

one

(Iruck probably at Rome^


cither by Pania himfelf,uphis

on

originalwhich

an

ftillremaining, that

gives no

and D. Brutus

called,

"c.

p.433,

to

1. 3.

it. Hift. Rom.

p. 573.
Catron

[2]

Appian.

or

is frequent
on

coins,

the

with

Panfa's

infcripcion

C. Panfa :
alfo of his name,
and on the other^ Albinus.
Bruti. F.
with
two
right

bands

en
a Cajoined
^^bolding

ductus^

as

an

emblem

of the

ilrideflamity and concord."


See Famil.
or

Vibia. in Vaillant

Morel.-r"-

A. Urb. 710.
Cic. 64.

of the Life

^je History

18

Antony

C.

prifonerwith

ftill a

was

indulgencegave him an opportunit


and
of praftifmgupon the foldicrs,
which created
Camp
a fedition in the
raifing
Brutus, whofe

^^

no

fmall trouble

to

repentedof

foon

ever
foldiers how-

The

Brutus.
their

rafhnefs,and killed

of it ; and would have killed Antony


him into their
iooj if Brutus would have delivered
hands : but he could not be induced to take his

the authors

the fecond offence of the fame

tho* this was


life,

pretending,that he would order him


into the Sea^ fenthim to he fecured
to be thrown
either from doingor fuffering
artf
on
Jhip'hoard^
count
acan
[^]: of which he wrote
farthermifchief
returned the foUowing
to Cicero, who
kind

but

anfwer.
the fedition in the fourth Legion
about C. Antony, you will take what I lay
with the
better pleafed
in good part ; I am
of the foldiersthan with yours. I am
feverity

"

"

**

"

As

to

extremelyglad

"

the affedHon of your


as
to what
you

"

had

have

that you

**

Legionsand

trialof

the Horfe

write, that I am purfuing the Antony's much at my eafe, and


"

"

for it ; I

"

me
praife

"

fo

^*

diftinftion,when

"

ought
fit)r

*'
"

^'

"

"a
"

*^

but I do

not

think
fuppofeyou really

by any

approve your
fay, that our animomeans

you
be exerted rather in

to

preventing

revenging ourfclves on
the vanquifhed. I differ widelyfrom
you,
Brutus, not that I yieldto you in clemency;
is alwayspreferable
to
but a falutary
feverity
fo fond
If we
Ihew of mercy.
are
fpecious
of pardoning,there will be no end of civil
civil wars,

wars

than

but you

are

in

to

look

to

that

Dio, 1.47. p. 340.

for I

can

rULLIUS

^M.

CICERO.

fayof myfelf,what

**

Trinummus

in the

*'

*'

Tne\

You

*'

Plautus's old

it is you who are


will be undone,

you do not take care


have the people, nor

**

*'

219

lifeis almoftover with


the moftirUereJled
in it.

Brutus, believe

me,

for you will

always

the

not

Senate, nor

der of the Senate, the fame as now.


this , as from the Pythian Oracle ;

"

"

"

be

can

if

Lea-

Take

nothing

[by^

true

more

faysA.

man

the
wife, Porcia, notwithftanding

Brutus's

ftorywhich
tragical

the old writers have dref-

of her
fed up, of the manner
of her hufband's
the news

herfelf upkilling
on
fate
[r],
unhappy
this time at Rome, of

died moft
a

probablyabout
She feems
illnefs.
lingering
have

to

have been in

where
Brutus left Italy^

bad ftateof health when


ihe is "id

to

partedfrom

him

with

the

griefand floods of tears, as if confcious


that ihe was
takingher laft leave of him : and
Plutarch lays,Ihat there was
a Letter of Brutus
extanl in his daysj ifit was
genuin,in which be
lamented her deaths and complained
ofhis friends
ever
: this howfornegU^ing her in her laftficknefs
utmoll

is certain,that in

Letter

to

Atticus, he

with a flight
givesa hint of Porcia^ s indifpofition^
to Atticus forbis care
of her [d]: and
compliment
the following
Letter of condolence to him from
Cicero, can hardlybe appliedto any other oc*
cafion but that of her death.
Cicero
*'
*'

I fhould

BRyTus.

to

performthe

formerly did in

my

fame office which

you

lois,of comfortingyou

"by
m

Ad

y\

App.

1.47.

Brut.

1. iv.

356. V^.

ValctudiDCm

y]

2.

669. Dio.

Max.

4. 6t

mese

IQT.

eile,non
9ruC. 17.

tibi curas

Porcia

n4%

Urb.
^^

710^

^4*

7^

320
A, Urb.

Ck.

710.

64.

ITi

"*

by Letter, did

"4

wantthofe

*'

*'

**
**
**

of the Life

STORY

know

not

in your

remedies

I wifti

relieved mine.

you

may now
that time

cure

yourfelfmore

you

cured

me

ftrangein fo great a
what
able to pra6tife

*'

another.

*'

which

that you cannot


with which
grief,

As

man

he

for me,

not

onely that you


than at
eafily
for it would

as

not

you,

be
be

to

had

to
prefcribed
onely the reafbns

you then colkded, but your very authoritydeterred me from indulgingmy Ibr-

*'

"'

to

row

"*

exccfs.

thought

you

me

myfelfwith greater foftnefs than


u(ed to
who
one
efpecially
man,

behave

to

when

For

**

became

**

comfort

"*

veritythan

*'

fo that,

**

I roufed myfelf;and by the acceflion


ment,
took every thing that I
of your authority,

**

others, you
of

with

me

ufual for you

it was

out

chid

to

reverence

heard

to

more

fe-

:
exprels

your

that

judgc-

fubjed,

**

had learnt

**

have the greater weight. Yet my part,


Brutus, at that time was onelyto aft agreeablyto duty and to nature : but yours, as

**
*'

*'
**
**
^'
**

**

iay, is to be afted on the Jtage^and before the people.For when the eyes, not onely of your army, but of all the City,nay, of
all the world, are upon you, it is wholly indecent for one, by whom
other mortals
we
made the ftouter,
are
to betrayany deje"fcion
want

deed

*'

which

"*
"

*'

on

we

"

"*

or

to

"or

"'

read,

or

muft

of courage.
You have fuffered ingreat lofs ; (foryou have loft that,
has

not

on

earth) and

grieveunder fo cruel a
blow ; left to want
all fenfe of grief(hould
be thoughtmore
wretched than griefitfelf:
to

do it with moderation, is both ufefiil


I would
others,and ncceflary
to yourfelf.

but
to

be allowed

left its fellow

to

1* write more,

if this was

not

too
already

much

ofM.
*^

**

CICERO.
and

221

army : without
which, tho* all other thingsfuccede to our
wiflies,we fhall hardlyever be free [^]."

cxpeftyou

we

**

TULLIUS

drew

time

your

A. Urb.
^*^-

of

now
chufing Magiftrates
of filling
leges
on, and particularly
up the Colin which there were
cancies
vaof Priejisj
many
fendinghome many of
; fo Brutus was

the

Nobles to appear as Candidates at


his young
the elcftion ; the two Bibulus*s,
Domitius,Cato,
whom

recommends
to
feverally
Cicero was
defirous thai
Cicero's proteftion.
Jbouldcome with tbem^ to he ele"ieda
bis/onalfo
his mind
to Brutus,to know
Prieft
; and wrote
about it; and if he thought proper,
fend
to
him away immediately
might be
; fbr tho' he

Lentulus

he

chofen in abfence,yet his fuccefs would be much


eafier if he was
[/]. He touches this
prefent
littleaffairin feveral of his Letters ; but finding
the publicdiforders increafe ftill every
day,
to be thro^vn
procuredthe eleSlionof Priefis
offto the next year: and Brutus having fent him
word in the mean
while, that ins fon had a"luhiniyand was
allyleft
cotntng towards Rome, he
him
meet
a meffenger,to
inftandydifpatched

he

the road, with orders to fend him back a: fince


gain, tho* he found him landed in Italy

on

he fays,could be more
nothings
honorable to
or more
to bimfelfj
continuance with Brutus

either
agreeable
bis fon^ than bis

[^].
Not

Ibid. 9.
ad Ciceronem ; at ettam fiin
ad te rediSed quamvis liceat Italiam veniiTety
Nihil enim mihijucunret.
ablentli
lentlsrationem haberi, tafunt
omnia
prsfentibusdius, illihoneflius. Quammen
ei fcripferam,
^ciliora ad Brut. 5.
quam aliquoties
comitia
ad
ucerdotum
mea
[g\ Ego autem, cum
"

jne

de Ciceronis abs

ceflii

te

flatim
fcripfxiTes,

dif-

fumma

ex*

rum

contentione

annum

tfk

in alte-

reje^a,kc.

Ad Brat. 14. vid. it.5, t, 7.


trufi Ubellarios,licterafquc

710.

^*

Tthe History

222
A.Urb.
Cic.

Not

710.

64.

pg^g

of the Life

after the battel of Modena^ the


and death from Afia,
Qf Doiabella'j defeat,

long

broughta

ft^flioccafion of

his friends

Cicero, and

to

Dolabella,after

Ronie.

at

joy

hk

(uc-

ccfe

againftTrebonius, having pillagedthat


and of all thingsufefull
Province of it*smoney,
for war, marched
forward to execute
his grand
defign upon Syrian for which he had been
forehand
be: but Caffius was
making all this preparation
with him, and having got poITeflloii
of that Country, and of all the armies in it,
much fuperior
him in force. Dolabella
was
to
howeyer made his way with fome fuccefs through
before Antioch in Syria^but
Ciliciayand came
denied admittance

was

vain attempts

to

lofe,marched

to

take

after fome

into it ; and

it, being repulfedwith

Laodicea

which

before

had

openedit*sgates to him. Here


Caffius came
up with him, and prefendyinvefted the place;where, after he had deftroyed
Doand
invited,

now

Iabella*s fleet,in
he

two

or

three naval

ments,
engage-

fhut him

by fea, as well
up clofely
land : tillDolabella, feeing
as
no
way to elcape,
and the Town
unable to hold out any longer,
killedhim/elfto prevent his falling
alive intoCafthe fame treatment,
bandsy and fuffering
Jius^s
J

which

he had

Ihewn

to

Trebonius

but Caffius

ordered his body to be buried, with


generoufly
that ofhis Lieutenant OilaviuSy who killedhimfelf
alfowith him [b].
D. Brutus
ny,
was
at laft purfuingAntonow
the motions of his flight
or ^ther obferving
:
he
new

had

with

him, befides

Legionsof

Veterans

his

own

forces,the

the late Confuls, while

put themfelvcs under

all the

the command

Oftavius

[^]Ep. ftm. 12, 13, 15,

App. 1. +. 62s.Dio.

of
:

1. 47. 344.

^^

224
A. Urb.

Cic.64.

I the treafures of Varro, I could


the expencc [/]." He defircd
fupport

"

culty:

*"

not

710.

of the Life

History
had

prefentfupply of money, and


and
the fourth
Legions,efpecially

therefore
Veteran

fomc

iiaU which

continued

Mar-

ftillwith Odavius.

This

"

decreed

was

him

to

readilyby

ferve under him

to

ever

and

be induced

not

by

any
how-

that money
be providedfor him"
Ihould certainly

terms

**

him

wrote

all,who knew
ed, that they would

**

at

word, " that


thofe Legionsthe bed, affirm-

but Cicero

[m] :
*'

Senate,

ther
broofDrufusand Paullus^ Lepidus^s

the motion
**

the

"

by obferving, that if Lepidus


receive Antony, it would throw them
"

concludes

*'

ihould

^'

great difficuldes: but that it was


Brutus*s part, to take care, that theyfhould

againinto

**
*'

have

*'

himfelf,that

*'

than he had

**

D. Brutus the

"

caufe

no

to

fear the

and
greateft

for

do
poffibly

he could not

alreadydone

event

but wiflied

moft

as

to

more,
to

fee

illuftriousof

[n]r

men

Pl ANGUS,
on

it is hinted above, was


carrying
w
ith
negotiation
Lepidus, to unite

as

their forces agabil Antony: it


PIancus*s

fide

by Furniusj

on

was

managed on
Lepidus's,by
Laterenfis,

\f\ Alcre jam


Cum

poffum.
iiberandam
fuit

non

Rcmpub.
H S. mihi
acceflj,

pccunix

Tantum

mllites
ad

abeft

cccc
ut

Xm\ Ep. fam. zi. 19.


[n\Legionem Marciam "
quartam negant, quilllasno-

amplius. runt, ulla conditionc ad tc


rei fa- poiTe perduci. Pecuniae
meac

defideras,ratio potcft
miliarisliberumfitquidquam,
quam
ut

amicos
jam mcos
alieno obftrinxerim. Sep-

omnes

ere

tenum
onum

tu

numerum

nunc

haberi,eaque habebitui^-ego
plusquam feci, facere non

legi- pofliim.Te

umen,

id

quod

maximum
"
alo, qua difficultate,
fpero,omnium
arbitrare. Non, fi Varclariffimum videre cupia Ifaw

ronis thefauros haberem, TubfiHere fumptui


poiTem.lb. i o.

14.

CICERO,

BfM. TVLLIUS

225

of his Lieutenants;a true friend A. Urb.7io,


^*^- ^4*
and zealous to engage his Geto the Republic,
neral to irs intcrefts; and Lcpidushimfclf difone
Laterenfis,

fembled
;
cerity

them of his finfb well, as to perfuade


fo that Plancus was
marching forward
haft to joinwith him ; of which he

in great
gave Cicero

account.
particular

Plancus
"
**
"*
"^
"*
""
""
"*

""
""
"*
**

""
"*
"*
**
"*

"^
"^

*"
""

**
""
**
"*

**
"*
**

I had

After

thoughtit of

to

Cicero.

written

fervice to the

thy Letters, I
public,that you

fhould be informed of what has fince happenI hope, has been of ufc
ed.
My diligence,
:
myfclfand to the Commonwealth
with Lepidusby perfor I have been treating
afide all former
\ that laying
petualmeflages
he would be reconciled,and fucquarrels,
with me, and
the Republicin common
cour
(hew more
regardto himfelf,his children,
abandoned
and the City,than to a delperate
Robber ; in which cafe,he might dependon
: I
afllftancefor all occasions
my ferviceand
tranfaftedthe affairby Laterenfis. Hepawncd his faith,that if he could not keep Antohe would purfuehinj
ny out of his Province,
by open war j begged, that I would come
and joinforces with him, and fo much the
becaufe Antony was faid to be flrong
more,
be
could hardly
in Horfe ; whereas Lepidus's
called indifferent: for not many days before,

both

to

even

out

of his fmall number, ten, who

were

As
to me.
over
reckoned his beft, came
informed of this, I refolved
foon as I was

delay,to fupportLepidusin the exof


ecution of his good intentwns : I faw,
Wm would be, either
what benefit my joining
AntonymsHorfe
for purfuingand deftroying
r with
III.
q.
Volwithout

A. Urb.
Cic.

710.

64.

mine,

with

"

of the Life

History

^^

426

for

or

cc

of
i^y^^ prefence

"'

difafFefted part of

and reftraining^
corrcfting
army,

my

the corrupt and

Lepidus's.Having made
in one
day over the Ifere^
a bridgetherefore
of the jUUhin the territory
a very
great river
with my army on the twelfth
I paffed
brogesj
that
of May : but having been informed
fent before with fome Horfc
L, Antony was
Jultu I had fent my
and Cohorts to Forum
thouiand
brother the day before with four
to follow
Horfe to meet with him, intending
myfclfby great journeyswith four Legions^

**
**

"

^'
"

*'

"

*'

"'

the reft of my Horfe, without the heaforhave


If we
any tolerable
vy baggage.
(hall here put an
for the Republic,we

and

**

*'

*'

tune

.** end

to

5
the audacioufncfs of the defpcratc
Robtrouble : but if the
all our
own

"'

and

**

ber, upon

**

back

"*

*^

*'

"*
*'

*'

**

to

to

to

hearing of my arrival,fliould run


it will be Brutus's part
againinto Itdly^
with

meet

him

wanting, I know,
rage

there:

who

will

cither in counfil

but if that (hould

happen, I

be

not
or

cou-

will fend

alfo with the Horfe, to follow


my brother
and preferveItalyfrom being ravaged by
him. Take care of your health,and love me

C^]."
cherous
But
Lepidus was aftingall the while a treaall hazards
part, being determined at
fupportAntony ; and tho* he kept him at a
as

I love you

diilance for fome

"

time"

and

feemed

to

be

con-

foldiersto receive
by his own
onely to five appearances,
him; yet that was
tillhe could do it with advantageand fecurity
ftrained

to

them

cus

was

at

laft

both

his view

in treaang with

probably, to amufe

and draw

Flan-

him

fo
near

ofM. rULLIVS

CICERO.

227

Antony were A. Urb. 710.


^'^' ^4*
the
aduallyjoined,
they might force him intio
fame meafures, without his being able to help
near

to

it,or
the

them, that when

from

retreat

to

and

When

them.

pointtherefore of
he fent word

he

he

upon
with tony,
Anwas

joining
Camps

to

Plancus,who

fortymiles

of him, to
tillhe fhould come
up

ftaywhere
to

him:

was

within

he then was,
but Plancus,

fufpeAing nothing,riioughtit better ftill to


march on ; tillLaterenfis,
how things
perceiving
him word in all hafte,that
were
wrote
turning,
neither Lepidusnor bis army were
to be trujled\
and that be bimfelf
was
aeferted
exhorting
;
'*

**

Plancus

**

drawn

**

to

into

himfclf,left he fliould be
fnare,and to performhis duty
to

Republic
; for that he had difcharged
faith,by givinghim this warning,feff.
Cicero

account
particular
all thefe tranfaftions: he acquaints
him
that Lepidns and Antony joined
their camps
of May^ and the fame
the twenty-eighth
on
day marched forward towards him : of all
wWch
he knew nothing,tilltheywere
come

Plancus

of

look

the

his

"*

to

gave

"

"*
**
"*
"*
**
"

twenty miles of him : that upon the


of it,he retreatedin jdl haft ;
firftintelligence
within

*"

the Ifere^
and
repafled

**

which

have

"*

and

**

he had
leifure to

broke down

bridges
he might
togedier,

the

built upon it, that


draw all his forces

jointhem with his CoUegue D. Brutus,


that
in three days
whom
he cxpeftcd
Latercnfis,
0^2
"

f"] AtLaterenfistvir fan-

fc deftitutum

In

quibafa-

perte denontiat, videaiii ne


Aiffimosy ftto chirographo
mlttidnihilitteras,
ineifqne fallar: foam fidem (bbcaai

de fe, de ezercira, cfle,Reipub.ae


defperaas

de

ac
Lepidifide,qucffeafiiae

di^~Ib.

A. Urb.
Cic.

of the Life

77jf History

228
710.

64.

he (hould
fideb'ty
fingular
ever
acknowledge, when he found himfelf
duped by Lepidus, laid violent hands upon
in the aft,
himfelf; but being interrupted
he defires that
was
thoughtlikelyto live
Oftavius might be fent to him with his forin perfon,that
could not come
ces
", or if he
however
his army
might be fent, fince his

Laterenfis,whole

"
cc
"*
*'
**
**
*'
*'

"

**
"*
*'

*'

as

"*
"*
'*
*'

gainftthem with the whole force of the Rc"sfc.[?]."


public,
pidus
Th e day after his union with Antony, Lea

he calls the Gods

nothingfo much at heart as the pubhe fhodd


and liberty
lie fafety
; of which
had not forhave given them proofs,
ihortly
tune
preventedhim : for that his foldlers,
by
had
and
a
fedition,
plainly
generalmutiny
forced him

to

**

them,

**
*'

to

he had

Citizens under

**

in
the Senate,wherethat
and men
to witnefs,

fhort Letter

**

**

that

"

body of the Rebels was now


into one Camp, they ought to aft a-

wrote

"*

in it

the whole

drawn

*'

*^

concerned

fo much

intereft was

"

take fo great

multitude

cS

He befeeches
his proteftion.
that laying afide all their private

grudges,theywould confult the good of the


whole Republic; nor in a time of civil diffenfion treat his clemency, and that of his
as criminal and traiterous [r].^
army,
D. Brutus
the other hand joinedhis aron
my

with Plancus, who afted with him for fome


time with great concord
and the afFeftion of
,

the whole

Province

on

their fide : which

in their common
fignified
great

hopes ftilland

there. In

being

Letters to Romey gave


courage

Letter of Plancus

to
to

all the honeft

Cicero,

*'

you

"know,
Cf]Ep" film.z.

23"

[r]Ibid. 35.

t/M. rULLIUS
"*
""
"'
*"
""

"*
**
"*
"*

**
**

CICERO.

know, fayshe, I imagine,the ftatcof our A.Urb. 710.


^^^' ^*'
forces : in my Camp there are three veteran
Legions,with one new, but the beft of all
others of that fort : in Brutus's,one veteran
Legion,another of two years Handing,eight
of

levies: fo that

whole

i$
for what
great in number, littlein ftrength:
new

our

dependencethere is on a freftifoldier,
coft. If the
have oft experienced
to our
we
African
troops, which are veteran, or Casfar's
fhould joinus, we fhould willingly
put all
of

the hazard

battel :

to

*"

be the neareft,fo I have


prelshim, nor he to affure me

*'
*'

army

fmall

^^

*'

229

as

to

come
no

I faw Casiar's
ceafed

never

that he would

tho* I perceive
that he
inftantly,
fuch thought, and is quitegone off
meafures

yet I have

to

lent

had
into

friend

""

other

**

againto him, with Letters and inif he can


do any good
ftruftions,
poffibly
with him. You know, my dear Cicero,that
as to the love of young
Casfar,it belongs
-to

"*
**
"'
**
"*
"*

in

me

either of my
alive,it was

**

I have

"*

moderate

"*

ter

"*

it would

for
neceflary

to

me

proteAand

becaufe he himfelf,as far as


able to obferve, is of a moft

-, or

been

gentledifpofition
-, or that affo remarkable a friendlhip
With C. Casfar,

even

as

and

be

for his fon.

**

out

of

a
own

my

**

((

with you : for on the account


intimacywith his uncle when

common

cherifh him

**

our

Furnius

**

"'

fhame

for me

child,whom
But what

grief,rather

now

love him,
he had adopted

not

to

write, I write

than ill-will;

that An-

joinedwith
Lepidus^is
; that theyhave no contemptible
army ;
that theyhave hopes,and dare purfuethem ;
is all intirely
call
owing to Caefar. I will not rewhat is long fince paiTed
: but if he had
come
0^3

tony
him

now

lives ; that

"

A.Urb.
Cic.

710,

64.

^*
^
""
**

he himfelf declared
the time, when
would have been cithat he would, the war
ther now
ended, or removed, to their great
into Spain^a Provmce
utterly
difadvantage,
at

come

**

averfetothem.

""

fils drew

**
"*
"*
**
**
**
^'
*'

**
**

"'
**
"*

What motive, or whofecounoff from a part fo glorious,

him

to himfalutary
felf, and turned him fo abfurdlyto th?
to the
thoughtsof a two months Confuljlnfy
of all people,I cannot
compoffibly
terror
prehend. His friends feem capble of doing
much
good on this occafion,both to himfelf

fo

nay,

and the

too,
neceflary

", and
Republic

with him

treat
as

much

"'

**
^'
*"

"'

for

thefe affairs
; and if I had
as

ought,

in the mean
great fervice. We
very hard part to fuftain in the

time have
war

on

authoritywith him

Ihould do him

^*

above all others,you;

he has greater

whom

*'

^*

and

than any
obligations
man
living,
except myfelf; for I (hall never
forgetthat I am indebted to you for the
greateft.I have givenorders to Furnius to

to

**

"*

of the Life

History

^e

230

neither think it fafe

we

to

'

venture

by turning our backs, to


give the enemy an opportunityof doing
: but if cigreater mifchief to the Republic
ther Caelar would
regardhis honor, or the
(hall make
African Legions come
we
quickly,
yoq all eafyfrom this quarter. I beg you to
a

battel,nor

continue

yet

your

affbftion

to

me,

and

aflure

ftriftly
yours [j]/*
the news
of Lepidus*j
Upon
union with Antony,
the Senate, after fome littletime f^nt in
the cffeftsof it, beingencouraged
confidcring
by the concord of D^ Brutus and Plancus, and
of their united forces,
the fidelity
on
depending
"*

yourfdfthat

am

vptcd

[s\Ep. "un. z.

t^

He

232
A. Urb. 71 a
Cic.

64.

of the Life

History

ftrefs. For Lcpilay the greatcft


be diftindus*s cafe could not by any means
from Antonyms; nay, in all people's
guilhed
judgement,was even worfe ; fince after he
nate,
honors from the Sehad received the higheft
and but a few days before had fent an

which

excellent Letter

onelyreceived

not

enemies, but

them

to

exped

to

mercy

laft

the

a-

of which

event

arc

we

war

defu^

his children,not

forbid)we

not

arc

punilhmentfit)m

ignorant,how

not

am

When

(which the Gods

conquer,
I

the

cruel

our

is faid, why, if their Father fliould

word

to

extend

moft

now

us by
gainft
is wholly uncertain.

to

fudden, he

the broken remains of

wages
land and iea

therefore

", on

him,

it is, that

hard

Children Ihould fufFer for the crimes of their


Parents

but it

wifelycontrived by

was

the

laws, that the love of their Children fliould


make

parents more

afFeflionateto their Coun*

wherefore
it is Lepidus,who is cruel
try,
to his children,
not
he, who adjudges
dus
Lepienemy

an

he

were

in which

to
no

be

for iU

layingdown his arms,


condemned
onelyof violence,

defence could be made

his children would

by

fufier the lame

the confifcation of his eftate.

your

mother

and fitterare

now

for him,

calamity
Yet

what

aIblliciting

gainft,in favor of the children,the very


lame
and much
worfe, Lepidus, Antony,
and

our

other enemies

are

at

this very pioWherefore


our

all.
to
us
threatening
greateft
hope is in you and your army : it is
of the utmoft confequence
both to the Re^
publicin general,and xo your honor and
glory in particular,
that,as I wrote
to you
intQ
before,yoq coqae as foon as pofliblc
nient

CICERO.

ofM. rULLIUS

233

A. Urb. 71a.
Italy:for the Republic is in great want not
^*^' ^4*
I
onely of your forces,but of your counfils.
as
ferved Vctus with plcafure,
you defired
^^
benevolence and duty to
for his fingular
me,
him extremely2:ealous and afyou : I found
fedtionate both to you and the Republic: I
fhall fee my Son, I hope, very foon -, for I
depend on his coming with you quicklyto
Ilalyluy*
before he had received thisLetter,
Brutus,
having heard from other friends,what they
Lepidus,wrote
at Rome
againft
defigning
were
to
fubjeft
about the fame time, and on the "me
**
*'
"*

*^
^'
"*
*^
"

Cicero.
Brutus
Other

"*

*^

tain fome

"*

account:

""

us,

""
**

"'
*'
**

**
**
**
**

"*
"*
"*
**

**

"*

to

Cicero.

fears obligeme to enterpeople's


myfelfon Lepidus*s
apprehenfions

if he fhould withdraw himfeif from


(which will prove, I hope, a rafliand

of him) 1 beg and befeech


fuipicion
injurious
friendyou by our
you, Cicero, conjuring
that
Ihipand your aflfcftionto me, to forger,
fons, and
children are L^pidus's
my Sifter's
in the placeof their Father.
to confider me
If I obtain this of you, you will not fcruplc,
for them,

fure,to do whatever you can


their
with
Other
people live differently
do enough for my
friends: but I can never
either my inclinaSifter'schildren,to fatisfy
in which
tion or my duty. But what is there,
I
honeft men
obligeme, (ifin reality
can
in any thing)
have deferved to be obliged
in which I can be of fervice to my mother,
or

am

and
fitter,

the

boys; if their uncle Brutus


''

[u]Ad

Bmt.

}Z*

hw

^e

234
A. Urb- 710;
Cic.

64,

Hi

of the Life

OILY

ST

weight with you and the Seprotcft,as their Father I-^pidus,

c"

has

44

^^^^^

"*

to

"*

that I neither can, nor ought to


indignation,
write more
fullyto you: for if,in a cafe fo
there could be aimportantand fo neceflary,

"'
**

not

as

^^

much

I feel fo much

hurt them?

uneafinefs and

ny occafion for words, to excite and confirm


you, there is no hope that you will do what

**
*'

and

Do

is proper.

what

export

**

**

therefore any long prayers from me : confider


onely what lam: and that I oughtto obtain

*^

wi(h,

""

it; either from

**

matelyunited

Cicero, a
with

me

or

from
friendfhip,
private

*"

tor

of fuchemmence:

"*

foon

"

[x]."
(ythefirft

as

you

had

without

inti-

regardto

confular Sena-

pray fend me
what you refolve

word,
to

do,

as

7"-

perceivingfrom

this Letter, what


notion of before, how great a flrefe

Cicero

he

can,

the moft

man

our

"*

not

no

Brutus laid

phews,
procuringthis favor for his Newith the Senate to fufpendthe
prevailed
execution of their aft, as far as itrelated to them,
tillthe times were
fctded [yl.
more
Lepidus
and Antony were
looner joined,
no
foot between
than a correfpondence
fet on
was
them
the

on

Oftavius

and

Confuls, fhewed
of

from

who,

the death

but littleregardto the

Cicero, or

the Senate

and

of
thority
au-

wanted

He
pretence for breakingwith them.
waited however awhile, to fee what
became
of

onely a

Antony

tillfinding
him received and

fupported
it his beft fcheme,

by Lepidus,he began to think


into the league
with them
to enter
[a] rbld. 13.
[y]

Sororis

tux

ex

filiis
quam

conrulain"
c)iligqnter
fpero(e

matris

cogauu^vm.
% 8.

"

ex

and

to

con-

cur,

fororislitteris
Sec. ib. 15. it,

ofM.
in what

rULLIUS
ieemed

CICERO.

his A. Urb. 710:


peculiarly
^^' ^
the dcfignof revengingthe death of
owiKpart,
his Uncle.
Inftead therefore of profecuting
the
he was
ivar
pcrfuaded
by his friends,
any fiirther,
of the Confullhip,
to make
a demand
though he
was
not
yet above twenty years old. This ftep
ihocked and terrifiedthe City; not that the Concould givehim any power,
which his ar*
fulfhip
given ; but as it indicated
my had not already
and un(ea(bnable ambition, grounda dangerous
ed

cur,

to

be

23^

more

on

contempt

of the laws and

the Senate

and above all, railed a

of fome
juftapprehenfion
in-^
: fince,
publicliberty

againftthe
Head of leading
his army,
anddefired, againfttheir

attempt

chofe

to

march

where

it was

enemies

with it towards

wanted

abroad, he

Romey

as

if he

Republicitfelf.
There
was
a
report fpreadin the tncm
while through the Empire, that Cicero was
Conful:Brutus mentioningit in a Letter
cbofen
him, fays,if I flmildever fee thai day^ I
to
the true form
fhdl then beginto figureto tnyfelf
a Republic^
by its ownfirengtb[2].
fubjifting
that he might have been declaroi
t is certain,
of the people,
Conful, by the unanimous fufifi^
intended

to

fubdue the

?f

if he had defu^

it ; but

lence,
in times of fuch vio-

without a
fupremeMagiftrate
have expofed
real power
to fupportit, would
immediate danger and inhim onely to more
fults from the foldiers; wbofe fajiidious
infolence
he complains,
in their demands^ was
as
grown,
[a]. Some old writers fay, what
infupportable
the titleof

the
Ad

Brut. 4.

ifthuc vidcro.
[%\ Hi$littcrisfcriptis,tc
Brute, cuii^
Confulcm
faaum audivimus ;
[j] Illudjmur,

incipiamproponere milii Rempob. jaftam"


4
JUm fttUnitentem yiribus^
Cum

vcr"

militum
ratoru

turn Jmpoi
deliciis,

infolentiau lb. iQt

^^

236
A. Urb.
Cic.

of the Life

History

from them, that he


implicitly
^as
duped, and drawn in by Oftavius, to favor
the Confullhip,
by the hopes
to
his pretenfions
of beingmade his Collegue,and govemiug him
in the office \h\ But the contrary is evident
take

the modems

710.

6^.

ieveral of his Letters ; and that of all men,


the moft averfe to Odbavius's delign,
he was
him from purand the moft aftive in diffuading

from

*'

to
as
fuingit. Writing upon it to Brutus ;
Caeiar,layshe, who has been governedhidieradvice, and is indeed of an ezcelto by my
Ibme
*^
and wonderfiili firmnefs,
lent difpofition,
people,by moft wicked Letters,mefiages,
of things,have pulh^'
and fallaciousaccounts
^^
ed him to an aflured hope of the Coniiil*
"*
Ihip: as foon as I perceivedit, I never ccarein abfence, nor
fed admonifhinghim
and
proachinghis friends,who are prefent,
" ^

**

*"

**

"^

"*

who

"*

**

"*
**
""
'

"*
**
*"
**
"

""
**

^*
"
"*

^*

feem

to

encourage

his ambition:

nor

did

the fource of thofe traido I ever


counfils in the Senate : nor
terous
to
the Senate or die Magiftrates
remember
better on any occalion: for it
have behaved
never
happenedbefore,in votingan extraormoft
or
honor to a powerfiiU,
rat|ier
to lay open
fcruple

dinary
(fincepower is noW meafuman,
powerfull
red by force and arms) that no Tribun, or
as a priany other Magifbate, nor fo much
for it : yet in the
midft of allthis firmnefs and virtue,the City
is greatlyalarmed: for weareabufed, Bruwould

Senator

vate

move

licentioufnefsofthefoldier
Every one
and the infolenceof the General.
demands, to have as much power in the ftate,
tus,

as

bothby

he has

the

means

to

extort

it :

no

reafon, no
y

P] Plutar.mCIC

mode-

TULLIUirCTCERO.

ofM.

237

duty is
at all regarded;no judgementor opinionof
of pofterity
the Citizens; no Ihame
5 fcfr.

moderation,

^^
*'
"*

What

Law,

no

faysin

Cicero

markable, ibai
there

fower^

cuftom,

no

no

this Letter,is very

re-

A. tJrb. 710.

beigtbofyoung Cafar^s ^*E;


^"
nor
Magiftrate^
fo much q,q^^I^
would move
for the decree Octavia-

in all this
not

was

aftngleSenator^ who
of ittherefore was
nus.
: the demand
of his Confulftnf
Q^P*'^*^**
made
when
by a deputation
of his officers
\ and
the Senate received it more
coldlythan theyex*
pedted, Cornelius,a Centurion^throwingback
dedabis robe and Jbewingthem bisjword^boldly
red^ that iftheywould not make him Confulythat
Jhould. But Oftavius himfelf foon put an end
to thdr Icruples,
by marchingwith bis Legionsin
to the City[d']\ where
he wasmanner
bofiile
an
cbofenConfulwith ^ Pediusy bis Kinjman^and
in the month
coheir in part of his Uncle^s eftate,
as

of Sextilis; which,

beginningof

all the

and make

which

dividend

complainedloudly of

He

called afterwards

was

Magiftracywas^

publicmoney,

of this fortunate

furname, Auguftus[e].

firil aft of his

The

Rome

the account

his honors,

from his own

cure

on

he

[^J
"tat]5

Brat. 10.
Confulatum

Ad

anno

(e-

found

in

of it to his foldio^.

the Senate,
"

to

^^

that

inftcad

pnlnni,non

dubitalTetin

ca-

vigefimo riadicere;

hicfaciec"fi

vos

admotu
invafit"

non

feceritu.

Sneton.

Aug.

menfem^

fao

hoftilicer a4 urbem

Iegioni"c. 26.
l"Vfl,
miffifquet
[e]Sezttlem
quifibiezerdtns

nomine

depofcerenc.cognomine nominayitymagis

Septembrem, in ^uo
Centorio"
natas, quia hoc fibi U
natnt
princepslegadonif^rqe6to primuiConmlatus^ "C. Su^

Cam

qnklem con6(ante

Se-

Coradioa

i^gQlo"oftcndcns gladii
ca-

quam
erat

ctAog.

31.

^^

^3^
A. Urb.
Cic.

710.

64..

qf the Life

History

the rewards, which


infteadofpayinghisarmy
jhcyj^^ decreed to them, they were contritoils,and
^^ ^^ harrafs them with perpetual
them in frefh wars
to engage
ag^inftLepidus
and Antony: andlikewife, that in the com*
n^iflSon grantedto ten Senators, to provide
lands for the Legions after the war,
they
him [/]/* But there was
had not named
no
juftground for any fuch complaints
; for thofe
""
cc

**

C.

Cjesar

OcTAviANu".

Q^Pediu*.

**
""
44

**

**

rewards

not

were

flributed,tillthe

decreed,
war

intended

nor

quiteended

was

to
;

be di-

and

the

leavingCasfar out of the commilfion, was not


from any particular
but a general
flight,
tion
excepof all,who bad the command
of armies^ as
improper to be employed in fuch a charge 5
though Cicero indeed was of a different opinion,
and preffed
for their beingtaken in. D. Brutus
and

Plancus

and

both of them

were

excluded
feem

as

likewife

well
to

as

Caefar

have been dif-

guftedat it; "" that Cicero, who was one of


the number, in order to retrieve the imprudence
of a ftep,which
would not
gave fuch oflFence,
hut
to do any thingofmoment
Jufferbis Collegues
the 'uMe
to the arrival of Cafar
referved
affair
and the reft[^].
Bu T Caefar,beingnow
whollybent on changing
fides and meafures,was gladto catch at every
occafion of quarrelling
with the Senate : he
him a boy^ andtreatchargcdthem, with callifig
ing
j

r/J Appian.3. 581.

\fl 9^0^ego
de

us

quiexercitus

haberent" riam

lententiam
ferri oportere^
iidcm illi,
quj folent,leclattanini.
am

luque except!
eti-

cftif^
me

pagnante

fenfiflbm*dam

Tehcmenterre*

"

com
ittque

qui-

de

Collegia
noftrisagnn
cnrationeiii lignrirenty

djftmbavi rem^ totainqoemtegram vobis refemfi.


Bp"
"uii.zLai" it ao^^j.

Ithe K

240
A.

^^

Urb^to.

Cicr^C

from

**

anger is, becaufe neither Cx"r


of the ten ,
the commiffion

*^

OcTAviA"

Q;.PsDius.

and that you are in danger


and that the chief caufe of their

ly againft
you;

""

Cmsa%

Nus.

of fbe Life

1 STORY

"ft
*^
*^
*'

them;

nor

in

am

but all

things
andpleafure:upon

tranfaftedby
your will
hearingthis,though I was

then

upon

my
pafsthe

march, I did not think it proper to


AlpSj till I could firfl:learn,how

going amongft you, Gfr, [*]."

were

anfwered.

this Cicero

To

confound

Gods

The

*'

matters

that

that is,or

S^ulius, the
will

^^

knave,
greateft

"*

be.

*"

his ftoryonelyto you, and to Cafar? he told


the fame to every foul, that he could ipeak

*'
*"
**

What,

do

**

affeftion.

**

the

"

and

"

wifli,that I

*^

Caefar
be

can

told

more

the

Veterans,becaufe you
in the commiflion:

not

were
was

what

not

fignof your
S^uliusfays,of

in it

troublefom?

myfcif; for what

but when

I propo-

of arfed, thatthofe,who had the command


mies, Ihould be included in it; the fame
who

ufed

to

oppofc every thing,re-

againftit ; fo that you


cepted,whollyagainftmy vote and
monftrated

for the

As
we

he

fure

'tis a
to

as

complaintof

men,
^^

imagine,that

you

it be:

For

'

**
*^

ever

foever
trifling

"^

or

I love you, however, my Brutus, as


with it^ how
I ought, for acquainting
me
with

**

**

was,

fee, as
or

the

too

ftoryof

the

words^ he

to deierve
contemptible

painsof

were

ex-

opinion^
treats
an

it,

apolo*

it : and it feems
difclaming

gy,
indeed incredible,
of his prudence
that a man
couldever faythem.
If he had harboured fuch
a thought,
or had beea tempted
on any occafion
to

ra Bp. fiun.ad. 2Ck

UJItAltu

rULLlUS

ofM.
to

throw

ed

to

fuch

out

CICERO.

might have cxpeft-A.

hint, we

find it in his Letters

241

to

Brutus

yet on

the

Urb. yto^

^^off^

alwaysof Odlavius, in terms


fpcaks
c. Caesar
Octaviawhere he was
even
highly advantageous,
likely
to give difguft
more
by it. But nothing was
^^"
edius.
^
have
for
than
bis^
to
common,
fayingsforged
which he had never
fpoken; and this was one of
that forti contrived to inftillajealoufy
into Oftacontrary, he

ing
give him a handle at Icaft for breakwith Cicero,which, in his prefentcircum(lances he was glad to Jay hold of: and when the
ftorywas once become public,and fuppofedto
have
gained credit with Oftavius, it is not
ftrangeto find it taken up by the writers of the

vius,

or

to

following
ages,
not

without

Velleius and Suetonius


intimation from

an

though

the latter of it's-

credit [/"]fufpcfted
in the utmoft confterthe citywas
While
two
nation on Caefar's approachwith his army,
Veteran Legionsfrom Afric happened to arrive
in the

Ttber^ and

were

received

as

fuccour fent

joy lafted not


after their landing,being
long; for prefently
they deferted
corruptedby the other foldiers,
themthe Senate, who fent for them, and joined
to

but

heaven:

from

them

this

likewife, about the


iame time, with two
of bis bejlLegionsfrom
to the affiftanceof Antony and I.eSpain, came
fclves

pidus:

to

Caefar,

PoUio

fo that all the Veterans

of the wcftern

now
forming
plainly
part of the Empire were
death
the
themfelves into one body, to revenge

of their old General.

The

confent of all thefe

armies, and the unexpeftedturn of Antony's


duced
of Plancus, and inaffairs,ftaggered.the
fidelity
,

him alfo

fw]

Veil. Pat.

2.

at

laft,to defcrt his CollegueD.


R
Brutus,

62, Sucton. Ax^g,c

u.

TJp H

242
A- Urb. 710.

I s T

Brutus, with whom

OcTAviA-

^^*
1D1V8.
VL

Life

he had hitherto adcd

concord:
^Coff^much iccming
C. Cjesar

tb^

with

Pollio made

his peace,
Antony and Le-

good terms for him with


and foon after broughthim over
to their
piduS",
Camp with all his troops,
jy Brutus
beingthus abandoned and leftto
fhiftfor himfelf,with a needy, mutinous army
;
and
him
his
to
ready give
up to
,eager to dcfert,
and

enemies

had

other

no

his name-fake

by flyingto

than

fave himfelf,
in AtacedoMia :

fo great, and

but the diftance was

guarded,that he

to

way

wzs

the country fo
often forced to change his

road, for fear of being taken; tillhaving diffor feme

miffed all his attendants,and wandered


in

he commitand diftrcfs,
ted
difguife
of an old acquainhimfelf to the proteftion
tance
he had formerly
and hoft, whom
obliged;
or
accident,he
where, either throughtreachery
who immediately
was
furprized
by Antony's foldiers,

time alone

killed him, and returned with his head


to

their General

of the old writers have

Several

his memory
of
manner

with

had killed

death

fo inconfiftent with

life,that

reproached

cowardice
;

C^iar,

in the

unworthy
and

of the

commanded

fo various,and
the charafter of his former

But their accounts

armies.

'

Ihameful

his
fuffering

who

man,

["].

are

them to be
reafonably
fufpeft
to throw all
forgedby thofe, who were difpofed
kinds of contumely on the murtberers ofCafar

But

we

what

may

gave

the

greateftfhock

to

the

Republicanparty, was a law contrived


by his CoUegue Pedius,
by Csefar,and publifhed
whole

to

["] Vdl. Pat. 2. 64. App.


1. 3.

58S. Max.

9. 13.

Scnec.

Ep.

Dio. 1. 4^. 325.

82.

\tX.

545.

ofM. "tULLIUS

CICERO.

243

who bad been A. Urb. 710.


all tbofe^
to trialand jujiice
hri/ig
or
concerned^either in advi/tngy
effecting
Ca/ar^s ^q'^^'
death : in confequcnce
of which, all the confpic. Cjesar
rators
were
impeachedin form by dif- Octaviaprefently
fcrent accufcrs; and as none
ventured
of them
^^ *"""""
^
all conto appear to their citations,
they were
io

of courfe

demned

diffed fromfireand
he had

bom

as

was

added

irreconcilcable enemy

an

Cafariancaufe:

after which,

to

Caefar, to

to

the

make

of his law, diftriunpopularity


Citizens the Legacies^
which bis Un-

for the

amends
buted

water:

by a fecond law interPompeyalfo,though

part in that aft,

no

the number,

and

the

to

them h
left

"le bad

[pj,

forelaw, that thing3might poflibly

Cicero

take this turn,


and

Brutus
prefllng
the moft

wiV/

himfelf prove treacherous;


for that reafon was
conftantly

and

and Caflius to

effeftual

ftep,that

Plancus

to

means

baftento Italy,as
prevent it : every

Cscfiirtook, confirmed

fions,and made

him

more

his

apprehenimportunatewith

after the union of An*


efpecially
tony and Lepidus. In his Letters to Brutus,
flyto us, fays he, I bcfeech you, and exhort Caffius to the fame ; for there is no hope
of liberty
but from your troops [q]. If you
have any regardfor the Republic,for which
born, you muft do it inftantly
; for
you were
of Leis renewed by the inconftancy
the war
pidus; and Casfar's army, which was the
beft, is not onelyof no fervice to us, but evcn
obligesus to call for yours: as foon as
them

to

come,

"

"*

"*

**

**

**

**
**
'*

[/] App.I.3. 586.


46. 2 2

2*

Dio.

"

littens Caffium.
tatis

nu(quam

^s

ever

liber-

nifiin veftro*

eft.
caftrorum principle
Qaamobrem advola, mm
Srcro hortare idem per Ad Brut. lO.

iyj
"

^^

"44
A- Urb.

71a

^C ff^
C.

ever

Kus,

there
Italy,

not

Citizen,who

man,

will

*'

We
have D.
be in your Camp.
immediately
united with Plancus: but
Brutus indeed happily
how
men's
changeable
yQu jQ^ j^Q^ ignorant,

**

we

call

is

whom

""

tiiivt.

touch

you

of the Life

**

Cjesar

OcTAviAVL

""

History

can

not

infeftcd with party, and

and how

",

minds

"*

how

"*

ihall,rfierewill
conquer, as I hope we
of your advice and authority
be a want
to fettie all afiairs. Help us therefore for God's

are,

uncertain the

**

and

*^

fake;

""

that
yourfcif,

*'

vice

*'

when

**

do

to

as

foon

did

you

country
freed itfrom

"

**
"*
"*
**
**
""
"*
"*

greater ferthe Ides of Marcbj

not
on

do

remonftrances

many
wrote

alfo the

Cicero

*^

nay, fhould

than
flavery,
by coming quickly[r].**
you

kind, he

"*

and-afTure
poflible;

as

your

After

**

war

we

"*

"'

of

events

of

you will

the

fame

Letter.
following
Brutus.

to

After I hadoften exhorted you

to
by Letters,

to the reliefof the Rcpoflible


and ncand bringyour
public,
army into Italy,
ver
imagined,that your own peoplehad any
about it \ J was
defired by that moft
fcruples
woman,
prudentand diligent
your Mother,
all whofe thoughtsand cares are employedon
come

you,

as

loon

as

that I would

come

to

her

on

the

twen-

ty fourth of July ; which I did, as I ought,


I came,
without delay. When
I found Cafwith her. Shepreca, Labeo, andScaptius
entered into the affair,
and
fently
opinion^whether wc fliould fend

aiked
for you
"

\r\

Subveiii

igitor,per
Deos, idqaequamprimom;

ten

^ois

my
to

Italy;

civibns repulifti,

plasprofaifle
patriae,
quam,
fi
noote/Wmatvre
veneris^ profutatibiqaeperTuade,
Jur/ Msrtuj^ qwbta fenrittt- nun.
Jb. if.

ofM. rULLIUS
*'

Italy
\ and

**

to come,

"*

what
and

*'

fhould

*'

"*
**
**

thoughtit

continue abroad.

to

or

245

beft for you A. Urb,


I declared,

I took

to

be

the

moft

c.

"*

and ^y
to the tottering
bring prefenthelp

For what mifchief may not ^


date.
declining
one
expeft from that war, where the conqueringarmies refufed to purfuea flyingenemy? where a General unhurt, unprovoked,
of the highefthonors
and the
pofleffed
gr^teftfortunes,with a wife, children,and
nearreladon to you, has declared waragainft

**

the Commonwealth

**

fo great

? I may
add, where in
of the Senate and People,

concord

"*

there refidesftillfo muchdiforder

"

walls?

"
**
"*
**

**

**
**

"*

*'

*'

*'
*'
**

**
*'

**
*'

^*
*'

but

the

the

be tolerable: but how


are

*'

within

griefwhich I feel*,
greateft
while I am
that
now
writing,is to refledt,
when
the Republichad taken my
word
for a
youthsor rather a hoy^I (hall hardlyhave it
in my power, to make good what I promifed
for him.
For it is a thingof much
greater
and
onesfelf
for
to
delicacy moment,
engage
another's fentiments and principles,
cfpeciafly in affairsof importance,than for money ;
for money
be paid,and the Jofs itfelf
may

for

engaged

for whom

you

be

can

you

pay what

the Republic,unlefs

to

you

he,

ftand

engaged, will fufferitto


ftillin hopes to hold him ;

paid? yet I am
though many are pluckinghim away from
feems good, though
me
: for his difpofition
his age be flexible ", and many
always at
hand to corrupt him ; who, by throwingin

^lendorof

falfe honor, think


themfelves fure of dazzling his good fcnlc
his way

the

underftanding.Wherefore to allmy otherlabours diisiidKOne is added* of fetting

and

C^sar

Octavia-

**

710^

^r^'

for your honor


that without lofsof time you
reputation,

^'

"

whether

CICERO.

e'^*^**

Ti"f HisTORV

246
A. Urb. 710.

^c ff**

".' all
**
**

C. Cjesar
OcTATiA-

*^

wus,

cc

Q;.PBDiut.

44
*^

*'
^^

work

enginesat
^^

'""'

of the Life
hold fall the young
oi rafiincfs.
imputation

to

^^

'"^"^

Though what ralhnefs is it after all ? for in


I wasenga*
I bound him, for whom
reality,
gpj^ moreftronglythan myfelf: nor has the
Republicas yet any caufe to repent, that I
: fince he
fponibr

his

was

the

firm and conftant in

more

well from

as

has hitherto been

his

temper,

own

ading for us,


as

for my

pro-

in the Repubdifficulty
greateft

The

**

mife.

*^

lie,if I miftake

not,

"*

for honeft

grow
the

men

averfe

of money :
and
day more

is the want
every

of Tribute

and

^'

more

*^

gatheredirom the hundredth penny,


where the rich are
raced, is all
fliamefuily
fpentin rewardingthe two Legions. There
the
is an infinite expenoe upon us, to fupport

^^
**
"'
**

^'
"*
^'
"'

what

armies, which

tingto

**

**

and aUb yours*;

did not
the

me:

wait, Brutus, for your writimes themfelves,finoe the

length,refcrvc

into

drawn

the

f^-hole affair to you : but from the firft,


when
I could not forcfeethe continuance of the war,
I

pleadedthe

nate,

formed

"'

fas

"*

I will

**

of my

""

us

"ems

will be

war

"*

**

fufficientto come
likely
ly provided. But I long to talk over this,
and many
other dungs with you in perfon\
fifter'schiland that quickly. As to your

dren, I

*"

defend

now

forourCaiCus

**

"

naofie

was

**

"*

to

to

in

not

guefs,by
there

can

both

in the Se-

you have been inmother's Letyour

which

manner,

of,
nor

caulc of the Children

ever

be any

fayand do,

even

cafe, where
at

Ae hazard

either
life,whatever I think agreeable
or
to your intereft.The
your inclination,

twenty fixthof

[/]Ad

July [j]."

Brat i"

rULLIVS

ofU.
armies

towards

CICERO.
the

Lalj, at

tame

d"e death

vented

of

Ckcio

of

Pbncas.

the immediate

The

ruin of the

want

RepdbEic

of which

of money,

^^

kt^T^ c^^

it maft

Decimos,

Ckno

Ocr

^^

^^

*'

**

oecaufe dieSenateisnQwwithoatahcaid^

^'

the death

^^

fcaicityof

credible

**

which

**

we

^*

there
dae

ia

moiKy

are

good

of

^xam

all
the

which

us;

in my opnkxn wichoot
butc (jr].**
This tribuce was
a fort of

**

in*

uodiuy

be done

cannot

an

pramiies to

oar

dcicrved

by

is

gatherii^ howevq

quarters, to make
troops, that have

^'

and

ni-

tion
capita-

proportionedtocach man's fuM:mcc^


from
but had been wholly difofed in Rome^
the
JEtbSjo,
by Padus
conqueft of MactJema
tax,

which

fufRrimr
rents
ta
rocuicy and
after of that faonhca, tiH ihc

furm(hed

eafe the

Gty ever
of the prcfenttimes
neccflity
it

renew

[z].

But

fiom

obSged

to

iotxasascs

Gocro

what

ihem

of

ly]
I ran

pA

I)e faoita, ^poa


le
lailitutai hcere "le-

dkkt

nihil ^ne

Bo\
ess

cfAmm

icditinun

vLiuym

tfqoe hbBo"rz

Ut^

paspofiom
fsavt"st^
to
"i^
apod potaaca
"Um"JEbm
Qa
"
}"""
^otcaipove

Tm' opitahriy
piop^ucj
r

othoi Scaanm

aaue

pnblicae,Ac

ftafi

oaoc

fe

finact

atia-

j^t:

com-

plainsat this time, as diiegrtateftcril thatthcy^


had to ftnigglewith, is exprrflKlalio Toy
ftronglyin another Letter to Cdmifidos, the
Proconful of ^/nr, who
wasurgii^himtDpmvide a fund for the fiipportof his Legions:
As to the esqxnce,
"iyshe, which yoa have
made, and are makii^ in yoar mi"aiy preit isootin
hdpyna,
mypowcrso
paradons,
of the Confok,

^'^"^ na.

vfatn

firft prcflcdit, before the dcfeaion


and

249

"

******

T*be History

248
A- Urb.

710.

oppofcthe attempts

^4- that time


^'^'

of

deaf

Dolabelh

and

the call of the

to

from

Senate,

which urged him fo


^^ ^^^ Cicero*s letters,
ftron^yto come to their relief. It is difficultat

^^d

C.Cjesah
OcTAiri

feemcd

of the Life

A-

NU8,

Q^P"Diu9.

this diftance
^^^

to

j^gY^

penetrate the motives of his conof Lepidus,riian


2L better opinion

the reft of his party had


might affeft to
pofitive,

and

to

being naturally
the apprehenfiflight
of Lepidus's
the chief
which was
treachery,
of their calling
fo earneftly
for him. But
had other reafons alfo,which were
thought
be good ; fince fome of his friends at Rome^

as

we

ons

ground
e

colle6t from

may

different mind

Cicero's I-etter,
were

from Cicero, on

of

of
fubjeft
the fidelity
of
his coming. They might fufpeft
his troops ; and that they were
not
fufficientl

and attached

confirmed

the field

againftthe

to

him,

the

to

be trufted in

in

Veterans

Italy
; whofe
to fece
theycame

exampleand invitation,when
each other, might poflibly
induce

them

to

de-

fcrt, as the other armies had done, and betray


their commanders.
But whatever was their real
motive, P. Brutus, who was the beft Judgeof
the ftateof thingsat home, was intirely
of Cicero's

opinion:
Veteran
;

himfelf furrounded

with

ty
armies, diflaffeftedto the caufe of liber-

knew

tion of

he faw

the

young

perfidyof Lepidus;
Caefar ; and

his CoUegue Plancus

^d

me

the

ambi-r

irrefolution of

admoniftied

Cicero

therefore in all his Letters, to urge his namefake to haften his march to diem [x]. So that
the whole, it fcems reafonable to believe,,
that if Brutus and Caffius had niarched with their

pn

^irmie^
"]

De

Bnito autem

"dBi
iuc ceiti.

Qoem

bM
ego"

vatis litterisad beHum


mane

vocare

non

con^v

defiao"Sqi

"p* 3(i.
2 j. it.:|Q"
^a^in^QdaiD|"ni^if"is4pr}-

rULLIUS

ofM.

towards

armies

CICERO.
the time

at
lialy^

249
Cicero A. Urb.

when

710.

^^off"

firftpreffed
it,before the defeftion of Plancus,
and the death of Decimus,
it muft have pre- c. Cjesar
ruin of the Republic.
vented the immediate
OctaviaThe

want

plains

at

of money,

this time,

of which

'''^^

com-

evil that they Qz.*"**^^*greateft

the

as

Cicero

alfo very
ftrugglcwith, is expreflcd
in another Letter to Cornificius,the
ftrongly
Proconful of Jfric^ who was urginghim to provide
fiind for die fupportof his Legions:
a
As to the expence, fayshe, which you have
made, and are making in your military
prein
it
is
not
to
helpyou ;
parations,
my power
is
Senate
without
oecaufe the
now
a head, by

had

to

*'

**

"*

**

*'

the death of the Confuls, and there is an

**

credible

"
**
*'

**

in-

of money
in the treafury
fcarcity
;
however
which we
from
all
are
gathering
quarters, to make good our promifesto the

troops, that have

defcrved it of

us

be done

in my opinionwithout
This tribute was a fort of

cannot

bute

which
a

tri-

[y]"
tion
capitaeach
man's
to
fubftance,
tax, proportioned
but had been whollydifufed in Romey from the
conqucftof Macedonia
by Paulus jEmiliuSy
**

which

furnifhed

money

and

fufficientto

rents

cafe the

City ever after of that burthen, till the


of the prefenttimes obligedthem to
neceflity
it

renew

[z].

But from

what

Cicero intimates

of

ly] De
in

famta, quern

te

militarem facere " fe*

rem

Ao
cu

PaulIoSycum
opibusveterem

cifTedicis,nihil fane pofTum reditanam


tibi opitular),
propterea quod

pertatera

eo

pulus Romanus

IliaBpecuniaepublicae,
"c,

ftandi

"p.

fam.

[z]

At

1 2.

30.

uc

onere

f "rfpRego dcvi- N* 3}. 3.

pau-

ufque (atiafret,

illo tempore

Val. Max.

atque he*

Urbis noflrx

Senatu8" Confulibus
amiffisy" incredibilesanguSc orbus

Macedonx-

primum

potributi prsp-

fe Ixberaret.

-^

4. 3. it.Plin. Hift"

^e

"5o
A. Urb. 710.
Cic.
C
Oct

64.

of the generalaverfion

A-

wus.

(^PiDius.

the revival of it,one

to

helpobfervingthe

cannot

Cji^R ^olc'^ccand
AVI

of the Life

History

fatalcSe"ts of that in-

luxury,which

had infedtcdeven

the

in this utmoft exi-

honeft part of Roma


who,
were
gency of the Republic,

(hocked

at

the

ve-

tax ; and would


,.ymention of an extraordinary
for
not pait with the leaftfliareof their money,

the defence

of their liberty:
the confec^uenc

even

alwaysbe m the
like cafe,thatbyftarvingthecaufe,
they found

of which

was,

what

it muft

onely their fortunes

not

but their lives alfo

Cioofoon after at the mercy of their enemies.


^'
of his fpeeches,
that
ro has a reflexion in one
leems am)licable alfo

the

pre"ntcafe, wd to
verified by the example of thefe times.
The Republic,
fayshe, is attacked always
with greater vigor,than it is defended : for
the audacious and profligate,
prompted by
their natural enmity to it,are eafily
impet-

be
*'

*^

*^
^'

to

*^

led

**

whereas the honeft, I know

^'

ftir; and
to
generallyflow and unwilling
always the beginningsof things,
neglefting
roufed to exert
themtelves,but by
are
never
the laftnecefllty
: fo that throughirrefolution
and delay,wlu:n they would be gladto comfor their quiet,at the expence
pound at jaft
of their honour, theycommonly lofe
even
them both [ay

^^
*'

^^
*^

'^
"
"

to

This

aft upon

the leaft nod of their leaders :

obfervation

will ferve

conduft of Cafllus, from


and
in

which
cruelty,
exaftingmoney

he is faid

where

to

why,

are

vindicate the

chargeof violence
to have praftifed,

and other neceflariesfrom the

Cities o^^ yi/ia. He


able war,

that

not

was

engaged in

an

he muft cither conquer,

inexpi"
or

pe-

rifti
{a] Pro

Seztio. 47,

TULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

ri(h with the

251

Republicitfclf and where his Lenot


onclyto be fupportcdbut regions were
of the Empire were
warded:
the revenues
exin fparingly,
haufted ; cx)ntributions came
and

A.

the dates abroad

^vs.

tcr

I as

all defirous

were

to

doubtful! of the iffue,and

ofiend either fide* Under

(land

neu-

Urb.

^*^^f
"

qmsI^

Oct/v:a-

Q;.^**'*^'^to
unwilling

thefedifficulties
where

and no way of procuring


was
neceflary,
money
it but force,extortionbecame lawfull j the ne^
of the end juftified
the means;
and when
ceflity
the

of
^fety
at

were

This

the

Empire, and

ftake, it was

was

no

time

Cailius's way
of his adting^

oi Rome
liberty
liflento icruples.

the
to

and
reafooing,
who
appliedall

of

the

his
ground
dertaken
thoughtsta fupportthe caufe, that he had unhis
% and kept
eyes, as Appian fays"
svboUyfixt
upon tbi viar^ as a Gladiator upon bis
[^].
jlntagonifi
the other hand, bei^gof a temper
Brutus,
on
contented himmild and fcrupdou^,
more
lelf gienerally
with the regular
methods of raifing
and
\ and from his love of Philolbphy,
money
the politer
ftudies,having a"ntra"5);6dan af"difor the Cities of Grtece^ inlbead of levying
on
contributions, ufed to divert himfeU" wherehe pai"d, with feeingtbiir games and exever
at tbeir pbilp/op"ieal
dijputatrdfes^andprefidinx
than
rather for curiofity,
tioHS*9SIS if travelling
materials for a bk)odywar
[c].When
to provide
Caffius therefore met, the difference of
their circum(buioes Jbewed the difierent eife^s
and

he

of

App.

'o

KtV """"""

1. 4.

667.

dfii'

'o

710,,

;;;"
'jB$STiS3',|w

T*he History

252
A. Urb.

710.

^c ff^
C. Cjesar
Oct

A V I A-

NU8.

Q^Pedius.

of their conduft.

of the Life

Caffius, without receiving


a

rich and amply furnilhpenny from Rome^ came


e^ with all the (lores of war;
Brutus, who had

largeremittances from Italy


^Oimt
empty
and
and poor,
himfclf without
unable to fupport
^j^g i^gjp
qJ- Caflius ; who was forced to give him
received

third part of that treafure,which he had been


with fo much envy to himfelf for the
gathering

[i].

fcrvice

common

and
takingall this pains,
in the fupport
of their
thus glorioufly
ftruggling
expiringliberty, Brutus, who was
naturally
and
grined
chapeevifh
querulous,
being particularly
by the unhappy turn of affairs in Italy^
and judgingof counfils by events, was
dilpofed
all the blame upon him ; chargat laftto throw
ing
him chiefly,
tbat^ by aprofufwn
of honors on
him with an ambition,
young Ccefar^he had infpired
with the fafety
of the Republic,
incompatible
While

Cicero

and armed

was

him

with

that power, which


opprefsit: whereas

employing to
the truth is, that by thofe honors Cicero did not
intend to give Caefar any new
power, but to
apply that, which he had acquired
by his own
tony
vigor, to the publicfervice and the ruin of Anhe fucceded even
: in which
beyond expectation
and would
have gained his
certainly
;
end, had he not been preventedby accidents,
he

was

which

now

could

not

be forefeen.

For

it is evident

from the fafls above

ways
mentioned, that he was alof Ca?far,and inftead of increafing,
jealous

fome
contriving

check

till
authority,
of his
out
by the death of the Confuls, he flipt
hands, and became too ftrongto be managed by
him any longer. Brutus, by beingat fuch a diilance^
was

to

[^] Plutarcb.in Qruto.

his

^^

2^4A, Urb.

710.

Lepidus was

^Coff^abfurd
C. Cjesar

History

^^ his

and

declared

an
enemy ^ he cxpreffcd
peevifhrcfentmcnt of it, for the fake

his power

to

have

"US,

Republicwas

ever

BDius.

Father's.

an

if it would

nephews, as

OcTAviA-

ii.

of the Life

have been in

not

their fortunes,if the


repaired
if not,

reftored; or

in their

How

contrary is this to the


that old Brutus, from whom
he derived

fcent,and whom

imitate? He

to

finghonors
of them
his

in his

himfclf

to

confirmed

command,
man

any

infinitefharc

an

he had

when

feized

by

cero's
Senate, at Cihim, the moll extraordinary

what
privateauthority,
motion

to

he tended
preCicero for difpen-

blames

and

his de-

generalconduft

largely^
yet claims

too

of
fpirit

the

to

which

had

he declares himfelf

been
an

granted

enemy to all
hands Ibever

in what
commiffionsy
extraordinary
in his
they were
lodged [^] : diis inconfiftency
charafter

would

tempt
in many

us

to

cafes

believe,that

he

prideand
of his temper, rather than by any
haughtinefe
conftant and fettled Principles
of Hiilofophy,
of
which he is commonly thoughtfo ftriftan obwas

governed

the

by

ferver.

Cicero however, notwithftanding


the peeviflinefs of Brutus, omitted no opportunity
of fer-

ving and fupportinghim to


foon as he perceived
Caefaf s

the

laft:

very

intention of

as

ging
reven-

his Uncle's

death, he took all imaginable


diffuade him from it, and never
ceafed

painsto
from exhorting
him

by

Letters

to

tion
reconcilia-

with Brutus, and the obfervance of that

am-

which the Senate had decreed, as the foundation


nefty^
of the

publickpeace.

This

was

certainly
the

[^] ^go
re

cum

bcllum

certe

gcram,

regnoj $c

"

cam

hoc

ipfa ordinariis "


eft

extraimperils

dominatione

potcntia. ^Ad Brut. 17.


"

Sc

efM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

which
the bcft fervice,

Brutus, or

ing, that
him

could

he

do, either

of what

Cicero had
of

written

and

and

than

more

Atticus

Cicero had

what

once

Octayia-

he treated it as bafe and ^

of Brutus, to
imagine the fafety
his
but himfelf : and fignified
one

Cicero

that

on

pleafing,it provoked *;^"!;

difhonourable, to a(k any thingof

confirms

A. Urb. 710.

Republic;and Atticus imagin- ^^qJ^*


Brutus would be pleafedwith it, fent c. Cjksar

copy

to

to

the

inftead
: but
fubjeft
Brutu5 onelythe more:

both

2S5

boy,
depend on
a

mind

in fuch

or

upon
a

to

any

it,

ftile,
as

long before obfcrved,

declared

of

him,

that his

churhjh^unmannerlyand
generally
arrogant ; and that he regardedwither wbat^ or
he was
whom
to
writing[h]. But then* own
Letters

were

letters

to

other will be

each

the beft vouchers

of what I have been


form

remarking,and enable us to
fureftjudgment of the different (piric

the

of the

condu6t

and

had

After Brutus

men.

intinmted
frequently

fore
there-

his diflatisfedion

Cicero took
and diflike of Cicero*s management,
occafion,in the followingLiCtter,to lay open

the whole
lar's

of it,from
progrefs

death, in order

of
neccflity

and

each

CicERo
"*
**

"c

You

have

to

fhew

the time of Cje-

the rcafooablencis

flep.
to

Brutus,

Messala

now

with you.

It

therefore for me to explaneby


poflible
drawn, the
Letter, though ever fo accurately
ftate of our affairs fe ciEadily
as he,
prefent
who
not
pcrfcAonely knows them all more
than
ly, but can defcribe them more elegantly
not have you imagine,
: for I would
any man
Brutus, (though there is no occafK"n to tell
is not

"

[h] Ad

Att. 6. 1, 3.

you

^^^^^*

Tie HisTOKY

256
A.Urb.
-

710.

Cic 64.
Coff.
C. CiBSAR
OCTAVIANUS,

Q^Pedius.

you,

what

of the Life

know

you

but
alreadyyourfelf,

cellence
pafsover in filencefuch an exof all good qualities
:) I would not
have you imagine, I fay,that for probity,
and zeal for the Republic,
there
conftancy,
is any one
equalto him ; fo that eloquence,
in which he wonderfully
excells,fcarce finds
in
his other praifes
a place
: finceeven
among

that I

cannot

Ihines the mod

that, his wifdom


his

fo

himfelf with

having formed

judgement and
fpeaking. Yet

fb

much

(kill to the trueft manner


his

remarkable, and

of

all the while is


induftry
he fpendsfo much of his

ftudy,that he

time in

eminent, by

feems

his parts, which ftill


are
I am
carried too fiirby my

to

but little

to owe

the

greateft.But

love for him

for

to praifc
purpofeof this Epiftle
his
MefTala, efpecially
to Brutus, to whom
virtue is not lefs known, than to myfelf;
and thefe very ftudies,which I am praifing,

it is

not

the

whom

ftillmore:

when

I could

not

part with

without regret, I comforted myfelfwith rethat by his going away to you, as it


flefting"
fecond felf,he both difcharged
his duty, and purfuedthe fureftpathto glory.
were,

to

my

But To much

for that

[i].1

come

now,

after

[1]Publius Valerius Mcf- courfe by the TrittnwiraU^


iah Corvinus, of whom
cero yet was
Ciexcepted foon after
chahere givesfo fine a ncer,
ecli"l; but refu*
a
by fpecial
of
the
was
fed the benefit of that grace,
one
nothe inoft ao
bleftaswellas
and adhered to the caufe of
perfonsof
compliihed

his liberty,
tillhe (aw it expire
lived long after- with his friend. After the
age, who
ivards the general
Eivoriteof battelcXPbilippu
the troops
and a principalthat remained, freely
ill parties,
offered
of
ornament
mand
Auguftus^s rhemfelves to hb comwith
Being in arms
; but
Brutus,hewasprofcribedof cept peace,
court.

he
to

chofe

to

which he

ac"
was

invited

ofM, rULLIUS
cs

after a

""

""

certain Let- A. Urb

me

honors, I

was

free, and

""""
prodigal.
Qi.P""""^"with this ; others probably,
fcvere in puniftiing,
or
you

too

You

even

chargeme
with being too
with both i if fo, I defire
yourfelf
perhaps
that my judgement and fentiments on
each
be clearly
cxplanedto you : not that I
may

ioTited

Ill

and

by

the

"'

Conquerors thought by
"

farrendered bimfelf

Antony,

with whom

to

he had

feme

mean
to

excell

his mafter,in the fweet"

even

ne(s and

corre"lnefs of

his

flile; prefervingalways
particularacquaintance.

When

Caefar

defeated
was
dignity, and demonftrating
the very manner
long after by S. Pompey his noDility,by
the
ooaft
To
the
of his fpeakiog.
on
otSUiiy^ being
In the utmoft
di/lrefiand
perfe^ion of his eloquence
not

dangerof life,he
himfelf with
the

one

committed
domeftic

of Meflala
fidelity

inftead

ot

one,

his

who

he had added

all the accom"


ral
of
plifhments the other libea great admirer
arts; was

of Socrates, and the feverer


fo lately fiudies of Philofophv, yet

who

priceupon
head, generouflypro*

tefted
He

to

revenginghimfelf

had
and
proicribed fet a
on

and

prelerved him.

continued

ftill in

of Antony,
friendihip

the

til]the

fcandal of

an

eminent

Patron

ot

all the

Wits andPoets of thofe times.


Tibnilus was
the conftant

companion of all his foreign


which he cele*
expeditions,
Elegies;and

brates in his
life,and
Antonyms
opatra,Horace, in one
flavifhobfequioulnefs
to Cle-

of

his odes,

wholly calls for his choiceft wines,


of (o
into the intereftsof Caefar, for the entertainment
whom
he
Yet
this
declared
noble a gueft.
was
hjr
po*
threw

him

Confttl in Antonyms place, lite and


intrufted in the
greatly
of J^iumi
laftwith a

and

battel

honored

Triumph,

at

for

re-

docing
to

the rebellious GmuH


their obedience.
He is

celebrated
one

Momi

of
;

by

the

and

4iicipk of

710.

^'^^"

fault with

Vol..

confider

^57

in which, while you allow me


well in many
things,you find c. Cjb^ar
for one ; that in conferring
Octavia-

have done

to

"C

to
longinterval,

of yours,

ter

CICERO.

all writers,as
firftorators
of

having been
Cicero "

the
wu

amiable

man,

paired
un-

and worn
by ficknefs,
lafl
out at
by age, is faid to
have outlived his fenfes and
tillhe had forgotten
memory,
even

name.

Set

Tacit.

App.
Dial

his very

p. 611, 736.
Tibull,
8. Quintil.x.1.

Eleg. lib. I.

7. Hor

Csrm.

j.ai. Plin.Hift. N.7.14*

A. Urb. 710.

of
authority
Solon* the wifeft of the feven,and the oneJy
of them all ; Mfho ufed to fay,that
L^iflator
weal was comprizedin two things,
the public
however,
j in which
rewards and punijbments
and
certain medium
35 jn every thingelfe,a

""
"

^'

C. CiESAR
OcTAviA-

**

Kus,

c(

fiDi''*-

to

mean

^Cofl^

of the Life

lie History

258

cc

myfelfby
juftify

the

But it is
be obferved.
at this time to difcufi fo great
not
my defign
1 think it proper onely,to open
:
a ful:^e6t
in the Seand opinions
votes
the reafons of

*'

is

temperament

**
**
"*

to

my

""

from the

nate,

"*

the death of

**

blcldes

*'

what

*^

and

'^

"*
"*
*'
^*

"*
"*

of
beginning

Oefar, and thole

ous

-,

afraid of peace, and cncthe public


quiet. While thefe men
in the
to raiie irelh difturbances

we
Republic,

had

^^

pote them

though

''

eager and unanimous

V
"*
^*
*^
*^

you,

both of them

were

**

by

"*

Brutus,

tempeftI forefaw han^ng over


from a great
: you had freed us
the Republic
from the Rth
plague; wipedoff a great ftain
divine
man
people;acquiredto yourfclves
"^
glory: yet all the equipageand furniture
and
Kingly power was lefr ftillto Lepidus
the other viciAntony ; the one inconflant,
what

""

**

memoia-

foi^,
you cannot
I declared to have been omitted

mies

""

your

cfMarcbj

"'

"*

After

this war.

to

eager

guard about

no

us

to

op-

City was
it'sliberty
:
afierting

the whole

in

thought too violent 5 while you


wifely withdrew yourfelves
perhaps more
from that City,which you had delivered,
which offcrand refiifedthe helpof all Itafyy
I

was

then

itfelfin your caufe. Wherefore


when I law the Cityin the hands of traitors,
by the arms of Antony, and that
opprefled
Cafllus could be fafe in it ; I
neither
nor

ed

to

arm

you

thoughtit time for me to quitit too : for a


without the
City overpoweredby traitors,
!^

means

CICERO.

ofM. rULLIUS

259
A. Urb.

710.
is a wretched fpeitfcif,
relieving
^Cofl?*
dlacle: Yet my mind, alwaysthe fame, and
fixed on the love of my Country,could c. Cjesar
ever
it in it'sdi- Octaviabear the thoughtof leaving
not

**

of

means

*"
*'
""

ftrefe: in the midft therefore of my voyage to V^y*"'"""


^
Greeccy and in the very fcafon of the Etefian
South wind, as
winds,,when an uncommon
had driven
with my refolution,
if difpleafcd
back to ItalyI found you at Veliajand
me
reconcerned at it: for you were
was
greatly

*"

""
*"
"*

**

"*

Brutus;
treating,

""

I fay;
retreating,

were

fince your Stoicswill not allow their wifeman


I exto Rome^
fbon as I came
to fly. As
of
pofed myfelfto the wickednefs and rage
him
I had exafperated
and when

*'

**
"

Antony ;
me,
againft

**
**
"*
**
"*
**
**
*'
"'

**
"*
"'

began to

into meafures, in

enter

Brutus's,(forfuch
the
to your blood) for delivering
are peculiar
recitalof
Republic. I fliallomit the long
what followed,fince it all relates to myfelf;
Cagfar, by
and obfervc onely, that young
fubwhom, if we will confefs the truth, we
of my
fiftat thi3day, flowed from the fource
counfils, I decreed him no honors, Brutus,

the very

manner

but what

were

of the

due

but what

none

foon as
: for as
ceflary
and before
any liberty,

we

began to

were

ne-

recover

the virtue of D. Bruthat we could


*V tus had yet fliewn itfelffo far,
"*
know it*sdivine force ; and while our whole
Anto**
in the boy, who repelled
defence

"'

was

"'
**

**

ny

from

necks; what

our

reallydue
thingyet,

to

but the

but moderate.

**

command

**

able

one

!.*one" who

though I gave
of words ;
praife

was

not

him

no-

and that

I decreed him indeed a legal


which, though it fecmed honor-

*"

to

him?

honor

to
of that age, was
yet neccflary
had an army : for what is an army

without

^e

26o
"'

A. Urb
Cic

710-

6^

cc

Coff

"

C. CjESAH
*'

OCTAVIA**

VUS,

*"

*'

History

Philipvoted
of fuing
hijn a ftatue -, Servius the privilege
for offices before the legal
time ; which was
then
fhortened ftillby Servilius : nothing
was
thoughttoo much : but we are apt, I know
liberal in fear, than
in fuccefs. When
D. Brutus was
gratefull

how,

not

be

to

delivered from

"*

the moft

"*

ed

"*

his

"'

day,

"*

followed

the

**

paidthe

fame

**

alfo

mora

be

his

of all others

a day
fiege,

the

joyousto
to

City, which happenbirth day, I decreed,that


the

Ihould be afcribed for

name

ever

to

that

publicKalendars. In which I
exampleof our anceftors,who

in the

honor

to

Larentia

woman,

at whofe altar you Prieftsperformfacred rites


in the Velabrum:
by giving this to D. Bru-

**

defignwas,

tus, my
"*

of it?

the command

without

*'

"'

of the Life

to

fix in the Kalendars

perpetualmemorial of a moft acceptable


that day, that
on
viftory:but I perceived
a

"'

**
""
"'

there

was

in many
days,I

"*

it fo)on

**

quila:

more

of the Senate.

and

who

rfiofe,
who,

"*

their

""

than

During thefe

^*
"*
"

""

lame

honors

when

find fault with it, but


fear is once
over, foi^t

can

partdanger? But befides the gratefull


remembrance
of ferviccs,
there was an ule in
dcit,which reached to poftcrity
: for I was
firous, that there ihould remain

CC

gratitude,

(fince
you will have
the deceafed Hirtius,Panfa and A-

pouredout

**

**

malevolence

an

eternal

of the

publichatred to our moft


cruel enemies.
There is one thingI doubt,
which does not pleafe
you ; for it docs not
pleafeyour friends here ; who, though excellent
have but littleexperience
in
men,
to
publicaffiurs; that I decreed an watum
Caeiar : but for my part, (though
I may perhaps
monument

be

miftaken, for I

am

not

one
"

of

thofc.

A.Urb. 710.

if

"

^G"fl^

'*

CiEslE

'

conquered,we

My

votes

therefore

have

to

againft

fevere

were

againftLepidus",

fevere

furc

are

from

not

wicked

but to deter
of revenge,
fpirit
againft
from making war
Citizens at prefent
jjjgjrCountry ; and to leave an example to

any

(c

Kwa

arc

Antony

**
**

OcTAviA-

wc

none.

C.

of the Life

72^ History

262

4c
**

that
pofterity,

**

fuch

nJhnels.

more

**

which

this very

Yet

it

mine, than

**

feems, I

there

imitate

hereafter fhould

none

vote

was

not

body's: in
be fomething

every

was

to

own,

reach

to
Ihould
cruel, that the punifliment
children, who have done nothingto defcrve

"'
**
**
"

"
"

''
*'
**

and
it : but the conftitution is both ancient,
Themiftocles's chilof all Cities ; for even
and fince the
reduced to want:
dren were
falls upon
Citizens,confame punifliment
of public
crimes, how was it poflible
demned
gentletowards enemies ?
for us to be more
But how can that man
complainof me, who,

ifhe had

*'

he would

*'

have
? You
feverity
opinionsin the cafe

*"
**
**
""
**
*'
**

for

of rewards

to

to

**

whenever

**

will

your army
in the utmoft

are

you

fly

to

conquer,
dus had

have

as

going to

am

that you come


foon as pofliblc.

of you:
expeftation
all the world
fet foot in Italy^

you

(as we

for whether it be
had

been

not

punifh-

and

fentiments and
my
talk of thefe things

not

Baly with

more

of my

points,you

what
;
neceflary
fo, Brutus;
fay,is extremely
is

now

with

the motives

now

But

confefs,that

even

me

other

to

as

been.

have

We

**

treated

heard, I imagine,what

*'

"'

have

ments:

votes

needs

conquered,muft

*'

our

alreadydone,

defirous

to

lot

to

if Lepi-

overturn

all,

there will
with his friends)
for the
of your audiority,

himfelf
perifli

"

and

**

be

!*

fome
fettling

great

want

ftatcof

Cityamongft us;

or

"TULLIUS

ofM.
**

"*

if there be any
hind, haften to

CICERO.

263

ftillbedangerand ftruggle
fake

for God's

us

A. Urb. 710.

for you

^'^^4-

dependson opportunity,
q q^sak
What
I
difpatch.
diligence Octavia-

""

know, how

**

how

**

of your fifter*schildren,nus,
QiP^^*"**
you will foon know, I hope, from your mother*s and fitter'sLetters : in whofe caufe I

"*
**

much

have

**

moft dear

^^

*'

on

fhall ufe in the

**

*^

much

care

regardto

more

than, as

to me,

be, and
much

to

in

as

**
*'
'*

**

**
**

'*

delire both

to

conftant,in nothingfo

appear

lovingyou [/t]."

Brutus
**

will,which is ever
fome think, to my

but it is my

conftancy;

own

your

Cicero.

to

part of your Letter, which


Oftavius, tranfmitted to me by

read

HAVE

you fent to
Your
Atticus.

for my fafe: for it is not


pleafure

zeal and
no

me

ty gave

new

concern

but our dailynews,


to
onely common,
fomething,which you have faid or done
in the fupportof my
your ufual fidelity,
and dignity. Yet that fame part of
nor
with

the

moft

with
hoyour

fenfiblc

**

Letter

**

receive:
grief,which my mind could poffibly
fo highlyfor his
For you compliment him
fervices to the Republic: and in a ftrain fo
what fliall1
and abjcft
; that,
fuppliant
I am afliamed of the wretched ftate,
fay?

**
**
**
**

affefted

hear

me

"

""

*'
**

to

which

faid

"

which

we

are

yet it muft

reduced,"

you recomn^end
what death is

my

be

to him
i
fafety
? and
preferable

**

to

**

Ihew,
plainly

"

onelychanged. Recolledt yotur words, and deny them, if you


dare, to be the prayers of a (lave to his King.

*'
*'

but
boliflied,

that
our

our

not

fervitudc is

not

yet

a-

mafter

[I] Ad

"

Brot.

15.

There

A.

Urb.710.

^C ff^

thing,you fay,which b refrom him, that he would


quiredand expefted
of whom
allow thofe Citizens to live in fafcty,
of Rjmne think
and the people
all honcft men,

There

is

i*

^ell.

But

4c

Shall

*'

nottobclafe,

"
"

"

C. CiEs

AR

OcTAviAwus.

Q^Pedius.

of the Life

HisTour

264

**

^^

"

**

*'

**

*'
*'

**
*'

*'

**

to me
It is a pleafure
liverersof the world.
bcand it even
i
to talk thus magnificently
kdow
cither,
not
to thofe"who
me
comes
what to fear for any one, or what to a(k of
have
Can
you allow Odavius to
any one.
this power, and yet be his friend? or if you
have any value for me, would you wifli to
when I muft firftbe recomfee me
at Rome^

to

"

*'
"

"'

"

*'
"

**
*'
^'
"'

"'

it?

any

**

*'

allow

not

think all the Gods (o


I can never
my part,
of the Roman
pcoavcrfe to the prefervation
for the
pie,that OAavius muft be intreated
Citizen j much lefsfor the dcof
one
lifeo

mended

"

what, if he will

be the lefefafe for that ? It is better


For
than to be faved by him.

we

**

*'

one

be

to

the

boy,

that he would

there ? what

reafon

can

permitme

you

have

to

to beg
thank him, if you think it neceflary
to
us
of him, that he would grant and fuffer

is it to be reckoned a
kindnefs,that he chufes to fee himfelf,rather
in the condition,
to have fuch
than
live with

? or
fafety

Antony,
addrefled to him 5 one may fupplipetitions
the abobut never
indeed the fucceflbr,
cate
lilher of a tyranny, that thofe,who have dcIt
fcrved well of the Republic,
may be fafe.
more
this weaknefs and defpair,not
was
blameable indeed in you, than in all,which
firftpulhedCasfar to the ambition of reignAntoing; and after his death, encouraged
his place
of fcizing
; and has
ny, to think
raifed this boy fo high,that you judge
now

for
to addrcfsyour prayers to him
l^ itneceflary
1*

tbg

of our
of men
prefervation
can
that we
be^faved onely by
and by no
one, fcarccyetaman;

the

*'
**
*'

if

But

"

Romans^ thefc infamous

rank
other

means,

q^.]^j^

be Octavia-

to

be

not

daringto aim at dominion, than we to


encouit : nor would Antony be more
rcpcll
his
raged by Caefar*s reign,than deterred by

"

^us.

QtP^"""""

more

*'

*'

Confular Senator,
a
can
*'.fate. How
you,
**
(byfupand the avenger of fo many treafons,
"'
which, you have but poftponedour

prefling

ruin I

**

fear,for

time,) reflcft on

what

you

or
have done, and yet approve thcfe things,
bear them fo tamely,as to feem at leaft to
for what particular
grudge
them?
approve
? no other, but that he
to
had

"
*'

**
*'

you
aflumed

^*

Antony

all this

to

himfelf

that

our

lives

be prefhould be begged of hini ", our fafety


he had received his licarious,from whom
and the Republicdepend on his will

**
*'

berty;
and pleafurc.You

"
**

"*
*'
"
**
*'
^*
**
**
*'

to
thoughtit neceffary
from tyrannizing
to prevent him
take arms,
it your intent,that by
at this rate : but was
fuc to another,
preventinghim, we might

not

of it. But
an

with him

^^

we

cafymafter

**

*'

into

be advanced

perhaps

been

**

to

be free
his place,or that the Republicmight
was
? as if our quarrel
and miftrefsof itfelf
but to the conditions
to flavery,

**

"*

fufFer himfelf

would

who

might have had, not onely


in Antony, if we would have
with

content

that,but whatever

fhare

of favors and honors.


pleafed,
whofe paFor what could he deny to thofe,
of his
tience,he faw, was the beft fupport
of fuch value
? but nothingwas
government
to

us,

we

that

we

would

fell our

feith and

fqr it. This very boy,whom


^ liberty
*"

710.

^^^^"

of

the mercy

would

men

and A. Urb.

ourfelves

remembered

had

"

we

265

CICERO.

TULLIUS

ofM.

our

the
oamQ

^e

266
A. Urb. 71 c.
Cic. 64.

*^
4t
*'

Cjesar
*'

Oct

AVI

A-

11U8.

(^PiDius.

*'
tc
"'
*'
''
**

**
*'
*'

^^

*'
^'
^^
^^
**

of the Life

History

of CapCir fecms

name

of Caelar,at what rate would he value


ftroyers
^^ ^^^^^^
^^ traffic with him)
^^
^'^y ^^^"^
be enabled by our
^o
help,to maintain his
prcfent
power ", fince we have a mind to live,
^tj jQ be rich^and to be called Confulars?
in vain :
but then Caefar muft have perifhed
for what reafon had we to rejoice
at his death,
ftillto continue flaves ?
if after it,we
were
1-et other peoplebe as indolent as theypleafe
;
Goddefles
but may the Gods and
deprivemc
fooner of every thing,t;han the rdblution,
I
allow to the heir of him, whom
to
not
killed,what I did not allow to the man himin my Father,
felfi nor would fuflfer,
even
he living
were
; to have more
power than the
How
laws and the Senate.
can
you imagine,

that any one can be 6'ee under him, without


whofe leave there is no placefor us in that
for you after all,
is it poffible
obtain what you alk ? You aflc,that he
how

"*

Cityf

"

to

*^

would

**

receive

*'

life? But how

can

cc

part with

honor

you

It

"*

muft

*'

"*

or

allow

be fafe. Shall

then

we

think
fafety,
our

fecure that

receive
you, when we
receive it, if wc firft
we
and

Do
liberty?

our

Reme

the

is to be iafe?

place,which

for I was never


Iafe,
while Csefar lived,tillI had refolved on that

attempt :
as

long as

nor

I in any

I hate

into the fame


who

to me

can

allother evils.
c"

to

us

fancy,that to live at
is the thing,and not

"c

*'

incite againft
the dc-

to

placelive in exil,

and
flavery

Is not

affronts above

this to fall back

ftate of darknefs

has taken upon

him

again
when
he,

of the rant,
ty(thoughin the Cities of Greece^when
the name

the

their children alio


Tyrantsare deftroyed,
periihwith them,) muft be entreated,that
"

the

TULLIUS

o/M
**
**

CICERO.

267

the avengers of tyranny may be fafe? Can I A. Urb. 710.


wiflito fee that City, or think it a City, ^^S;
ever

^*

which would

*'

and even forced upon it,but has more


of the name
of their late King, in the

"*

not

offered,q
dread

of

it has feen that very King taken off in the


heigth of all his power by the virtue of a

**
**

**

**
**

^^

few ? As for me,


more

you

you

do

not

your Caefar,nor
will hearken to me.
to

high
to

confidence in

value

you
can

at

Octavianus.

**

recommend
indeed
You

me

any

if
yourfejf,
fet

very

the few vears, which remain


that age, if for the fake of them
on

that boy.
fupplicate

But take

care

**

after all,left what

^'

againft
Antony, inftead of
doingfo laudably
the cffcft of a great mind,
as
beingpraifed,
of your fear. For
be chargedto the account
if you arc fo pleafed
with Odbavius, as to petitionhim for our fefety,
you will be thought

**
**

"*
**
"*

not

**

wanted

**
**

**
*'

"*
"*

^*
**
""
**

"*
**
**
**

*'

to

have

you

have

done

diflikeda Mafter, but

and

are

have

to

As to your
one.
friendly
him for the things,that he has hipraifing
therto done, I intirely
approve it: for they
deferved to be praifed,
providedthat he unother men's power,
dertook them, to repell
But when you.adhis own.
not
to advance
judge him, not onely to have this power,
that you ought to fubmit to it fo far,as
out
him that he would not deftroy
us ;
to entreat
: for you
you pay him too great a recompenfe
afcribe tliat very thing to him, which the
Republicfeemed to enjoythroughhim : nor
that if
does it ever enter into your thoughts,
Odlavius be worthy of any honors, becaufe
he wages war with Antony ", that thofe,who
the very cril,of which thefe arc
extirpated
a

c^sar

perfon
itfclf;though Q^P**^*^*-

**

"*

boy, than

when
accept liberty

more

"

but

268
A. Urb. 710.
Cic. 64.
Coff.
C. Cjesar
OCTAVIANUS.

Q^Pedius.

of the Life

History

be fufEciently
never
can
itreliqucs,
quitedby the Roman people; though they
to
were
heap upon them every thingwhich
theycould beftow: but feehow much Itrongcr
fears are, than their memories, bc".
people's
As
caufe Antony ftilllives,and is in arms.
all that could and ought to be done,
to Caefar,
be recalled : is Oftavius
is paft,and cannot
then a perfonof fo great importance,that the
peopleof Rome are to cxpeftfrom him, what

but the

he will determine upon

us

that any fingle


man
little,
for

is to

for me,

As

are

we

of io

be ed
entreatmay I never

to

man,

or

?
fafety

or

I either fupplicate
you, if ever
any
reftrainthofe,who are diipoor do not
for themfelves:
do it,from fupplicating

return

fed

our

to

I will

to

remove

diftance from

all fuch,

and fancymyfelf
be flavcs,
at Romcy
where ever I can live free ; and Ihallpityyou,
who

can

whofe fond defireof life,


neither age, nor honors,
the example of other men's virtue
nor
can

moderate.

For

my

part, I (hall

ever

myfelfhappy, as long as I can pleafe


that my piety
has
myfelfwith the perfuafion,
been fully
requited.For what can be happier,

think

than for

afts,and

man,

confcious of virtuous

with

all
to defpife
liberty,
hunun affairs? Yet I will never yield
to thofe,
be conquered
who
fond of yielding,
or
arc
by thofe,who are willingto be conquered
content

themfelves; but will firft try

and

attempt

thing5 nor ever defiftfrom dragging


tends
our
Cityout of flavery.If fuch fortune at(hallall rejoice:
as I oughtto have, we
me,
if not, I (hall rejoice
myfelf. For
how could this life be fpent
better,than in
which tend to make my
V afts and thoughts,
every

"f

Country*

A.Urb.

"

710.
Cic. 6".

to

"

^e

History

the

people,to

of the Life
rcfiftthe

of
defigns

Trai-

[/]""

tors

Coff.

thefe two
Letters, we Ihall
compare
prceivein Cicero's an extenfivc view and trvie
I

C. Cjbsar
OCTAVIA-

we

judgement of things,temperedwith the greatand afFcftion for his friend,and an


eft politenefs
where he thought it neto difguft
unwillingnefs
In Brutus*s a churlifh
to blame.
even
ceflary
and morofe arrogance, claiminginfinite honors

nus,

to

Brut. 16.

[/]Ad

There

N. B.

"

is

in BrutusV

indeed

Letter

to

he intimates

Atticus, wh^rc
t

inconiiflent with every


paflage word, that Cicero had been
and

reafon of his

tainly
cer-

was

juftone, ifthe fad of


which he complainshad been
a

ha^i

Cicero

that

trne;

Cafca with the


froacbed
ism
write

called

I can
wbat
tbe
tbat
but
tbis^
you

umbition

and

of
lUintioufnefs

boybas been

fber tban

in

of

from

the

Caefar^s death:

and

relation

Cafca,

to
particularly

have feen above,


he refufed to enter into

how

we

of the
quiet pofTeffion

take

not

layshe,
to

doing

been

tny meafures with 0"bavius"


tion
condibut upon the exprefs
Caica to
of his fuffering

re-

muT"

Affajfin,I do

an

kmwt

tbe

and

of C^far^

iber

every a"l, that

he had
time

complainta-

Cicero,which
gainft

faying,and

inflamed^

fore,
Tribunate : it is certain therethat Brutus
been

mifinfbrmed,

chargingCicero

ra-

had either
or

with

Cicero^ confequential meaning


reftrainedhj

was

the
of

which was neof fome faying,


ver
indulgence
not
Hm
intended by hini; in adas
to fucb a lengtb,
nage
$0 refrain
abufes
from
upon
vifingCafca perhapsto maturn
Oflavius,in thatheigtk
Cafcayandjucby as mufi retobo
of
his
per
tembimfelf,
doubly
upon
power, with more

tobo carries bis

Citihas put to deatb more


and moderation, lefthe
tban
ihould
otherwife be provoked
andmuftfirft
zens,
one,
cton

be an AJfaJftn,
to
bimfelfto

be
before
witb

can

fobat

Cafca,
reproacb
be objeBs
to bim.

fBp.ad Brut.

17.]Manutias

himfelf
profefles

unable

confider him

and
an

treat

intimation

would

to

have

Cicero Jbould takingit as

call

yet
Jefs

Sut

Cafca a murtberer

as
as

of

anAffaffin^
fuch:

for

that kind

been fufficientto

of
the fiercefpirit

conceive, how
iver

him

Brutus,for

dire^l condem*

nation of Cafca^s a"i of ftab-

thing bingCaefar,to which Cicero


had alwaysgiven the higheft
from
Brutus's words.
the thingis impolEblej applaufe.

cannot

colledl any

CICERO.

"TULLIUS

ofM.

"71

himfelf,
to any body clfe-, A. Urb. 710.
yet allowingnone
and diftating
to one,
as much
chiding
infbkntly
^^^^^'
wildom
in
he
in
to him
as
was
fuperior
years ; c. C^.sar
of Octaviamaxim
the whole turningupon that romantic
enforced without any regardto times JL^^,
tbe Slates,
ediv".
^
has a fuffiand circumftances : that a wifeman
vnthin himfelf.
There are indeed
0ency of all things
many noble fentimcnts in it worthy of old
to

have

Cicero

which

Romcy

recommended

in

proper feafon would

warmly as

he

they
not principles
to aft upon in a conjunfture
were
io critical; and the rigidapplication
o\ them h
as

yet

the lefsexcufable in Brutus, bccaufe he himfelf


did not alwayspraftife
what he profeflfed
; bat
too

was

apt

forgetboth

to

the Stoic and

the

Rofnan.

had

OcTAVius

of the

Gicy,and

dian he

marched

no

fooner fettledthe aflTaift

fubdued the Senate


back

towards

to

his

Gaul,

to

mind,
meet

Antony and Lepidus; who had alreadypaflcd


the jilps^
in
and broughttheir armies into Italy,
interview with him ;
order to have a perfonal
which had been privately
concerted,for fettling
die terms
of a triple
league,and dividingthe
of the Empire among
power and provinces
themfelves. All the three

were

natural enemies

for Empire ;
Competitors
what could not
to pofleis,
Aiming feverally
to

each other

obtained

and
be

but with the ruin of the reft: their

meetingtherefore was not to eftablifhany real


amity or lafting
concord, for that was impoffifor the
ble, but to fufpendtheir own
quarrels
their
forces to opprefs
and with common
prefent,
and the
enemies, the friendsof liberty
common
Republic;without which all dieirfeveral hopes
be blaftand ambitious views muft inevitably
cd.
The

He

272
A.Urb.

^c
C.

of the Life

History

placeappointedfor the interview,was


ff*' ^ ^^'' IJland^about two miles from Bonoma
710.

C-KSAn

OcTAviA"us,

Q^Pbdius.

The

the river Rhenus^ which

"formed

near
runs
to
by
of their
that City ["]: here they met, as men
without
charadler mull neceffarily
not
meet,
of danger from each oand fufpicion
jcaloufy
ther, beingall attended by their choiceft troops,

Legions, difpoledin feparate


tered
camps within fightof the Ifland. Lepidusenit the firft,
as an
equalfriend to the other
clear,and free
to fee that the placewas
two,
from treachery;and when he had given the
vanced
fignalagreedupon, Antony and Oftavius adbanks of the river,
from the oppofite
into the Ifland by bridges,which
and paflTed
they left guardedon each fide by three hundred
Their firfl care, inflead of
of their own men.
embracing, was to fearch one another, whether
they had not broughtdaggersconcealed under

each

five

with

their cloaths

and when

took

Odtavius

ver,

two,

that ceremony was


ohis feat betwixt the other

in the moft

honorable

place,on

the

ac*

of his

beingConful.
I N this fituation theyfpentthree days in a
the plan of their ac*
clofe conference,to adjuft

count

commodation
the Three

of which

the fubfbnce

fhould

be

invefled

was,

that

with
jointly

fii-

for the term


of five years, with
preme
power
the titleof Triumvirs^forfettUng
tbeftate
ofthe
: that they fhould
Republic

confent,nominate

common

Governors
termine

both

at

home

a"b in all cafes


the

and

by
and
Magiflrates

abroad, and de*

all afiairsrelating
to the

publicby

their

fole will and

have for

that Odtavius
fhould
pleafure:
his peculiar
province,
^nV, with Si-

[n1 Vid. ClaTcr. Ital"Antiq.L

i*

c.

28. p.

187.

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

273

ofthe Medi- A. Urb. 710.


diyj Sardinia^and the other IJlands
with the Narbonefe ^'^'
terranean
Spairiy
; LepiduSy
^*
Gauhy Antony, the other two Gauls on both.c.Cjesar
fides of the Jlps : and to put them all upon a Octavia^^*"
that Odavius
level,both in titleand authority,
for^^^^'^**
fhould refignthe Confulfliip
to Ventidius
the remainder of the year : that Antony and
the war
0"5tavius fhould profecute
Brutus
againfl
Calfius,each of them

and

the head of

at

twentyLemons; and Lepiduswith three Legions


be leftto

guardthe City: and at the end of the


Cities or Colonies the beft and
that eighteen
war,
richeft of Italy together
with their lands and
j

fliould be taken from


diftrifts,

their owners,
and afligned
of the
to the perpetual
poffeffion
the reward of their faithful ferviccs.
as
foldiers,
Thefe

to their feveral
publilhed
received by them with acclamations
for this happy
mutual gratulations

conditions

armies,and
of

joy, and

of their Chiefs

union

which

be confummated

agreed to

at

ratifiedlikewife

the foldierswas
and

were

the defire of

by

between

marriage,
Oftavius

Claudia, the daughterof Antony's wife

Fulvia,by
The

her firfthufband

P. Clodius.

the
was
thingthat they adjufted,
ned
determiwhich theywere
profcription
lad

liftof

to

make

of their enemies.

writers tell us,

occafioned much

warm

contefts amongft them

in his

turn

This,

as

the

and
difficulty

tilleach of them

iacrificefome of his beft;


friends to the revenge and refentment of his
CoUegues. The whole liftis faid to have con{i^cA ofthree hundred Senator s^ and two tboufand
confented

to

to die for a crime the moft


Knights
; alldoomed
to Tyrants,their adherence to the
unpardonable
caufe of liberty.
They referved the publication
liftto their arrivalat Rome^ cxof the general
T
IIL
VoL.
ccpting

^^

274
A, Urb.
Cic.

C.

Oct

710.

64.

I s T

of the Life

ceptingonclya few of the moft obnoxious ; the


of the Republicanparty, 2Lhom fevenleen
Heads
i^ ^'^ i ^^^ chief of whom

Cmsak
AVI

A-

^^8"

Q;,Pedius,

they mark'd

for immediate

out

Cicero.

was

Thefe

deftruftion

and

fent their Emiflaries away direftly


to
furprize
^^^ murther them, before any notice could reach
of their danger : four of this number

them

taken
prefently

and

their friends -, and

were

killed in the company


of
the reft hunted out
by the

privatehouies and temples; which


filled the City with an
univerfal terror
prefently
and confternation,as if it had been taken by
foldiers in

enemy

an

fo that the Conful Pcdius

forced

was

the ftreets all the

about

night,to quiet
the minds and appeafethe fears of the people;
the names
and as foon as it was
lightpubliftied
of the fevehteen who
were
principally
fought
of
with
affurance
and
an
for,
fafety
indemnity
to

run

to

all others

but he himfelf

fo (hocked

was

and

work,
fatigued
by the horror of this night's
be died the dayfollowing
[0].
W

have

hint from

no

remain

(for none

his fentiments

what

the three
in

Chiefs;

or

paffedto
dus

ters
any of Cicero's Letof fo low a date)
us

were

this interview of

on

what

confequenccof

forefee that it muft

to

refolution he had

it.

He

could

cxpeftedthe

But

apprehend, it is

needs be fatal to him

whatever

he had

certain that it was

avoid it, by going over


Macedonia : but he feems to have

jp- 326.

but

not

if it
,

Antony and Lepihad feveral times declared,


that he
laft feverity
from them, ifever they

got the better.


to

lo]App.

ken
ta-

the fatisfaftionof

for he

power

that

1. 4. init. Dio.
Plttt. in Anton.
U

caufe

to

ftillin his
to

Brutus

in

thought that
remedy

Cicero. Veil. Pat. 1.

65.

ofM. rULLIUS
remedy worfe

CICERO.

27s

than the evil -, and

had fo great A. Urb. 710.


abhorrence of entering
^^5;
again,in his advan-

^"

an

Cj^sar

ccd age, into a civil war,


and fo litde value for
q
the few years of life which
remained
to
him, Octaviathat he declares it a tboufand
times better to die^ n.^zs.

than

the

Was

to

he QiP^"*'^*; and
[/"]
what might happen

feek bis Jafety


from camp

to

indifferentabout

more

his fon

himfelf,fince

all immediate

from

removed

was

danger, by being alreadywith

Brutus.
The

Hiftorians endeavour

old

to

perfuade

did

that

not givehim up to the


us,
Cafar
revenge
the
bis
without
reluSlance^
CoHegues
of
greatest

and

afteraftruggle
oftwo daysto prefervehim [j];

but all that tendernefs

and
artificial,

was

aflumed, to
of him.

give the better color


For Cicero's death was

of their union

and
,

the

to

part

his defertion

the natural effect

facrifice to
neceflfary

intereft of the Three

common

thofe who

muft come
determined
deftroyliberty,
him ; fince his authority
to deftroy
was
too great
had
to be fuffered in an enemy
experience
", and
fliewn,that nothingcould make him a friend to
the oppreffors
of his country.
C iE s A R therefore was
with it undoubtedly
pleafcd

met

to

much

as

as

the reft ; and

when

his

was
over-ruled,fliewpretendedfqueamiflinefs
cruel and bloody
in urging the
cd himfelf more
than either of the other two
[r].
Profcription,
T
2
Nothings

[p] Rcipnb.vicemdolebo,ib. i6. 7.


quae
mihi

immortalis

tfft debet

quidem quantulum reliqui


[ad Brut, x ] irtor
eft?

crgo

in caftra ? millies mori

melius, huic

seta*
praefertim
fed
a22]
longe a

ti: [ad Att. 14.


belTe hanc aetatem

fepulchronegant

oportere.

[f] Plutar. in
Pat.

2.

Cicer. Veil*

66.

[r]RcftititaliquandiuCollegis,ne

qua

fieret profcrip-

tio, fed

inccptatn
utroquc

cerbius

exercuit,kQ.

Aug. 27*

a^

Suet"

^e

s.y6

of the Life

History

NothingsfaysVelleius was fo /bamefulon tbii


be forced
to profcribe
as that Ca/arJhould
^r fl-^*occafton^
^^^^ Cicero efpecially
^^
Jhouldbe pro^^y ^^^
C. C^sAR
by him [j]. But there was no force in
OcTAviAfcribed

A.Urb, 710.

"

Nus,

Q;.Pedius.

the cafe:

for tho%

jq

as

extort,

to

it were,

fave Casfar's honor, and


Cicero from him, Lepidiu

brother^ Paullus
gave up his own
his uncle, L. Caefar, who were

alJyput

and

ny
Anto-

both aftu-

into the lift; yet neither of them

loft

their lives,but were


proteftedfrom any harm
by the power of their relations [/].
I

we

look back

view of the condudt

litde,to take a general


of tbefe
Triumvirs^ we Ihall
a

fee Antony, roufed at once


by Csefar's death
and debauch, and a
from the midft of pleafure

Ca^far^s power,
to
abjed.obfequioufnefs
and purforming the true planof his intereft,
fuing it with a furprizing
vigor and addrefs j
tillafter many and almoft infuperable
difficulties,
he obtained the fovereign
dominion, which he
aimed
at.
Lepidus was the chief inftrument
that he made ufe of; whom
he employed very
himfelf in
at home, till he found
fuccefsfully
condition to fupporthis pretentions
alone, and
then fent to the other fide of the Alps^that in
cafe of any difafter in Italy^
he might be provided
with a fecure refource in his army.
By
moft

this management
that
artfully,

he

had

ordered

his afiairsfo

by conqueringat Modena^ he
would have made himfelf probablythe file
Maing
fierof Rome ; while the onelydifference of beconquered, was to admit two partners widi
him

[i] Nihil
illo

tempore

tam

indignum

fuit
,

quara

Cacfar aliqucm pro2uod


3'ibere coa^us
ab
eft^
aot

aut

illo Cicero
Veil. Pat.

eft.
profcriptns
2.

66.

[/] Appian. 1.
I"io. 1. 47. 330.

4.

61 o,

^the History

278
A- Urb.

710.

^ ^
C.

C^sAE

OcTATiA*^'*'

C^Pedivs.

of the Life

the Sifter of
His wife was
try and himfclf.
M. Brutus, and his true intereft layin adhering
*^^^ alliance

^^

for if, by the advice of Late-

renlis,he bad joinedwith

Plarxus

and

D.

Bni-

and

give libertyto
j^^^j^^ jj^g n^rjj ^f jjja^ fervice,added to the
dignityof his familyand fortunes,would nehave made him the firftCitizen of a free
ceilarily
Republic. But his weaknels deprivedhim of
that glory: he flattered himfclf,that the firft
which he feemed at prefent
Iharc of power,
to
would give him likewife the firftfliare
pofleis,
of Empire : not confidering
that military
power
and abilitiesof him
depends on the reputation
it: in which, as his CoUegues far
who
poilelies
excelled him, fo they would be fure alwaysto
and whenever
cclipfe,
theythoughtit proper,
This he found afterwards to
to
deftroyhim.
be the cafe : when Ca^far forced him to b^ his
life upon hb knees, though
at the head of twenty
him from that dignity
vMch
Legions; ar.d de^ofed
be knew not how tofujlain
["].
Cicero
his Tufculan
at
ViUa^ with his
was
Brother and Nephew, when he firftreceived the
and of their being inof the Profcripicny
cluded
news
the dcfign
in it. It was
of the Triumvirate
the moto keep it a fecret,if polEblc,
to
of execution ; in order to furprizc
ment
thofe,
whom
they had deftined to deftrudtion,before
of the danger,or had time to
they were aware
efcape.But fome of Cicero's friends found means
to
givehim earlynotice of it ; upon which he
phew
with his Brother and Nefet forward prefently
towards AJlura\ the neareft Villa which
tus

to

opprelsAntony,

he
\u] Spoliata^
quam
Pa?. ^. 8,

tu^ri non

VcU*
poterat^dignita?.

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

upon the fea ", with intent to


of the reach
themfelrcs
out
direftly
he had

But

enemies.

A.
tranfport

of

with his fon

voyage,

Romey

to

refolved

to

c.

ly- ^^

ing concealed there,tilltheycould providemo- ^


ney and neceflaries for their fupportabroad.
in the mean
while found a vel^l ready
Cicero
in which
for him at yijlura,
he prefendyembarked
the winds beingcrois and turbulent
: but
and the fea whollyuneafyto him
after
he had failed about two
leaguesalongthe coaft,
he landed at Circteum^ and fpenta night near
tliatplacein great anxiety
and irrefolution: the
queftionwas, what courfe he fhould (leer ; and
whether be Jhouldflyto Brutus^ or to Caffius^
or
to S. Pompeius; but afterall his deliberations
him fo much as the expedient
none
of tber^ pleafed
: fo that, as Plutarch
fays,he had
ff dying[x']
iome thoughtsof returning
to the City,and killingbimfelfin Cefat^shoufe; in order to leave
the guiltand curfe of his blood upon
CaeCir's
the importunity
: but
perfidyand ingratitude
with him to failforof his fervants prevailed
wards
he went
to Cajeta
againon fhore,
\ where
himfelf in his Formian
Villa^about a
to repofe
mile from the coaft ; weary of life
and the fea 5
that he would die in that Country
and declaring^
which he had fo often
faved\^y'\.Here he flept
T 4
foundly
,

[^] Cremutius
Ciceroni

Cordus ait,

ad fupcrioremvilgrcfTufque

lam, qaae paulloplus mille


cogirnflety
mari abcli, mortar
a
an
Caflium, paffibus
unmnne
an
S.PompcIum petcrct, ominquitin patria^ f"epeferva^
nia difplicuiHe
ta, Lv.
Fragm. apud Senec.
praeter mor,

cum

Brutum

tcm.

[y] Taedium
He

fug"

Suafor.

Suafor. 6.

Scnec.

vii"

tandem

com

ccpit

re*

Cic,

i.

Cjesar

Octavia-

turn

in confidence of

Urb. 710.

^p p'

their

Quintus beingwhollyunprepa-

red for fo fuddcn


back

279

vid. it. Plqtaff"

^^^^^'

28o
A.

Urb.

710.

^c ff^

of the Life

History

foundlyfor

fcveral hours

tho%

as

writers

fome

flutof Crows
were
8^^^ number
teringall the while, and making a ftrange
noife about his windows, as if to roufe and

^^'
**

C. CjESAR

"

OcTAviA-

*"

Nus,

"c

warn

C^^Pedius.

4j

^^^

"*
*"
"'

^*

him

of his

of them

approachingfate ;

and that

into the chamber,


and pulled
away his very bed-cloaths ; tillhis
flaves,admonifhed
by this prodigy,and a(hamed

to

made

its way

fee brute

creatures

more

foUici-

fafetythan themfelves, forced


him into his Litter,or portable
Chair," and
carried him away towards the (hip,thro* the
private
ways and walks of his woods ; having
into
juftheard that foldiers were alreadycome
the country in queilof him, and not far from
diers
the Villa. As foon as they were
gone, the folhim
arrived at the houfe ; and perceiving
towards the iea,
to be fled,purfuedimmediately
**

tous

for his

"*

and

overtook

in the wood.

him

Their

Leader

Lsenas, a Tribun, or Colonel


Popilius
of the army, whom
Cicero had formerlydefended
and preferved
in a capital
cauie. As foon
the foldiers appeared,the firvants
as
prepared
their
to fight being
to defend
themfelves
refolved
cero
at the hazard of their own
: but Cimafier^s
life
commanded them tofet
him down^ and to make
no refinance
[z]: then lookingupon his executioners
with a prefcnce
and firmnefi,which almoft daunted them, 'and thrufting
his neck, as
forwardlyas he could, out of the Litter, he bad
them do their workj and take what theywanted:
upon which theyprefendycut off bis Head^ and
was

one

both

[z]

Satis conftat fervos

fonitcr fidcliicrquc
paratoa

pati, quod Tors iniqaacoge*


ret,

fuiflead dimicandum

flcponi
leflicam,A

^uietQS

Liv. Fragment*
juffiffc.

I'pfbm ibid*

ofM.
both

bis bands

281

CICERO.

TULLIUS
and

returned widi

in

them

all A. Urb. 710.

joy towards Romej as the tnojl ^^^


^"
prefentwbicb theycould pqffibly
agreeable
carry to c. c^esax
chargedhimfelf with the con- OctaviaAntony. Popilius
the infamyof caron
veyance, without reflcfting
^^'
^P"""u*wbicb
bis
that
bad
beady
own
:
\^a]
faved
tying
found Antony in the Forum,
furrounded
he
with
guards and crouds of people; but upon
ihewing from a diftance the fpoilswhich he
brought, he was rewarded upon the fpotwith
and about eigbttboufand
the honor of a Crown
poundsfterling.Antony ordered tbe bead to be
fixedupon tbe Roftra^between tbe two bands : a
what drew tears
fad fpeftacle
to the City ; and
from every eye -, to fee thofe mangled members,
themfelves
fo glorioufly
ufed to exert
which
tunes,
in defence of the lives,the forfrom that place,
and the libertiesof the Rotnan people,fo
lamentablyexpofed to the fcom of Sycophants
and Traitors, ^e deatbs of tbe reft^
faysan Hi-,
ftorian of that age
caufedonelya privateand
one
particular
forrow\ but decrees an univerfal
[]?]: it was a triumph over the Republicitfelf;
hafte and

great

and

feemed

to

eftabliih the tual


perpeAntony coniidered it as

and

confirm

of
(lavery

Rome.

fuch, and iatiatedwith Cicero's blood, declared


the

at an
Profcription

end.

He

J^a}Ea

Sarcinaytanqnam

ahcer in urbem
opimis fpoliis

fcverfus eft.
fiam

Neqai

ei fcele-

ezcitaverunt;
privatosluftns
lUa

ona

mutius

communem

Cordus.

[Crc*
apud Senec]
"

onus
portanti

non
fuccarrit, Civita lacrymastenere
recifnm
CiceiUud fe caput ferre,quod pro
potuit,qunm

capiteejus auondam
verat.

Val. Max.

perora-

5. ).

[^]Csterorumqqccanlea

ronis caput in illisfuis Ro"

ftrisvideretHr.h* Flor.4. 6.

Tie

282
A-

Urb.

710.

^c ff*
C.
Oci

Cjesar
AviA-

He
*bout

after

and

monthsy

Life

of

fettlement

the

the

three

fixty

YwtA

had

he

the

fiventh (/December

the

on

from

days

umvirate;
eleven

killed

was

ten

(f

History

Tri-

years

five days [c].

wus,

Q.

Pedius.

Vid.

Plutar.

in

Cic.

^.

Dio.

601

I.

47.

Veil.

Pat.

apud

Scaec.

2.

64

Liv.

Fragm.

Appian.

Pighii Annal.

ad

A.

4.

SECT.

p.

530.

U.

710.

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

SECT.

ftoryof

TH

after it -, and

ages

XII.

Cicero's death continued frefh


of

the minds

on

283

the

for many

Romans

delivered down

was

to

pofte-

ritywith all its circumftances,as one of the moft


and memorable
of their Hiftory:
events
affefting
lb that the fpot,on which
it happened, fcems
have

to

been vifited

by

travellers with

kind of

reverence
[jj. The odium of it fell
religious
on
chiefly
Antony ; yet it lefta ftain of perfidy
and ingratitude
alfo on
Auguftus : which explanesthe reafon of that filence,which is obfcrved about him, by the writers of that age ;
and
is not fo much
mentioned
as
why his name
cither by Horace
pr Virgil. For
though his
charafter would have furniihed a gloriousfubjeftfor many noble lines,yet it was no fubje6t

for Court
muft

Poets

have

while
whofc

fince the very mention


of him
latircon the Prince ; efpecially

a
beeij
Antony lived

Court, it was

the

among

falhionable

Sycophants of

to

infult his

mory
me-

of

calumny that wit


and malice could invent:
nay Virgil,on an occaiion, that could hardlyfailof bringinghim to
his merit,
his mind, inftead of doing juftice
to
rather to Rome
choie to do an
itfelf,
injultice
of eloquenceto ibe
the fuperiority
by yielding
Greeks
which they themfclves had been forced
to yield
to Cicero [*].
by all

the methods

Livy

[tf]SacpcClodio
ncm

expeUenti"

Occident!,
8en

de ira.

yidcmur
2.

2.

Cicero-

th^/ViS
^eiov^ii^yi^eittF

^^H"fiJhv.
App. p. 600.
caufas xncUOrabunt
irafci.
[^]"

Antonio

us,

Ssc.

^n.

6.

849.

^e

^84

History

of the Life

however, whofe

LivY

ftus callhim

candor

made

Pompeian [r],while

to the times,
plaifance

he feems

to

Auguof

out

coi"-

the

extenuate

crime of Cicero's murther, yet after a high encomium


of his virtues,declares,that to praife
the eloquence
defcrved^
required
of Cice^
ro
hi7nfelf\d\Auguftustoo, as Plutarch tells
day to catch his grandfon
us, happeningone
readingone of Cicero's books, which, for fear
the boy endeavoured
of the Emperor'sdifpleafure,
bim

he

as

took

hide under his gown,

to

the book

into

his hands, and turning over


a great part of it,
a learned
gave it back again,and laid, this was

cbildjand

lover

ofbis country[e],
IN
as the particufucceedinggeneration,
lar
envy to Cicero fubfided,by the death of thofe"
intereftsand perfonal
had
whom
quarrels
private
engaged to hate him when living,and defame
and memory
him when dead, fo his name
began
in it*sproper lufter:and in the reign
to fliineout
of Tiberius,when an eminent Senator and
even
my
the

many

HiftoT. Livius

[r]

"

Pompeium

Cn.

""

tantift laodibus

ing

day

one

had

which

hoafe,
belongedto Cato"
mafter of it"out
in the

Tacit,
Auguftus appellaret.

the
where
of complimentto

Ann

Rucft" took occafion

Poropeianum

at
tulit".

4. 94[/| Si qnistamen

bus vitia
nus,

"

memorabilis

in cujus laudes

There
fame

vit.

Cicer.

coCato:

re-

perverfenefs,
fay-

of bis
zen^

the

goodcitibut by
man:
boneft

Cify, toss
and

conftitutui9n
a

this chara6ler of Cato*s ho-

nelly,hegaveafevere woand
his own"
who not onely
to

dory of the
by Machangedbut ufurpedthe gofliew Augu(lus*s vernment
of his country,
with regardalfo Macrob. SaturQ* l* 4*

is another

moderation

to

ftoppedhim fliortby

fequendas no change in

Icind recorded

crobius, to

Cato's

on

his great

fuit, ing, that be wbi would fuffer

laudatore opus fufrit. Liy. Fragment, apud


Senec. Suafor. 6.
Plutar.

he

ma^-

Cicerone

[e]

fled

virtuti-

vir
peniarit,

acer,

eum

that

Auguftus be-

5^^ History

ft86

near

three

reverence

him

rors,
to

ties

[h]:

this

of the Life

after his death, began


in the clafs oftheir inferior
Dei*

centuries

rank,

which

he would

have

prefer-

if he had

happenedto live in
as
Papal Rome^ where he could not have failed,
Erafinus fays,from the innocence of his life^
of
obtainingthe honor and tide of a Saint [f].
he was talland flender,
As
with
to his perfon,
neck particularly
a
long; yet his features were
a comelinefs and
regularand manly ; preferving
dignityto the laft,with a certain air of chearfulthat imprinted
both afFeftion
nefs and ferenity,
and rcfpeft
[*j. His conftitution was naturally
weak, yet was fo confirmed by his management
all the fatigues
of it, as to enable him to fupport
ved

to

day,

of the moft aftive, as well

as

the moft

ftudious

health and vigor.The


life,with perpetual

care,

ly
employed upon his body, confifted chiefin bathing and rubbing,with a few turns
every day in his gardensfor the refrelhment of
his voice from the labor of the bar [/]: yet in
the fummer, he generally
gave himfelf the exercife of a journey,to vifithis feveral eftatesand
villa'sin different parts of Italy. But hi^ principal
that he

of health, was

mftrument

terminos in

tantum

vifTe,quam

Imperii. Plin.

promo-

Hift. 7. 30.

Qui
arma

viceramu8"

quorum
in-

Veil. P.

innocenter

tranfadiam,pro
Erafm.

tempe-

rance:
pieqae

Divis hono-

Ciceronian.

vcrf. fincm.

[i]Eiquidem fades

eorum

34-

ra

ad

deco-

fenec^tutem,profpera-

pcrmanfitvaletudo. Afiil*
rolJ. apud Scncc. Suafor. 6.
qae

[bl Lamprid. vit.


Sever,

vitam

rantur.

effecit,nc

geniovinceremur.
2.

bb

diet and

Alex.

arbitror, fi
[/] Quem
Chriltianam philofophiam
di-

[/] Cum recreanda voca1" caufa, mihi ncccflc effet


arobulare.
Ad Att. 2. 23*

in
diciflct,

Platar. in vit.

c.

cenfendum

31.

eorum

numero

fuijQe,qui

nunc

TULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

287

himfelf from all viby thefe he prefervcd


when
olent diftempers
he happened to be
; and
attacked by any flight
ufed to enforce
indifpoficion,
of his abftinence,and ftarve rt
the fcverity
[m].
by falling
prefently
rancc

his cloaths and

ufuallyconfidered

drels, which

as

the wife have

index of

an

the

mind, he

in his book of ofprefcribes


ficesya modefty and decency, adapted to his
charadler : a perpetualcleanlineis,
and
rank

obfervcd,

what

he

of pams

the appearance

without

free from

the

Angularity
; and
tremes
avoidingthe exof a rufticnegligence,
cy
andfoppilhdelica""]: both of which are equallycontrary to
true
or
dignity; the one implyingan ignorance,

aflfeftationof

aUberal

prideand
fions
I

it ; the other

oftentation of

his domeftic and

proclamingour

childi(h
prcten-

it.

to

very amiable

was

of

contempt

he

fecial life,
his behaviour
was

moft

indulgentparent,

zealous friend,a kind and generous


His Letters are full of the ten-

fincere and

matter.

of his love for his children ; in


exprelfions
whofe endearing
as he often tellsus,
converfation,
he ufed to drop all his cares, and relieve himfelf
in the Senate and the Forum
from all his ftruggles
[0]. The fame afRdlbn, in an inferior
degree,was extended alfo to his flaves j when
by

dereft

l^a\Cam
ka
oaam

biduam
^uidem

jejunusfuiflem, ut ne aquidem gufbram. "p.

ftiin. 7.

["}
"on

nimis

26. vid. Plutar.


Adhibenda

odiora, neque
; tantum

qua

habenda

vcftitus:in quo"

1.36.

["?]Ut

monditia

cxquiftta habeam,
fugiata-

greftem " mhttmtnam


negeft
Eadcm
ratio
ligentiam.

fi-

rebus, modicut in plerifque


ocricas optima eft. De offic.

"

re,
cerone
1.

18"

tantum

quantum

rcquictis
cum

" mcUito
filioia,

confmnitur.

Ad

uxo-

Ci-

Act.

of the Life

The History

288

their

by

themfelves

it

We

mended
recom-

have feen

whofe

cafe

otherwife different from the reft,than as


of his
by the fuperiority
diftinguiihed

no

was

his fevor.

to

had

they

inftance of it in Tiro

remarkable

fervices

and
fidelity

was

merit.

In

of his Letters

one

Atticus, / have

to

fays he, to write ; and my mind


more^
nothing
indeed isJomewbat ruffled
atprefentfor SocitbeuSy
is dead
a bopefull
youth; which has
my reader
would imagine^the
than one
more
me
affii"led
death of a Jlaveought
to do [ /"].
H E entertained very high notions of fricndman
Ihip", and of it's-excellent ufe and benefit to huilluftratedin
life', which he has beautifully
treatife on that fubjed; where
his entertaining
other rules,than what he exhe laysdown
emplified
no
by his prafticc.For in all the variety
in which his eminent rank engaof friendfhips,
ged
him, he was never
chargedwith deceiving,
whom
he
or
even
flighting
deferting,
any one,
,

had

once

neft

man.

called his fi-iend,


or
It

to
profperity,

friend

to

was

his

efteemed

ho-

an

delightto advance
their adverfity
; the

relieve

both fortunes ; but

zealous

more

their
lame

onely

in the bad, where his helpwas the moft wanted,


and his fervices the moft difinterefted; looking
upon it not as
and merchandize

but
friendfhip,

traffic
fordid
good offices

where
of benefits
to be weighedby a nice eftimate of gain and
are
lofs [^]. He callsgratitude
the mother of virj

tues ;

[p] Nam

apucr fcftivus,
Sofitheus
noHer,
nagnoftes
decefTerat,
plusquam
meque

fervi

mors

commoveraC.

debere
Ad

amatur
i.

non

fi ad frudtam

18] quam

noftrum

Att.

gimus,

^d

tJa? "

[deleg.
peftorc.

referemu8"

videbiatur,
ilHas commoda"

12.

[f] Ubi

toto

iliafan6^aamici'
amicus
ipfe

1.

fuarum.

44..

quem

ad
dili-

erit iltaamicitia*

mercatura

latum

per ti 91.

non

noD

qusedamotilN
JDcNacDe^

ofM. rVLLIUS
tues'9 reckons

CICERO.

289

it the moft

of all duties;
capital
and ufes the words, gratefull
and good^as terms
united in the fame
fynonymous,and infeparably
charadter. His writingsabound with fentiments
of this fort, as his lifedid with the examplesof
them
[r]\ fo that one of his friends,in apologizing
for the importunityof a requcft,
ob-Icrves

to

of
with great truth, that the tenor
be a fufficientexcufe for it ; fince

him

his lifewould

he had eftablifhed fuch

cuftom, ofdoingevery

that theyno longer


thing
for bisfriends^
requeftedj
but clamed a right
him [j].
to command
Yet
he was
not more
generous to his friends,
than placable
to his enemies
; readily
pardoning
the greateft
fubmiffithe
injuries,
flighteft
upon
had greater abilities
on
man
ever
; and though no
of revenginghimfelf,yet
or
opportunities
when itwas
in his power to hurt, he foughtout
reafons to forgive
he was invited
5 and whenever

Z^"?to it,never

declined

inveterate enemies

reconciliationwith his moft


of which

there

are

numerous

infrances in his

He declared nothingto
hiftory.
be fnore laudable and worthyof a great man^
than
for a natural duty,
laid itdown
placability
\ and
to moderate our
a
temper in
revenge^ and obferve
pumjhingsand held repentanceto be afuffident
of his
one
groundfor remttingit: and it was
fayings,delivered to a publicaflembly,that his
U

[r] Cum
bus

me

tamen

omhibtis virtuti-

"irttts

non

etiam

omnium

citiis?

que

porro

amicitia

? Pro
tnt interingratos
cupiam, poteft
deFin.
nihil eftqaod malim,
P]anc. 33.
2.
22.

affedum

efle

ti![t9c
" gratum
me
qnam
Eft enim haec una
videri.
fed

enmities

folum
mater

qos
cunditas vite
"

[j] Nam

quod

eris pro amicis

maxima,

jam (ic fpcrantabs

virtutum

tiam

effeju- ares.
poteft
fublatifami-

ita confu*

]aborare,n'on
te, fed

e"

tibifamili*
fie imperant

Ep. tarn. 6. 7.

lie HisTOXY

2^

enmities

offbe Life

immarial
mortal^ his friendftnps

were

to the digwas
nity
agreeable
living
and noble: his
of his chara"ber; fplendid
houie was open to all the learned Strangersand
of Greece and AJia\ ieveral of
Philofophers
entertained in it,as part
whom
were
confiantly
of his family^and fpenttheir whole lives with

His

["],

him

of

manner

His

levee

mukitudes

with

crouded
perpetually

was

of all ranlcs

even

Pompey

it. The greatto frequent


difdaining
eft part came,
not
onely to pay their compli*
but to attend him on days of bufineis to
ments,

himfelf

not

the Senate

or

the Forum

where

upon

any

bate
de-

tranfa"bion of moment,
they conftantly
nary
waited to conduA him home again: but on ordior

days, when thefe morning vifitswere over,


before ten, he reared to his
were
as theyufually
without
books, and (hut himfelf up in his library^
but what his
feekingany other diveriion,
children afforded
leifure[x]. His

to

the fhort intervals of his

fupperwas

meal
his greatdft

and

[u] DoftifEiBomm

lioiiii-

[/] Eft dihtt ulcifcendi"


puniendimodus. Atqne bawl

iiiim

icio, an iatia "iU "v]ii" qui


fuae peekceffierit,injuriaB

temperdooms ndba flornk*


U
Oli,DiodoCiu"
Priiicipes

nitere.

[deoff.
i.xi.}nihil

^vdbiit
fiuniliaritacety

Philo, Andochof,

Pofido-

mftitnCi fmniik
nihil maglaudabilius,
niot,a quiboa
viro dignins,
Ao
placabUtta-DeNat. Deor. i. 3.
DiodoCo ScoiEram
V6 Se dementia,
com
[ibid.
25.]
lasdere co;
Cum
habitaviiet aqui cum
parcete vd

enim

ignofccncU
potu1flem"
quaerebam cau(a8"
non
00
pnniendi
cafiones.
ex

"

Fragment. Clc.

Marcellino.

"

pud

mecomque
nnper eft domi meae
Brut. 433.
us.
[x] Cum bene
me,

yixiflet^
moito-

compkta

Keque vero me
pcenitetdomus efttempore matudaow
ad forum ftipati
jnorules inimidtias.Tempi- cum
gregl*
ternasamicitias habere. Pro
C. Rabir; Poft. is.

-ddfaadimns
bus* amkorum
?.^d Att. 1, 18.

tfU. rVLLlVS

CiCBkO.

igt

and the ufual feaibn with all the greats of

enjoying
their friends at table,wh;ch was
frequently
prolong^ to a late hour of the night: yet he
of his bed every morning before it was
was
out
light;and never ofed xoJUep againatnoon^ as
all others generally
did, and as it is commonly
pradiiedin Rome to this day \^y].
But
though be was fo temperate and (ludi-"
he was
ous, yet when
engaged to fup with o-*
thers,cither at home or abroad, he laid afide his
the invalid ; and was
rules,and forgot
gay and
foul pf the company*

and
iprigtuly,

the very

When

to heighten
together^
fociallife,he thoughtit inhofpi^

friends

(he comforts of

met

were

table,not to contribute his fhare to their com^


mon
mirth, or to damp it by a churlilh refers
vednels.
But he was really
a lover of chearfuli
entertainments; being of a nature
remarkably
and fingularly
turned to raillery
facetious,
[z]\
of great forVice to him at
which was
a talent,
of an adverfa-^
the bar, to correft the petulance
of a tedious caufe\divert
ly ; nlieve tbefatiety
the minds ofthe Judges; and mitigatethe rigor
of
U
2
"

Mane
itCM

falutamilsdomi bo*

viros mttlto"-^Hibiialata-

tio dtflozitlitteris
me
hm.

vo^-"p.

Cttm
9. 20.
dedimus ami-

fidtttationinos
^abdo
coram
Poft horam

t" c"teri

inBiblio*

qoattam moleAd

noniant.

Att.

14.

qnidcm prop-

intermiffionem forenfis

operas,
trazi k

lucabrationes de-

"

meridiationts addi^

di, quiboanti
libam.

maxima
nicetiis,

[Cp. fam.

noftratibii^

15] Nee
id^ volUptatemrefero,ied
"

9.

vitasatqud
anividua, remiAonexxique
maxima
Termor
morum,
qusfe
effidtur familiari,qui eft
ne
adcommanitatem

in conviviis dttlctiiimus ^
[ib.24.iconvivio deledor*
"

[j\ Nunc
ter

me

Ep. fam. 7.18.

Ihecam.

S.

invol-

{z] Egd aotein,eJti(linie^


quod lubet, mirtfice capiof

De

antea

Dit.

s.

non

58*

fo*

Jbi

folum, ut
loquorquodin

dicitur , it ^mitum etiant


rifus maximof tnnsftto*
in

26]
"ib.

2^t
of

of the Life

History

fentence,by making both the "Bench and

Audience

at

merry

of the Accufer

the expence

ufe of it was

alwaysthoughtfair,and
vate
greatly
applauded in publictrials; but in priconverfations, he was
chargedfometimes
far ; and, through
his raillery
with pufliing
too
his fuperior
wit, exertingit
a confcioufnefs of
what
often intemperately without reflecting
cruel wounds his lafhes inflifted[b]. Yet of all
his iarcafticaljokes,which are tranfmitted to ns
fhall not
obfenre any^ but
by Antiquity,we
what were
diculous
pointedagainftcharadters,either rifuch as he defpifed
for
or
profligate
;
their follies,
or hated for their vices ; and though
and .quicken
he might provoke the fpleen,
the
This

malice
with

of enemies,

regardto his

to

have

hurt

than

more
own
or

confiftent

was

eafe,yet he never
loft a friend,or any

pears
apone

he valued, by the levity


of jetting.
is certain,that the fame of his wit was

whom
It

as

celebrated as that of his

eloquence
; and that feveral fpurious
colle^ftionsof his fayings
ed
handwei*e
about in Rome
in his life-time [^J; till his

friend Trebonius, after he had been Conful,


authentic
thought it worth while to publifli
an
edition of them, in a volume which he adJreJJid
to

\a\

Suavis "ft "

"

vehc-

faepeuiilis jocus "

mcntcr

facetia

multum

in caufia
fcrfacpc
lq)orc" facctiispro"ci vidi. Dc Or. 2. 54.
"

novat

Quintil.1.6.

"

\h']Noftcr
lum

vcro

c.

judicia,fed

extra

intcntio-

ceflerim

omnia
,

nc

rrrum

frequenter
avertit,

"aliquando etiam rcficit,


"
a

ikictatevel

re*
fatigatione

ip-

in

orationibus habitus
eft nimius rifus affcaator"

Qnaerifum jadicismoven- ibid. vid. Plutar.


illostriftcs folvit affc[r] Ais cnim, utcgo
"animumab

fo-

fis ctiam

do "

^us,

3.

non

didla
"

^inmc

dLif-

omniam

conferri

"

fam, 7. 32, it. 9. 16.

Ep.

^^

4^4

of the Life

History

humor and tall of wit


fafliions,
peculiar
in thefe,as Quintilian
in that age ? Yet even
alio tellsus, as well as in his other compofi*
tions, peoplewould fooncr find what tbeymight
could add to tbem [g].
than what (bey
reje"lj
as

the

great number of fine Houfes, in


diflferent
\ fome writers reckon
op
parts of Italy
H

"

had

the family-feat
at
eighteen
\ which, excepting
^rpinumj feem to have been all purchafed,or
fituated generally
built by himfelf. They were
near
to the fea, and placedat proper diftances
^longthe lower coaft,between Rome and Pom'
which was about four leagues
beyond No*
feii^
of ftrudurc,and the
; and for the elegance
fles
called by him the
of their fituation,
are
delights
[A],Thofe in which
eyesy or the beautiesof Italy
and ufually
he took the moft pleafure,
fpenc
of
Anfome part
his Tufculum^
every year, were
ftum^.Aftura^
Arpinum '^ his Formian^ Cuman^
Puteolan
Villa*
andPokpeian
s ; allof dicm
large
not
enough for the reception,
onelyof his own
but of his friends and numerous
guefts
family,
\
of
of
firft
whom
the
u
fed
to pais
inany
quality
ftveraldayswith him in their excyrfionsfrom
Rome. But befides thefe,that may properlybe
reckoned feats,with largeplantations
and gardens
around

them, he had feveral little


Innsy as
he calls them, or baiting
placeson the road,
built for his accommodation

Houfe

to

in

firom one
pafling

another [i].
His

\X\ Qui

Auni potnit,in pepegrinati[ad Aiu


que* ut in omni ejusingenio^ pne confttmimiis
ocellos
|6.
Iulue"
Ucj]iu6quidrejici"qaainqaid
3.] car
invenient.
ibid.
?
viUulas
video
adjici
non
meat
poffit,
tamen

nanc

qno-

-"

vid. etiamMacrob.

Sat. a.i.

[hi Quodaue temporisin

ib.6.

$c belie aenottris,
pnediolis

[/IEgo accepiin Diverforiolo


SuueflanOy toaa licte*

U iktisamaniscoAdificattt^

rai. ;

Ad Att. 14. 8.

ofM. "tULLIUS
H

CICERO.

Houfe
Tufculan

I s

had been

29.5

the
Sylla's,

of its apartments had a


near
Nola^ in
pdfUingaf Ins memorable vi"fory
the Marfic war^
in which Cicero had ferved
Diffator

in

and

under him

as

one

Volunteer

[*]:

it was

abotit four

iei^es from Rtnney on the top of a beautiful


Hill, covered with the Villa'sof die nobility,
and aflfording
an
agreeable
profpedof the City,
and the country around it \ with plentyof water
flowingthn"' his groundsin a largeftream
poration
or canal, for which he paida rent
to the Corof Tu/culutn
[/]. Its neighbourhood
of a retreat
to Rome
gave him the opportunity
of the bar, or the
at any hour, from the fatigues
Senate,

to

breath

littlefrefh air, and

himfelf widi his friends or

family:

divert

fo that this

placein which he took the niofl:dclighr,


Ihare of his leifure^ and
the greateft
and fpent
fcr that reaibn improvedand adorned it beyond
was

the

all his other houfes

[m"].
U

When

firma what Seoeca has obCerfoa ToTculaiu, quae poliea ved of the ^iV/^j of allthe ofvtC CiceroniSySyflapinzit.ther great Capuins of Rom",
Plin. Hift. Nit. tz. 6.
Marius" Pompey, Caslar )

[I] Idqneetkm

{/]Beo
qua Crabra

in Villa

Tttfcalanis pro A"

pendam,
veftigal

that
on

theywere

alwayi
placed

the h!fi;heft
hillsyor
ground

qda a Municipiofundum ac- that theycould find ; itbeing


to
thought more
military,
"ept.-"Con.KuU. ). s.
command
the view of the
Qgas mihi antca figaa

S]:i,"-^aomnia

in Tufcu-

country beneath them, and

that houfes fo (ituatedhad the


t 4.] N08 ez omnibus laboappearance of a camp, rather
in
illo
than a Villa
ribos " moleftiisuno
[Senec.Bpift.
But this delightfull
loco conbuiefcimos. [ib-C.]^i.]
fpot
u
now
pofTefled
Nos Tufculano ita deleOa^
by a Conlanum

deportabo.[Ad
"

Att.

"

ipfistum

snvitf ut nobifmet

lUo venimus,
lb.
placeamus. 6.
The fituation of this Tu/-

deniqqe,cum

eu/aM Houfe, which

bnilt perhaps
by

had been

Sylla^
con"

of Monb,
calledGr^z/iS
F#rr4 r^r^wherethey ftillfliew
the remains of Cicero*s co*
lumns and fine buildings,and

vent

the duds

of water that flowed throughhb gardens.

5^

296
Wb"V

he ufed

Jntium

to

or

or

a
to
tirement,
re-

Jftu^

heft collcaion of

placedhis

Ajitium he

At

ra.

City,

undifturbcd

more

remove

to

the

him
difpofcd

ia the Forum

fcene, and

calmer

of
laticty

greater

loDger vaauion
feck

rf tbe Life

History

thirtymiles
he could have daily intdligpncc
fiom Rme^
there of every thing that paflcdin the City.
4jiurawas a liiileIf^nd^at the mouth of a river
about two
of the fame name,
wards
leaguesfarther tobooks, and

as

it

the South,

and

ArUium
both

not

was

between

above

the

of
promontarics

and in the view

Circaum^

placepeculiarly
adaptedto

fes of folitude, and


with a thick wood,
he uf^

in which

cut

out

covered

Ihady walks,
gloomy and fple-

into

fpcndthe

to

the purpo-

fevere retreat;

of them

of his life.

netic moments

heigthof Summer, the Manfionrhoufe


Arpinum^ and th^ littleIfland adjo'ming,
by
In the

at

ed
the advantageof its groves and cafcades,affordthe bell defence againft
the inconvenience of
^

the heats-, where

remembered,

ever

felf,

as

he writes

in the
we

to

that he had
greateft,
find him refreftiing
him-

his Brother, with the

ut-

in the coql ftream of his Fibremoft pleafure,

["].

nus

I s

other Villa's

fitqatedin the

were

more

publicparts of Itdy^where

all the beft ny


compahad their Houfes of pleafure.
He

of Rome
had

Formice^ a lower and

upper Villa i
^he one near to the port of Cajeta^
the other
: he had a third
upon the mountains adjoining

on

two

at

the ftioreof Bai"^^ between

the Lake

Avernui

["] Ego
ribus

non

ex

cnim

majorcs,in

magnis calomcminimus

amoenitate fluminis,me
rcfeci ludorum
Ad
dicbm.
cum

ft^mma Quint.
Arpinati,
3.

1,

oJ-M.

CICERO.

rULLIUS

297

and Puteoli^which he callshis Puteolan ; a


fourth on the hillsof old Cuma^ called his Cu^

nus

Villa

man

and

fifth at

four leagues
Pompeiiy

beyond Naples; in a country famed for the purity


of its foil,and delicacy
of its air, fertility
of its fruits.His Puteolan Houfe

built after

was

Academyat Athens^and called by


that name
; being adorned with a Portico and a
rences.
confegr^vcy for the fame ufe of philoibphical
planof

the

the

Some

time

after his death it fell into

the hands of Antiftius Vetus, who

improved it 5 when
which happenedto

fpringof

burft

warm

water,

part of it,
the following
Epigram, made

occafion to
laurea Tullius,one

gave

by

in

and
repaired

out

one

of Cicero's freed

men.

^0 tua Romana vindex clarijime


lingua
jujfavirety
Sylvaloco melius furgere
AtqueAcademuB celebratam nomine villam
Nunc reparatcultufubpotiore
Vetus^
Hie etiam apparent lympbanon ante reperta^
lumina rore levant.
Languidaqua infufi
Ciceronis honori
Nimirum locus ipfefui
Hoc dedit^bacfontes
cum
patefecit
ope.
Ut quoniamtotum legitur
finefineper orbem,
oculisqua medeantur^
Sintpluresy
aqua [p].
.

ff^ere
fVJ Plin. Hift. Nat- 1.3 1 .1.
This

Villa waa

afterwarda

Palace ; pofTefTed
Imperial
the
by
Emperor Hadrian,
an

who

died and

was

Qus nnoc abibisin loca.


Pallidula,
rigida,nudala"
Nec,ut folesydabis
jocos.
^lii

buried in

Vit.
Spartian.

Hadr.

2$.
Sou! [i]; which
it; where he is fuppofed
to
fluttering
that laft would
have left him
have breathed out
with
his
Icfs
and celebrated adieu to
regret, if,from Cicero*s
habitation
itttlepallida
on
ewh, it had
frightened,
the way to thofe reUan^ known
fi]Animuk
vagula,

duhy

^ons above,

Cicero

where

ftilllives
Hofpes,Comefquccor-probably

in the

poiisy'

fruition of
^

pefsfaj.

endlefi

hap|W-

[2]Ubi

^liHiSTOKY

"^8

H^^egmes^

mue

0ftbe Lift
wUh

tbintymow

frtfi^

dure bloom
J

ofthe Eloquence
rfRunOy
jlnd where tbyjtadiffrf^
feat
favorite
Now
itsfweetretreat
to ArUifiiMS
yields
Agufifitigjtream
buffis
oxty ofwondrous powery
So heal the eyesy and weaheffdj^bt
refiore.
wUcb
all itspride
Sieplacey
from Cicero drcwy
Repaysthis honor to his memory duCy
the world are
^atfince Us works tbrosfghoit
Jpready
Jbid with fncheagemefsby aU are ready
New
Jbouldrifcy
fprings
quality
of healing
To eafethe encreafe
^ labor to the tfes.
Great Parem

Furniture of his Hou"s

The

fuitable

was

and the magnificence


"^hb taft,
degsuice
of his buildings
adorned
; his Galleries were
with llatuesand paintings
of the bcft Grecian
the

to

Mafters

and his veflfelsand

the beft work

and

chokeft

moveables

were

materials.

of

There

Cedar table of his

remainingin Pliny's
time, laid to he the firSlwhich was ever feen
in Romcy and to have ooft him
^gbtypounds
tizen,
\p]. He thoughtit the part of an eminent Ciof charader in
to preferve
an
uniformity
was

every ardde of his conduft, and to iUaftnte


his dignity
of his life.This was
by the fplendor
the

[2] Ubi nuncigfttaniiMTufc.QaaBft.adJoh.tJlattei


Ciceronis,fortafienon
humani
aie

eft

:
judicii
pronanciare

certe

non

admodom

ad*

{f\ Eztat

hodie M.

ronis, in ilia

Cice*

paopertate,ic

quod diagianurum
H. S.

eft, iUo

verfam habituri fintin feren-

flBvo

dis calculis,
illam
quifperant

HiA. N.

apod Snperosqoietam vibun


Enfin. PnKfim. in
agcre

Cicerontanam vetoftior memocia eft.ib. 16.

"

"

empu
1

X.^PIiB.

3 1 5.]nuliius ante
.

ofM.

CICERO.

TULLIUS

299

of his houfb" and


^reatvariety

die reafon of the

of their fituation in the nioft

conipicuousparts
Appian road i
every ftageto the ob-

the courfe of the

of

Italyalong
chat theymight occur
J

at

and lie commodious


fervation of travellers,
the

and
reception
reader

The

entertainment

for

of his friends.

perhaps,when

he refleds

on

the old writers have laid of the mediocri*

what

will be at a lols to con*


eftate,
ty of his paternal
all his revenues
ceive whence
flowed, that enabled
him to fuftainthe vaft expence of build*

ing

maintainingfuch

and

number

of noble

but the folution will be

eafy,when we
that he had of
recolkft the great opportunities
fortunes. The two
prin*
improving his original
dpal funds of wealth to the leadingmen of
the public
and
Rome^ were ; firft,
Magiftracies,
the prefents
Provincial Commands
\ lecondly,
of Kings, Princes, and foreignftata, whom
they had obligedby dieh* fervices and prote"

houfes

ftion

and tho^

no

man

more

was

moderate in

than Cicero, yet to


the ufe of thefe advantages
and contempt
of his prudence,
one
oeconomy,
of vicious

abundantlyfufexpences [7J: for in his

thefe
pkafures,

ficientto anfwer

all his

were

inProvince of CUiciayafter all the memorable


ftances of his generofity,
by which he faved to
which all other
a fullmillion ilerling,
public
Governors
had applied
to their private
ufe, yte
of his year, he leftin the hands
at the eXpiratioh
of tbe Publicans in Afia near
twenty tboufani
foundsyrcferved from the ftriftdues of his Gothe

vernmmt^

and remitted

to

him

afterwards

at

Rome
nodoYideamta.
{f] Pftm fimt,qos da- pcditiiBim,
Ad Qsinc.a. 15.
latitiioftrisqiiideamoribiit,
4:

at

fluuad

csjAoaadomex-

^e

joo

History

[r].

Rome

But

of the Life

there

was

another way of acquiring


of
the moft reputable

efteemed
money,
which broughtlargeand

frequent
fupplies
the legacies
It was the
to hitrij
friends.
ofdeceafed
cuftom ot Romey for the Clients and
peculiar
dependentsof Families,to bequeathat their

any,

death

their eftates,
as the moft
their
man

to

confiderablepart of
effeftual teftimonyof

their Patrons fome

to

and gratitude;
and
refpedt

the

more

ed
it redoundreceived in this way, the more
his credit. Thus
Cicero mentions it to
of Lucullus, that while he

governed
as Proconful,many
were
jffia
left
great eftates
to him by will [s}: and Nepos tellsus, in praife
of Atticus,that be fucceded
to many
inberitafices
of the fame kind,*bequeathedto him on
no
other account, than of his friendly
and amiable
temper [/]. Cicero had his full fhare of thefe
donations ; as we
fee from
the
teftamentary

the honor

inftances of them

many

mentioned

in his Letters

[u]\ and when he was falfely


reproached
thefe ocon
by Antony, with beingneglefted
cafions,he declared in his reply,that he had
articleabout two hundred
gainedfrom this fingle
tboufand
pounds^bythe freeand volufttary
of
gifts
wills ofperjbns
urndying
friends
; not the forged
known to him i with which he cliarged
Antony
His

[r] Ego
Ana

in

in
ctftophoro

habeo ad H

S. bis "

vi-

cies,hnjuspecaniae
permutatione

fidem

tnebere

[1]

Ad

Att. xi. 1

L. Lucullcy pro

tate

eit

qoam
confecutus.

boniYit.

21.

[u] Ad

Att. 2,

20.

zi.

tibi^ pr. Mil. 18.


M
Hereditates mihi
eximia

2.

audio
tua

venire"
liberalitate"
mazimifqiicbe-, gafti

hertdiu-

tcs nalla aliare,

facile Attic.

noftram

Maxiinas

[/]Kfultas enim

neficiisin tuos, venifle herci


ditates.pr. Flacc. 34.

ego cnim

n^am-.

pliasH. S. dacenties acccpturn

herediucibus sctoli
"

mo

^oa

who
relations,

or

meet

we

try,

with

trace

no

Volumnius,

an

the "med

when

Rime

of any criminal

ytc

gallan'*

In a letter
any of diem.
the end of his life,
he gives

with
intrigue

or

account
jocofe

abfent from

were

Postus,towards

to

of tie Life

HisTonv

of his

fuppingwith their fiieiid


Epicureanwit of the firftdais,
who bad
Courtefim,Cytheris,
flave,and

been Volumnius's

foefs,made

one

then his mi-

was

of the company

at

table : whece

ibtU
jokeson that incident,he fays,
be never fujpeffed
tbatjbewould have been ifthe
party\ and thf be was alwaysa lover ofcbearfkl
enSertainmeniSj
yet mtbingof ibat fortbad ever
bim wben youngs much lefs
fleafed
now^ when ie
old [a]. There was
one
was
Lady however^
he kept up a parwith whom
called Caerellia,
ticular
of
and
letters
familiarity correfpondence
;
which Dio, as it has been already
hintied^
on
abfurdlygroundsfome littlefcandal,
thou^ he
her to have been feventy
owns
years old. She is
mentioned
in Cicero^s Letters,
as a
frequently

afterfeveml

lover

of books

account,

as

and

; and
philolbphy

fond of his company

but while, out

of

and

diat

on

:
wridngpi

and
to her flsx,
complaiiance

he treated
talents,
r^ard to her unconmion
her alwayswith refpeft
; yet by the hintswhich
he dropsof her to Atticus, it appears that fltt.
a

(hare of his aflfeftions,


or any real au*
with him [If].
thority
had

no

His

"e

[m] Meteroniliiliflonim
jnvenon quidem movit

Unqiiani, ne

Boac

fencm.

"p. fam. 9. s6.


["]Miri"ce Ccrellia,ftndio TideHcet

Att
die

13.

iattifedinee

borue

defciibit
a tuis:

Ttfii eft

rMt
"

ftk*

fi iUi#

Itboiarcm*-

ego certe non


ib. 15. i. it. 12. 51. 14. 19.

Ik- Fam.
philofophis

Srans,

st.] Camllue

13. 7a.
iftoe Dio* 303"

]prQ"dciiiiibnihabet"^i"d

QsiacEL6.

}"

ofM. rULLIUS
H

CICERO.

as few as
were
fiiiiogs
eminent genius
; fuch as

I s

in any

his will ; and

conllitutiony
not

were

303
found

ever

flowed from his

chai^^le
rather to the condition of his humanity,than
He was
to the fault of the man.
thoughtto
be too fanguinin profperity^
in ad*
too defpondtjig
himielf in c^chfortune,
wrfity\ and apt to perfuade
that it would never have an end [c].This

is PoUio's
neral

to

of it in

of him

account

be
one

true

were

feems in g^*
Brutus touches the firft pare
which

of his letters to

him

and

when

thingswere

goingprofperoufly
againft
Antony^
puts him gendy in mind, thai befiemedto truii
too much to bis bopes
[d]: and he himielf allows
the fecond, and fays,that if any one was
morous
tiin great and dangerous
events^ apprehending
alwaysthe worSty rather than bo^ng the beff^
the man
be was
a faulty
con; and ifthat was
feiieshimielf not to be freefrom it [e]: yet in
afterwards the nature of this timidity,
explaning
it was
in

fuch, he tellsus,

Ihewed itfelfrather

as

da^ersjthan
forefeeif^

in

them
encountring

which the latter part of his life


c]q)lication,
confirmed,and above all his death,which
fiiUy
an

no

could fufbun with greater courage

man

But

rcfolution {/].

[rJUtinammodentiosfe- [i]Nam
cundat

and

res, ft fortiosad?er-

timidut ia

fi

quifqaameft

magsis periculcH

(empeiquema*
veHasferrtpotoifletfDamque
fifquerebos,
exitas
adverfot
venerant
rerom
ci" gis
tttneque com
fpenuu femetoeai,
qnam
flinttfieasiionpGfierebatiir.
Afin. Poll.apod Sen. SaafiM.

ctuidot. la ego

6.

hoc

Qaa
Iff]

in re, Cicero,w

caieie

vitiiiiii
eR"

fum:
eo

ne

ft fi
non

confiteor. Ep. fam. 6.

optime ac fortiffiine,
mildqae 14.
awrito ft

meo

nomine

minta
Rdpob. cariflime,

dere viderit fpci


(m-^
'^

adCic.4.

[/] Param foititvidebatur qnibnfdam


: qoiboaopti*
cre^
fe tf^
non
Brvli merefpondit
ipfe,
ft

MutoiilfiilapmUi^ledm
pro*

^^

304

of the Life

History

and glaringpafconfpicuous
fion of his foul was, the Imve of gloryand tbirff
that he not onelyavowed^
: a paflion,
efprai/e
but freely
indulged; and fometimes, as he himfelfconfeflcs,
to a degree
even
ofvanity[^]. This
diculin
handle of rioften gave his enemies a plaufible
his prideand arrogance [}"]
\ while the
his own
fbrwardnefs that he (hewed to celeliate
feemed to jumerits in all his publicfpeeches,
their cenfures : and fince this is generally
ftify
confidered as the grand foible of his life,and
from age to
down
has been handed
implicitly
examined, or
being fairly
age, without ever
underftood,itwill be proper to layopen
rightly
itfelfflowed,
the fource from which the paffion
of that^fory,
of which
and cxplanethe nature
himfelf To fond.
he profefles
True
finition
deglorythen, accordingto his own
of it, is a wide and illujlrious
fame of
conferred
many and great benefits
upon our friends^
eur
country^or the whole race
of mankind [i]:
it is not, he lays,the empty hlaft
of popularfaof a giddymultitude^which
vorj or the applaufe
all wife men
had ever
and none
more
defpifed,
than himfelf,but the confenting
praifeof all bonejlmen, and the incorrupt
tejiimony
ofthofewho
Bu

the moft

can
:
periculis
providendis
^uod Ep. fam. 9. 14*
probavitmorte qacNijtieipfa, [^]Et quoniam hoc

reprefufcepiclicndis,
quod folere me dicas
qnani praeftantiffimo
animo.
de me
Quintil.1. 12. 1.
gloriofus
pnediijpfo
Nunc
Dom.
rro
quoniam laudia care-^
^^

3;.

avidiffimi

femper fuimcn.

[Ad Att. t. t^.J


Qsinetiam
eft
fabinane
in nobis,
qood
"

"

eft enim
2.

bellum

JpthoJh^w

non

fua vitia nofle. fib.

17.]

Sdm

ctiam,qnam

avidior

[i]Si quidem gloria eft


illuib-isac
rum

"

fuos, vel
omne

pervagata
magnomm
in

genus

etiam
merltorum."
fatiseft,gloris.

multo-

vel

in

vel in

patriam,
nominum

"na

Pro Marcel.

8.

TULLIUS

eTM

305

judge0/ excellentmeritswhich refounds


always

can
to

CICERO.

virtue

as

the eccbo to the voice

and

fince ic

is the

generalcompanionof good actions,ought


That
thofe
flot to be rejefted
by good men.
who
to this glory,were
not
to
a(pired
expeft
tafe^or pleafureyor tranquillity
of life
for their
jtains
; but muii give up their own
peace to fecure
the peace of others ; muH
to
expofe themfelves
ftorms and dangers
for the publicgood; fujiain
many battels with the audacious and the wickedy
and fome even with the powerful
in fhort,muft
:
behave themfelves fo, as to give their citizens
canfeto rqoicethat theyhad ever been born [k].
This

is the notion that he inculcates every where


is furely
of the nobleft
of true glory
one
: which
breait ; imdiat can infpire
planted
a human
principles
by God in our nature, to dignifyand
in the
exalt it ; and always found the flrongeft
bed

and nK"ft elevated minds

and

to

which

we

that Hifto^
every thinggreat and laudable^
ry has to offer to us, thro* all the ages of the heaX
IIL
then
Vol.
owe

Si quilqaam fult
[if]
qnam

un-

8c

Sc natuni^

remotus

tnagis
etiam,

ut

qQidem

mihi

rianom]naripoteft,expetunt"
"
aliisotiumquaercredebent
fibi. Sudan-

non
voluptates,

fcntire videor, ratione atque


doArina, ab inani laude 8e

efl his pro communibus


commodis, adeundse inimici-

fermonibns

ttae, fubeundx

vulgi,ego
ft"o is Aim.
Ep. fam.
"

"ft enim

pro1

5.4.

gloria"confen-

tiens laus bonorum;


incorbene judlcanti
urn
rupta vox
de exceliente virtute

dum

Refaepe.pro
Cum
mulpub. tempeftates.
tis audacibus,improbis,
nonetiam
potentibas^
nunquam

dimicandum.

efTc civem.

Carum

eavir-

ProSext.

66.
bene

tnti refonat tanquam imago : de Rspub. mereri,


laudari,
gloriofumefl"
pie- coli, diligi,
quae quiarefle fadorum
eft
eft,non
comes
romque
Tufc.
bonis Tirisrepadianda.

quare
ut

ita

gaudeant:

qnatfL3. 2.

Rempub.
giiberna
efTe

natam

te

fine quo

cives tui
nee

bra-

tus, nee
Qiiiautem
quifquamclle
bonorttoiyquae foist
veraglo- potcft.Phil. 1. 14.

bonam

famam

clarus

^e

3o6

Hi

then world.
of

of the Life

story

There

is not

an

cero,
inftance,faysCi-

himfelf ever witbpraife


exerting
and virtue in the dangers
ofbis country,who was
and a regard
not drawn
to it bythe hopes
ofglory,
to pfterity
[ / ]. Give me a hoy,faysQuintilian,
for
whom
:
fraifeexcites wbo7n glorywarms
fuch a fcholar was
fure to anfwer all his hopes,
and do credit to his difcipline
[m]. Whether powill have any refpeS
fterity
for me, faysPliny,
that
/ know not ; hut am
I have deferved
fare
fome from it : I will not fay by my wit, for that
would be arrogant ; but bythe zeal,bythe pains,
by the reverence, which I have alwayspaid to it
[n].
I T will not feem ftrange,
to obfervc the wifeft of the ancients pufhingthis principle
to fo
and confidering
gloryas the amgreat a length,
life[p]-, when we
pleftreward of a well-fpent
had no
refledt,that the greateft
part of them
notion of any other reward or futurity
and
;
thofe who believed a ftateof happinefs
even
to
the. good, yet entertaineditwith fo much diffidence,
that theyindulgedit rather as a wifh,
than a well-grounded
fore
hope; and were gladtherethat which feemed to be withto layhold on
man's

in

non
[/] Ncoue quifquamnoutfitaliqcu:
meremur,
ilruiB in Reipub.periculis,
dico, ingenio; id enim fucumlaudeacvirtuteverfatur, perbum; fed Hodio, fed la*
fru6lubore,fed reverentia pofterum.
quin fpe pofteritatis,
Rabirx.
Plin.
C.
Pro
queducatur.
"p.
[p\Sed tamen ex omnibas
[At]Mihi detur illepuer,
fi efiet haglo- praemiisvirtatis,
quern laus excitet"quein

ria

javet. Hie

ambitu

in

"

nunquam

erit alendus

defidiam

hoc

-~

Pofteris

an

aefcio. Nos
cuianofiriy
I

ratio praemiorom,tm-

pliffimumefle praemiumglo-

Quintil. riam. ElTe hanc unam,


quae
brcvitatem vitae polleritatis

verebor.

1.5.

"/r]

benda

aliqna memoria
ccrte

Mil. 35.

conrQlarctur."-*Pro

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

of their own
in their reach" a futurity
of fame and glory"om
an
immortality

307

creating
;
the ap-

This, by a pleafing
fiftion,
plaufeof polterity.
of life,
and
they looked upon as a propagation
of exiftence -, and had no fmall coman
fort
eternity
in imagining,
that tho' the fenfe of it fhould
it would
reach to themfelves,

not

extend

at

leaft

ftillwhen

theyfhould be doinggood
the exampleof their
dead, by leaving

virtues

the imitation of mankind.

others

to

cero,

that

and that

Ci*

earth, but confidered his ads,

feeds fown in the immenfe

to

Thus

looked upon
he often declares,never
confined to this
be his life,which was
circle on

narrow
as

to

as

to

of
raife up the fi-uit

fieldof the univerfe,

to
gloryand immortality

fucceffionof infiniteages : nor has


he been fruflrated of his hope, or difappointed

him

thro'

of Rome
long as the name
virtue and liberty
fubfifts,
or as longas learning,
preferve
any credit in the world, he will be great
of all pofterity.
and glorious
in the memory
A s to the other part of the charge,or the
proofof his vanity,drawn from Us boaftingfo
both to the
in his fpeeches
ofhimfelf
frequently
Senate and the People,tho* it may appear to a
confirmed by
reader to be abundantly
common
attend to the circumftanhis writings
5 yet if we
of his end

but

as

of the times, and the part which he adted in


them, we (hall find it not onelyexcufable,but

ces

TYithttoi
Rome
degreeeven neceffary,
was
now
broughtto a crifis; and the contending
were
making their laft efforts,either to
parties
the head of
it : Cicero was
or preferve
opprefe
inthofc who ftood up for its liberty
; which
in fbme

tirely
dependedon

years therefore been the common


of the rage and malice of all who were
X 2
sumi0g

he lud many

mark

the influence of his counfils:

aiming

no

iUcgilpowers,

at

or

in the

tyranny

lupported
generally
and while thefc were
he had
the military
power of the Enipirc,
them, but
of defeating
means
or
other arms

date

by

of the Life

History

3o8
-,

with die Senate and People,


ded
grounhis authority
of his fervices,and the
die experience
on
obviate
of his integrity
: fo that, to

perfuafion
calumnies
the perpetual
obligedto

of the fadious, he was


inculcate the merit and gpod cffcds

peoplein
the
to them, againft
employingall arts
of thofe,who were
intrigues
of
The frequentcommemonUxon
to fubvert them.
not made fo much
his a"lsy faysQuinulian,was
calumny and
j to repel
for glory as for defence
of his counfils; in order
their union and adherence

confirm

to

vindicate bis meafureswhen

*'

**

himfelf declared
heard
ever
man

that no
j
fpeeches
him fpeakof himfelf but when he was forced
he was
urgedwith fiftitious
to it: that when
"

in all his
"

theywere

Cicero

and this is what

[p]:

his cuftom

crimes, it was

anfwer

to

"

"

but
fondnefs of praife,

[j]:

"

"

that

and
in great affairs,

thro*

not

convcrfant

been

treated widi

panicular
"

eft, tuenda,

[f] Vigcfimus annus


cumomnesfcelentimeunuin
pctunt.

Phil. 12.

X.

6. 6.

plcrumqucilludquoque
rationc fecit,
fine aliqua
non
Utillonim, qusegeratin
Confulatu frequenscommeAt

"

moratio,

pomt

giorise
magisquam
data"

videri

non

defenfioni

plerumquecontra

ini-

atque obcredatores
plusvendicatfibi;exantcnim
micos

ac

envy,

objiccrentor.

cum

Quintil.xi. i.
[g] Quis unquam
cum

repelan acculation

had

who

man

no

to

them

he faid any

with his real fervices : and if ever


of himfelf,it was
thingglorious

"

attacked

audiiit.

nifi coaftus
dineceflario diccrcm ?
ego

de

me

"

eft
igitur

cendum

dicerem

non

id, quod

nifi coadua
dc mc
unqoam

nihil enim
dixi fublatius afcifcendas lauondis caufa potius,quam
minis

35,

]X)]ii
depellcndi"pio

36.

lo

in which we
pointof light,
view him with niore
can
advantageor fatisfathan in the contemplation
of
Aion to ourfelves,
and the furprizing
of Im
his learning,
extent
in all
knowledge. This fliinesfo confpicuous
there is no

But

"

of the Life

History

the

which

monuments

leflensthe

even

remain

of
dignity

his

of him, that it

generalduu-adter

while the idea of the fcholar abibrbs that of the

hitn as the greatcft


by confidering
writer, we are apt to forget,that he was the
We
alio oi Rome.
learn our
greateft
Magiftrate

Senator

and

Latin from
ments

him

the

at

at

College:

their leave of him,


but

more,

as

fchool

of

an

our

here the

and

feldom

ftileand

femi-

take
generality
think

of him

Orator, a Moralift,or Phi-

of Antiquity.
But it is with charafters
lofopher
with piAures; we
cannot
as
judge well of a
the whole \ fince
fingle
part, without furveying
of each dependson its proportion
the perfedion
and relation to the reft ; while in viewingthem
all togedier,
theymutuallyrefleftan additional
confider'd
grace upon each other. His learning,
ieparatdy,will appear admirable; yet much
of
fo, when it is found in the pofieflion
more
the firft Statefman of a mighty Empire : his
abilitiesas a Statefman are glorious
;
yet fur*
prize us ftillmore, when they are obferved in
the ablcft Scholar and Philofopher
of his age :
but

an

union of both

thefe charafters exhibits

that fublime

to which
fpecimenof perfeftion,

the beft parts with the beft culture


human
nature
[^].

can

exalt
No

[/]Cum
miw
rit mio

eziad natoram
atqne iJlaftremaccefle-

qusdam, coafonna-

tio^ueiofim^t

nun

iliud

Befdoquklpneclanimacfiagalare foler^ cziiftere.Pro


Arch. 7.

ofM. rULLIUS
N

in

CICERO.

whofe lifehad been

man

leftmore

ftudy,ever

numerous

311

whollyipent
or

luable
va-

more

fruits of his

in every branch of
learning,
and the politer
arts ; in Oratory^
fcicnce,
Poetry^
Politics
LaWy Hiftoryy
Criticifmy
Pbilofophy^
the greatEthics ; in each of which he equalled
j

eft mafters of his time


all

men

works,

as

in fome of them

of all times

voluminous

as

fmall part of what he


tho' many of thefe are come

led
excel-

[u\ His remaining


they appear, are but
publiflied
really
i and
down

to

maimed

us

of the intermediate
barbarity
efteemed the moft preages, yet theyare juftly
cious
like
remains of all antiquity
and
the
Si;
of them
had perilhed,
hooks if more
bylline
would have been equalftillto any price.
His
was
incredible,
ample,
induftry
beyond the exof our
even
or
conception
days: this
fuch wonthe fccret by which he performed
ders,
was
and reconciled perpetual
ftudywith perpetual

by time,

and the

affairs.He

fuffered no

part of his leifure


the leaft intervalof it to be loft-,

be idle,or
but what other

to

Jhews^
peoplegave to the public
and the
to Jleep^
to pleafureSy
tojeafis^
nay, even
ofnature, he generally
refrejhments
ordinary
gave
of his knowledge
and the enlargement
to bis books
[x]. On days of buQnefs, when he had
to
compofe, he had no
any thingparticular
y

["] M.Cicero
eftdc
infcriptiu

in

planum
libro,qui

Jureciviliin

redigendo,verba hsec
poToit [A. Gell.i. 22.] M.
artem

"

Tullios

gendom

non

modo

nunquam

other

inter

a-

eft defti-

artium

fpeciesprae-

llantem,fed in omnibus, quao

inquoqueUudAntur,eminentiffimum.

lb.

ex.

[x] Qnantuin
fuas

res

ceteris ad

obeundas, quantum

fedeciam
fcientiajuris
"
de
componcre aliqba eo cce-

ad feftos dies ludorum

i *. 3 ]
perat.[Quintil.

^ ipfamrequiem
voluptates,

tutus

At

braodos, quantum

cele-^

ad alias

animi " corporis


ilium haconceditur
Tullium, non
bcmus Euphranoremycirca temporum : quantum aliitri-

bttunt

312

other rime for

king a few
di"ate his

(f fbe Life

History

but
meditating,

turns

in bis

he

when

walksy where he ufed

who
bis Scribes^

thoughtsto

ta*

was

to

attended

[y]. We find many of hb lettersdated


fi-om the Senate ; others
before day-ligbt
", feme
from bis mealsyand the croud of bis tncrnir^
levee [z].
afford more
than
N o compofitions
pleafure
of great men
the Epijlles
: they touch the heart
of the reader,by layingopen that of the writer.
him

Letters of eminent

The

eminent

wirs, eminent fcholars,

ftatcfmen,are all efteemed

veral kinds

but there

that cxcell'd fo much

never

in their fe-

was

in every kind

colleftion

Cicero's,

as

of ftile,
the imponanccof the matter,
purity
of the pcrfons
concerned in
or the dignity
ftill
them. We have about a tboufand
remaining,
after he was forty
all written
years old \ which
but a fmall part, not onelyof what he wrote,
are
but of what
after his
were
aflually
publifhed
death by his fervant Tiro.
For we
fee many
volumes of them quotedby the Ancients,which
for the

are

conyivils: ciofa mihi necelle efletamtenipeftivis


tieae,
balare,haec di^vi ambubns.
qoanqaantum deniqoe

buant

mlhi egohaec
ftudia
recolenda
ad

tantum
pi'ae,

turn

met

fumfero
pro Arch. 6.
fueric
Cui
otium ouine
dcm trnquam otiofum.
Nam
"

quas tu commemoras
te folere oratiooes,cum

cogito"in

fere

oti-

ambulationis

tempus confero.
Quint. ). 3.] Nam cum

[z]

Cum

lucem.

ante
2.

2.

?"]Ante

berem

contra

23.
haec

fcribebam

[Ad Qaint. 5.
lucem

icri-

cum

de
Epicureos,

Jegere eodem

ludis
oru3 iis,hat ego fcripfi
oronino
" feriis,
"e
uoquam
cffemotiofus. Pro Plane. 2 7.
[^] Ita qukquidconficio
tut

Ad. Att

[Ad
va"

cui

temporisnihil habertm^

"

cum

recreandae vocnJe

oleo 8c opera exaravi


ad te" it ante lunefcioqutd
dedi.
Deiode
cem
cum,
(brono repetito,
fimu] cum
fole ezperre^s eflem.
Ad
Att. 13. 58. Hcc
ad
te
fecunda
fcripfi
menappofita
"

fa. [ib.14. 6. 21. 15.


Hoc
paullolumexaravi

13.]
ipOi

in turba matutinar faluCacio*

sia. Ad

Brat L

2.

4,

ffU.
arc

rULLIUS

loft;
utterly

CICERO.

313

hook of his Letters to


the firft

as

alfo to Q^ Axius ;
Licinius Calvus ; the firSl
fscondbook to his ion ; a fecondalfo to Com.

Nepos ;
Odavius
book

to

a
;

M.

third book
and

J. Cselar ;
third alfo
to Panfa

Brutus

to

and

ninth

to

third
an

to

eighth

A. Hirtius.

a few to J. Caefar and


excepting
left than fome
Brutus, we have nothingmore
and fentences,
icatteredphraies
gather^from

Of all which,

Grammathe citationsof the old Critics and rians


rtiakesthefe Letters ftillmore
What
[/"].
eftimable is, that he had never
for the public,
nor
kept any

defignedthem
of them ;
copies

for the year before his death, when Atticus was


about them, he fent him
making fome inquiry
word, that he had made no colleffion
; and that
^ro

about feventy
{"].Here
hadpreferved
onely
then we
may expedtto fee the genuin man,
in his
without difguife
or afiedtation; efpecially
lettersto Atticus,to whom
he talked with the
fame fi-anknefsas to himfelf ; opened the rife

thought; and never entered


advice : fo
into any affair without his particular
that diefc may be confidered as the memoirs "f
the moft authentic matebis times ; containing
rials
for the Hiftoryof that age, and laying
open the groundsand motives of all the great
that happenedin it [c]: and it is the
events
of attention to them, that makes the gewant
nerality
of writers on thefe times fo fuperficial,
as well as erroneous
; while theychufe to tranand

of
progrefs

each

fcribe

of
[s] See the fragments
liislletten
in the Editions of

multiim defideret hifloriam


contextam

eorum
tempo*
fieenim omnia de ftuvitiis
dacum"
Epiftolanimdiispiincipum"
Sed ha- ac mutationibus Reipub.
auUa eft
perfant" at nihil in his
\tt Tiro inftar feptoagmta.
fcripta
Ad Att. 16. 5.
non
appareat. Corn. Nep#

his works.
M
Mearam

ram

miVAytyL

[fl Qs" qoi kg^t

non

vie.Att. i6.

^'

314

of the Life

History

icribethe drywd

relationsof
imperfeft

die later

Greek HifioriaKS^
rather than take the painsto
of fads from one
e|[traftthe original
account
who
I

was

ador
principal

in them.

his familiar Letters he afFeded

cular
parti-

no

ekg^ce or choice of words, but took the


firftthat occurred from common
ufeand the Ian[^. Whenever
guafe of covuerfation

he

was

dif-

poted to joke,his wit was eafyand natural ;


flowingalwaysfrom the fubjed,and throwing
out what came
even
a
difdaining
uppermoft
\ nor
when it ferved to make his friends laugh
e].In Letters of compliment,fome of which
addrefled to the greateft
who ever
men
were
is exprefled
in a
lived,his inclinationto pleafe
and reafon,with
nature
manner
to
agreeable
the utmoft delicacy
both of ientiment and

f)un,

didion

of thofe pompous
which modern
cu-loftyepithets,

yet without

titlesand
ftom

has introduced

any

into

our

commerce

with

the great, and falfely


(tamped with the name
of politenefs
;
though they are the real ofiT-

ipringc^ barbarifm and the efFed of our


both in tafte and manners.
In his
degeneracy
Letters,allhis maxims are drawn from
political
intimate knowledgeof men
and things
an
: he
alwaystouches the pointon which the affair
the danger,
and foretelsthe mifturns
\ foreiees
,

chief ; which

follow upon the


negledof his counfils ; of which there were io
that, as an eminent writer of
many inftances,
his own
time obferv*d of him, bis prudence
feem-

ed

to

be

kind

never

failed

to

which foretold
ofdivination^
every
thing

vero
one
quoti" publifhing
y) Hpiftolas

diania verbis

Ep. fam. ^

texere

2 1

folemut.

of his Letters

tohim, HtmmMMjjtfis,
fays
he" an oftin/wndin frhmt"
LitUrs^tobicb,ifmaii puh^
hi tbouzht/kolifi
^'^ ^'^i^*

[i] Quicquidin buccam


AdAtt.7. ^t- H-7"
In reproaching
Phil. 2.4.
Antony for and imfertiiuntf

vencrit.

JULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

315

with the veracity


happinedj
thingthat afterwaatis
of a Prophet[/]. But none of his Letters do
him

credit than chofe of the recommendatory

more

the others fhew

kind:

his wit

and

his
: he
parts,theie his benevolence and his probity
the intereftof his friendswith all the
follicits
warmth
and force of words^ of which he was
fome perfonal
mailer; and alledges
generally
reafon for his
that hb

own

in the caufe,and
ccxKemed
in the fuccefi

zeal
peculiar

honor

was

of it [^1
But

^]

Ut

fiicile
eziftimari dHon.

[it prudentiaxQ
polt
qoodam-

inodo efledivinationem. Non


enim Cicero ea folam" quae
fe acciderunt"futura
"ivo
praedixityfed etiao^quae
ufu veniunt.cecinit,
nunc
ut

Vates.

Corn.

[^] An

Nep. 16.

objection
nuypof-

fiblybe

made to my
charaof thefe letters,
from a
certain paiTagein one
of
addrelTed
Frocon^
them,
to a

^er

But if he had ufed the

fame method with all the o"


ther Proconfuls and foreign

Commanders, it feems not


onelyreaibnable,bot necef-

iary,that a

man

of his cha-

rader and authority,


whoft
favor was
perpetuallyfollicited

of all ranks,
by perfons

ihould make

fome diftin^ioii
between
his real friends,
he recommended
whom
for
their own
and
fake,
thofe,

whoferecoromendationswerc
timates,
inextorted
him by tho
fmn
a fru
was
of others: which
tween importunity
mark agreed upon bevmU
the cafe,as
when
was
them, which,
freauently
affixed to his Letters,would
he himfelf dedares in thefe
what
real Are6 he
very Letters. Tour regard
himfelf laid upon them* and fir "/, iayshe, isfipMie^
what degreeof influencehe
iy known, that / am impordefired them
tumd
to have with
hy many for ncommen"
his friend. [Ep.fam. 13. 6.] dations to you.
But though

fulofAfrki wherein

he

that there

fip;Bify"

But that feema

]y to

the

relateonecafe of
particular
who having great
to

I give them Jhmetimet

to men.

of no confequencOf
yetfir the
one
man,
moftparty it is to my real
affairsin J/ru^was likely
to
friends. Again, Our friendbe particularly
to me
troublcfome
fiipyand jour affeSion
that J am
both to Cicero eitJ the Fr^is fa illtt^iousy
under a neetffify
of reeome^nfuliwhofe generalcon*
to You :
he recomhowever
mending many people
mends
cemt
but though it is my duty /"
in that Letter witk
%ReU to all,whom I r/the utiiiQft
wanndi ml a4ct vfifi
eotamendl

7i"^ H

3 16
But

I s T

his Letters

not

are

than for their

g/*the Life

valuable

more

being

on

any

the

ments
onely monuof that fort,which remain to us from free
Rome.
They breath the laft words of expiring
ten
a great part of them
liberty*,
having been writ-

account,

in the very crifisof it'sruin, to roufe up all


left in the honeft and the
the virtue,that was
'

brave,

The adthe defcnfe of their country.


vantage,
this circumwhich they derive from

to

ftance,will eafilybe

obferved

by comparing
them with the Epiftles
of the beft and greateft,
who
florilhed afterwards in ImperialRome.
Pliof taft :
admired by men
ny*sLetters arc juftly
man
they (hew the fcholar,the wit, the fine Gentlebut obferve

ppverty and
barrennefs through the whole, that betrays
the
of a maften
All his ftoriesund rcfld5tions
awe
:

yet

cannot

we

terminate in
in
account

no

had

portant
privatelife; there is nothing impolitics
\ no
great affairs explaned\
of the motives of public
counfils : he

all die lame officeswith Cicero, whom


In all points
he affeAed to emulate [ti]
\ yet his
bom

honors
a
or

in cfFeftbut nominal

were

fuperior
power,
will

-,

and

and

and adminiftered

with the old

Proconful, we

want

confened

by

by
fuperi-

titlesof Conful

and

ftillthe Statefman, the Politician

the

Magtftrate.In his Provincial


where Cicero governed all things
command,
with a fupremeauthority,
and had Kings attendant
his orders; Pliny durft not venture
on
to
flave; or in-repaira Bath ; orpunifha fugitive
corporatea company of Mafons'^till he had firft
con-

"ommendi

yet I do

npt

iwi

["] Lsetarii*quod

i^n tbefam footoffruni-

ribus

Jbip with tbim all^ "c"


fam. 13. 70, 71.

maUri

Ep*

hoao^

ejasinfiftam,^uem

s-

in fludiiicupio. Plin*

Ep.4. 8.

^e

3 18
'*
**

of the Life

History

thing that
either
fufpicion

any

of fevor

*'

in the relation of

**

obferve

**

the

**

and

^^

''

add

of time, and

alfo

all great
ftiould firft

that in

he
tranfaftions,
explane the counfils,then the a"b, laftly
that in the counfils,he (hould
the events:
them

**

what

was

*"

events,

*'

rafhnefs

"

writer (hould

memorable

*'

**

or

of places
:
defcrJption

his own
interpofe

*'

any juft
dilafFeftion: that

give

nor

things,the

the order

"*

"

true

was

the merit

judgementon

adb, fliould relate

in the

done, but how

(hew, what

fhould

onely

not

done

it was

of

in the

(hare chance

or

had in them:
that in reprudence
gard to per(bns, he (hould de(cribe,not
actions,but the lives
onely their particular
or

and charafters of all thofe,who


nent

part in the

ftory:

that he

an

(hould

emiillu-

**

ftrate the whole

*'

flowingwith a
the aflfeftation
of points
quability
; fi-eefrom
and fentences,
the roughne(sof judicial
or
[wi]."
pleadings

**
*'
*'

We

have

in

bear

clear,
eafy,natural ftile;
fmoothnefs, and cperpetual
a

remains

likewife of his

Poetry,
interfperfed
except fome fragmentsoccafionally
through his other writings; yet thefe, as I
no

have before obferved, are fu(Ecient


genius^if it had
us, that \i\spoetical
with the fame care,
in(erior to his OratoriaL

would
The

not
two

to

convince

been cultivated
have
arts

been
are

fo

in the one feems


nearlyallied,that an excellency
(or the other *, the fame quato imply a capacity
lities
eUential
them
both
to
being
fprighdy
\ a
fancy,fertileinvention,flowingand numerous
diftion. It was in Cicero's time, that the old
of the Latin mufe firftbegan to be pol'u(ticity
li(hed,
["] De Orator. 2. 15.

rULLIUS

ofM.
lifliedby the

ornaments

of numbers;
which

it

but the

CICERO.
of drefs,and

the harmony

of

hei^

carried after his

was

319

perfe^ion,to
death by the fuc-

for a meas it left no


room
oedinggeneration,
the feme of
Verityin Poetry fo it quiteeclipfed
For the world alwaysjudgesof things
Cicero.
by compariibn,and becaufe he was not ib great
decried as
a Poet, as Virgiland Horace, he was
in the Courts of Antony
at all; efpecially
none
it was
and Auguilus; where
a
compliment to
the Soverein, and a fafliionconfequently
among
his character ridiculous,
their flatterers[" |,to make
where-ever it lay open to them*: hence
which
fubfifts to
flowed that perpetual
raillery,
this day" on his famous verfes ;
^

Cedanf

arma

toga^ concedat laurea

Ofortunatam natam
and

bad

two

me

ConfuleRmnam.

lines pickedout

by the malice of
as a fpepofierity,

enemies, and tranfmitted to


cimen of the reft,have ferved
thoufands
him

among

lingua.

of

For

to

damn

Plutarch

good ones.
the mofieminent ofthe

R^man

many

reckons
Poets

of

emulating
Plipythe younger was proud
diarafler \p]-, and Quintilian
him in his poetic
feems to chargethe cavils of his cenfurers to a
principle
[p]. But his own rerfes
of malignity
carry the fureft proof of their merit; being
and

written
Sed
[ti]
[u] PafteaTero"}aamTrinmvirali

prorcnplionecon*

non

ego Terear, fie me


iatisdeceat, quod deca-

it M. Tullitun
dl, paffimqui ode"p. 1. 5.
fampttts
rant, qaiinvidebanc, quiae- 3.
mnhbantur, adulaCores etiam
[ f\ In carmmlbos 4itinam
-^

deiierenon
pepercifTet,
pnefentifpotentiae,
quae non
Qgint.
fponfbram invaierunt.Qgin. runt carperetnaKgni.

^e

320

of tke Life

HiSTORV

of that age, in which


in the ftileof Lucretius; whofe

written in the bell

manner

he lived,and
Poem
he is laid to have

and
revifed

cor

it'spublication,
after Lucretius's death

is cenain,

however

that he

remedy for

[;].This

the

was

conftant

friend and generous patron of all the celebrated


Poetsof his time [r];of Accius-,Archias; Chili*
us

Lucretius

pays his thanks to


in the following
lines,for fbme favor,that

him

Catullus

he had received "rom

*, who

him.

Tully^tnoft
eloquent
byfar
Of ally who have been or who are^
Or. who in agesftillto
come
Shall rife
of all the Sons ofRomcy
To Thee Catullus gratefull
fends
His warmefttbanksyand recommends
His humble mufe^ as much below
,

Jillother Poets he^ as Thou


All other Patrons doft
excellj
In power
But

well [i].
ofwords andfpeaking
the amufcmcnt

Poetry was

reliefof his other

onely,and
his diftudies: Eloquence
was
ftinguifhing
4

Buibb. Chronic.

Qaotfonty qaotqoe fbere,

p-J AdjicisM. TuUium


mint benignitate
Poetarum
Ingeniafovifle.
UCv

tic.
Accio
.

ex

Plin.

"p.

familiar!ejoi

aadire
l^oeta

fum

Jiditus. [9rut.197.} Lncretiipociftiata,


ut (cribis"
liiamintbns inta fimc molds
eenii
,

Ad

multae

tamen

Qgincj. zi.Vid.ad

i-9"

artit.
Att.

16*

Romoli
[/] Diiertiffifflfi
ntpotojD^

Tnlli.

Marcc

Qaotquepoftafiuemntim
aniut

Gratias tibi maximat'Ca*


toUus

Agit, peffimiuomniiiiii
poeta,
Tanto pdEmnt

ffw*"m""

poeta

Quanto
om

tn

opdmnt ooud*

patronus.

CatiiIL47.

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

talent,his
ftinguifhing

foverein

jar

attribute:

to

this liedevoted all the facultiesof his foul, and


attained to a degreeof perftflion
in it^ that no

mortal

ever

which

he

: lb
furpaffed

that

Hifto*
polite
rian obferves,Rome
had but few Orators befofi
whom
it could ad*
bim^ whom it could praife
; none
mire \J]. Demofthenes
the pattern,
was
by
formed

himfelf

fuch fuccefs,as

with

as

whom

he emulateci

merit, what

St.

Jeroim
calls that beautifull
hasfnatcheloge
\ Demofthenes
edfrom thee the gloryof beingtbefirft
; thou from
Demofthenes^that of beingthe onelyOrator ["].
The genius,the capacity,
the ftile and manner
of them

both

to

much

were

the

fame'; their elo-

.quence of that great, fublime and


five kind, which
dignified
every

comprehenand
fubje6t,

itall the force aiid beautyof which

gave

it

was

that

as the
roundnefs
offpeaking^
ancients call it, where there was
nothingeither
ded
redundant or deficient ; nothingeither to be adin all
retrenched : their perfeflions
or
were
pointsio tranfcendent,and yet fo fimilar,that
the Critics are not agreedon which fide to give
the preference:
indeed,the moftju*
Quintilian
dicious of them, has given it on the whole to
Cicero : but if,as others have thought,Cicero

itwas

:
capable

the energy,
all the nerves,
or, as he
himfelf calls it,the thunder ofDemofthenes
; he
had

not

fr] At
fa fab

oratlo"

ani ver-

ut^dckdUri

ante

mirari vepaaciflimis,
poflis Veil.

eum
ro

ita

principe
operisfat era*

pitTullio
neminem

Pat.

I.

17.

[tf]Dcmollhenem

excelled

hi.

Vol.

"

quidaliad optamas
417.
M.

"

Brat

pulcf^errimumllludelogmmeiis
TuUius, in qucm

Demofthenes

cib.i
praeripuit,

cfTes

primusOrator ; tii
igitur jlli,ne folus. Ad Nepotian. /
ne

imitemur. O Dli boni ! quid de vita Clericor. Tom.


quafino9 aliad agimosiaa^ Edit. Bcned."

4*

Itbe Hi^ronY

322

ttcdied him

cf the Life

of
and elegance
copioufnefs

in the

of his fcntiments ", and


his diftion,the variety
above all,in the vivacity
of bis twV, and /martDenlofthenes had nothing
nrfsof his raillery:
in him \ yet by attempting
or facetious
jocofe
Sometimes to jeft,(hewed, that the thingitfelf
but did not belong
to him : for
did net difpleafey
to he
OS
Longinus fays,whenever he affeSted
ridiculous\ and if he
be made himfelf
pleafant^
felf.
it was
to raife
a laugh^
chiefly
happened
upon himfond of
Whereas
Cicero, from a perpetual
had the power alwaysto pleafe,
wit and ridicule,
he found himfelf unable

when

to

convince

and

":ouId put his Judges into good humor, when


he had caufe to be afraid of their fevcrity
", fix

iy the opportunity
ofa well-timed joke^he is
laid to have preferved
many of his Clients from
ruin [x].
manifest
in all this heigthand fame of his eloYet

that

"}uence, there

another fet of OratXM^

was

fame time in Rome*,

at

th"

learning,
and
knowledged
they acthe fuperiority
of his genius,
yet
cenfured his diftion,
jitticor clafas not
truely
it loofe
and lai^uid
calling
Jical
; fome
\ others
of partsand
of the firftquality
; who, while

-^

iumid and exuberant

men

\^y\.Theie

afitded

men
a

\x\ Haic divcrfa vtrtns,


quae rifum

1.6. 3. ib. x. 1. Longin.de


Sablim. c. 34.] Ut pro L.

movcndo
judicia
Placco,qacm
^-^pleriqaeDemoftheni6icu]-

hujusrci dcfuiffcere-

tatcm

^UDt,Ciceroni modum
videri

"

nee

aoluiiTc Demopoteft

fthenes, cojuslauea

admo-

minute

reum

repetundacuin

de
joa oportuniutc

ma-

nifcftiflimbcriminibu^ cxemit" "e. Macrob. Sat, 2.


i.

oilendunt
non
[f] Conftat nee Ciceroni
illi
fed
dirpIicaifTe
jocos, non
qoidemobtreaatoresdduilTe,
^mira quibus
contigi"e---mihi
vero
inflatus
" tumens, ncc
quapdam videtor in Cicerone utis preFus,fupramodu^^
dam

difta

"

"

fiiiffi:
urbanitaa
"

{Qaintil,
cxultaw, "

"
fupcrflaens,

paraui

ofM. TULLIUS

CICERO.

323

minute and faftidiooscorreftnda ; foinUd/en^


without a fyliaand conci/e
ble
periods^
tences^ Jhort
a

to

j^arein them

if the

of Operfeftion
of wcrdsj and in
frugality
as

mto^ confiftedin a
ientiments into the narroweft comcroiiding
our
pais[zj. The chief Patrons of this taft were,
.

t/L.bfutu$"Licinius Cahrus, Afinius PoUio,


ISenecafeems

and Salluft; whom

to treat, as

the

and fententumsftile
dhrupt^
of/i^^fi^rify
to
[a]. Cicero often ridiculesthefe pretenders
natby^
^/fVeleg^ce;as judgingof eloquence,
ibeftn'ce
ofthe art^ hut their own weaknefs
; and
to decrywhat theycould not attain i
refolving

author

nodung, but what theycould imitate {h']:


and though their way of fpeaking,
the ear ofa criticor afcbg^
he fays,
might pleafe
and fonorous
fiiblime
larjyet it im not qf ^jlI
huf
kind, whole end was not onelyto inJiruHi
bom
for
an
to move
an
eloquence,
audjoice:
whofe merit was always(hewn
die niultitude;
and ex^
admiration^
by it^s effefb,of exciting
ftmts of applaufe
; and oh which there
iorting
never was ^;fy
difference
ofjudgmentbetween the
teamed and the populace
|/].

and

to

admire

Y
"c.
videreCor,

Atdciu

Mnim

Tacit.

Dalog.

VkL

18.

Qwntil.1 2. 1
\z\ ^fihi fin! moltnm
"

"!-

This

colts. L. Sen. fipift.


1 14*
monendi
nobn
[^]ItMjue
font ii,"qoi vol did fe defiderant Atticos,aot ipfiAe-

dentor,qoi folof efle Atti-

tice volont dicere,at mirenmazime


credontp tenoes
tor Demofthencm
cos
viri"
dbs ft fignificanfiet"
fbd^nt* elaqaentimqae
ipfiot
dsm
inibecilhtate
foa,
bQs" non
doqnentis ftngalitate
lad*

"

fern* metiantur. None enim tan*


content08" ac manom
concinentea. torn qoiib
oe laadat,
pte intra palliam
(^oantnni
On"
imiun;
fe
Qdntil.zii.t. z.
[if]Sic Salhiftiovigente, tor. 748. vid. Tufe. Qa"ft.
'

"*
niKputataefententiae,

ta

polTe^mt

ver-

expedatom cadentb|
k obfcttra
brevius,facrcpro
ante

z.

1.

[c]Sed
tamor

ad Calvnm

rever*

ne
qai"|-^aiens

vi-

tiofum

^^

"4

of the Life

History

that prevailed
gcnuineloquence,
in Rome
as
long as Cicero lived: his were
rclifhedor admired
that were
the onelyfpeeches
by the City v while thofe Attic orators, as they
and
called thcmfelves,were
defpifed
generally
deferted
by the audience in the midft of
frequently
their harangues[rf]. But after Cicero's death
the Roman
ry
oratoand the ruin of the Republic,
and a falfe
funk of courfe with it*s liberty,
inftcad of
: when
prevailed
fyedcsuniver(ally
that elate" copious, and
flowingeloquence,
freehr into every lubjedt,
launched out
which
there fucceded a guarded,dry,fententious kind ;
This

the

was

ftudied pomts ; and


oncIy for the occafion on which it was

full of labored
proper

and

turns

and fcrvile
employed; the making panegyrics,
complimentsto their Tyrants. This changeof

ftile may

be obferved

in all their writers from

Cicero's time, to the younger Pliny, who carried


it toitsutmoftperfeftion
in his celebrated
the Emperor Trajan:which, as it
on
Panegyric
is juftly
of di6tion,
the
admired for the elegance
and the delicacy
of it's
beautyof fentiments,
the
compliments,fo is become in a manner
flandard of fine fpeakingto modern
times:
where it is common
the preceftders
to
to hear
Criticifm defcanting
the tedious lengthand
on
exuberance of the Q^eroman periods.
Ijpiridefs

But
tiofum

etiam ve"
"
Qntore
colligeret,
hominibai
ianguinem-deperdebat.

rum

Itaqueejusoratio

oimia relU

gioQC attenuaca, dofiis


audientibus

tente

Uris;
a

erat

"aeillu-

non
cum

bono ioCd^
^palo dif*

ihkl. 297feafio fQitf""*5rc.


^{Z}At cum iftiActici di""
cane,

non

modo

foro, cui

nau

corona,

OQod eft ipftim miftrabile^


eloquentiakd etiam ab Advocatii feU|l"

uKiltitudineautcmft

cil,devorabatnr. Brut. 41a


XiaqueQtioqwun df bono

^nantor.
.
.

lb. 417*

HisToky

3^6

Socrates

the firllwho

was

which
cf Pbilofipby^

of the Life
bahifhed Pbjifics
cut

tillhis thne had

been

the

of it ; and drew it off from the obfole objc"t


into nature, and the
fcure and intricateinquiries
conftitution Of the
"tof morality
; of

portance to the

heavenlybodies, to queftions

more

lifeand im"

immediate

happindTofman

concerning

of virtue and vice^ and the nh^


tural difference
ofgood and HI [g ] : and as he
with faUe
found the world generally
prepoflefied
fo his method was,
notions on thofe fubje6bs,
net to affert
of bis tnsmy hut to refute
any opinion
the opinions
of others^ and attack the errors in
men
vogue ; as the firftfteptowards preparing
of truth
the
for the reception
came
or what
,
nearcft to it, probability
[*]" While he himhe ufed
felftherefore profefled
to know
notbixgj
the

to

notions

true

(iftout

the feveral doftrines of aU


icience i and

to

feriesof

the tenders
prethen teize them with a

fo contrived,as
queftions

reduce

to

them,
for the convenience of walks
and ezerdfesfor the Citizens

M
comtat

Socrates

"

id

i-"

inter omnes,

rebus occnltis,"
a
ofif/i'/"/;andwasgnKlaaHy
and
improved

natura

rich, who

philofophiamSe

nefitor

adorned by the
had received be-

from it,with
pleafure

commttnem

^uod

primns
ab ipik

involatis" 4Vocav2fle
vitam
addnziile,ut de
ad

of groves, ftatelyvirtntibustc ^tiis,omnino"


plantations
a
portico*!,nd commodious
que de bonis rebus " mails

apartments, for the particu- quaereret, "c. ibid. vid. it;


lar ufe of the Profeflbrs or
Tufc. Q|iaeft.
5. 4.
Mailers of the Academic
[-"]E quibusnos id pofeveral of ti$mum
confecuti fumus,
Schoolj where
them are (aid to have fpent
arbitra*
nfum
quo Socratem
their

lives,and

fenhave refi- bamur ; ut noftram ipfi


asfcarce ever
tenttam
idedfoftridly,
ttgeremus, errore
have
to
the alios levaremus ; k in omni
within
come
to

City. Bp.fiim.
dilbutatione,
4. la. Plut.
quid efTet fiInThefeo. 15. Diog. Laert. mifiumum veri quxreremua.
In PUto. ". 7. plutar. 4e Tufc. Quiptt.
S- 4* i^ ^4"
-w
.i

"ExiL6o3.

T-

ofM. rULLIUS

CICERO.

them, by the courfe of their anfwers,to

327
dent
evi-

an

and the impoflibility


of defending
ablurdjty,
what theyhad at iirilaffirmed [t].
Plato did not ftrlAly
But
adhere to the me*
thod of his mailer Socrates

-,

and

his followers

wholly deferted it : for inftead of the focratic


mode^yof affirming
nothing,and examining
as it HDcre^
every thing,theyturned Pbilofopby^
into an art \ and formed a fyftemof opinions,
which they delivered to their diiciples,
as the
phew,
tenets of their feft \k\
peculiar
piato'sNewho was
leftthe heir of his
Speufippus,
fchool, continued his ledures,as his fuccefTora
alfo did,in the Academy^and preferv'd
the name
di Academics \ whilft Ariftode, the moft eminent
retired to another Gym^
of Plato's fcholars,

nafiumy called
ftom

which

the

he and

Jjyceum;

from

where

his followers

cu-

obferved,of

leachingand difpudngas they walked in the


Portico's of the place,
theyobtained the name
the walking Philofophers*
of Peripatetics^
or
in name,
Thefe two fefts,tho* differing
agreed
in
all
the
or
points
principal
^nerallyin things,
the chief hapjof their philofophy
: they placed
in virtue^tvitba competencyof ex-of man
pineis
ternal goodsi taughtthe exiftence
rf a God^ a
the immortality
Providence^
cfthe fouljand a fu^
[ /].
turefiate
ofrewards and punijbments
y

[n Socratescttim percun-

thx"

4
crates

ars qnsdaiD
probabat,

orda
" reram
fiandoatqoeinterropiidoePhiloio^htse,
"
Ucere fekbat opinionet
eo"
defcriptio
difdplms"
"

nmi,
-de

diflciebat Academ.
quibafciiiii

Pin. 3. 1.
[k] nUun aatem Socratidubitationem de omoicam
has rebus, ft luiUa adfirma-

i.

4.

idem
U eadem
ntrifque,

[/}

Sed

ions erat
rerum

ex-

fugiendannnqae
petendarum*
t. 4, 6, 8}
[Acad.
partitio.

" Acid"mico""
tioiieadlkibiCacoiiiiietttduiein
reri^teticos
difleiendi fcUqaerant. Ita nomuiibtts difieientes, rQ
bJS^ eft"quod jninime S"r congraentea. lb. a- ""

Tie History

328
This
under

of the Life

the ftate of the Academic

was

five fucceflive mailers

after Plato

who
,

ichool

governed it

Xenocrates, Polemo,
Speufippus,

Cnucs, Grantor

tillArcefilas the fwcth difcard-

fyftemsof his Predeceffors,


and revived xhcjocralic
notkingy
way, ofaffirming
dckbtifig
of all things and expofingthe vanity
of the reigningopinions
[w]. He alledgedthe
of making this leformaticn, from thai
nccefiiry
which had reduced Socrates,
cf ibings^
obfturity
kirn to a confejfion
a^d all toe Ancients befcre
of
he obfcrvcd, as they had all
their '']:norarue:
likt-vi: done, that the fenfes
reawere
narrow^
jhortytruth immerfedin the deepj
fin infmiy life
and cujicmevery where predominant
; and
opinion
involved in darknefs
all tilings
["]. He taught
therdbre, ** That there was no certain know'*
of any thingin nature ;
ledge or perception
ed

at

all the

once

'

"*

falfc-

any infalliblecriterionof truth and

nor

hood

nothingwas fo deteftablc as ralhnels; nothingfb Icandalous to a Philofopher,


what was
cither falfe or unas to
profefs,
known
to him \ that we
ought to aflert nofufthingdogmatically
; but in all cafes to
pend our aflcnt ; and inllead of pretending
ourfelves with opinion,
to certainty,
content
all that
groundedon probability
\ which was

*'
"
**
*"
"*

*^
"*
^

that

"a

["]

Arccfilaiprimom, ex

Platonts libris"fermahoc xnaxiaibiiiqaeSocraricis

wiis

me

ad

cognofci,nihil percipi,
AHri pofledizerunti
anguftos fenfuss imbecilloi
nihil

nihil efleccrd, animoss


arripuit,

qoodaut i'enfibusaut animo


"le Orat. 3. 1 8.
poffit"
percioi
fed
Non
pcrtinacia
["^3
carum

hfl

tae;

in

demerfam

brevia cnrricQU

vi"

profundo veritatem
" inopinionibus
"

llitutisomnia

teneri; nihil

obfcuriutcqaaeveritati relinqui:deinceps
tenebnt
circmnfiiia
confeffionem ignorantie omnia
reram

addMzerant

Socratem*

"aaefpmef"tcicai

"-*-

^uini-

effedizcniat.Aod.

}"

ofM. rVLLltfS
"*

had

rational mind

the PlatonicJ
credit down

or

to

able Mafters

the Old:

This

diftin"ion from

which

maintained its
Cicero's time, by a fucceflionof
the chief of whom

the fourth from

des,

32^

in/*
kcquiefce

to

Academy^in

called the New

was

CICERO.

Arcefilas

Carnea-

was

who

carried it

lebrated
heigthof glory,and is greadycefor the vivacity
of his wit
by antiquity
and force of his eloquence
[o]
muft not however
W
E
imagine,that thefe
jtcademics continued doubting and fluftuating
and irrefbludon,
all their lives in ibepticifm
letded princiwithout any prccife
or
opinions,
ple
of judgingand afting[p]: no ; their rule

its utmoll

to

was

as

fed

"
*"
*'

as

parts of his works,

many
*'

that of any other


it is frequendyexplanedby Cicero in

certain and confident

**

as

We

are

not

of that

fort,fayshe, whofe mind is perpetually


wanend
deringin error, without any particular
of its purfuit
would fuch
: for what
or objeft
a

mind,

lifeindeed be worth, which


determinate rule or method of thinkOr

fuch

*"

had

**

ing and afting? But the diflference between


and the i^
is, that whereas theycall
us
fome thingscertain and others uncertain
the other improha^
call the one probable^
we

**
^*

no

'^

**

"

hie.

guitaefiitem.[deNat. Deor*
vam
appellant; qaae ufque i j.l Hinc hzc recentiqr
ftd Carneadem
perdu^" qui Academia emanavit. in qiui
Academiam

Ip\ Hane

no-

"

iquartusab Arcefila fait,ia

ezftititdivina

"ftdcm Arce^ae ratione per*


manfit.
[Academ. i i ) "]

tate

"

Ut )uec in
contn

"

ntio
philofophia

omnia

nnldiflerendi.

quadam celerl*

copia
ingenii*
dicendiqae

De Orat. 3 1 8"
[f\Ne^ue enim Acadeoiici,cum
m
utramque diileCameadea

-*

apertejudicanditrunt partem^ noa


proie6Ua Socrate, repedta alteram vivunt.
ab Arcefila^
confirmataa Car*
1 2. 1
iKadc, y"^ ad noSram vi;

lamque rem

"

(ecnndnm
1*
QiiitttiL

lie Hist

330

^tlftLife

onY

iU. For what reafbn then ihould

I pur"
fue the frobabU^
rejedthe contrary^ and dcavoid the
diningthe arrogance of affirming,

"'
*^
^^
"^

of raflinefi
imputation
;

*^

is the "utbeft removed


do

not

which of all things


from wifdom

[g]i
to %" that th^
pretend

^^

Ag^in }

*^

is BO fiidithinga$ trudi i but that all truths

*^

have fome fidlhoods annexed to them^ of fo


and fimilitude,
as to afnear
a lefembknoe

*^

we

not

**

fond

^^

to

**

whence

*'

are

perfeftly
comprehended,yet on account
their attrafHve and fpecious
appearance,

^^

no

certain note

determine

our

of diftin"tion,
whereby
and
aflent :
judgement

it follows alfo of courle,that there


thingsprobable
-, whidi, tho'not
many

of
fuffieient
to govern the life

**

there is no
In another place,

**

he,between

and thofewho

are

[r].
difference,
"iys
to knew
pretend

**

us

of

wife man

they never doubt of the


truth of what they mabta'm ; whereas we
have many PnbdbiliAeSy
which we
readily
embrace, but dare not affirm. By this we
free and unprejudiour judgement
preferve
of ddfending
ced, and are under no neceffity
and injoined
what is preferibed
to us : whereas
things
;

**
*^
**
**
*^
**
^^

in the

*^

/^

tarn

but

wier

that

fefts,men

are

tied down

to

cer-

capableof

do"rines, before they are

*^

what
judging

"*

infirm part of life,


drawn cither by the auof a friend,
with the firft
or charmed
thority
mafter whom
theyhappen to hear,theyform

*'
*^

is the beft ; ami

to
judgementof thingsunknown
and to whatever fehod theychance to
ven
by the tide, cleave to it as M:
Oyftcrto the iDck [i]."

*^

"*

^*
"

moft

in the

them

be drias

the

Thus
M

I
M

De
De

OiEc. s. %.
Nat. Boor.

Aca4em.

2.

3,

K
i.

5.

B. This

prindplisof
nay

skefch of the
the

Aeidem/*

enable ua todecide du(

ofU. rULLIUS

CICERO.

331

ibe Academ

held the proper medium


rence
between die rigorof the Stoic and the indiffeThus

: the
Sceptic

of the

Stoics embraced

all

their dofbines^ as fo many fisfdand immutable


in"mous
truths from which it was
to depart
;
J

by makii^ diis their pointof honor, held


in an inviolable attachment to
all their difciples
The Sceptics
the other hand, obfcrthem.
on
towards all opinions
ved a perfei^
neutrality
;
allof them to be equally
uncertain ;
maintaining
and that we could not affirm of any thing,that
and

this or tbat^fince there was as much reafon to take it forthe t"ne as for the otherj or for
ndtber ofthem ; and whpllyindifferentwhich of
it

was

them

conteft simongthe
Critics, aboQt the readingof

toas tbifirft
of bis igftffrdftti
uufior incitement to tbeftu"
in Cicero'sdj of Pbilofopby,
the following
Phto had
paflage

ftinoQs

treatiie"xr the natun


Gods,
Di iua
I I
ffthf
[I.

ezprefleddie fame fentiment


before hun, where he fays.
ioRffftmorumtbdt to wonder at tbingstxras^

.]]
variajunt
.

tarn

JbcmiMttm^
tamqui

fintiHti^iut

difinpMtis the common

MffftpuntoeJptdeheMt^
caufamf id

mapf0

tiffeBion
ofa Pbi"

and
lofopber^

rife,or

wbnt

atone gave
beginningto Pbi^
[inThcaetct.

eft%principtufnpbilofipblalofopby
itjtlf:
whence
fcientiam; [Infcientiifffk,
p. 155. Edit. Serr.]
AcadiMtCicero draws this inference,
^mi] pfudiMttrqui
nbus inartis affgnfimim
which he frequently
cates
inculThe aueilibn is,
in other prts of his
C9hlbuijf$.
whether we fhoalo read/ri//fworks, that the Academy

ios a

tUm^

or

infcitntUm: the

greaceft
part of the editions
and MSS
give us the firfti
but Aldus Manntius and Dr.
Davies
which

fecond

preferthe
I take

to

be the

true

For Clcero*s meaning


reading.
in this place
is,from the
diSenfions
of the learned dn
a AibjeAof To great importance,
to

ilhibate

maxim
that thi ndtur^l

mental
funda-

in
aBed prudently^
tberefore

and
ifs affonty
witb'bolding
there
that
was
maintaining,
fuch thingas Science, or
no
within the
eertainty
ahfolttte
If this then
reach of man.
be the fenfe of the paflage,
as

it appears evidently
to

be,

ftneceflarilvrequires
infcien^
tiam to make itconfiftent."
"

See tbe

ofVAbU
trdnjlation
fcA, lyOiivet^and bis notes on tbe
if pia^e^ndBdit.DaviiJC^tiib^
"hfturitj
a

of his

mm^s cvijcimjnefi
thingi^Mnd

^^

33^

History

of the Liji

thought it to be : thus they lived,


without ever
engaging themfelves on any Gde
of a queftion
their lives in the mean
; direfting
time by natural affections,
and the laws and cuftonM of their country "/]. But the Academics^
inftead of the certain^
by adoptingthe probable
kept the balance in an equal potfebetween the
extremes
two
; making it their generalprinciple,
obferve a moderation
in all their opito
nions
of them,
who was
one
; fnd" as Plutarch,
cells us, paying a great r^ard alwaysto that
them

wc

old maxim

ybiJif

ne

this fchool then

to
pofition

rather

or

Jt}Af
;
but

any,

an

quidnimis ["].
in no particular
was
opto all,
equaladvcrfary

dogmatical

to

in general,
Philofophy
to itfeff,
readily
gave

fo every other fea, next


it die preference
univcrfal
to the reft : which
conccflion of the fecond placeis
commonly
infer
the firft[x]: and if
thought to
a rightto
refledt

we

and

what

the

on

ftate of the Headien

theythemfelves

fo often

world,

complainof,

the darknefs that furrounded them, and the infinite


of the bcft and wifeft on the fiindijfenftons
damental queftions
of religion
and morality
\j]
;

muft

we

of

nunner

moft

neccflarily
allow,

diat the Academic

phiJofophizmg
was

of all others the

rational and modeft, and the beft

adapted
to

[/] Vid. Scxt.

Empiriciy

"

Pyrrhon.H/potyp.A.
*'"

5-

W^-^'A^J'
lUtffM

70

MiJif

""

;n lib.de Ei

Wrw,

iyaf, e#

it""A"^" '^ifj^"'
It.

fecundae mrtesdantnr"

'^^ primum

*""*

II-

fao

A-

caBtcronim

^wr.

ex

coniiquo poteftprobabiUtcr
^*"

GcU.

du8.

judicioy qui

efle

omDium

judiciofit fecun-

Fragment.Academ.

ex

apudDclph.387. Auguftin.

lib. depnmofrigido.
fin.

[j]

De

[x\ AcademicoSapicntiab
3. Acadcm.
"omnibusc"tcraruin SedUram

Nat.
2,

Dcor.
3.

1.

i.

13,

i.

of thf Life

l%e History

j2^

in
this Pbilofc^hy

mended
Cicero

manner
peculiar

to

others, the beft fuited


Orator : fince by itspra-

its being,of all

of an
profeffion
and againSi
ftice of difputing/(?r
every opinion
the

to

of the other feds, it gave him the bdd


tunity
opporand acof perfedUnghis oratorialfaculty,
quiring

Ipeaking
readily
upon all fubHe callsit therefore the parent of elegancy
jefts.
and declares,thai be awed all
and copioufnefs
the fame ifbis eloquence^
not to the mechanic rules
andgene^
of the Rhetoricians but to the enlarged
rous
ofthe Academy\c\.
principles
habit pf

^j

fchool however

This

almoft

was

deferted in

at Ktnne^ when
Greece^and had but few difciples

Cicero undertook

itspatronage, and endeavoured

reafon is ob"

revive its droopingcredit. The

to

vious

it impofeda hard ta(k upon its ichplars"


of difputing
againftevery fed, and on every
:

queftionin Philofophy; and ifit was difficulty


to he mafterofarry one^ bow much
as Cicero fays,
fnore
of them all? which was incumbent on thofe
who
themlelves Academics [J.] No
profefled
then that itloft ground every where, in
wonder
proportioa
mihi femper
A*
[i]Itaque

fub.

Not

bit.]

ea

plulqfo-

cademiac confuetudo, de omxiibus rcbQs


in costrariaa

phia ploaatimor, qoae peperit dicendi copiam.Prpoqn.

non
partesdiflerendt,

Farado"

caudun
re

verifimiic fit inre-

Airi, fed etiam


ea

maxima

fifingnlas
nam
intelligo"
4ifcrp1ina8
percipere
magnum
cia

quod eflet

dicendi exercita-

[Tnfc.Quxft. a.

tio

Tid.

earn

placuit,
qnod
[/] Qgam nunc
prope*
poflet
qaid in qua- i^odam Orbam effe in Grae-

aliternon

que

ob

folum

Quintil.12.

eft, qoanto majus

cumqne

quod
eft,v^xi
qoibuspropofitom

3.

2.] Ego

^teor

autem

fi modo

omnes

faccpe iia neccflc eft,

caufii,et contra
; me
reperieni"
oratorem,
8e pria
fim, aut edam qui- omnes
philofophos,
omnibus
fim, non ex Rhetodictic.^De
mt"

rum

fed
officinis,

mis

rpatiiaextitifie.
[Orator.

ex

Acade-

Dcor.

I. c,

of mAULLIUS

CICERO.

335

as eafc and luxuryprevailed


proporrion
; which
difpofed
peopleco the do"i;rifieof "/vnaturally
cums
; in relation to which, there is a fmart faying
6(
recorded
Arcefilas ; who
being alked,
fvbyfomany of all feSs weni ovir to the Epicu^
back from tbem^ repli*
ever
came
reansy hut none
but Eu-*
ed" that men might he made Eunuchs
become men
nuchs could never
^gain [r].
This
generalview of Cicero's Philofophy,
will helpus to account
in fome meslfure,
for tha"
which peoplefrequently
difficulty
complam of,
his real ientinients ; as well as for
in dilcovering
the miftakes which they are apt to fall into in
that fi^arch: fince it was the diftinguifhing
ciple
prinof the Academy to refutethe opimans of
others rather than declare any oftheir own.
Yec
does not lie here : for Gcero
the chief difficulty
that head
afTe"ed
not
on
nor
was
fcrupulous
in the delivery
of his thoughts,
any obfcurity
his bu(inels to explanethem : but
it was
when
and difierent charaAer of his fe*
it is the variety
^

veral

to ^^^'

Liert. de Arce-

fila."

fiftednnder that denominatiOHt

down

to

bis

days, as

own

Well under Carueades, m


DioGBNBS
Lasrtivs*
and fonae later writer!, fpeak Arcefilas: and So far firom

of zHtmA

or

between

ibo Old

middli

Academy
snd

the

iViw.inwhirhthejarecommonly followed by the modemsy

who

Plato tbi

make

them
fplitting

into

/ir/"

Cicero's mafter

jfcadimia^
Philo maintainAd confiantif
in Jiiis
books* that there ne^
ver

in

was

reality
any

more

of the old\ Amfilas than one\ grounaingTiw arrf tbi middle \ Carneadet of gument on what I have obebe New.
[See Stanley's ierved above ; the fimilar na-

Toundir

Lives of Philoph.
in Carne^
But
there
real
was
no
adcs]

ground for fuch


: fince Cicero
on

diHinfU*

never

men-

tare

autem

gpnius of tbf

and

Acad.

t.

4.

tfoo.

Pcrturbatricein

}\arum omnium

resum

Academiam, banc ak Arcejila


l!fCarneade recent em^ c"re-

tions any other, but tbe old


and exprefslymus
snd tbe new;
^kdares the laA t9 have fub-

at

De
filcat^

Leg.1^^.

^fie Ltfe

JleHisTonY

336

the g^erality
of
writingstbat perplexes
his readers: for where-ever they dip into his
works, they are ape to fanqrthemfelves poflef-

ifcnl

fed of his fendments, and

quote them

to

ferently
indif-

fudi, whether from bis Orations^bis


LttterSywithout attendingto
9r Us
Dialogues^
as

peculhrnature of the work, or the different


perfonthat he afliimes in it.
of the judicial
orations are
His
generally
kind ; or the pleadings
of an Advocate, whole
the

bufineis it
and

to

what

was

to

deliver,not

make

fo much

what

ufefiilto his Client

was

of his caufe

the bed

was

true,

as

the patronage of
the Judge, and

belongingin fuch cafes to


the pleader
to
not
[/]. It would be abfurd
therefore to requirea ferupulous
veracity,or
truth

flxift declaradoo of his fentiments in them

the

bids
thingdoes not admit of it ; and he himfelf forof thofe oration^
us to exped it; and in one
franklydeclares the true nature of them all"
that man,
layshe, is much miflaken, who
thinks, that in thde judicial
pleadings,he
has an authentic fpedmen of our
:
opinions
of the caufes and the
they are the fpeeches
"

^^

*^

""

^'

**
**

"*
"*

""

^^

times

not

of the men,

or

the advocates

if

the caufes could

ipeak for themfelves,no


body would employ an oratcx- ; but we are
employed to fpeak,not what we would undeitake to affirm upon our
but
authority,
what is fuggefted
by the caufe and the thing
"

[/] JqcUciseft lemper in


caafis

veram

BonnnnqQam
ttajn fi minus

fertiiiicum

feqaisPatroni, faiberem,

de
non

itfelf

Philofophia

auderero"niii

idem placeret
everifiiiiiJe"
^"if"mo Stofit venim,

de-

ftadere: qnod fcribere,


prae^

icoram
a.

14.

Panaetio. Dc

0"c*

rULLIUS

ofM.
"*

iffdf

CICERO.

[^ ]/' Agreeablyto

Cilian tellsus,

"

this notion,Quin-

that thofe who

trulywife,
have fpenttheir time in publicatlairs,
tho' they have rein idle difputes,
not

**

^nd

**

and

""

Iblved with

"*

in all their aftions,yet will


ufe every argunient, that can

**
**

to

33;

defend

We

often

[by*
meet

to

be

they have

caufe,which

the

""

themfelves

are

honeft
(iriftly
not
to
fcruple
be

of fervicc

undertaken

to

In his orations therefore,


where
with the fentences and maxims

cannot
we
alwaystake them for
philofophy,
his own
but as topics
his auto move
dience,
applied
air of gravityand probaor to add an
bility
his
to
fpeech[i].

6f

His

Letters indeed

thofe
cfpecially
before

us,

thefc fome
ved
or

any

to

to

familiarfriends,
and

Atticus, placethe

real

man

his very heart : yet in


diftin"tionmurt neceflarily
be obferand

layopen

for in Letters of

condolence^
compliment,
recommendation, or where he is folliciting
pointof importance,he adaptshis arguments
;

the occafion

to

and ufes fuch

as

would

his friend the moft

to grant what
readily
he defired. But as his Letters in generalfeldom
of philofophy,
touch upon any queftions
except
(o
and
will
afford
ve(lightly incidentally,they

induce

III.

Vol.

t^}Sed

cf rat

vchcmcnter,

ry

trutli of

fafts:

cfffcciaHy

fi quU in orationibus noftris, thofe,which were


fpokento
the
the
in
Senate
habuimus^
or
judiciis
People;
qaas
aa"toritate9noRras confignt- where
he refers to th ^ aCls
tas

fe habere,arbitratur. Pro

and chandlers

A.

Claent

living*before

50.

of perfonatheir
an

generallyks welt

E^l Quintil.1. xi. 1.

that

[/J Though

acquaintedwith

his Orations

was

aadience^
them

a"

himfelf; and it is in fachr


are
always the proper
that I layanyf
cafes chiefly*
vouchers of his opinions*
yet
they are the beft tefthnoiiies great (lref"
upon thesu
not

chat

can

be

for the
alledged

72^ History

338

ry littlehelpto

of the Life

in the

of his pbilo"
difcovcry
of the
which
the fubjeft
are
opinions^
fnphical
prefentinquiry,and for which we muft wholly
works.
to his philofophical
recur
Now
the general
purpofcof thefe works was^
rather of the ancient pbilofopbyy
to give a bijiory
of his own
than any account
; and to explaneto
ever
his fellow Citizens in their own
language,whatof all fe"5):s,
the philofophers
and in allages,
had taughton every importantqueftion,
in order
to
enlargetheir minds, and reform their
morals ; and to employ himfelf the moft ufcand
fullyto his country, at a time when arms
force had deprivedhim of the power
a fuperior
of fcrving
it in any other way [*].This he declares
us

in his treatifecalled de

goodor
chief
of the Gods

illof man
;

in his book
which
of

on

in his
the

Fmibusy

in that upon

or

on

the

the Nature

TufculanDifputations
\ and
Academic Pbilofopby
in all
:

he fometimes

takes upon himfelf the part


fometimes of an Epicurean\ fometimes

Stoic ;

of the

Peripatetic
; for the fake of explathe differentdoftrines
ning with more
authority
of each left : and as he affumes the perfonof
the one, to confute the other, fo in his proper
charafter of an Academic^he fometimes difputcs
them
againft
on
reflefting

all : iwrhilethe unwary reader,not


of dialogues,
the nature
takes Cicero

ftillfor the

perpetual
fpeaker
^ and

under

dut

[i]

Nam

otio Ian- efleaddecasftadlaudemct*


iseflet Reipub. vitatis,
res tain graves, tam*
onhis confilio que praeclaras
latlnis etiam
cun

"

Scrcmus,
msy
ut

cam

gubemarinecefle litteriscontineri. De Nat*


atqne cnra
cflet, primumipfiasReipab. Deor. i. 4. it. Acad. 1. c.
cau"
noftris Tufc. Q^.
t.t. DcFinib*
phiiofophiam
hominibos e]q"]icandam
pa*
1.3, 4*
tmi

magniexiftimansmtcr"

of M.TULLIUS

CICERO.

339

miftake, often quotes a fentiment for his,


that was
delivered by him onelyin order to be
But in thefe dialogues,
confuted.
as in all his
other works, where-ever
he treats any fubjcdl
berately,
or
profefledly,
givesa judgementupon it delieither in his own
peribn,or that of
an
Academicjthere he delivers hb own opinions
:
that

and

where

himfelf

he

does

appear in the
to inform us,
icene^ he takes care ufually
to
which of the charafters he has alfigned
the patronage
of his o^n
ientiments ; who was generally
the

not

fpeakerof
principal

the

Dialogue;
as Craflus,in his treatifeon the Orator ; Scipio,
in that on the Republic
on
; Cato, in his piece
old age.
This key will let us
into his real
tions
thoughts; and enable us to trace his genuinnothrough every part of his writings
; from
which
I fhall now
procedeto givea fhort abflxaft of them.
As

to

the

he
philofophy,

have had the fame notion with Socrates,


minute and particular
attention to it, and

leems
that

natural

or
Pbyfics^

to

making

itthe folc end and

our

quiries,
in-

table,
ftudyrather curious than profibut littleto the improvement
contributing

was

and

of
objeft

life

of human

[T]" For

tho* he

was

pcrwith the various fyftems


of all
feAly acquainted
of any name,
from the earlieft
the Philofbphers

Antiquity, and
works
ther
at

has

explanedthem

yet he did not think it worth while, "u


form any diftinA opnionsof his own, or

to

leal):
to declare them.

ever

all in his

of thole

From

we
fyftems

may

his

account

obfcrve, that fc-

dizi, fit, citius,quam


DeNat.
dizerim.
fere
in
rebus, U
omnibus
Acad. z. 39^
21.
IpaxtiiieiiiPhyficis^^ttidngii

[/] Ut

enim

modo

how"

veral
eaid fit;

I)cor.t*

^^

340

ef the Life

History

veral of the fundamental


which
philofophy,

of the modern
principles
palsfor the original

difcoveries ot thefe later times, are the revival


rather of ancient notions,maihtsdned by fi"me
of whom
of the firftPhilofophers,
notice in

ofthe earth \ the


univerfal
; and an
gravtattractive quality
matter
rf
; which
form and order
world in its prefent

Hiftory; ^s
Vacuum
Antipodes
\ a

tationy or
holds the

have any

we

the motion

[my
of religion
and
in all the great points
innonediaterelation
which are of more
morality,
Bu

Being of a God ^
Providence-, the immortality
a
of the foul\ a
; and the
futureftateofrewards and punijbments
eternal difference
ofgoodand ill; he has largely
declared his mind in many parts of
and clearly
He maintained,,
that there was mr
his writings.
Cody or fupremeBeing\ incorporeal^
etemalyfelf-and'
exiflent
; who created the world bybii power
it by bis providence.
This he inferred
fjujiained
from the confent
ofall nations \ the order and beau^
bodies; the evident marks of
ty of the heanxsnly
to certain endsyoS^
counfily
wifdom^and a fitnefs
fervablein the whole and in every part ofthe w.
Jibleworld ", and declares that perfonunworthy^
ofthe name ofman^ who can believeall tinsto have
been made bychance ; when with the utmoftjtretcb
ofhuman wifdomwe cannot penetratethe depthof
that wifdom.
which contrived it. \n].
to

the

of
happinefi

man,

the

'

{m] De
Acad.

Nat.

Deor.

2i

45.. ditamoto

38, 39.
Nee
[n]
ipfe"4lio
modo
intelligi
potefl"nifi
folnu
mens
quaedam ic libeab omni
ra" fegregata
con*
cretiooe mortallyomnia fenX.

peus

tienik movens,

He
"Tdc.
rempttenie.

ip"qiie
pr""

Quaeft.i. 27.},Sed
gcntes,

una

lex "

Se immortalis

omnes-

fempitema

continebit,o-

9c
nufqueeritqaafi
Ma^fter,
""eaa^"
omnhiiii
Impeiator
Praem. UK |. dt Repob.--

UC pooo

"

maiffiDura hoe
wifcffa:

34^

of the Life

History

alted minds

which die trueft fpecimcnof

from

dieir nature muft needs be drawn : from Us uthfnix'dand indiviftble


ejfcnce
^ which had nodiing

in it;
or perifhable
feparable
fillpowers

from

itswpnder-

and faculties\ iifprinciple


ofjelf-ma-

tion; itfmemory
aU
which were

inyention^witj comprebenjion
%

with fiu^Jh matter


incompatible

Stoics fancied (hat the Soul was

fuhtir
lized^fiery
fuhfiancewhich furvived the body
^fterde^th, and fubfifteda long time, yet not
etern^ly; but was to peri(hat laft in the general
In
allowed
which
as
conflagration.
they
Cicero fays,the onely
thingthat was hard to connied
ceive^itsfeparate
exijlence
from the body\ yet dewhat was
not onely
eajyto imagine but ^
confequence
of the ether its eternal duration [j}.
Ariltode taught,that befides the four elements of
the material worlds whence all other things
wcr?
theirbeing,there was a fifth
to draw
fuppofed
and the Soul^
to God
ejence
or nature
peculiar
The

which

[p] Quo4 quidem ni


haberet,
ks

ut

animi

iu fe

immorta-

eflenti.haudoptimi

cu-

ad

jufquisaniiDus inaxime
immortalitatpDi

niteretur.

23, 25,

26* "c. dcAinicil*

4.

[q] Zenoni StoicQ animus


ignisvidetur. [Tafc.Qiuelt.
ufanm
1.9.] Stoici autem

dubitas,
{Cato.23.] Num
naturx
capi
quin fpecimen

nobis

debeat

aiunt aniinos.

ex

optima quaqae

na-

1. 14.]
^[Tufc.qiueA.

]argiuntur"tanquani

cornicibus

diu manibras

Tempernegant

quod in tota hac


difficillii^um
eft,fufcianimam
animorum
tanta celeri^
cum
piant,po/fe
manere
mcmoria
illud
tanu
vacantem
:
fit,
praeterito-corpore
inodo
Sicily
prudcnnon
futurommqae
quod
ram.
autem,
tia,tot artes* tot fcientiae"ad crecfendnm eftt fed, eo
tura?

"

Sic mihi

tot

perfuau,fie fentio,

inyenta, non

po|Ieearn

naturam,
quas res tzs
efTe
mortalem:
neat,

conticum"

r-qu""
cauia

cpnceflb quod volant, confequensidcirco, non daht,


ut

cum

din

animus, inter"at.lb.
gue Temperagitetur
frc. Cato.2i.T"fc'^"^^"

permanierit
nQ
t.

31, 32.

rULLIUS

ofM.
which
any
the
*'

**
**

*"
**

"

"f
^*

*^

"*

CICERO.

to
nothingin it that was common
ed,
of the reft [r]. This opinionCicero followIn
and illuftrated with his ufual perfpicuity
followingpallage.
Th
E
originof the human foul, fayshe,

is

had

not

to

any where

be found

earth

there

nothingmix*d, concrete, or earthly", nothingof water, air, or fire in it. For thefc
intel*
of memory,
natures
not
are
fufceptiblc
ligence,or tliought
; have nothing that can
retain the paft,forefee the future, lay hold
faculties are purely
the prefent
on
; which
be derived to
divine, and could not poffibly
except from

man,

God.

foul therefore is of

**

from

**

whatever

**

and

""

on

is

*"

*"

343

thefc known

The

Angularkind
obvious

and

it be that feels and

of the

nature
%

diftinft

natures

and

tafts,that lives

in us, it muft be heavenlyand


divine, and for that reafon eternal. Nor is
indeed
God
himfelf, whofe exiftence we
moves

be

"

clearlydifcover,to

"

in any

"

mind, clear from

"

fervingand moving

"

with

an

other

but

manner,

eternal

comprehended by
as

all mortal
all

free and

concretion

things;

and

us

pure
; ob-

indued

of fclf-motion
principle

of

kind, and of the iame nature, is the hu"


foul [s]r
man
A,s to a futurejlaU of rewards and puniflh^
of the
he confidered it as a confequence
mentSy
foul's immortality
from the aUri-*
; deducible
hutes of Gody and the condition of tnarfs lifeon
earth \ and thought it fo highlyprobable,thai
could hardlydoubt of itj he fays, unlefsit
we
fhould happen to our mndsj when theylook int^
ibmfehes^ as it does to our eyes^ when theylook
**

this

t09t

^^

344

of the Liff

History

at the fun^ that finding


their figU
intenfely
at all [/].In this
dazzled^ibeygive over looking

too

opinionhe

tollowed

Socrates

and

Plato,

for

fo great a revcjudgementhe profeffes


that */theyhad giv^^ ^^ reafonsy
tob^e

whofe
renoe,

Jhouldhave been per*


["]. Sofuadedjhe ^ys,by their fileauthority
therefore,as he tells iis, declared in hi?
cratC3
dying fpeech, that there were two ways appointedto human fouls at their departurtj
^*
from the body : that thofe who had been immerfed in fenfual pleafures
and lufts,and hacj
*'
pollutedthemfelves with privatevices or
*'
their country, took aa
publiccrimes againft
"
obfcure and devious road, remote
from thq
**
feat and affemblyof the Gods ; whilft thoft
"*
their integrity,
and receiwho h^d preferved
*'
ved littleor no contagionfrorpthe body,
'*
from which they had conftantiy
abftrafiecj
"*
imitathemfelves,and in the bodies of men
**
ted the lifeof the Gods, had an eafyafccnt
**
lyingopen before them to thofe Gods, from
**
whom
they derived their being[y].
what has already
From
been faid,the reader
will eafily
imaginewhat Cicero's opinionmuft
the Religion
have been concerning
:
ofbis Country
for a mind
by the noble principles
enlightened
harbour a thought
juftftated,could not poffibly
of the truth or divinity
of fo abfurd a worfhip:
and the liberty,
which not onelyhe, but all the
the chara"9:ers of
old writers take, in ridiculing

^et theyhad given many^

be

'*

**

**

their

[/]Ncc

vcro

it hoc

quif- 1cm intuerei)tiir,iitarpeAQ

dubicare pofTct,iiiii omaino


qnam
Idem nobis accideret diligen- Queft.
ler

de

quod

x.

[xrjlb.

cogitantibiu.
faepeufu veoit,qui
[x} lb.

animo

his

amittercnc^"cTnfc*

Acricer ociilisdeficicntcmfo-

30.
21.

50.

de AmidC* 4.

of M.TULIJUS

CICERO.

345

their Gods, and the fi"icms of their infirnal


tor-

[^], ihews, th^t there w^ pot a man of


liberal education,
who did not copfider it as aa
fyftem; contrived
engineof ftate,or political

ments

fprthe ufes of govemment,

keep the people


in order : in this light,
Cicero always conii*
mends it,as a wife inftitutipn
adapts
\ fingularly
od to the geniusof Rami ; and constantly
cates
inculaabererui to its rit"s^
an
as th^ duty of all
good Citizens [^].
and

to

Their
ths JUpni/if
te ftaiMfd
ffSamn
feros I mean,
? triceps
Fot^
Ss/perjfition.
apud in-

09Qi
ly]Die, qusefo,

iliatorrent

Cerberus ?
mitus}
tis?
cenfes
"

I*

gf

Cocytifre"

anas

um

inveniri

apnd inferos portenta

citimefcat? De
a.

by them

tn

"

poteft,
quae
crecfebni]k$qo^ quondam
Cor,

carried

wMS

tra^fv^xQ Mk^onfuch a hiigth,and introd^*


both into iho
adeone
delirarp eedfoeffoBnalh
me
the
lives
ttt iila credam ?
of
Citizen^p
^[ib.private

6, 21.] Quae

ocors

this

Nat. Dpor.

and the

publicaffairs
of the
one cannot
helpbe-

City, that

ing fnrprizod4t if,

Bnt f
hav$ bean con^

tah

it all to
t rived for the fah

pnlace. For

2.

ofthe

po^

conli
ifnfoctety

[";]Qrdar ab Hamfpici-beforntid of toifiman onely^


iia" qnaoi ego Reipub.caoCij ftuhafchem would not be "#: but Jincethe mnlti^
ceffary
cbauQuniique
rdigionis,colepdam
s.

ccnfeo.

1 2.] Nam

[De

Di?in.

majomm

"

in-

tude is

always giddy,and

a-

wild
gitated
by illicitdefires,

fUtUJtatueri ftcrisca^remoni-

mints,
refent

violent paffionsi

eft.
retioeiydia
ifque
fapientis

there

w^f

lb. 72. De Leg.2. 1 2, i J."


j\^.i?.There isa refledion

i^i PoKbias*
to

formable
eza"lly con-

Cicero^s

fenti-

ti^is
Tii
fifbjeQ,
Advent agi^ fayshe,
grtfiteft
which thi Roman Gwernmnt
ments

on

fiiwu to
is
ftatts^

bavi
in thi

9ver

other

opinionpuk-

was

no

Jlrainingth^m, but

leftcf rpby the help

terrors
offuchjecret
fiQions.It

and
was

gical
tranot

without great prutherefore,


dence
that
andforefight, eh*
to infill
ancients took care
notions ofthe
into them tbefe

and 'infernal
pnnijhwhich
tbinuderns,on
mints,
the other band, annowraflf

Gods

iUly ont^rtnined by them ahout thi Gods \ anj that very


endeavouring
ly and abfurdly
which
is
things
fo gtneralijto extirpate. PolyU 1. 6.
daritd kj other mortals,
Ju* P-497-

^e

'346

History

of the Life

Religionconfiftcd of two principal


and the
branches ; the obfervation
ofthe Aufpices^
worjhipofthe Gods : the firft was inftituted by
Numa
Romulus
;
\ the fecond by his fucceflbr,
Th

r*

to
or order of ceremonies
up a ritual,
be obferved in the different facrificesof their fewards
Aftervera! Deities : to thefe a third part was

drew

who

relatingto divine admonitions'


births ; the entrailsof
from portents; monjirous
ofthe Sibyls
heafts
j and the prophecies
injamfice
the
over
of Augurs prefided
[tf]. ^e College
as the fupreme interpreters
of the tviU
Aufpicesj
cf Jove ; and determined what fignswere propitious,
the
and what not : the other Priefts
were
gion;
to ReliJudges of all the other cafes relating
well of what concerned
the public
as
families [^J.
that of private
as
worfliip,
added

the Prieils of all denominations

of Rome
of the firftnobility

and the

were

Augurs

commonly Sbiators of Confular


of
rank, who had palledthro* all the dignities
the Anthe Republic,and by their power over
could put an immediate flopto all profpicesy
ceedings,
were
efpecially

and diffolve

at

once

all the aflemblies

peopleconvened for publicbufinefs The


of the SibyPs
vefted
was
interpretation
prophecies
in the Decemviri
or
guardiansof the Sibylline
hooks ; ten perfons
of diftinguiihed
rank chofen
ufually

of the

[4]

Cum

omnis

in
religio

Pomani

Populi

Sacra "

ID

Aufpicia divifa "t" tertiuzn


fit,fi quid prae-

adiunflum

diftioniscaufa

ex

portends"

Augoret
aufpiciis
Ell
1.44-]
prxfunt? ^ib.

ces,

cur

Auguris* memiReipub. tern*


poribusprzfto efle debere,
autem

bom

niffe maximis

monftris

fe
Stbyllae
Joviqueoptimo maximo
mterpretes,
conuliariuxn atque adminu
De
Harufpicefveiiionuerunt.
Nat.

Dcor.

[^]
"

3.

Cur

2.

Sacris Pontifi-

ftnim datum^" dc

Leg.s-ij,

ifM. TULLIUS

CICERO.

347

ufuallyfrom the Priefts : and the provinceof


and infpefbing
the enprodigies,
interpreting
the
were
trails,
belongedto lb" Haruffices
; who
fervants of the public,hired to attend the Main all their lacrifices; and who
never
giitrates
failedto accommodate

their anfwers

to

employed them, and


theyowed their credit and

of thoie who

{)rotedion
yhood.

conftitutionof

the views
to

whofe

their live-

a
Religionamong
threw
fuperftitious,
neceflarily
peoplenaturally

This

the chief influence in affairs into the hands of


the Senate, and the better fort ; who by this ad*
checked the vidences of the
frequently
populace,and the fadious attempts of the Tri*
applaudedby
pun$
[/]: fo th"tit is perpetually
Cicero, ^ the main bulwark of the Republic%
tho'confidered all the while by men gf ienfe,as
apd of human Invention. The
merely political,
concerning
onelypart th^t admitted any difput^
^tsorigin,was Augury or their method of di^
yiningbyAufpices.The Stoics held, that God,
had imprinted
to man,
on
put of his gdodnefs
of thingscertain marks or notices of
the nature
the
future events \ as on the entrailsof beajisj
ofbirds thunder^ and other celeftialfigns^
fiigbt
and the experience
which, by long obfervation,
reduced to ^
of ages, werp
art, by which the
meaning of each fignmight be determined,and
by it.
appliedto the event that was fignified
This theycalled artificial
Divination^ in diftinftion from the natural \ which theyfuppofed
to
vantage

flow

Matgiftnti-fcpe enim populiim^tom


Dii imdancur"atmttl- injuftuin
aafpiciia
busaufpicia"mortales
Do
repreflcnint.
(ot inatiles comitiaciu, promoras:
Leg. 3. 1 2,
impedirei^t
()^i]es

[r]

Omnibus

^FieHitro'RYoftbe

34?

Life

or nsthe
inftinSfj
p9werj implaatcd in the Soid, which it exerted alwayswith the
iiriienit was the moft free and
efficacy^
greaceft
difengagedfrom the body^ as in dreams and
{^]* Bat this notion was genenMy riinadnefs
and of allthe
"licul*d by die other Philofe^iers;
Collegeof Augurs, there was but one at this
time who munuined
it,Appius Claudius \ wh^
was
laughM at for his painsby the reft, and
called the Pifidian
: it occariotfd however
a
{_"]
him and his CoUegue
between
finart controverfy
Marcellus, who fererally
publifhedbooks on
Marcellus
each fide of the queftion
% wherein
afierted the whole affair io he ibe contrivance of
Statefimn% Appius on the contrary, that there
and power of divining
a real art
Vfos
fnhfiftin
and taughtby the Au^
in the Augural difdpline^
gural booh [/]. Appius dedicated tins meatife
Marcelto Cicert [g] : who, tho* he preferred
lus^s notion
yet did not whollyagree with ei"
tiicr, but believed, that Augury mightprobably
it upon a ferfuafion
be in/tituted
at fir
of its dhi^

flow from

an

"

nityi
Id] Dbo
sandi
rum

ftmt

entm

genera,

quorum
artiveft,akenm

^-eft cnim

daiD, quie

vis k
am

aatura

divi-

Hitiotts
obTervation oftbeJm-

alte-

fpias^ or

iMtw"

qu"obfervatis

their divination

iy

DeDiriB.
ihejtightof^irds.
i

"

41

42.
Sed

f/]

eft in Collem

veftro inter Marcelfum


longo tempore (ignificattoni"Apturn
aliqud inftinAa, piam, optimos Augures
diviao fatura prsdiflenfio:
aliDflatoquc
cvm
magna
i.6.
tuinciat. DeDiv.
Vid.
teri pkceat, aofpicia
ifta a4
ft. ib 18.
tttilitatem
Reipub. compofi*
veftra
\e\ Quem irridcbantCol- ta; altcri dilciplina
Pifilegaetui, eumque turn
quafidivinare prorfuspolfe
Soranum
-dam, tum
Auga* videatur. De Leg. s. 13.
effe dicebaat. ib. 47.
film
[f] Illo lH"fO Angurali^
ad me
aniaatHEnie
THxP/^"//"i^WQreabar" onem
barous peopk of tke icEar kriptvim,riiaviffiiniun
aufiftk
Jfia\ famous for their fuper- Ep. "un. %. 4.

I"U8,

"

"

of fi^ Life

"The VLisTOKY

350

fyftemof

the

God"

the world, or the viflbleworks of


be the promulgation
ofGod^s lawy or the

to

declaration of his will


we

might colle"b

butes, fo

his

could

we

to

mankind

whence,

as

being, nature, and^attri^

trace

the reafbns alfb and

what be
aAing ; tillby ohferving
bad doniywe
might learn what we oughtto do^
andy by the operations
of the divine reafon^be in^
ftruSed how to petfeSour own ; fince the perfection
of his

motives

of

man

confifted in the imitation of

God.
this fource he deduced

From
all duty,

or

moral

the

obligation
; from

originof
the will of

in bis works ; or from that eter*


Gody manifefted
and relationofthingswhich
nal reafon^
fitnefs^
is difplayed
in every part of the creation. This
immutable law ; the crite^^
he calls the original
j
goodand ill^ rfjuStand unjuSt
rionof
\ imprint-*
ed on the nature of things,
as the rule by which
laws are to be formed ; which, when""
all human
ever
theydeviate fiiom this pattern, ought, he
lays,to be called any thing rather than laws \
and are in efie" nothingbut aHs offorce^
via^
lencej and tyrant^: that to imaginethe diftin*
ffion of good and illnot to be foundedin nature^
hut in cuftom^apimMy or human
is
inftitutiony
and madnefs
overthrow
ntere folly
\ which would
all ibciety,
and confound
all rightand juftice
amongft men {k^: that this was the confbnt
opinion
domictli[S]Sed etkm modeftiam
^mficojntttionb,
^

laue

excott(pe6hiiii
reram
priiUni
qriandamcognitio
ccb"
tdfert
kftiam
?ide""
iis*
[deLeg. t. 9.]j^fe
qui

atavit.

homo

totem

miindam

ortns

eft sd

coatemplandam "

nnllo modo perifflitandum,


^

ant, quanta fit etiam

apod

Deos moderatio"quantua
do

1 k

or*

raagnitudinem
animi^

k fadacerfcfiiu,fed eftauasdun parti-Deomm


open
cula perfeOL Nat.I"cor"s.
ne"tibiisi juftitiam
etiam"

14*

5"

cum

CQgmtum

habeu" quid

7ULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

351

opinionof the wifeft of all ages ; who held,that


tiemind of Gody governingall thingsby eternal
and /over
ein law ; wboji
the principal
was
reafonj
the reafonor mind of the
on earth was
fuhftitute
which
wife
: to
purpofethere are many ftrong
fcattered occafionally
and beautiful
thro*
paflfages
every part of his works [/].
Th
true
law, fayshe, is rightreafon,
E
of things; conconformable to the nature
**

"*

ftant,eternal,diffiifedthro* all 5 which calls

"

duty by commanding deters us from


lofes its infin by forbidding
never
; which
fluence with the good ; nor ever
it
preferves
This cannot
with the wicked.
be
poflibly
over-ruled by any other law ; nor abrogated

*'

to

us

"*
*'
**
"

"

in the whole

"

folved from

*'

pie:

nor

in part : nor
can
it either by the Senate

are

or

to

we

Domini

Bomen,

voluntas; cujns ad naturam


apta ratio vera ilh " fumma
lex
De

dicitur.
Philofophis

"

Fin. 4. 5.
Nos legem bonam

ma1a"

jus ic injurianatura

fed omnino
judicantur,
nia honefta ac turpia
;

communis

"

nobb

notas

res

eft,fed
orta

di*
om-

lex

deliQo

eft

Jovis,Sec.

princeps,
"

De

Leg. z-

[/]Hanc

rum,

autem

opinioneexiftimare,non
dementis
pofita,
[DeLeg. t. 16.] Erat

natura

cnim
natura

ratio
;

4"

video fa*
igitur
fuifTefentenpientifilmorum
intelligentia
efiicit,
eafque tiam, legem neque hominum
nam

in vitiis turpia. "a

eft.

ve-

5, Sec.

excositatam
in^eniis

in

ad

ell ratio fum-

IP animit noftru inchoat, ut


Itoneftt in virtute ponantur,

in

cum.

quamobrem

atque
reda

ell :

orta

jubendum

tandum,

fcripta

cum

fimul

vera,

avo-

demum

turn

cum

divina

apta ad
mi

comment

efle,

tarn,

autem

mente

^uUa alia niii naturs norma


dividere pofTumus. Nee Colum

lex
incipit

the pco-

or

feck kny other

^
impellens,
quod confiliiun,qu2cans ; quae non

fitfammiReAoris^

be ab-

we

a rerum
profe^la

St ad reAe faciendum

Scitum

quod

nee

aliquodeiTe populofed aetemum


quiddam,
univerfum

mundum

imperandi,prohi*
Sec. lb.
bendiqueiapientia,
regeret,
5rc.

tti^ToRy

352

of the Lift

"

or

of it,but
interpreter

*^

be

one

**

**
"*
*"

now

law

at

Rome^

itfelf;

another

nor

at

there

caft

Athens

another hereafter ; but the fame

one

eter-

all raltions,
nal,immutable Jaw, comprehends
Mafter and
common
at all times, under one
He is the inventor,
Governor of all,God.

propounder,enadtor of this law : and whofocver will not obey it, muft firft renounce
and throw off the nature of man
himfelf,
: by
doing which, he will fuffcr the greatcft
pufhould
he
tho*
all
the
other
nifhment,
cfcape
which are comnK"nlybelieved to
torments,
be preparedfor the wicked [fn\P
I N another placehe tellsus, that the ftudy
of this law was the onelythingwhich could teach
of all leflbns,
faid to be
us that moft important
by the PythianOracle^to know curprefcribed
felves i that is, to know our true nature ancf
rank in the univerial fyftem
; the relation that
bear to all other beings
we
; and the pumo"s
*'
"

"

**

**

*'

**

for which
**
*'
"*
**

"'

we

fent into the world.

were

feyshe,

"

When

has

attentively
fbrvcyedthe
m
heavens,the earth,the fca,and all things
them i obferved whence they fprung,and
whither theyall tend ; when and how they
to end -, what
are
part is mortal and periflia

man,

divine and eternal : when

he has

**

able, what

**

almoft reatch'd and touched, as it were,


the
governor and ruler of them all, and difiro-

^'

be confined

"^

vered himfelf

*"

place,but a citizen of the


world, as of one common
City; in this magnificentview of things;in this enlai^ed
proof
fpedland knowledge nature ; gpod Gods^

**

"
"'
""

of any

how

not

to

to

the wall^

certain

will he learn tokn^w

How
Inmfe^f

will
"

["f]Fragment.lib.3*

de

Repub.ex LaOandd*

he

tfM. rULLIUS
^^

**
^*

CICERO.

353

he contemn,
defpife,and fet at nought all
thofe things,which
the vulgar efteem the
moft

and glorious
fplcndid
[n]?"
T H " s " were
the principles
which Cicero
on
built his religion
and morality,
which flvne
indeed thro' all his writings,
but were
largely
and explicitly
illuflratedby him in his treatifes
on

Government,

and

Laws;

on

afterwards his book

added

to

which

he

of Offices,to make

the fcheme

: Volumes, which, as the


coniplete
elder Plinyfiys to the Emperor Titus, oug^t
not
onelyto be ready but to be got by heart [0^,
The firftand greateft
of thefe works is loft,excepting
in which he had delivered
a few fragments,
his real thoughtsfo proiefledly,
that in a
Letter to Atdcus, he calls tboje
fix bocks on the
Republic^
fo many pledges
given to bis country^
for the int^ity of his life; from which, if ever

he fwerved, he could

have the "ce to look


into tbem again[j)].
In his book oflawsyhe purnever

fued the fame ai^ument,


and deuced the origin
of law from the will of the fupreme God.
Thefe

piecestherefore contain his belief^


book ofOffices
bis praSice: where he has

two

ted the

rule of
all the duties of man,
a
or
life conformable to the divine principles,
which

traced
he

out

eftablilhed in the other two ; to which


he often refers,
as to the foundation of his whole
had

fyftem[q]. This work

was

one

of the laft that

he finifhed,
for the ufe of his fon, to whom
he
Vol.
IIL
addreiled
A a

Nj

Qus voltuniiu ejase-

diiceD"kQon

modo

in nuni-

tibitarn yalde proUri g"naeo.


[ad Att 6" i.J Ego aadebo

bus habenda qootidie,


noftL
kgere unqiiani* ant atdngere
Praef.ad Hift. Nat
eot
libro8"quot tn dilaudaf,
Praeferttm cam
fezli- fi taleqaid fecero? ibid.a"
J[/]
hn$, caAquaiii
me[f] Offic. }" 5, 6, 17*
praBdibos,

Tibf History

"54

tfthe lAfe

bebg defirous,in the decline of a


the maxims
to explaneto him
life,
by
glorious
which he had governedit ; and teach him the
thro*^the woBld with innocence^
way of pafling
of
"imie, and true glory, to an immortality
the ftri6tne"of his morals,
v where
tiappinefs
adaptedto all the various cafes and circumftan-

addreOfid it \

will ferve,if not to inftrud,


life,
of moft Ghriftians.
yet to reproachthe pra"tice
is mentioned
This
that law, which
waS'
by
St. Pbft/,to be taughtby nature^ and written m
ibe hearts rf tU GtntiUsyto guide them
thro*'
of which
that ftateof ignoranceand darknefi,,
till theyIhould be
they themfelves conoplained,
of human

ces

blelled with
divine will

Cicero,

Gentik

widi

make

was

the

revelation of the
perfefk
and this fcheme of it profefled
by
the moft completediat
certainly
world had ever
been acquainted
more

the utmoft ^Son

towards

that human

its proper
attaining

nature

end

could
or

that

fuprcme good for which the Creiter had deof which


Agned it r iq)on the contemplation
fiiblime trudis, as delivered t"y a Heathen
Erafmus
could not
helpperfuadinghimfetf^
tiua the hreaiifrom
which tbeyjhwcd
needs
mu3
have been inj^ed by the Deit^
|r]^
But
after all thefe giorious
fentiments thtt
have beea aferibing
we
oolieftto Cicero, and
fixne have been apt to
ing from his writings,
"

confider them

the floriflies
rather of his doquenoe, than the condufionsof his.radon % fioce
in
as

accKhtner*
t^}Qaid'ftiiii

JBni

ude
tti prapeOlit,
di^iniCitocdfenut, tliqnt
melqpnitemficaiScere
folet M. TaHini, mefertim
Eitfia. Bp.sdJolb
cnparic.

tioi

uln de bent
tt

WAm

Titeiiao
naa

diflerit,tJnUtfflimr,

poffim,
9UA

gf Af. TULLIUS

CICERO.

in odicr parts of his works

he feems

Ill
intimate

to

but a difbelief ^//i^^


im^
onelja diffidence,
ofthe foul^and a futureftaiiofrewards
mortality
eatd pumflments ^ and efpedally
in his Letters^
where he is fuppofed
to declare his mind
with
fianknefs [j]. Bat in all the parathe greateft
ges
where he
broi^t to fupportthis objeftion,
is imagined to Ipeakof dMb
the end cf all
as
thingsto many as theyare addrefled to firiendsin
diflreis by way of confolation,
fo fome Con^*
ake
them
mentators
to
mean
nothingrnore^
tiun that death istbe end ofall things
here beUw^
not

A
U leei
\$\ SsBpiffime

tudiviy nihil mali

ette

S?

ftrtkn

In

mors

ia qua firefideatfen-

mortes

eft: fin

ducenda

2aam
amififus,nulla videri
t

leria debeaC, qa"

[Ep. 6m.

atur.

fcnti-

non

$.

etiam

lemaere

16.]

beati

Ad

Att. 4.
N.B.
Br

Ut

habitura,
modo

di f Mowing Neprefcribes,

con-

ture,

fie affeAi,
debecontemnere
nunc

Jaw

nee

our

ulla

are

eerie

dum
cum
iioa

omni

vacem

"ro,

ienfu

culpa;

ab

ea

qua carendom
neiertim

cum

futarum

as

efiTedoleam,
id fine olio

he

God,

nature

fome

are

difpjajr-

of thraes"

apt coifi-

whi^
VQtalypaiBottf.
called natml I b^
faHely

tiated
ing the motions onely of vi-

metites, and
of

tares

the

habit

not

the pre""

of nature

of whjcht
gratrficatipn

he tells uf"

\t more

ry tonatttre^ and

ly more

to

be

coirtra*

confequenti

avoided, than

[ib.4.} poverty,paiM, er

ratio videtar,quicquid

that

means

terpret him, the diAates

Rep. ayellar, as

fit.

the

ommno

3.]Deindc-^
tas,
viad exitnm

vooer

non

Una

angar

[ib.6.

'Cardx).

fi jam

ero,

afor:

which
will of

or

ID

fpceoyego

lenfa

the

as

c.] by

not"

Ml

principles

Je"rn the force of thst


rale, wi"ich he freqaeiukr
we

"I.JSed hasc confolatio kvia; ilia gpra^ior,


qua te uti

"t

this illaftnrtiqn

of Cicero's moral

iedetkmoptare. [Ib. ed

amas,

te,

X.

effet 1.6. deSeiie"t.i. deAmtp;

fentum

nuliooi

eaim

[ib.z i .]

fureand ttmrr*
: [De Legij^.
debeamusjproptercaingguiderflif$

qaam

non

rerufii

SeddeilU"

mi-

lioc fiJtem in mazimis mails


boni confequamur,
ut mortem,

mod

omniam
cam
fiteztremum.

^Nviderit, aiic
iliapotiua, ii quia eft,^i cmec
jDeqi.

fas, immortalius
mors

and

even

deetk

Hfilf[Offic.
$. 5, 6.]

^veaeritffcRt
niodeni(e,pria*

3j6

of the Life

History

and without a9tyfarther


fenfeofwhat is done upon

they be

earth: yet (hould


as

perh^s
they may,

to an

underftood

utter extinSion

it muft be obferved,that he

being;

relate,

to

was

of our
writing

to Epicureans
[/],and accom*
probability
modating his arguments to the men ; by ofiering fix:h topicsof comfort to them from their
held to be
as theythemfelves
own
philofophy,

in all

eficdual.

the moft

we
precarious,

was

But if this alfo fhould

muft

remember

Academe

an

always,that

himfelf refolved

never

cero
Ci-

tho' he believed

and

fond of the

futurefiate^was

ieem

opinion,and

to

clares
de-

part with it i yet

probable
onely,not as certain
fome mixture
implies
[u]: and as probability
of more
and
of doubt, and admits the degrees
in the liability
lefs,fo it admits alfo fome variety
thus in a melancholy
of our
:
perfuafion
the lame
were
hour, when his fpirits
deprefled,

he believed it

as

would
not
argument
appear to him with the
fame force ; but doubts and difficultiesget the
his

afcendant, and what humored

find the readied admiffion.

Pledged

all of this

were

kind,

grin,
prefentchaThe paffiiges

written in the
ieafon

[/]Thu

will appear

["] Qood fi in

hoc erra*
be a very probable
imioppofi-qnod animof hominom
when
(hat
mortales eHe credam. lobenwe
recoiled,
tion,
the ^nerality
of the Rman
Nee
mihi hnnc
ter erro.

Nobility,and
friends

were

of

of the

to

Cicero's

EpUun-

errorem,

quodeleftor,dam

toIo. Catn.
vivo,eztorqneri

and

the
tibi morem,
particnhurly
23. Genua
fiunilyofTorquatusttowhom
ea, qo" vis, at potero,

SMfiBi
two

of thefe very Letters are

: nee
plicabo

tamen

thins

dam

"za qnae dizero: fed

omni

L.

Torqnato,homine

do"ina

erndito,de-

Apollo,certa

ex-

qoafiPy"

^addrefled.^Accurate qaon"

at

finth
at

ko-

fenfa eft Epicori


fententia de

muncalusannsemaldsypN)babilia conje"on ieqi

voluptate,a meque

Tufc.

D6
iponfbm.

ei
Fin. r. 5.

re-

Qgadt.i.9.

358

H1ST6RY

o/tte fjife

of bis country, than he: hU whole charader,


natural temper, choice. of lifeand principles^
from his own.
made its true intereftinieparable
view therefore was alwaysone
and
general
of
the peace and liberty
the fame ; to fupport
in that form and conftitutionof it,
the Republic
His

their anceftors had

which

foundation

to

look'd upon that as the onely


which itcould be fupported
; and

He

[y\

them

delivereddown

on

oifed to quote a verfe of old Ennius, as the di*


date of an Oracle, which derived all the glory
of Rome from an adherence to its ancient manners
and

diioipline.

Morilus
ft is one

Res Ramana
antiquisjtai

of his maxims, which

[z].
virifque

he inculcatesin

ibat as the end of a Pilot is afrofwritings,


She bealib of bis
ferous voyage \ of a Pbyjiciaftj
ofa General^ viHory\ fo tbat rfa fiatefpatier4\
man
is^ to make bis Citizensbappy\ to make tbem
firmin power rich in wealtb^Jplendid
inghry^
his

in virtue: wbicb

eminent

be

declaresto he tbe

[a]:
amof^ men
be efFeded,but bytbe concord

and befiof all works


greateji
and

as

this cannot

and

barmony of the
City [b1; fo it was

conftituent members

of

his conftant aim

luiite

to

the

[jf]Sic tibi, mi
dies "
me
perfuade,

Patte,
nodles

[n] Ut gubenutori curfos (ecQndas"

-fie hnic

mo*

deratori Reip.betta cirinm


nihil aliad agere, nihil curare, nifiat mei cives falvia vita propofiueft"ftc. vkL
fint. "p. hxsL 1. ibid
liberique
24.
f^1 9^' harnonia a Mo"

[z] Qoem

^uidemille

ficisdidtar

in cantn,

ca

eft

breviute vel ve^


in dvitate concordia*ardiA
fimnm atqae optimom onmi
ritate"tanqnam ez Oracnio
nihi doodam effiitus
videtur^ in Repab.vincnlmn incolilAc. vid. Fragm. dcRepnb. nitatit^
L %"
"c. fliid.
verfam

1 5-

vd

9fM. TULLtJJS

CICEHO.

die difierentorders of die ftate into


and
intereft,

mon

to

them
infpire

al confidence in each other


the

fupremacyof

^^

one

with

fo

as

to

com*
muto*

balance

the

people^by the authority


of the Senate; that the one JiouldenaSl^ but
the other a(hye\ the one
have the laftreforU
the other the chief
influence
"^]. This was the
old conftitution of Rome^ by which it had ndicd
itfelfto all it'sgnuidor; whSft all it's mbfortunes
of
were
owing to the contrary principle,
diftruft and
powers

the hands

fu* as itwas

thefe

two

riv^

the great objed therefore of his


thxo^ibe ascendant
in all affairs
inta

it

policy,to

diflenfion between
was

nf the

Senate

andibe

MagihrOteSj
as

confident with the

rightsand liberties
of the people: which will alwaysbe the gene*
lal view of the wife and honeft in all .pc^ular
.jgovemraents.
irhich he efpouicd
principle,
and purfuedto the end of
fix)m the beginning,
of hishijbislife: and though in fome paflages
he may be thoughtperhaps to have deflx"ry,
review of
iriatcdfrom it,yet upon an impartial
the ofe, we (hallfind, that his end was always
the"me, though he had changed his meafures
it; when compelledto itby the vio"
of purfuing
force,and
lence of the times, and an over-ruling
: fo that he
a necef"ry
r^ard to his own fafety
might fay with gre^ truth, what an Atbemam
Orator once
faid, m excufe of his inconftancy
"
that be bad affed indeed on fomeoccaftons
contrary
This

was

the

Aa

to

aoritas m Seaatn fit,teaen


fi Senattitdo" conoonci*
jainiia fit pabliciconfilii-^ illemodentoi
ez tempentkme
ipeflit,
joris, Titatu ftaCiu.De Leg.)" iti

{/] Nsm"

"wipoccfiaia

pqnloi an*

itihrlj*

360
to

History

hut
bimfelfj

of tbe Life
C^] : and
Republic
feems to have
pbilofopiy

to

never

here alio his Academic

tbe

well as
as
praftical,
of
life ; by indulgingthat liberty
in fpeailative
and reaibn require;and
afting,which nature
when the times and things
themfelves are changed, allowinga change of condu6t, and a re*
ule in
it's fuperior

(hewed

oourie

to

new

for the attainment of the

means,

end.

lame

three

The

feEts^which

at

this time

chiefly

the philofbphical
engroiled
part of Rome^
and tbe Academic
tbe Stoic tbe jSpicure^n^
y

the chief
and

cus

and

of each were,
Cato, Atti'
lived together in (bidfc
Cicero; who
ornaments

and a
friendfliip,
virtue

were,

mutual

efteem of each other's

but the differentbehaviour

of

tbretj
tbefe

by faA and example, the difierent


merit of their feveral principles,
and which of
them was the beft adapted
to* promote the good
of fociety.
Stoics were
tbe bigots
The
in
or
entbujiaifs
held none
to be trulywife or
philofophy
; who
in
good but themfelves ; placed
happinefs
per/eft
virtue^ tbougbffript
of every other good; affirm^
cd allfinsto be equal
; all deviationsfrom right
cock without
equallywicked ; to kill a dunghill
reafon^thefame crime as to lolla parent ; that a
wife man
be moved iy
could ntver forgive
; never
be deceived ; never
anger y favor^ or pity\ never
repent} never
changehis mini [tf].With thefe

will Ihew

principles
[^Piat.de
vit. Semoft.

Detnade. in
p. 851. Edit.

Par.

ddifto

Aeminem

mifericordem

nifi ftalduni viri

Sainenteiii
gntitnim*

^oan moveri, aunqaam

ca-

ignofcerei

jal^oam

non

efle.

efle^

exorari,neqne plact*
rii Qnmk peccatatSp pm
neqae

rULLIUS

ofM.

CICERO.

entered into

Cato
principles

361

publiclife; and

afted in it, as Cicero fays,as if he had lived in


the polity
ofPlato J not in the dregs
ofRomulus [/].
He

made

things;no
for the weaknels of the Republic,and
of thofe who oppreflcd
it : it was his

allowance
the power

maxim,
the laws

diftinftion of times

no

all power, not built upon


defy it at Icaft,if he could not

combat

to
5

or

to

controul it: he knew

way to his end, but


obftrudions he met

no

the direft; and whatever


with, refolved ftill to ru(h

furmount them,

king it for a
conquered,to
In

or

on

and either

to

perifhin

or

the attempt ; ta"


confeffion of being

baienels and
decline

tittlefrom the

age therefore of the

road.

true

utmoft

libertinifm,
when the public
was
loft,and the godifcipline
vernment
he
itfelf
w
ith
the
tottering, ftruggled
"me
all corruption,
and waged a
zeal againft
force ; whilft the
with a fuperior
war
perpetual
tended rather to alienate
rigorof his principles
than reconcile enemies ; and by provofriends,
king
he
could
that
the power^
not fubdue, helped
to haften that ruin, which he was
to
ftriving
courfe of disappointments
avert [g] : fo that aftera perpetual
and repulies,
able
findinghimfelf unold
to purfuehis
way ^ny farther,inftead
driven by his Phiof takinga new
one, he was
an

to put an
lofoph^

epd

tp

his life,
But

:
_.

miinis flelinqqefe
emn,

cum
gtllinaceanny
quigallttin

non

mric,

tanqnam in Romuli
tentum.

rem*

pcnutere. Bulk in
fidU,featentiam inittare mm*

teniin

US

Ki

qqam.

[yl

Pro Muru.
Dkit

entm

re

29.

tanquam

in Putottii "'eM7iU"

tm

fscce^fen2.

"

p.

178.

quam tvaaa,
^fafibcaverit:
quipatrem
nuUinihO
optoari,
pientem
opus

Ad

Att.

[g] Pompeiam

"

Caefa-

alteruro
nemo
qnonim
offendere audebat" ntfiut at-

demcreretar, [Cato]

Sen.
fiiniil
provoca?if.
104.

Ep.

36s
BxTT

HistoRT

the Stoics exalted

as

high, fo

^(Be Lift

the

tiuman nature

it
Epicureans
deprefled

too

toe

low

Heroic, thefedebafed it
to the brutal ftate: theyheld pUafureto be the
chief
^oodofman \ death the extinSion of his he-^
confequendyin
ir^; and placedtheir happinefs

as

thofe raiied it to the

tl^fecure
life: e*
enjoymentof a pleafurable
fteemingvirtue on no other account, than as it
and helpedto cn-"
to pleafure;
was
a handmaid
of it,by preferring
health
fare the poITeffion
and

fore
therefriends. Their wife man
concuiating
for his
had no other dutv, but to provide

owneafe; todecUne all ftruggles;


to retirefrom
and to imitate the lifeif their
affiiirs;
public
Gods I by palling
his daysin a calm, contempla*
tive, undmurbed
repofe
; in the midft of rural
fhadeai and pleafent
gardens. This was the

fcheme, that

Atticus followed: he had

all the

to be ufeful to
a man
qualify
ibcietv;great par^learning,
can*
judgement,
the fame love of
dor, benevolence,generofity;
in foU*
ifiseountry^ and the fame fentiments
tics with Cicero [h]; whom
he was
alwaysad*
and ur^ng to aft, yet determined never
vifing

talents that could

to

act

fturb

himielf*,
or
his

never

at

leaft fo far,as todi*

eafe, or

endanger his fafety.For


united with Cioeit""
though he was fb ftridly
and valued him above all men,
yet he managed
allthe while with the oppofite
an intereft
feftion,
and a friendfhip
with his mortal enemies,
even
Clodius and Antony; that he might fecure a*
allevents
the grand point,
which he had
gainft
in view, the peace and tranquility
of his life.
Thus

[^] InRepab. itaeftver*


tatxu,4iC

femper
opcunamm

fsrtiiunfteflet,
*exiffiM^

ttCuri BemttnieBfedfifr
comitteiet^-*
bus BaBSboB

Coia.

Nep.9k. Alt. 6.

rfMr^ULLIUS
Thus

CICERO.

excellent men,

two

by

their
to

of

were
philofophy,

their iniftakennotions

from

the

made

ufelefs in

of virtue,drawn

363

of
principles
a

ner
man-

their country \ each in a differentextreme

life 9 the

always a"ing and expofing


himielf to dangers,witlxout the profpeA of doing
to do
good ; the other, without attempting
to aft at all.
never
reiblving
any
one

"

chofe the middle

between the
obftinacyof Cato, and the indolence of Attihe preferred
"us:
always the readieft road to
what was right,if it layopen to him ; if not"
took the next, that ieemed likely
to bringhim
Cicero

to

the fame end

and in

way

as in morality^
politics,

the true, contented


liimfelf with the probable. He oft compares
ibe State/man
to the Pilot\ whoie art confifb,in
he
^krhen

could

not

arrive

at

tnanagifig
every turn (ftbewindsy and applying
the moft perverfe
of his
to the progrefs
even
bis cwrfsy and enlar-^
voyage ; ib as ^ cbangif^
to arrive vnthfafety^
ging his circuit of failings
tbougblater at his destinedport [/]. He menwhich long exdons
likewiiean obiervation,
perience
had confirmed to him, that none
rftbe
who afpired
to extraordina^
popularand ambitiausy
ever
ry commands^ andto heleaders in the Republic^
tillthey
ebofeto obtain their ends from the people^
been repulfed
bad first
by the Senate [k]. This
y

was

[Q Nnnqnam

eaim

pre*

torn

ftantibas In

pericalo
qaem ce"
potius
qoam, eo com-

com

Rqxib. gobcr- peru"


laadata eft in u"
ftanda tms
mntato
qao velis uodem
"
Sec, "p. Pam. i"^
ieDtentia
Ba
perpetoa per- pervenire.
aiaiifio: fed Qt in navi^uido
9.

[iJNcminem unqaameft

tenpefttd obiequiartiteft^
ctiamfi portofficenere
id
vero
foeas : enm

nofi

hie

poflis"

honoribitt
ordoamplexiit
beneicHs (nit,qui nllam

aMrtatft

velificationeafleqni,dtgnitatemprseftabiiioremcat

Mtaa

dt

eom

tenere

cor*

qaam

per

?oe

ciletadepciit^

putaik.

364

of the L^e

History

from
verifiedby all their civil diflenfions,

was

tbeGraccbij down
faw

to

CsCu*:

(o that when

he

of this fpirit
at the head of the governof their lives and
who, by the fplendor

men

ment;

an
actions,had acquired

*"

it

afcendant

over

his conftant advice

was

to

the pulace
pothe Senate,

and
gainthem by gentlecompliances,
their thirft of power by voluntary
gratify
to

to

grants of it,as the beft way

than
prudent^
lea0

no

moderate

their

fix"m

them

defperate
declared contentionto be no hftger
while it either did Jirvice^
or at

ambition, and
counfils. He

reclame

to

burt\ but when

faction

was

grown
time to

too

give
ftrongto be withftood,that itwas
over
fighting
; and nothing left but to extraS
that powfamegoodout ofthe iU^ by mitigating
er
which theycould not reduce by
by patience,
it, ifpoflible,
to the inforce, and conciliating
tereftsof the date [/]" This was what he adviand it willaccount
fed, and what he praAifed:
in a greatmeafure for thofe partsof his conduft,
liable to exception,
which are the mod
the
on

of that

which he is fiip"
complaifance,
pofedto have paidat difierent times to the te^
of illegal
veral ufurpers
power,
maide
between hearings
H"
a juft
diftin^Hon,
what we
what we^
cannot
help^and approving
oughtto condemn Im]; and fubmitted therefore^

account

yet
Nemo
putarit.

unqiiam hie

bo. 97*
Sic ab

hominibafl doAis
qainupotaiteiTeprincepfy
De
jQerit efle popiilaris.
folom ez
accepimus, non
Provin. Conular. i6. it. malis eUgereminima oporte^
Phil.

5.18.

ret

cofitendo tamdiu

[f] Sed

fed edam

DeOff. i.i.
la{"en8eft"qiiamdtnaiitprofidt aliqoid,
aut fi boh
["] Nob
pro-

ficit,
BOB

obeft dviCati :

to*

laimnt
wm,

czcerperecx

fi quidineflct boafa
hisipfii

km

entm

eftidengi

qoklfereBdomeft*H

qiiiBdam"coBteadi- probarefi qaidprobandiaflt


famoi, bob olv bob eit Ep."m. o. "
cKperti

tentufimt

ProConi.

Bal-

of the Life

9%f History

366

n^ikh

ledoced,what he feems evQi


before had
to have wiflied {n\. For he, who
Md Jefpondiiig
been 6aud in dai^ers^
in Sfirefs^
death,niufed ly
jet from the dme of Cx"f$
the iefperaUftaU
[0], afliuned
if the RjipnbUc
difcarded all fear;
the foninide of a Hero;
and when he could not
ddpifed all dai^er;
free hb country bom
aTyranny, provokedthe
Tynutts to take that life,which he no fenger
to

he

was

like a great A Aor on


for the
the Stage,he idervedhimfelf as it were
laft 9" ; and after he had playedhis part with
cared

to

Thus
preferve.

id"rfved
dignity,
T

"

glo^.

finUh it with

to

of his S(ni Mucus

rhanflrr

has been

difiuhantagcous
bodi by
: for he is rcprefented
generally,
light
the Ancients and Modems,
and vias ftupid
doas, and a proverbeven of degonacy (p]\
to inquheinto the ital ftm
yet ^iHien we come
of the fiift,
Ihallfind bat litde groundfar
we
ddivcred

down

fo feandaloos
I

to

us

in

very

tradition.
his earlyyoudi,while he continued

urs

der

hisFadier,hegaw
theeyeanddifciplineof
all imaginable
proc^ bodi of an excdlent terndutiful%
nxxiWl,tniAahle,
; was
per and genius
di%cnc in his ftodies,and expert in his eacr*
dfcs ; fo that in the PbarfaUc
at the age
wv
,

cf

["J NaliiiiDlocmn
flikto moaoidi,

meter*

agcnditpro*

confir*
Jafirmiorf
defjpejili^
autiu

eftmnkimi.

Ep."ii^

vkkadi; hoc deniqoeammo


5. si.
Ana" atfimliichin
[f] Cicbroiibm
at^ve
adminiftndoiie

poaenda

vita milii
fit,pnedare aanin
,

patCBL "p. hsoL

9.

af.

M
Scd pbme aninnu* qat
dabiia lebm forfitaniaoit

quae

res

Confnkm

pater? Senec

de

ffiiimi

ledt, nifi
B^nd.

virtmiis nmfs
30. Nsm
rMti
StaffT (^ pitta
mi/,

lijfii

AGtf.W

4.

sii*
sdt^

JmamL

CICERO.

TVLLIUS

^M.

367

in
a great reputation
acquired
by his dexterity
if ridings
Pompey^ camp,
and all the other accomflifth
the javelin^
tbrowif^
ments
rf a young foUier[q]. Not long after
Pompey's deadi he was fent to Afbeni,to fpcnd
and poa few years in the ftudyof Philofophy

itffeventeen " he

under
iite letters,

the
Cratippus,

ted
celebra-

moft

of that rime 5 for whom


Cicero
Philofopher
afterwards procured She freedomof Rome
[r].
the worlds
Here indeecf,
mto
upon his firftfally
of conduA,
he was
guiltyof (bme irregularity
ther
and extravagance of expence, that made his Fato
uneafy^ into which he was fiippoTed

have been drawn


%

lover of

toric
by Gorgias,bis MafterrfRheand

cero
Cipleafure
5 whom
with feverely
expoftulated

wme

for that reafon

from
by letter,and diichaif^
upon him* But the young man
and recalled
feifibleof his folly,

his attendance
fiK"n made
was
his

duty b^
and particularthe renx)nftrancesof his friends,
fb that his Fadier readily
paidhia
whidk fcems
ebts,and enlargedhis alkwsffice,
to have been about levcn hundred poundsper
[j].
mmum
of him
thb time, all the accounts
FaoM
of the place,as wdl as
men
fix"m the principal
to

S^i^Atticus:

friends,inho had occafion

his Roman

to

rifit

jtbens^ are conftant and .uniform in tliorPta^


of him

and in

""

terms

and explicit^
particular
that

Ul Quo

in Mlo

Fompeint als

cms

te"

alteri pnefe-

ftk

ciifet,magiutai laudem
fiuDmo
viib, ft ab exercitn

T/I'^Ad

Oeocniem

olliat
icripiifti,

iu

iMqae fhne-

cempentiaslcti"
bi potaerit,nee magisqiuun

mt^

neqve

fa- qneuadinodain
^nfeonebare,
confeonebare,
equitando,
e
quitando,
eg" makinie

vidlem. Ad Att. 13. i. it..


ib^ t6* t , 45. Plmar. ia Ckw
bore
ore toleraiido.-^ffic.4.i3.
toleraiido.-"Offic.'4.i3.

calaiiao"
alaiido"otnai

ini]itarila*
mi]itari

[r] PIuUr"iB?it"icc"

7^

368

of the Life

History

procedefrom mere compli*


Cicero ; as he often
ment, or a defireof Battering
with plcafurc
to Atticus \t\. Thus
fignifies
Trebonius, as he was palling
into^^^, writes
that theycould

Athens

from

him

to

not

"I

**

twenty -firftof May^ where

*"

and faw him,


thingthat was

*'

to

hither

came

the

on

I faw your

fon

",

great joy,purfuing
every
in
and
the
highefteregood,
my

do
modcftyof his behaviour
not
imagine,my Cicero, that I lay this to
beloved
be more
flatteryou : for nothing
can
than your young
is by all who arc at
man

dit for the

"

"*

*'
**

Athens

*^

"

nor

"

ftudious of all thoie

more

arts

in ; that is, the


delight
yourfelf
beft. I congratulate
with you thereforevery
which I can
do with great truth,
heartily,
and not lelsalfo with myfelf
; that he, whom
we
were
obligedto love,of what temper fohe had happened to be, proves to be
ever
which

*'
"*
*'

*'
**
"*
"*

fuch
B

an

you

one

as

we

the Son's

folid comfort

to

Ihould chufc

to

love

["3-**

Letters gave the moft


ten
writhis Father ; ^ theywere
own

but
onelywith great dutyand afie"ioii,
with fuch elegance
alfo and propriety,
that tbey
to be read to a teamedaudience\
were
fit^he fays,
and thd in other pintshe mightpoffibly
he deedhe faw a red improvement
both
vedy yet in thefe
9f bis taH and learmng[x\. None of thefc letnot

ters

[/]CflBterimchia
bnnt.

Leonkua

illnd famn

net

tames

m-mmti/iait ie

fcri-

font

reti-

benelongae.Caeten aatem
vel fingi
: 'itv"'litpoflaiit
dodioreia.
tennun
ugnificat

adlmc^ fom-

fiine

laiuUbatHerodea"
16.] Gratiffi- {Ad Att. 14. 7 ] Mehercnk
[Ad
litters fie " fiA""^
Cice- ipfiua
mom,
^od poUiceriB
roni nihil defiitarum;de quo
"
iv^tr^i fcriptae"
at
ystu
mirabilia Mei"la. ib. 17.
le*
eas vd in acroafiauoeam
vero

inu

Att. 15.

["] Ep.Pam.i2.i6.
it. 14.

vid.

gm:

quo magia itiiindulputo. ib. ic* i7"

gendum
A Cicerone miU

Lit* vid. ib.16.

Hm
bf

zrt

now

ndr

any other monumeftt

Cicero*s talents,but two


Letters td
of \f hich I have chofert to tranfcribei

young

^^iraJ

extant,

one

fiireft fpecimenbbth

is the

of

his parts and

imagine, toon6
bf Tiro's rank, without any particular
care, and
ki the utmoft fiimiliarity,
from his refidence at
jttbem^when he was about nineteen years old;

temper;

written,

Cicero
**

While

\^e

as

the

may

Scmi

to

6.

i r

cxpcftingevery day with inl**


patienceyour meflengersfrom Rtme^ they
came
at laft oil the forty-fixth
day after thejr
left you. Their arrival was extremelyagreeable
Father's moft indulgent
to me
: for my
and afieftionate letter gave me
an
exceeding
joy ; which was dill highlyincrealed by tht
I wds

allb of
receipt

ing
yours : io that inftead of beforryfor my late omiflion of writing,1

ed

that my filence had afferd^


pleated
a proofof your humani-:^
particular

rather

Was

fo

me

ty.

tt is

pleafurethereforii to me^
acceptedmy excufe io readily. I
a

great

that you
do not doubt, my
are
reports which

deareft Tiro, but that thtt


now

brought of

me

give

you a real fatisia"5tion. It (hall be my car^


and endeavour
that thiV growing fame of me

Ihall every day

come^

firmed

and

and

more

fmce

more

con*

be
prtimifcto
the Trumpeter of my praifcs^
you niay vertrors
erture
to do itwith aflbrance : for the jiaft
fo feriof my yourii
have mortified mo
that my mind docs not onelyabhor the
fibly,
to

ydu

you

fafts themfclvesi but my ears


I
endure the mention of them.

cartnot
am

alTored,that in all this regret and


you have bcmi no* fmall ihare^kh
Vol.

III.

Bb

eveh

pcileftty
foUicitude
ildr

me:
*"

is

Hi
!fi"^

37"
"*
*^
**

*'

to

of the Life

be wondcr*d

at ",

iwi{h

for the* you

all fucceis for my fake,you are engaged


alalio to do it for your own
: fincc it was

me

refolution

ways-my

make

to

you

me.
good that mayj^efal

the partner
As I have

*'

of ^very

*'

before -thereforebeen die occafion of fbrrow

**
**
**
*'
**
*'
^^
*'
'

is it

s TOR

**
"
**
**
**
^^

to

fo it fhall -now

you,

be my

buline"

to

double your joy on my account*


You muft
know that I live in the utmoft intimacy
with
Cratippus^and like a Son, rather than a

onely hear his le6t^ires


but am
with pleafure,
infinitely
delighted
with his converiation.
I fpcndwhole days
with him, and frequently
alfo a part of the
with him, as often as I
night: for I prevail
in our fanuliar
to fup with me
can
", and
,
chat, as we fitat table,the nightftealsupon
without thinkingof it, whilft he lays
us
afide the feverity
of his philofophy,
and jokes
amongft us with all the good humor imagiScholar

for I

not

.**

nable.

Contrive

^*

foon

and
poffible,

*'

excellent

**

Bruttius?

**

His lifeis regular


and exemplary,
fight.
his company
the moll entertaining
; he
has the art of introducing
of litcraqueftions
into converfation,
and feaibning
ture
philowith
I
mirth.
have
hired
a lodging
fophy
for him in the next houfe to me ; and fup-

**

**
"*

*"
**

-"
*'
""
**
"

'"'
""

as

man.

therefore

fee this

For what

whom

to

never

come

to

as

us

and
agreeable

need I tellyou of
part with out of

my
and

port his poverty , as well as I


of my narrow
income. I have
declame
to

in Greek

am

able, out

begun alfo

to

under Calfius ; but chuie

exercifemyfelfin Latin with Bruttius. I

live likewife in great familiarity,


and the
of thofe, whom
Cratipperpetual
company

pus

broughtwith

him

firom MUjfknc\ who


*^

arc

ofM. tVLLlV^CICERO.
""

*"
*'

371

of

and highlyefteem'd by
learning,
him.
at
Epicratesalfo,the leadingman
Aibens^ and Lconidas, fpendmuch of their
men

arc

""

time with

*'

rank. This

*"

fent-

**

ufeful to me indeed in my dailyex*


ercifeof declaming
; but I gave up all con-

*'
**
*'
**
"*

*"

he

As

me

",

and

is the
to

what

others of the fame

many

of my h'feat prewrite about Gorgias,

manner

you

was

fiderationsfor the fake of

obeyingmy father \
that I Ihould difmifs
who wrote
peremptorily
him inftantly.
I compliedtherefore without
hefitation; leftby fiiewing
any reludance,I
of me.
Bemight raifein him fome fufpicion
feem indecent

"'

that itwould
fides,I rcflefted,

"*

in

*'

father* Your

*'

itare very agreeable


to me.
for I know
cufe of want of leifure,

"'
"*
**
*'
*'

to

me

deliberate upon

zeal however

for
letter,

*^

yours, in which you


have
chafe. You

^'
"'
**
*"
**
"'
**
"*
**
**
^*

and

advice upon
I admit your exhow

much

is

part of my

""

commonly taken up. I am


with your
purchafeof a
pleafed
hiightily
wilh you joy of it. Do
farm, and heartily
at my
not wonder
congratulating
you in this
time

your

"^

**

judgementof

the

it was

part of
of the pur-

the lame

informed

me

place,where you
drop all the forms of the City,and are
may
of the old ruflic ftamp. I
become a Roman
bepleafemyfelfwith placingyour figure
fore my eyes, ar.d imaginingthat I fee you
for your country wares, or confultbartering
or
carryingofi^from
ing with your bailiff,
now

of your veft,the feeds


your table,in a corner
of your fruits and melons for your garden.
But

to

be ferious 5 I

am

as

much

concerned

you are, that I happenedto be out of the


way, and could not afliftyou on that occafion: but depend upon it^ my Tiro, I will

as

B b

"*

make

oftBeLife

HisTotr

fU

-yi

caiyone tiine or other, if fortune


fince I
efpecially
dUappointme:

^*

make you

**

does

"*

know

*^

common

*^

for your care m


executing
my ofders ; but
beg of you, that a librarian maybe font to
in all hafie,and efpedally
a Greik one
:
me

^
**

*^
*'

not

diat you have boudit this farm for the


ufe of us both^ I am oblig^to yoit

for I wafte much of my time in tranfonbing


the IcAuits and books that are of ufo to me"
take
all things,

**

Above

*^

that

**

forenccs

""

we

may
Adieu

This

was

Brutus

of your healthy

live to hold many


I recommend

together.

you.

when

care

learned

con-

Antherus

tx^

[j ]Cicero

the fituationof young

arrived

at

Jtbens:

who,

as

it ha$

taken with
alreadyfind,was exceedingly
of which he
kis virtue and good principles
;
font a high encomium
to lus Father $ and entnifled him, tho* but twenty years old, with a
been

in hb army : in which he
command
principal
himfolf with a (ingular
both
acquitted
reputation

of courage

and condu"

and

encounters

and in feveral ditions


expewhere
with the enemy,
;

off vifioin chief,alwayscame


and the death
rious. After the battelof Philippi,
he commanded

had ta^
of Brutus, he efoaped
to Pompey ; who
of Sicily
ken poflefljon
with a great army, and
fleetfuperior
to any in the Empire. This was
of the poor
the laft refoge

: where
Republicans
received againwith particur
Ccero was
young
farhonors ; and continued fighting
ftillin the
defence of his country^s
liberty
; till Pompey,
tained,
by a treaty of peace with the Trhmiviratc, obof the conditions of it,the pardon
as one
mni reftoraiion
and exiledRomans,
rfaUtbeprofcribed
who were
then in arms
with him [z\.

CtCERO

J Bf. "uD.
(jf

i6. XI.

t^} Appim* p. 619.7i3"

374

laft breach

with

for his

fooner

Antony, Auguftus no

the fole Mafter

became

him

of the Life

History

of Rome^

than he took

: fo that
partner in the Confidlhip

his letterswhich

broughtthe news of the vidtcMy


addret
of Egypt were
at Affiumj and conqueft
fed to Cicero the Conful; who had the pleafure
of publilhing
them
to the Senate and
Pcqpk ;
that decree,
as well a^ of making and execuung
which ordered aU the ftatutes
and monaments
cf
and that no perfon
Antony to he demolijhedy
of Ins
hear the name
Family
Jhouldever after
ofMarcus.
By paying this honor to the Son, Auguftus
made
fomc atonement
for his treachery
the
to
Father ", and by giving
the Family this opportunity
of revenginghis death upon
Antony,
y

fixed the blame

of it alio there

;.

while the people

looked

upon it as divine and providential


^
that the finaloverthrow ofAntonfs name
andfor^

fhould, by

tunes

be referved for

Some

honors

MMitales
and

old

and

ftrangerevolution of affairs,
the triumphofyoung Cicero [d]^
a

!n Medals

arc
Infcriptions

fcribed thus

likewife to have
been

mentioned

^re

HI.

de-

VI R.

Citizens of inferior conditlon

allafion

in

Cicero

has

to

which,

pleaCint
joke,

A. A. A. F. F. that is,
jfuro,
Argento^ JEn flando^ ftriunh.
Their number had al-

in

ways been tbrti, tillJ.C"feveral


as it appears from
faTi

the Trnriri^one of the moft


fierceand warlike nations of

it to four:
medals, enlarged
whence
in the cpin of Ciccfind
TO, juftmentioned, we

Gaul:

him/*ddled,

IIII.

VIR.

There was
another Magiftrate alfo of lower rank a|

of his Letters to Trer


batius,when he was attendone

ingCaefarinhiswartagainft

adm$nifiyou^ (ays

cut of the tgay of


keep,
Treviri: theyare oflbe
tbo/e
Capitalkind, I hear : I wijb

Ijc,to

rather^ that they were

the

eoinerj of gold and fiher.^^


J^me, called Tr^iffCapi- Ep. Fam. 7. 13.

tales,who

triedand

p"5"J

"11 r^r^//^/

cj^j^among To-

aAdiMiK^or
rcigncrs

even

Cfl Pluur. in Cic, Dia.


p. 456. Appian.
p. 619.6734

o/M.rULLIUSClCEZO.
been

375

to
by Cicero, in this ConfulJInp^
his partner Auguftus ; particularly
an
ObftdionaP
Crown ; which tho' made onely of the common^
to be found upon the Jceneof
grafsjthat happened
aSfionjyet in the times of ancient difcipline,
was
cfteemed
the nohlefl
rrj"ard of miiitary
glory;,
and never
beftow