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English for Technical Students

Autor: Arleen Ionescu

Titular disciplina: Fabian Popescu

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1............................................................................................... 5
UNIT 1 1-ST WEEK............................................................................ 5
PRE-READING TASKS..................................................................... 5
READING .......................................................................................... 5
EVERYDAY ENGLISH..................................................................... 6
WAYS WITH WORDS ...................................................................... 7
LANGUAGE FOCUS......................................................................... 9
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 10
UNIT 2 2-nd WEEK .......................................................................... 16
PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 16
READING ........................................................................................ 16
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 17
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 19
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 20
UNIT 3 3-rd WEEK........................................................................... 28
PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 28
READING ........................................................................................ 28
WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 29
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 30
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 31
UNIT 4 4-th WEEK ........................................................................... 36
PRE-READING TASKS:.................................................................. 36
READING 1 ..................................................................................... 36
WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 37
READING 2 ..................................................................................... 38
WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 39
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 40
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 42
TEST .................................................................................................... 46
EVALUATION .................................................................................... 48
CHAPTER 2............................................................................................. 50

English for Technical Students

UNIT 5 5-th WEEK ........................................................................... 50


PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 50
READING ........................................................................................ 50
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 51
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 51
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 53
UNIT 6- 6-th WEEK............................................................................. 64
PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 64
READING ........................................................................................ 64
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 65
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 65
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 66
UNIT 7 7-th WEEK ........................................................................... 75
PRE-READING TASKS................................................................... 75
READING ........................................................................................ 75
WAYS WITH WORDS: ................................................................... 76
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 76
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 77
UNIT 8 8-th WEEK ........................................................................... 85
READING ........................................................................................ 85
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 86
GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................. 89
UNIT 9 9-th WEEK ........................................................................... 95
PRE-READING TASK:.................................................................... 95
READING ........................................................................................ 95
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................... 96
LANGUAGE FOCUS....................................................................... 96
GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE ................................. 97
TEST .................................................................................................. 105
EVALUATION .................................................................................. 107
CHAPTER 3........................................................................................... 109

Chapter 1

UNIT 10 10-th WEEK ..................................................................... 109


PRE-READING TASK................................................................... 109
READING ...................................................................................... 109
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................. 110
LANGUAGE FOCUS..................................................................... 110
GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................ 112
UNIT 11-11-th WEEK........................................................................ 117
PRE-READING TASK................................................................... 117
READING ...................................................................................... 117
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................. 118
LANGUAGE FOCUS..................................................................... 118
GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................ 119
UNIT 12-12-th WEEK........................................................................ 123
PRE-READING TASKS:................................................................ 123
READING ...................................................................................... 123
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................. 124
LANGUAGE FOCUS..................................................................... 124
GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................ 125
UNIT 13 13-th WEEK ..................................................................... 133
PRE-READING TASKS:................................................................ 133
READING ...................................................................................... 133
WAYS WITH WORDS .................................................................. 134
LANGUAGE FOCUS..................................................................... 135
GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................ 137
UNIT 14 14-th WEEK ..................................................................... 143
READING ...................................................................................... 143
GRAMMAR REFERENCE ............................................................ 145
TEST .................................................................................................. 153
EVALUATION .................................................................................. 155
APPENDIX 1 ......................................................................................... 157
APPENDIX 2 ......................................................................................... 167
APPENDIX 3 ......................................................................................... 172
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................. 173

English for Technical Students

CHAPTER 1
UNIT 1 1-ST WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Social English
The English Alphabet
The Verb to be
The Demonstrative Pronoun and the Demonstrative Adjective
Question forms

PRE-READING TASKS
Whats your name?
How old are you?
Where do you live?
What do you specialize in?

READING
Read the following text about George Ionescu, a
student in Romania:
My name is George Ionescu and I am a student in
the

Faculty

of

Drilling-Production

at

Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti. I come


from Oradea, a town in the North-West of Romania.
I came here to study because this is the most important petroleum university
in the country, and even if I am very far away from home, I want to learn
many things here.

Chapter 1

Im studying French and English, and I can speak French well and a little
English. I intend to improve my English, as, on the one hand, it is very
useful to speak foreign languages and on the other hand, I might need it for
my future job. In Romania there are lots of Romanian-American,
Romanian-Canadian or Romanian-British companies.
Im enjoying my course a lot, but its very hard work! I live in the
university-hostel with three other students. They are older than me: Steve is
in the third year, Brian is in the second year and John is the oldest one: he is
in the fourth year. The courses started two weeks ago, so Im what the other
hostel-mates call me - a freshman. After the course I want to work for a big
petroleum company but I dont know which yet.

EVERYDAY ENGLISH
Practise saying the letters of the alphabet according to the vowel sounds:

/ei/

/i:/

/e/

/ai/

/u/

/u:/

/a:/

u
w

Learners of English can find some of the letters difficult.


Try to read the following rhymes to get used to the sounds in English:

E is easy and rhymes with tea.


I is like eye, and rhymes with my.
A rhymes with day, May, way, and say.

English for Technical Students

For :J think of Jane.


For G, think of Eistein, who was a genius.
R is what the doctor tells you to say!
Y is like the question Why?
H is like the sound in nature.

WAYS WITH WORDS


1. Can you keep a conversation going with someone for two or three
minutes? Choose a partner who you dont know well, or imagine your
partner is a stranger. Work in small groups and find out things about your
partner.
2. Spell the name of George Ionescu. Then work in pairs. Spell your name
in English to your deskmate. Then find out how to spell his/her name.
3. Find synonyms in the text for the following words: to study, to arrive,
class.
4. You will play a word game. Follow the directions and check your
answers with the answer key:
I. Start with the word on. Follow directions:
a. Add a letter at the beginning and you have a great weight.
b. Add a vowel at the end of the weight and you have a musical sound.
c. Add a letter to the beginning of the musical sound and you have a small
piece of rock.
II. Try again. Start with in:
a. Add a letter at the beginning and you have something used to fasten
things together.
b. Add a vowel at the end of the fastener and you have a kind of tree.
c. Add a letter at the beginning of the tree and you have another word for
backbone.
III. Try again. Start with an.
a. Add a letter at the end and you have a very little animal that lives in a hill.

Chapter 1

b. Add a letter at the beginning of the little animal and you have the
opposite of can.
c. Add a letter at the beginning of the opposite of can and you have a word
that means not enough.
IV. Find the words described below:
a. A word that sounds like meat but means getting together.
b. Another word for too that ends with -so.
c. A word that rhymes with hair but means right and just.
d. Another word for sufficient that rhymes with tough.
e. A word with two meanings: it may mean portion and it may also mean to
leave.
Answer key:
I. a. ton; b. tone; c. stone; II. a. pin; b. pine; c. spine; III. a. ant; b. cant;
c. scant.; IV. a. meet; b. also; c. fair; d. enough; e. part.
5. What do you think a good language learner can do? Choose beginnings
from A and suitable endings from B. There are many possible answers:
A good language learner:
A

borrows books

without a teacher.

writes things down

in every way possible.

guesses words

without being told to.

tries to study

in real situations.

tries to learn

every day possible.

practises speaking

from films, TV and records.

6. What do you say to someone who does the things in column A. Choose
from the phrases in column B:
A

answers the phone?

Get well soon!

knocks on the door?

Cheers!

says you are late?

Excuse me!

is in danger?

Dont mention it!

English for Technical Students

gets married?

Well done!

passes an exam?

Congratulations!

drinks with you?

Sorry!

is in your way?

Bless you!

says Good morning!

Thanks.

says How do you do!

Look out!

thanks you?

How do you do!

is ill?

Hello?

sneezes?

Sleep well!

says Good night.

Good morning.

says Make yourself at home.

Come in!

says Have a good weekend.

Thanks. Same to you.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In the text about George Ionescu, you learned the expression on the one
hand .... on the other hand which means pe de o parte ... pe de alt parte.
Lets learn more expressions containing the preposition on:
to be on duty = a fi de serviciu;
on account of = pe baza, din cauz c, lund n consideraie c;
on and on = fr ntrerupere, la nesfrit;
and so on = i aa mai departe;
on this ground = din acest motiv;
to turn on/ to switch on (the light, the radio, etc.) = a deschide/ a aprinde
(lumina, radioul,etc.);
on this assumption = pe baza acestei presupuneri;
on the basis of = pe baza;
on behalf of sb. = n numele cuiva, din partea cuiva;
on the contrary = din contr;
on a large/small scale = pe scar mare/mic;
on record = cunoscut;

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Chapter 1

on the score of = ca rezultat;


on the verge of = pe punctul de, pe cale, n pragul;
on the whole = n general, n ntregime;
on demand = la cerere;
on condition that = cu condiia;
on purpose = dinadins, intenionat;
on principle = din principiu;
on the first attempt = la prima ncercare;
on a sudden = brusc, deodat, pe neateptate;
on trial = de prob.
2. Look at the last simple sentence in the text about George Ionescu. The
sentence is: I dont know yet. Depending on the context in which it appears,
yet may be translated in different ways: nc, mai, n afar de aceasta, pn
n prezent, acum, totui, etc.
Lets learn some expressions containing the word yet.
not yet = nu nc;
nor yet = nici mcar;
as yet = pn acum;
it is strange and yet true = e ciudat i totui e adevrat.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE VERB TO BE
Form
Affirmative and negative
I

am (m)
am (m) not

You

are (re)

We

are not (arent)

They
He

is (s)

a student.

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English for Technical Students

She

is not (isnt)

Interrogative
Where

am

I?

are

you?
we?
they?

is

he?
she?
it?

Short answer
Are you a student in Drilling?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Is she an engineer?
Yes, she is. No, she isnt.

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE


Form
Reference

Singular

Plural

near reference

this

these

distant reference

that

those

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Eu sunt inginer. El este englez. ; b. Acelea sunt colegele tale? Nu,
acestea sunt colegele mele, Monica i Andra.; c. Acesta este un televizor. ;
d. Acela este un aparat de radio. ; e. Noi suntem tehnicieni. ; f. Sunt ei
specialiti francezi? Nu, nu sunt. ; g. Suntei voi ingineri mecanici? Nu, noi
nu suntem, noi suntem fizicieni. ; h. Cine este aici? John este aici. El este
cel mai bun student din grupa noastr. El are note foarte mari. ; i. Cine nu

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Chapter 1

este aici? Maria nu este aici i nici George nu este. ; j. Ele sunt chimiste.
Cursurile acestea sunt ale lor. Acestea sunt cursurile mele.

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2. Turn these sentences into questions and answer them:
e.g. Canterbury is a town. Is Canterbury a town? Yes, it is.
a. Canterbury is a town in Kent.; b. You are a chemist.; c. My father is a
doctor.; d. Elizabeth II is the queen of England.; e. We are drilling students.

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3. Read the following article on mobile rigs. Use your dictionary. Then fill
in the blanks with the correct forms of the verb to be:
Why mobile rigs can make reliable production units
Conversion of early generation MODUs into production units.. a bold
step for operators of North Sea and other marginal field developments. Sea
and other severe environments, where maximum utilization.. the
primary concern of the designer, can equal the performance of conventional
platforms.

English for Technical Students

13

We.. able today to know more about effects of wind, waves, and
currents on vessel motion and mooring systems; people .. ready to use
new risers and subsea equipment designs.
4. Complete the following text using the appropriate pronouns:
a. .... is Adams pencil. It must be his because its got his name on it.;
b. Are ... tools yours, John? Yes, they are. Thanks. They havent got my
name on them, but they belong to me.; c. . is a mill. Its over here.
. is a generator. Its over there.; d. Is . an electric heater? No,
that is an electric generator. . is an electric heater.; e. ... are metals.
Those are substances.

QUESTION FORMS
Look at the following question words:
What do you do for a living? - Im a chemist.
Who is your teacher of English? - Sandra Brown is.
Where is Paris? - In France.
When do you start the conference? - On Wednesday, April, 3rd.
Why are you learning English? - Because I need it for my job.
How do you come to Ploieti? - By train.
Whose are these tools? - They are Peters.

What and which can be followed by a noun.


What time is it?
What kind of chemistry do you study?
Which pen do you want, the blue one or the green one?
How can be followed by an adjective or an adverb.
How old are you?
How often do you play football?

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Chapter 1

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following text into English:
a. De unde eti? Sunt din Timioara.; b. Cnd ai venit prima oar n
Ploieti? Anul trecut.; c. Ci ani ai? Douzeci i ase.; d. Ce mai faci? Sunt
bine, mulumesc. ; e. De ce te grbeti?

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2. Choose the appropriate question form in the following sentences:
a. What/Which time is the train due to arrive?
b. What/ How are you today?
c. Where/ When are you going now?
d. Who/How are you? I am John Smith.
e. What/ Which of these paintings do you like best?

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3. Ask short questions on these statements, using who, what, where:
e.g. Ive just received a letter./ Who from?
a. I want to take this book with me. (for)
b. Will you please open this box? (with)

English for Technical Students

c. Im going to England next week. (by)


d. Please, get me a screwdriver. (from)
e. John is very angry. (with).

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Chapter 1

UNIT 2 2-nd WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

English as a world language


The Personal Pronoun
Present Simple
Present Continous

PRE-READING TASKS
Try to think of the English-speaking countries in the world.
How many are they?
Do you know any countries in which English is used as the second
language?
What about countries in which English is spoken by many people?

READING
Read the following text on English as a world
language. Try to find the personal pronouns in the text:
Today, when English is one of the major languages in
the world, it doesnt require too much effort of our
imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent
thing - that in Shakespeares time, for example, only a
few million people spoke English, and this was not
thought to be very important by the other nations of

English for Technical Students

17

Europe, and it was unknown to the rest of the world.


English has become a world language because of its establishment as a
mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. People
started to import English in the seventeenth century, with the first
settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population
in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present status in
the world. As I could read in an article, one person in seven of the worlds
entire population speak English nowadays and most of them are quite fluent
in it. Incredibly enough, due to the extension of computerized systems and
softs which are mostly in English, 75% of the worlds mail and 60% of the
worlds telephone calls are in English. Again incredibly, yet true is the fact
that 200 million people speak English and every year there are twenty
million beginners. International literary or scientific publications are
generally printed in English and other languages such as German, Spanish
or French, yet again English is the predominant language. So, the quicker
you learn it, the more opportunities you may have to read interesting
materials connected to your field.

WAYS WITH WORDS


1. We often say what we have done so far as a way of explaining our
achievements and successes. Work in pairs and ask your partner questions
about English:
Model: Have you improved your accent?
Yes, I think I have.
Have you:
a. been to an English-speaking country?
b. passed any exams in English?
c. managed to translate anything into English?
d. had any conversations with English native speakers?
e. written any e-mails in English which you have sent to people?

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Chapter 1

f. used English in your studies or work?


g. read a scientific article in English?
h. managed to understand any English-speaking tourists?
i. learned any songs in English?
j. discovered any differences between English and your own language?
2. Comment on the personal qualities you need to succeed in learning a
foreign language.
Example:
You dont have to be serious to learn English, you have to be co-operative.

confident

energetic

determined

well-organised

independent

patient

courageous

enthusiastic

serious

charming

handsome

steady

ambitious

intelligent

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3. Choose the word which best completes each sentence:
a. If you want to become ... when you speak, you should forget about
making mistakes and try to speak as much as possible.
A. practical; B. fluent; C. handy; D. skillful.
b. If you dont understand everything you hear, then listening to a tape is a
... of time.

English for Technical Students

19

A. matter; B. problem; C. waste; D. loss.


c. If youre not ... certain what someone has said, you should pretend that
you have understood.
A. very; B. fairly; C. surely; D. quite.
d. If you want to practise speaking a good idea is to tell a story or a ... to
someone.
A. joke; B. tale; C. laughter; D. fool.
e. When you ... an oral exam, it is best to speak loudly and not to stop after
each word.
A. make; B. take; C. speak; D. go.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In this unit you learned about English as a world language. Lets learn
some expressions containing the word as:
as comparared with = n comparaie cu;
as a consequence of = ca o consecin a;
as if/ as though = ca i cum;
as far as = ntruct, pe ct, n msura n care;
as far as it goes = n ceea ce privete;
as follows = precum/ dup cum urmeaz;
as long as = att timp ct;
as regards = n ceea ce privete;
as a rule = de regul, n principiu;
as seen = dup cum se vede;
as shown in Fig. 2 = cum s-a artat n Fig. 2;
as such = ca atare;
as well = deopotriv, de asemenea;
as well as = ct i, tot aa ca;
as when = ca atunci cnd, ca n cazul n care;
as yet/ so far/ up to now. up to the present = pn n prezent;
such as = astfel ca, ca de exemplu.

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Chapter 1

2. Read the following sentence taken from the same text: English has
become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue
outside England, in all the continents of the world.
How do you translate in all the continents of the world? Now learn some
expressions with the adjective all.
beyond all doubt = n afar de orice ndoial;
all at once = dintr-o dat;
all the better = cu att mai bine;
all in all = n ntregime, cu totul;
all in good time = toate la timpul lor;
all the more as = cu att mai mult cu ct;
all over = peste tot;
all worn out = complet uzat;
first of all = nainte de toate;
of all kinds = de toate felurile;
that is about all = ca, asta-i tot;
it is all one to them = le este tot una;
once for all = o dat pentru totdeauna.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE PERSONAL PRONOUN
The nominative. Form
Person

Singular

Plural

First person

we

Second person

you

you

Third person

he

they

she
it
The accusative/The dative. Form

21

English for Technical Students

Person

Sin

Plural

gula
r
First person

(to) me

(to) us

Second person

(to) you

(to) you

Third person

(to) him

(to) them

(to) her
(to) it
Controlled practice:
1. Translate the folowing sentences into English:
a. El este inginer la o fabric de ciment. ; b. Ei nu vorbesc engleza, dar noi i
putem ajuta. ; c. L-am vzut pe el la curs, dar pe ea n-am vzut-o. ; d. Mi-a
druit o carte de geologie, pentru c el avea dou exemplare. ; e. l strig pe
John, dar nu m aude.

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2. Choose the appropriate forms of the personal pronoun:
a. He is studying English as he/we intends to join an American petroleum
company.
b. I gave her/him that book as he needed it.
c. She told me/ to me that she needed a day off.
d. I think I saw him/ he in the street yesterday.
e. Have you told they/ them the news?

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Chapter 1

MOOD, TENSE AND ASPECT


Look at the first complex sentence in the text. Try to find the form of the
verb to require. Doesnt require is a verb in the indicative mood. Its tense is
present and its aspect is simple.
Mood, tense and aspect are grammatical categories of the verb. Roughly
speaking, mood presents the attitude of the speaker towards an action or a
state expressed by the verb, tense gives an indication of when the action
happens and aspect reflects the status of action referring to duration, result,
etc.

PRESENT SIMPLE
-is used to express:

a repeated action or habit (it is often used with adverbs of frequency


such as: always, constantly, continually, ever, frequently, forever,
hardly, never, normally, occasionally, often, rarely, regularly, seldom,
sometimes, usually, etc.):

I usually get up at 8.30.


Romanian people like to travel.
Most evenings we go out.

a fact which is always true (general truths and states):

Wood floats on water.


The Earth moves round the Sun.
The Danube floats into the Black Sea.

a fact which is true for a long time

I live in Ploiesti.
She works in a petroleum company.
-is used in explanations, demonstrations and stage directions:
Her drawing shows two parts of a hypebolic curve.
I add flour to the egg yolks and place the basin into the oven.
The door bell rings. She listens quietly. A window opens and a masked man
enters the room.

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English for Technical Students

Form
Affirmative and negative
I

work

in a university.

do not (dont) work


You

work

We

do not (dont) work

They
He

works

She

does not (doesnt)


work

Interrogative
Where

do

do

you
we
they

does

he
she
it

Short answer
Do you like summer?
Yes, I do.
Does she speak Italian?
No, she doesnt.

PRESENT CONTINOUS
-is used to express:

an activity happening now or around now

They are playing in their bedroom now.

work?

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Chapter 1

I am designing a helix this week.

a planned future arrangement:

Im meeting you at 10 oclock tomorrow.

Form
Present Continous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be
followed by the indefinite participle of the main verb (verb+-ing).
Affirmative and negative
I

am (m)

working.

am not (m)
not
You

are (re)

We

are

They

(arent)

He

is (s)

She

is not (isnt)

not

It
Interrogative
What

am

are

you
we
they

is

he
she
it

Short answer
Are you coming?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.
Is she watching TV?
Yes, she is. No, she isnt.

doing?

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English for Technical Students

Controlled Practice:
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Present Continous:
a. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.; b. It (rain) now. It
often (rain) in summer.; c. He (come) to see me tonight; we (go) on a trip to
Sinaia next week and we (want) to make plans for it.; d. I (live) in Ploiesti,
but this week, as I (attend) a course in Bucharest, I (stay) with my uncle in
Calea Floreasca.; e. Pardon me, sir, but I (think) you (stand) on my feet.; f.
Maria (come) from Spain this week.; g. She (speak) French, English and
Italian.; h. I (cut) a cone now and she (draw) an asymptote.; i. What you
(do) here? I (look) for my glasses.; j. Where you (live)? I (live) in Scotland.

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2. Complete this postcard using the correct form of the verbs on the right:
Greetings from Scotland! John and I ..... do
something different this year. Were at the
Edinburgh Activity Centre, where we .. a have
good time and at the same time we ..
different

things.

People..

here

learn

every

summer to learn more about their hobbies and

come

interests.
I .. photography and tennis this week

do

and John .. about computers. We .. up learn, get


at half past eight every morning
and .. lessons from ten to half past twelve. do
We .. lunch at one, and then there are more

have

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Chapter 1

lessons.
So its hard work. But I .. it here. We ..... like, have
a post-office in front of the Centre. The weather
is good. See you soon.
Love, Kate
3. What do you do in these situations?
a. When you miss a bus or a train, do you:
A. wait happily for the next one?;
B. shout angrily?;
C. blame someone else?
b. When you think about the future, do you:
A. dream of impossible success or wealth?;
B. plan your future career carefully?;
C. worry about what will go wrong?
c. When someone asks you a questions and youre not sure of the answer,
do you:
A. admit you dont know?;
B. give an answer you think may be right?;
C. try to change the subject?
d. When you forget to do something important for a friend or a member of
your family, do you:
A. hope they wont notice?;
B. try to do something else for them?;
C. feel guilty?
e. When your boss or teacher is away, do you:

English for Technical Students

27

A. start laughing and joking?;


B. work hard as usual?;
C. do not work at all?
If most of your answers are A it means you are a very optimistic person. If
you chose mostly B, it means you are an ambitious person, and if you chose
mostly C, it means you are a pessimistic person.

28

Chapter 1

UNIT 3 3-rd WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Getting a job
Verbs which do not take a Continous Aspect in English
The Imperative
The possessive pronoun and adjective

PRE-READING TASKS
What do you need in order to get a job?
Have you ever applied for a job? Has a friend of yours ever applied for a
job? Talk about the way you should introduce yourself or any other
problems you think may occur.

READING
Read the following text on getting a job. Can you notice
the imperatives in the text?
A job starts with an application, but so many of the
application letters end up in the wastepaper basket, as for
example you may feel frustrated if you use cheap, lined
notepaper. You should know that you are supposed to use A4, and
preferably to type your CV and the accompanying letter. The CV needs to
be clear and not too long: one page is enough. Dont include all your
personal details (such as for example whether you are married or not, your
hobbies, etc.). In the letter that you send with the CV, show some
enthusiasm for the job, and demonstrate that you have read the job
advertisement thoroughly. Stress how suitable you consider you are for that

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29

job, but dont write something which contradicts the data you offered them
in your CV! Then, good luck with the interview itself!

WAYS WITH WORDS:


In the sentences below, use one suitable word from the list that follows. Not
all the words are possible:
a. I sent in my ...... to the the address given in the advertisement.
b. They told me I lacked ...... as I had never had that kind of job before.
c. The manager told me he couldnt wait as he had ...... to do.
d. Not many people enjoy sitting at a/an ...... all day long.
e. Before I left that oil company, I handed in my ......
f. When I applied for this position, I asked my previous boss for a ......
g. You have to be well-dressed and punctual to succeed in a/an ......
h. My first ...... was helping in a shop at weekends.
i. In our company every ...... receives a months salary.
j. You could ...... over 2,000 a month as a sales representative in this
company.
qualifications; reference; experiences; application; work; employer;
interview; gain; resignation; job; diploma; department; applicant; earn;
wages; office; gain; desk; salary; employee.

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Chapter 1

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Read the sentence A job starts with an application again. Now learn some
expressions containing the preposition with:
with due regard for/ with all due deference to = cu tot respectul cuvenit;
with an eye to = urmrind, fr a pierde din vedere;
with the exception of = cu excepia c;
with full steam on = cu toat viteza nainte;
with reason = pe drept, pe bun dreptate;
with reference/ respect to = n privina, referitor, cu privire la;
with a view of = n scopul de a;
as with = la fel ca i;
together with = mpreun cu;
to do away with = a nltura, a termina cu.
2. Look at the following sentences belonging to this unit: You should know
that you are supposed to ...; In the letter that you send with the CV, show
some enthusiasm for ...
As you can see these are two meaning of the word that. In the first sentence
it introduces a direct object clause and in the other it introduces a relative
clause. Here are some expressions containing the word that:
that far = att de departe;
that is the point = aceasta-i problema;
that much = cam att;
thats how it happened = aa s-a ntmplat;
that is why (thats why) = de aceea, din aceast cauz;
that is to say = adic;
but for that = dac nu ar fi fost asta;
for all that = cu toate acestea;
in order that = pentru ca, s;
like that (just like that) = aa;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

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31

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
VERBS WHICH DO NOT TAKE A CONTINOUS ASPECT IN
ENGLISH
There are verbs in English which generally are not used in the continous
aspect:

verbs of the senses (verbs of perception): see, hear, smell, taste, notice,
recognize, etc.

I smell gas.

verbs of thinking: think, realize, know, understand, suppose, expect,


remember, forget, mind, etc.

I dont remember your name.

verbs of having and being: have, own, owe, belong to, possess, be,
contain, matter, hold, etc.

The house belongs to my mother.


I have a very good lathe.

verbs of emotion: love, hate, like, dislike, refuse, want, wish, forgive,
etc.

I hate people calling me late at night.


He wants to buy a new tool.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Aceast sticl conine acid boric.; b. Creionul Rotring este al Mariei.;
c. Ursc s mi se cear s fac o lucrare de azi pe mine.; d. Ea are doar un
curs de chimie i dou de fizic.; e. Acest curs conine 14 capitole.

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Chapter 1

2. Decide which is the most appropriate form of the verb in the following
sentences:
a. Im thinking/ I think of you.; b. She smells/ is smelling gas.; c. Mother is
tasting/ tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt.; d. We have/ are having
dinner now.; e. Could you call him back in twenty minutes as he has/ is
having a bath right now.

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THE IMPERATIVE
-is a mood which expresses an order, a command, a wish, a greeting, a piece
of advice, a threat:
Come here!
Leave me alone!
Watch your step!
Lets go!
Form
-the imperative has forms only for the second person singular and plural.
Affirmative

Negative

Get ready!

Dont get ready!

Start working!

Dont start working!

Controlled Practice:
Translate the following into English:

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33

a. Servete-te i servete-i i pe ceilali!; b. Vino, te rog, la noi s ne ajui s


rezolvm o problem de chimie organic. ; c. i dai un deget i i ia toat
mna!; d. Scrie tu proiectul la calculator, pentru c dup aceea trebuie s-l
folosesc i eu.; e. Luai loc, v rog, doamn!; f. Nu pleca, pentru c nu am
terminat proiectul!; g. Nu te apropia de firele acelea pentru c sunt sub
tensiune.; h. Nu ncerca s m faci s m rzgndesc, pentru c o faci
degeaba.; i. Du-te i vezi dac au terminat cursul.; j. Grbete-te, mai ai
doar cinci minute!

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2. Make the following sentences negative:
a. Come here!; b. Get ready as we are in a hurry!; c. Be on time, because
English people are never late.; d. Go home and well finish this tomorrow.;
e. Work faster as we need to finish this uuntil two oclock.

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THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN AND THE POSESSIVE ADJECTIVE


The possessive pronoun. Form

34

Chapter 1

Person

Singular

Plural

First person

mine

ours

Second person

yours

yours

Third person

his

theirs

hers
its

The possesive adjective. Form


Person

Singular

Plural

First person

my

our

Second person

your

your

Third person

his

their

her
its
Controlled Practice
1. Choose the appropriate possessive pronouns or adjectives:
a. My/ mine fathers car is new. Mine/my is very old and ugly.; b. We have
been looking for these magazines. Someone took them from your/our room.
They belong to us Were using the pictures for a project of ours/yours.;
c. There are five billion people in our/his world and they live in all different
corners ot it.; d. This is her/hers car. She bought it two months ago.; e. My
results are better than yours/your.; f. Is that book yours/your as I think I saw
you when you lent it to your/yours friend, Tom.; g. I dont think this is one
of Emmas pens. I know she has lost her/hers calculator, but I havent heard
her say she has lost a pen . What do you think?; h. My/mine speciality is
paleontology. I have specialized in the study of prehistoric life through the
evidence of fossils.; i. After we have acquired some knowledge about the oil
industry and the kind of work that is involved, we will prove ours/our
knowledge later.; j. Your/yours article on drilling wells in blazing deserts is
a good one.

English for Technical Students

35

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36

Chapter 1

UNIT 4 4-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Writing a CV
Writing a letter of application
Classification of Nouns
Number of Nouns
The Genitive

PRE-READING TASKS:
What information should your CV contain?
What information should your letter of application contain?

READING 1

Read the following CV. Can you find any improvements? Work with your
mates and report your findings to the rest of the class:

CURRICULUM VITAE
PERSONAL DETAILS
Name: Radu IONESCU
Address: 23 Bvd. Bucureti
Ploieti 2000 Prahova
Telephone: 044165342

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37

Date of birth: 1 January 1974


Nationality: Romanian
Languages: Fluent English; Conversational French
Computer literacy: Wordperfect, Lotus 1-2-3, Windows 2000, Math-Cad;
Math-Lab.
EDUCATION
2001-2000: Master of Science - Drilling - Petroleum-Gas University of
Ploieti
1995-2000: Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti- Faculty of Well
Drilling and Production
A levels: Mathematics, Drilling, Recovery, Chemistry, Technical
Drawing
WORK HISTORY
Sept. 2000-Sept. 2001: drilling engineer at GPS Arad
Summer 1999-Summer 2000: college position: required to prepare accounts
Summer 1998: Bucharest Chemical Services - assistant
Summer 1997: Videle Well Drilling - technician
INTERESTS: aerobics, cinema, theatre, reading
REFERENCES: available on request.

WAYS WITH WORDS:


1. Here are some pieces of advice for you when you write your CV:
a. Bold is used selectively. Your name is obviously important, so you
should make sure it stands out.
b. When you state the languages you can speak, conversational and fluent
are the only words to use about them. Dont use qualifications such as well,

38

Chapter 1

very well, etc. If they really want to find out about your language skills, they
will surely test you.
c. Education and qualifications should be listed together. The A levels are
important, as they may show that you are suitable for that job, as you had
the best degrees in those objects which are of major importance for your
future job.
d. For the Work History section, it is vital to highlight your student
activities.
e. Dont make up a list of names and addresses in your reference section.
You should mention references only if they are very impressive.

READING 2
Here is the letter of application Radu Ionescu has written. Skim through the
letter and see what information the applicant is conveying about himself:
23 Bvd Bucureti
Ploieti 200 Prahova
Mr A. D. Vlad
Personnel Manager
Petrom Bucureti
Dear Mr. A. D. Vlad

Ref.: drilling engineer vacancy


I am writing to apply for the position of drilling enginner that you advertised
in Bursa on 5 October 2001, as I believe it offers the carrer challenge which
I am seeking.
As you will see from my enclosed Curriculum Vitae, I graduated from
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploieti last year, then I have had a
successful year working in a scientific environment with GPS Arad.
I would like to highlight the following skills which I believe would add
value to your organization:
Organizational skills - developed in my current job with GPS Arad.

English for Technical Students

39

Accounting skills - developed in my role as university officer where I


prepared annual reports and accounts and I was responsible for a budget of
1,000,000,000 lei per annum.
Interpersonal skills - developed through working in a team environment in
my current role and through a number of holiday positionswhen I was a
student.
I have a keen interest in drilling engineering and would appreciate the
opportunity of an interview to discuss why I believe I am good match for
your requirements.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely, Radu Ionescu

WAYS WITH WORDS:


1. Here are some lines from different letters of application of several
candidates for this job. Choose the most appropriate and convincing
sentence in each group. What do you think is wrong with some of the
sentences listed below?
a. I am familiar with this type of work./ I am totally knowledgeable about
this type of work./ I know this type of work.
b. I am well-liked by everybody and I am very convincing./ I can maintain
friendly relationships with people./ I am a friendly and tactful person.
c. I can make decisions when it is really necessary and I am very
responsive./ I always make the best decisions in my office, as I am a reliable
person./ I am not afraid to make decisions if necessary.
d. I feel sure my studies recommend me for this job./ I hope I am right for
this sort of work./ I am sure I am the most suitable person for this job.
e. I am quite interested in this kind of work./ I have a genuine interest in this
kind of work./ I am extremely interested in this type of work.

40

Chapter 1

2. Here is an advertisement which was published in Bursa on 4 April 2001.


Look at it and write your CV. Then write the letter to cover your CV
applying for the vacancy:

CONSTRUCT Ltd.
Romanian-Canadian company providing
expertise, human resources and equipment
for the construction industry
requires
Human Resource Officers

Applications are accepted from recent graduates of Sociology or Bussiness


Studies with some background in income tax laws and computer literacy, or
company management.
Applicants should be willing to work in teams and should be able to meet
deadlines. Applicants should be fluent in English and French.
Please enclose a current CV and letter of application addressed to Mr
Ion Pop, Human Resources Manager, Construct (Romania) Ltd., 13,
Piaa Roman, Bucharest.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
Vocabulary building
1. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. For example,
the opposite of short is long, the opposite of old is young. Complete the
following sentences with one suitable word meaning the opposite of the
word in capital letters:
a. Jack much prefers being EMPLOYED to being ....
b. Alex did a number of TEMPORARY jobs before he managed to find a
.... position.

41

English for Technical Students

c. The first shop he opened was a big success but the second was a total
....
d. Many people would rather work .than FULL-TIME.
e. The management said salaries had INCREASED, but official reports
showed that as a matter of fact they had ..
2. Word sets. Try to think of the word time. Now think of words connected
to time. In this way you may create a word set which may include among
other words: day, month, year, century, year, etc.

Now complete the

following sentences with one appropriate word connected with the subject
of money:
a. They refused to accept a cheque so I had to pay in ....
b. When she started with the company her . was only $000 a year.
Now its at least four times that.
c. When Mr Michael retired he received a . of $00 a month.
d. Pierre is very worried because he is in .... nobody will lend him
any money.
e. If you want a new car why not go and see your bank manager about a
....
Here is a list of words and expressions to do with money. Use your
dictionary and divide them into the following categories:
-borrowing money; saving and investing money; having a personal bank
account.
Sometimes the same word will fit different categories:
-to withdraw money; a building society; a current account; a cheque card; a
mortgage; to cash a cheque; to buy shares in a company; the Stock Market;
to put money in; a monthly statement; a deposit account; to earn 15%
interest.

42

Chapter 1

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS
Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

a girl

water

a man

sugar

a tool

milk

a cup

music

an apple

weather

a guitar

money

a pound

oil/ petroleum

a car

coal

a well

gas

We can say two cups, four girls, ten pounds, twenty cars. We can count
them. We cannot count sugar, water or oil.
Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
This cup is empty.
These cups are full.
Uncountable nouns can only be singular:
The water is cold.
The weather is fine.
The coal has a good quality.

NUMBER OF NOUNS:
Form
Variable nouns form the plural in the following way:

-s is added to the singular:

books-books, tool-tools

-es is added to the singular nouns ending in -s, -z, -x, -ch, -sh, nouns
ending in -y preceded by a consonant (-y changes to i), nouns ending in o:

English for Technical Students

43

bus-buses, box-boxes, match-matches, brush-brushes, city-cities; potatopotatoes (But: photo-photos)

-(e)s is added to nouns ending in -f(e) (which changes to -v):

knife-knives, leaf-leaves, shelf-shelves (But: roof-roofs)


Irregular plural nouns:
man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese, louse-lice,
mouse-mice, child-children, ox-oxen
Foreign plurals
stimulus-stimuli, larva-larvae, stratum-strata, basis-bases, criterion-criteria,
phenomenon-phenomena, datum-data, etc.

THE GENITIVE
The analytical genitive is used with the preposition of, used with neuter
nouns:
the tower of London, the colour of oil, the cover of the book, etc.
The synthetical genitive (s genitive) is used after:

nouns denoting persons or other beings:

Johns lecture, my parents advice

nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value:

a two months practice, yesterdays newspaper, a pounds worth of pears

collective nouns:

the governements decisions, the Parliaments laws

geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena, etc.:

Englands mountains, the spaceships crew, the afternoons heat.

Controlled Practice:
1. Complete this newspaper article. Choose the correct singular or plural
form in the brakets:
Clayton Factory for Milchester

44

Chapter 1

The Clayton Clothing Company is going to build a new factory in


Milchester. (This/These) (new/s) (was/were) announced by company
chairman Mr David Clayton yesterday. Mr Clayton spent the morning in
Milchester before returning to the Clayton headquarters at Granby.
The Clayton company (has/have) been in existence for 130 years and
(is/are) famous for its Polumode (good/s) The slogans Youre never
alone with a pair of Polymode (trouser/s) and Plymode (jean/s) (is/are) the
(one/s) for you are well known. The companys profit last year of two
million pounds (was/were) the highest in the clothing business.
Mr Clayton will not say how (much/many) new (job/s) there will be, but
(information/s) (is/are) that there will be (work/s) (is/are) hard to find at the
moment, and 2,000 unemployed people (is/are) a high figure for a small
town.
2. Make the nouns in these sentences plural. Make all other changes which
are necessary:
a. This child is a naughty one.; b. That phenomenon was interpreted by the
geologists.; c. I need to buy some kerosene for my stove.; d. When I entered
the room, he was arranging this books on the shelf.; e. Where have you put
that box?

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3. Translate into English:
a. Printele istoriei naturale a Angliei se numete Gilbert White.; b. S-au
fcut progrese semnificative n acest domeniu al cunoaterii.; c. El folosete
multe maini-unelte.; d. La nceputul secolului XX, nu erau foarte erau

English for Technical Students

45

multe studente n colegii.; e. Tatl studentului a venit la universitate s


vorbeasc cu profesorul de chimie.

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46

Chapter 1

TEST
1. Choose the best variant:
1. It .. a lot this winter, even if in Romania it generally
so much in this region.
A. is snowing/ snows; B. snows/ is snowing; C. is snowing/ doesnt snow;
D. snows/ isnt snowing.
2. This book .. to me and it .. five chapters.
A. belongs/ contains; B. is belonging/ is containing; C. belongs/ is
containing; D. is belonging/ contains.
3. I .. Speak English very well, but I ..my best to make
myself understood by the others.
A. speak/ do; B. dont speak/ do; C. am not speaking/ am doing; D. dont
speak/ am doing.
4. Where ? .. you should help us finish this?
A. are you going?/ dont you think; B. do you go?/ arent you thinking;
C. do you go/ do you think; D. are you going/ arent you thinking?
5. for tools?
A. Do you look/ these; B. Dont you look/ these; C. Are you looking/ those;
D. Are you looking/ these.
6. .. office is the big one? Its Johns. It has been for
two years.
A. Whose/ his; B. Which/ hers; C. Whose/ her; D. Which/ his.
7. There .. far too .. mistakes in your paper.
A. are/ much; B. arent/ many; C. are/ many; D. arent/ much.
8. I dont understand who .. about.
A. you are talking; B. are you talking; C. you talk; D. do you talk.
9. If you to practise English more, it is a good idea for you to
speak to . people. They came from England two days ago.
A. want/ these; B. want/ those; C. dont want/ these; D. dont want/ those.
2. Translate into English:

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47

George este student la Foraj. n acelai timp lucreaz pentru o companie de


petrol la Bucureti. El nu are mult timp liber, pentru c la sfritul
sptmnii are cursuri la universitate. Duminica, atunci cnd nu are multe
cursuri, ncearc s se gndeasc la ceea ce a nvat n timpul sptmnii.
Astzi este smbt sear i George este acas cu familia lui. Ei iau cina i
discut despre planurile lor de vacan.

Answer key:
1. C; 2. A; 3. B; 4. A.; 5. D; 6. A.; 7. C.; 8. A.; 9. A.
2. George is a student in Drilling. At the same time he works for a
petroleum company in Bucharest. He doesnt have much free time, for at the
weekend he has courses at the university. On Sunday, when he doesnt have
so many courses, he tries to think of what he has learnt during the week.
Today its Saturday evening and George is at home with his family. They
are having dinner and talking about their holiday plans.
1. 1 point + 1 point per ech good answer
2. 1 point + 9 points per translation.

48

Chapter 1

EVALUATION
1. What have you learnt from this chapter?

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2. What did you enjoy about it?

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3. What didnt you enjoy about it?

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English for Technical Students

49

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4. Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it


differently.

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50

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 2
UNIT 5 5-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Drilling methods
Past Simple
Past Continous
Expressions of quantity
The Adjective

PRE-READING TASKS
What system is used for water wells?
Which was the first oil well in Romania?

READING
Read this text about cable-tool drilling. Look at the
tenses of the verbs. Translate the text into
Romanian:
When the first real oil well was drilled in
Pennsylvania, the United States, in 1859, engineers
used a system which was being used for digging
wells for water. They punched a hole into the
ground. They used a cutting tool, a bit, on the end of
a drilling stem which they were raising and then let
it fall; the bit cut and crushed the dirt or rock at the bottom of the well. The
moment the debris at the bottom of the well was removed, the stem and bit

English for Technical Students

51

were pulled up,. Then the bit was dropped again to crush more rock, and the
process was repeated over and over again.
This technique is used nowadays only when the wells are shallow and when
there is hard rock to cut through. Most modern wells are drilled by the
rotary drilling method.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Well: hole sunk into the earth to reach water, oil, or gas.
Bit: a cutting tool. There are different bits used in drilling for oil (diamond
drill bits, fishtails, roller bits, etc.) Each type is suitable for use in
penetrating different subsurface layers.
Cable-tool drilling: a system for drilling oil wells. A hole is punched into
the ground by dropping a cutting tool into dirt or rock.
Rotary drilling: another system for drilling oil wells. A cutting bit drills the
hole with a rotary or circular motion.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In the sentence: When the first real oil well was drilled in Pennsylvania,
the United States, in 1859, the preposition in introduces both an Adverbial
of place (in Pennsylvania) and an Adverbial of time (in 1859). Now lets
learn some expressions containing the preposition in:
in all probability = dup toate probabilitile;
in all together = n total;
in the beginning = la nceput;
in contrast to/with = n contrast cu;
in common with = n comun cu;
in itself = n sine;
in order to/ that = ca s, pentru ca;
in particular = n special;

52

Chapter 1

in the place of/ in lieu of = n loc de;


in practice = n principiu;
in progress = n curs de;
in print = tiprit;
in return for = n schimbul a;
in quantity = n cantitate;
in search of = n cutare de;
in spite of = n ciuda faptului c;
in such a manner = n aa mod;
in sum = pe scurt, n dou vorbe;
in that = n aceea c;
in token of = n semn de, ca dovad;
in turn = cu rndul;
to be interested in = a fi interesat de;
to result in = a avea ca rezultat;
to succeed in (+doing sth.) = a avea succes n; a reui n.(e.g. She succeeded
in passing the exam).
2. How do you translate the debris at the bottom of the well? Now learn
some expressions containing the preposition at:
at best = n cel mai bun caz;
at a disadvantage = n dezavantaj;
at ease = linitit, pe ndelete;
at full load = cu sarcin plin/ total;
at intervals = la intervale, intermitent;
at liberty = fr restricii, liber;
at most = cel mult;
at once = imediat;
at request = la cerere;
at right angle = la unghi drept;
at stake = n joc;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

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English for Technical Students

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
PAST SIMPLE
-is used to express

a finished action in the past (it is often used with past time expressions:
last year/ month/ week/, five years/ two days/ four weeks ago, yesterday,
yesterday morning/ evening, in 1985, etc):

They discovered this machine in the late eighteenth century.


The chemists reported the results obtained yesterday.
The discovery of diffraction of X-rays by von Laue (1912) led to the
discovery of the Bragg Crystal spectometer.

habitual, repeated actions in the past (with verbs denoting a permanent


characteristic);

She always wore red.


I met him every d1ay on my way to the office.

a series of actions which follow one another in a story (narrative past)

Tom came into the room. He took off his shirt, put on a T-shirt and sat down
in the armchair. Suddenly he remembered something. He stood up and went
out of the room.

Form

-the form of the Past Tense Simple is the same for all persons.

Affirmative
The positive of regular verbs ends in -ed.
There are many common irregular verbs. In order to create this tense you
need the second form of the verb (see the list on page @)

arrived

yesterday.

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Chapter 1

You

went to Sinaia

We
They
He/She

Negative
-the negative of the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did+not
(didnt).
I

did not (didnt) arrive

yesterday.

You

did not (didnt) go to Sinaia

We
They
He/She

Interrogative
-the question in the Past Tense Simple is formed with the auxiliary did.
When did

arrive?

Where did

you

go?

we
they
he
she
Short answer
Did you go to work yesterday?
Yes, I did. No, I didnt.
Did she report the results obtained?
Yes, she did. No, she didnt.

PAST CONTINOUS
-is used to express:

an action in progress at some time in the past

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English for Technical Students

What were you doing at 10 oclock yesterday?


I was calculating the length of the diagonal of a square.
When she arrived, he was sleeping.

. past activity happening over a period of time

I was reading from 4 to 6.30 yesterday.

Form
was/ were (past tense of to be)+ verb+-ing (present participle)

Affirmative and negative


I

was

working.

He

was not (wasnt)

She

You

were

We

were

They

(werent)

not

Interrogative
What

was

doing?

he
she
were

you
we
they

Short answer
Were you working at this time yesterday?
Yes, I was. No, I wasnt.
Was she studying when you entered the room?
Yes, she was. No, she wasnt.

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Chapter 1

PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINOUS


I was doing my homework at 7 oclock last night. (I was in the middle of the
activity.)
I did my homework yesterday. (I started and finished.)
They were producing drilling bits when those people started to buy shares in
their company.
She was looking at the pictures when her husband came into the room.
(producing and looking are long activities. Something happened in the
middle to interrupt them).

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide which is the correct verb form:
a. I saw/was seeing a very good programme on TV last night.
b. While I was learning/ learnt for my Chemistry exam, somebody was
knocking/ knocked at the door.
c. How did you cut/ were you cutting your finger? While I was fixing/ fixed
the wire, I was dropping/ dropped the knife.
d. I was listening/ listened to the news on the radio when the phone was
starting/ started to ring.
e. An American jet pilot was taking off/ took off from Washington, but the
jets engines went/ were going wrong.
f. We produced/ were producing 10,000 drilling bits last year.
g. Chemistry played/ was playing an essential part in the development of the
refining process 20 years ago.
h. Our crew included/ was including a seismic shooter and the man who set
off/ was setting off the blast.
i. When the exploration was completed, the drilling crew moved/ was
moving in.

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English for Technical Students

j. The first important commercial product from crude petroleum was


kerosene, which quickly was replacing/ replaced whale oil in the kerosene
stoves in the 50s.
2. Find the correct action for each person and make a sentence:
Example:
Copernicus- studying the planets
Copernicus studied the planets.
People

Actions

Elvis Presley

going to the moon

Shakespeare

inventing the electric light

Picasso

writing Romeo and Juliet

Neil Armostrong

singing rock music

Americo Vespucci

playing tennis

Artur Aish

discovering America

Martin Luther King

painting Guernica

Thomas Hardy

working for Black peoples rights

Edison

creating novels

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Chapter 1

3. Supply the simple past tense or the continous past tense of the verbs in
brackets:
The accident (happen) at 11.46 pm on September 21st at the corner St and
Brooks Bd, Milchester. Mr and Mrs Smith (be) on their way home. Mr
Smith (drive). It (not rain) at the time, but the roads (be) wet, as it had
rained before. At 11.46 pm Mr Michael Johnson (cycle) north along Brooks
Bd. He (have) his lights on. Mr Smith (not stop) at the traffic lights. As he
(turn) into Brooks Bd, he (hit) Mr Johnson and (knock) him off his bike. Mr
Johnson (be) not badly hurt, but his bike (be) damaged. Mr Smith (stop) and
(report) the accident. This (be) his first accident and now he is more careful
when he drives at night.

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EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY
some/any; much/many, a lot of/ lots of, few (a few)/ little (a little)
1. Countable nouns are used with some+ a plural noun in affirmative
sentences, and any+ a plural noun in negative and interrogative sentences:
Ive got some tools.
Are there any books of Physics in the house?
We dont need any apples for this pie.
Uncountable nouns are used with some in affirmative sentences and any in
interrogative and negative sentences, but only with a singular noun:
There is some coal in this mine.
Is there any gas in this well?
We havent got any butter in the house.

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English for Technical Students

2. Countable nouns are used with many

in interrogative and negative

sentences:
How many geologists work for this petroleum company?
We havent discovered many new oil fields.
Uncountable nouns are used with much in interrogative and negative
sentences:
How much money have you got?
There wasnt much disappointment that awaited the drillers at the bottom of
that dry hole.
3. Both countable and uncountable nouns are used with a lot of and lots of:
Weve got a lot of uniforms.
There are lots of drilling bits.
Theres a lot of gasoline in this pipeline.
Hes got a lot of money.
4. Countable nouns are used with few/ a few, while uncountable nouns are
used with little/ a little:
Ive got a few problems at the moment.
We only need a little money to buy this.

Controlled Practice
1. Complete the following sentences with some or any:
a. Would you like .. more kerosene?
b. Could you give me .. information about the train times?
c. If you have .. trouble, just give me a ring.
d. Have you attended .. good conferences recently?
e. I tried to buy .. tools, but I couldnt find ......
2. Put much, many, or a lot of into each gap:
a. Have you got ... homework?
b. We dont need . oil.

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Chapter 1

c. There are .. drilling books in our library.


d. I want .. pencils because Im going to draw a helix.
e. Is there .. petrol in the car?
THE ADJECTIVE
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the
sentence.
Position of adjectives.
Adjectives appear before the noun or noun phrase that they modify (e.g. an
interesting course, a difficult exercise, a strange coincidence). Sometimes
they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set
order according to category. As after you finish this course you may write
scientific articles in English it is of major importance for you to know the
correct order of adjectives in a sentence.
THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES IN A SERIES
It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say little yellow
house and not yellow little house or why we say blue Italian sports car and
not Italian blue sports car. The order in which adjectives in a series sort
themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second
language. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes
instinctive, because the order seems quite arbitrary. There is however a
pattern.
The categories in the following table can be described as follows:
Word

Types of adjectives

Examples

order
I.

Determiners

articles and other limiters four people, the sixth


(numerals,

possessive chapter, her story,

adjectives, demonstrative this tool


adjectives, etc.)
II.

Observation

postdeterminers
limiter adjectives

and real, perfect

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English for Technical Students

adjectives

subject

to interesting, beautiful,

subjective measure
III.

IV.

Size and shape

Age

adjectives

gorgeous

subject

to large, small, short,

objective measure

round, square

adjectives denoting age

young,

old,

new,

ancient
V.

Colour

adjectives

denoting red, black, yellow,

colour

blue, green, brown,


orange, violet

VI.

Origin

denominal

adjectives French,

denoting source of noun

English,

American, Spanish,
Polish, Romanian

VII.

Material

denominal

adjectives wooden,

metallic,

denoting what something woolen


is made of
VIII.

Qualifier

final

limiter,

often hunting

cabin,

regarded as part of the passenger car, book


noun

cover

Controlled Practice:
1. Which words in column A can combine with words from column B?
A

tall

person

heavy

music

Happy

New Year!

high

tree

strong

noise

Merry

Anniversary!

mountain

loud

traffic

Christmas!

wall

smoker

Birthday!

building

wind

price

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Chapter 1

2. Translate into English:


a. Ea avea o main sport albastr.; b. Noi am citit un articol interesant de 5
pagini n Petroleum Times.; c. El colecioneaz vase vechi, frumoase din
porelan.; d. Ai ncercat s descifrezi acel text din engleza veche?; e. El
confecioneaz dou bare din aluminiu.

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3. Read this text on digital integrated circuits. Pay attention to the adjective
order in this text. Translate it into Romanian:
A digital integrated circuit is designed to handle digital information. Most
digital integrated circuits operate on the binary system, such that one of only
two possible voltage levels can exist at the output. Input signals can be
either of these voltage levels. Digital logic circuits are switched from one
state to the other by a combination of several input signals, and logic
decisions are made according to which voltage level exists at the output for
a given combination of input signals.
Other types of digital circuit operate on the memory principle. in these ones,
if the output is triggered to one level by an input signal, it will then remain
at that level when the input signal is removed; that is, it will remember
that the last input signal was such as to trigger it to its output state.

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English for Technical Students

63

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Chapter 1

UNIT 6- 6-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Advertising your petroleum product


Present Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Simple and Past Simple
Prepositions

PRE-READING TASKS
If you create a new product, do you know how to advertise it in order to get
as many buyers as you expect?
How would you advertise the product your factory created?

READING
Read this advertisement on Dirt Magnet Plus. Identify
the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs:
Unique Products to maximize your wells production
As Clear Fluids International, we have been leaders in
the industry, supplying technologically innovative fluids
to improve the flow rates in your well. So, we have
decided to give ourselves a new moniker, one that is
more reflective of our speciality. We are now known as
Well-Flow Technologies, Inc.
We have made substantial improvements to our field proven displacement
fluid, Dirt Magnet. The result? We have designed and produced Dirt
Magnet Plus.

English for Technical Students

65

The non-flammable fluid works effectively to eliminate all contaminating


solids from the casing and tubing. The use of Dirt Magnet Plus helps
prevent damage to the formation during completion and leads to higher
production rates. Is is insoluble in brines and, with low specific gravity,
floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive. It is
also available in a low odour formulation.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms
Flow: continous stream or discharge.
Casing: pipe that is put inside the well as it is being drilled in order to
prevent contamination of fresh water (by salt, water, oil, and gas), washout
of the hole by drilling fluids, collapse of the hole, and so forth.
Drive: natural pressure which forces the oil to move.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In the sentence: Is is insoluble in brines and, with low specific gravity,
floats solids to the surface in such a way as to have a better oil-drive, the
expression in such a way as is translated by n aa fel nct/ astfel nct.
Now learn more expressions containing the word way:
by way of = prin mijlocirea, n calitate de, cu ajutorul;
by the way = apropo;
in this way= n acest mod;
in every way = n toate privinele;
in a general way = n genere/ n general;
in one way = ntr-un fel;
one way or another = ntr-un fel sau altul;
out of the way = afar din cale/ drum;
under way = n curs de;
way above = mult deasupra;

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Chapter 1

way ahead = mult nainte;


way below = mai jos;
way off = la o bun distan;
to give way to = a ceda la;
to make ones way = a-i croi drum, a face carier.
2. Read the sentence: So, we have decided to give ourselves a new moniker,
one that is more reflective of our speciality. So is a word which is generally
used in conversations instead of therefore which is used in written English.
Now lets learn some expressions containing the word so:
so as/ that = aa nct, astfel nct;
so far = pn acum, pn n prezent;
so far as = ntruct, n msura n care;
so it seems = aa se pare;
so much = att de mult;
so to say/ so to speak = aa zicnd, ca s zicem aa;
in a week or so = cam ntr-o sptmn;
so on and so forth = i aa mai departe;
in so doing = procednd astfel/ aa;
in so far as.. is concerned = ntruct privete.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
-relates past actions and states to the present.
-is used to express:

a past action when its result can be seen at the present time and is still
having an effect (Present Perfect of Result):

I have already seen that movie. (i.e. I can tell you the story).
He has fixed his car. (i.e. He can drive it now).

activities completed in the immediate past:

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English for Technical Students

She has just met him in the laboratory. (But: She met him there a few
minutes ago.)
Has oil only been used by mankind in the last hundred years? (But: Why
was oil used on such a large scale in 1999?)

activities at any time in a period up to now (Present Perfect of


Experience):

I have been to Scotland once.


He has never used such a big screwdriver.

an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present

Ive known you for five years/ since 1996. (Since means from a definite
point in the past till now, and for expresses a duration).
How long have you worked as a driller?
How long has it taken the oil industry to grow to its present size?

Form
have/has+verb+(past participle)
The past participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. There are many common
irregular verbs (see the list on page @).

Affirmative and negative


I

have (ve)

We

have not (havent)

worked in a petroleum factory.

You
They
He

has (s)

She

has not (hasnt)

Interrogative
Have

I
we
you

been to the United Kingdom?

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Chapter 1

they
Has

he
she

Short answer
Have you ever been to France?
Yes, I have. No, I havent.
Has she ever worked as a petroleum engineer?
Yes, she has. No, she hasnt.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND PAST SIMPLE

Look at the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following
sentences:
Ive lived in this flat for six months (I still do.)
I lived in this flat for two years. (Now I live somewhere else.)
F. Neagu has written very good short stories. (He is still alive.)
Shakespeare wrote very good plays. (He is dead.)
He has worked in this refinery for four years. (But: He started working in
this refinery in 1997.)
Have you found your books? (uncertainty)
Yes, I have.
Where did you find them? (certainty).
I found them behind a couple of other books, on the top shelf.

English for Technical Students

69

Controlled Practice:
1. Make sentences and questions about the following people
Example:
Alice is a drilling engineer.
-supervise/ a drilling well in Oradea.
She has supervised a drilling well in Oradea.
-write a report on that?
Has she written a report on that?

a. John is a journalist.
-meet/ lots of famous people.
-interview the President?
b. Laura is a safety inspector.
-check/ for dangerous levels of gas
-prevent a well from exploding?
c. Mike is a derrickman.
-control/ the top of the drill pipe.
d. Chris is a petroleum engineer
-deal with engineering problems special to the oil industry.
-work in a big petroleum company?
e. Her brother is a welder.
- be in charge of/ a team of ten members.
-make mistakes in joining together two pieces of metal?

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Chapter 1

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2. Complete this conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the
present perfect or simple past:
Maria: Hello, Dan.
Dan: Hello. I (not hear) from you for a long time.
Maria: I (see) you in town two or three weeks months, but you (not see) me.
I (be) on a tram.
Dan: Well, how are you? I remember that you were learning for your
chemistry test. . you (pass) it yet?
Maria: Yes, I have. I (pass) in December. I (not pass) my Physics exam yet.
But what about you, Dan? Anything exciting (happen) to you lately?
Dan: No, not really. My brother is still out of work.
Maria: He (graduate) from school in autumn?
Dan: Yes. He (not do) very well in his exams and he (not find) a job yet.
Maria: Are you still working at Scotts?
Dan: Yes. They just (give) me a pay rise.
Maria: Well, thats one piece of good news.

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English for Technical Students

71

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3. Imagine that you are talking on the phone to an old friend who you
havent seen for about two or three weeks. Write down three of four items
of news about yourself that you can tell your friend.

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4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Simple or the Simple
Past:
a. I (fly) over Paris last week. You (see) the Eifel Tower?
b. I (spend) four years in this company.
c. John (strike) a match, (light) his cigarette and (approach) his colleagues
quickly.
d. Mike is a famous singer. He (sell) over three million records.
e. How long you (work) as a drilling engineer? For eight years.

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Chapter 1

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5. Fill the blanks with since or for:
a. I havent seen you .. weeks.
b. Henry has been in hospital .. a week now.
c. Ive been in this university .. 1998.
d. We havent had a test ..... October, 1999.
e. I have worked in this field .. five years.

THE PREPOSITION
As the preposition in English may be different from the preposition in
Romanian, here is a text in which you may learn about the use of the
preposition in English: (Also see the list with prepositions which are usually
mistaken by Romanian students on page @)

It seems generally accepted that Mathematics is indeed fundamental for all


engineering education, and for most schools all engineering students take
the same mathematics sequence.
Two areas of mathematics seem broadly basic to engineering: namely, the
calculus as used in the linear constant coefficient differential equation, and
statistical theory. The linear differential equation is a general form, useful to
engineering because we can obtain answers from it. Therefore, where this
form applies to the physical world, the use of mathematical prediction is
increasing over the experimental approach. Next is the area of the partial
differential equation, rigorously solvable in only a few special cases
although approximation methods exist. Here the laboratory still depends on
many solutions where analytic methods are not yet fully available

English for Technical Students

73

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME
In the morning/ afternoon/ evening; January, February, etc.; summer,
winter, etc.; 1988; the 1930s; two weeks; two weeks time; your free (spare)
time; good/ bad weather
At six o clock, etc.; midnight; Easter/ Christmas; the weekend; the moment
On Saturday, Monday, etc.; Tuesday morning, etc.; 11-th January, etc.
For seven minutes, etc.; a long time; ages
Since June, 25-th, etc.; my last birthday; I came here
During* the film; the class; the war; my holidays; summer
_____________________________________________________________
* In a sentence containing a subject and a verb, during is replaced by while:
While I was coming to you...

Controlled Practice:
1. Supply the right preposition:
a. She is very fond ... children.; b. The new teacher is very patient... us.
c. We are leaving to Sinaia ... July, 3-rd. ; d. I was interested ... nuclear
Physics.; e. What are you afraid ...?; f. Im proud ... your success.; g. She
has never been successful ... anything she has done so far.; h. We are going
there early ... the morning, yet dont expect us until late ... night.; i. The
results depended ... the stratigraphic trap.; j. A paleontologist is a person
who has specialized ... paleontology.

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Chapter 1

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English for Technical Students

UNIT 7 7-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Solar Energy
Present Perfect Continous
Modal verbs
Prepositions of place

PRE-READING TASKS
How can people use solar energy?
Can you convert solar energy into chemical energy?

READING
Read the following text on the relation
between chemistry and energy research.
Look at the tenses of the verbs:
Chemistry is an integral part of any
major energy research programme.
Chemists have played a key role, and
will

continue

to

do

so,

in

the

development of the energy technologies


needed to assure future growth. In the
last few years success has been
established in coverting the solar
energy into chemical energy, even if several problems remained. Solar
energy technology can have a significant impact on the energy supply over a

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Chapter 1

40-50 year time interval and it could contribute about 25% of the projected
U.S. energy demands in 2020. Two possible ways of using solar energy are
the use of sun heat and the solar cell.
Heat from the sun is focussed onto a boiler using many small flat mirrors,
arranged to form a dish shape. At Odello in the French Pyrenees, a solar
furnace produces temperatures over 3000oC, enough to melt special steels.
When sunlight shines onto layers of silicon it is directly converted into
electricity. Each cell generates only a very tiny voltage. Hundreds of cells
are needed in solar arrays to give enough power for satellites or remote
telecommunications equipment.

WAYS WITH WORDS:


Special terms:
Chemistry: the science of the composition, properties, and reactions of
substances.
Research: systematic investigation to discover facts or collect information.
Assure: promise or guarantee; convince, make (something) certain.
Furnace: enclosed chamber containing a very hot fire.
Silicon: brittle nonmetalic element widely used in chemistry and industry.
Layer: single thickness of some substance, as a cover or coating on a
surface.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Have you ever encountered the word programme spelled as program?
This is not a mistake. Its just the difference between British English
(programme) and American English (program). There are several
differences in spelling words between British English and American
English.
Here are some of them:
British English

American English

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English for Technical Students

theatre

theater

centre

center

neighbour

neighbor

colour

color

travelling

traveling

organise

organize

analyse

analyze

2. Read again the following sentence: Hundreds of cells are needed in solar
arrays to give enough power for satelillites or remote telecommunications
equipment. How do you translate for? Is this a preposition or an adverb?
Now lets learn a few expressions containing this word:
for about = circa, aproximativ, n jurul a;
for all that = totui, cu toate acestea;
for certain = sigur, cu siguran;
for example/ for instance = de exemplu;
for reasons given = pentru motivele date;
for the time being/ the present = pentru moment/ n prezent;
as for = ct despre;
not for the world/ not for the life of me = pentru nimic n lume;
to compete for = a concura pentru;
to mistake sth. for sth. else = a lua un lucru drept altul;
to provide for = a se ngriji de. a avea grij de;
to take for granted = a lua de bun, a lua drept sigur;
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS
- is used to express:

an activity begun in the past and still in progress at the moment of


speaking:

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Chapter 1

They have been creating new petroleum products for several years.
Ive been waiting for an hour and he still hasnt turned up.

an activity begun in the past which has only just finished and is relevant
to the current situation:

Sorry Im late. Have you been waiting long?


Note: In both these uses a present perfect simple can be also used, especially
with those verbs which are not normally in the continous aspect, in negative
sentences, and when reference is made to the number of things that have
been done: They have created/ have been creating new petroleum products
for several years.

a repeated activity, in which case a nuance of reproach, irritation, etc.


can be present.

Ive been calling you for the past twenty minutes. Why dont you answer
the phone?
Form
-it consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be and the indefinite
participle of the main verb (verb+-ing).

Affirmative and negative

have been

working.

You

have not been (havent been)

We
They
He

has been

She

has not been (hasnt been)

Interrogative
What

have I
have you
have we

been

doing?

English for Technical Students

79

have they
has he
has she

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into English. Use Present Perfect
Simple or Present Perfect Continous:
a. Te caut de o or. Pe unde ai umblat?; b. De atunci n-am mai primit nici o
veste de la el. ; c. Cte sape de foraj ai folosit pn acum?; d. Locuim n
Romnia de trei ani. ; e. N-am mai vzut-o de cnd a terminat facultatea.

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2. Supply the simple present perfect or the continous present perfect of the
verbs in brackets:
a. Im tired. I (dig) all day.; b. Up to now I (visit) twenty countries.; c. I saw
her in August, but (not see) her ever since.; d. How long you (learn)
Chinese?; e. Youre out of breath. You (run)?; f. She still (not write) the
report.; g. What she (do) all afternoon?; h. They already (speak) to me about
that experiment.; i. Your eyes are red. You (cry).

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Chapter 1

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3. Translate the following text into Romanian:
An important factor in the growth of the oil industry has been the
development of petrochemicals. Many products have been created by
chemists from petroleum. These include most of our modern plastics and
fertilers. Indeed, the increase in agricultural productivity - also known as the
green revolution - could not have taken place without petroleum-based
chemicals, including not only those that enrich the soil like fertilers but also
those that kill weeds, insects, and other pests such as herbicides,
insecticides, and pesticides.

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4. Choose the correct verb form:
a. How long have you been living/ have you lived in this house?
b. Angela worked/ has been working in this petroleum company for ten
years and a half.
c. Alan has been/ has gone to South America.
d. Hes tired because he has worked/ has been working on the oil field all
day.

English for Technical Students

81

e. How long have you been learning/ have you learned English?
MODAL VERBS
The modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verbs which express the
modality of the action and have some specific features. The following are
modal verbs:
can/ must/ / may/ need/ shall/ will/ would/ should
They have the following in common:
1. They help another verb. The verb form is the infinitive (without to)
She can drive.
He can speak English, French and Italian.
I must go.
May I open the window? Yes, you may.
2. Questions are formed by putting the modal verb in front of the subject.
There are no auxiliaries such as do/does/did, etc.
Can you type quickly?
Could you give me an example?
Should I go home now?
Need I invite them too?
3. The form is the same for all persons. Modals do not inflect (There is no -s
in the third person singular, and there are no -ing or -ed forms.)
She should learn more.
He can speak three foreign language well.
He insisted that Jack must go and see it himself.
4. Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as not/ nt
immediately after the modal verb. There are no auxiliaries such as dont/
doesnt/ didnt, etc.
I cant spell your name.
She wouldnt like to become a teacher like me.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following into English:

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Chapter 1

a. Ea trebuie s plece.; b. El nu poate s scrie n englez.; c. Pot s nchid


geamul?; d. Ea ar trebui s se strduiasc mai mult la examene.; e. Nu tiu
s not, dar tiu s schiez i s patinez.; f. Ei nu tiu engleza, dar au nceput
un curs anul acesta.; g. Vrei s te cstoreti cu mine?; h. Chiar trebuie s
ne ducem la curs la ora patru? Da, chiar trebuie.; i. Nu vrem s venim cu
tine, pentru c nu ne place la mare. ; j. Tu vei sta unde i spun, dac nu, o s
te pedepsesc.

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2. Choose the best variant which completes these sentences:
a. She can/may/ must go, otherwise she will miss the train.
b. I cant/ couldnt/may not help you at that time, as I was extremely busy.
c. Should/ Could/ Will I attend this optional course?
d. He cannot/ mustnt/ may not come to this wedding, as he is in Portugal.
e. Im afraid she may not/ cant/ mustnt help you at the moment, but I am
free now so could/ should/ may you tell me your problem?

PROBLEMATIC PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT AND PLACE


Movement

Place

to

at

used wih verbs of movement: go, not

used

with

verbs

of

83

English for Technical Students

come,

etc.,

even

when

the movement: I arrived at the

meaning is different: She goes to house.


university.
into/out of

in (=contained by/ inside)

used with changes of place: She used with towns: I arrived in


London. But: I arrived at

walked out of the shop.

London Airport. (=place)


across (=from one side to the by (=at the side of)
other:

She

went

across

the

promenade.)
towards (=in the direction of: Im
going towards Cluj.)
Controlled Practice:
1. Complete each sentence with the appropriate preposition:
a. I shut the door but left my key ..... it.
b. He strolled carelessly .. the road.
c. They arrived late .. the station.
d. She ran all the way .. the shop.
e. I went .. Paris last year.
f. I met her .. the rock concert.
g. The baby crawled .. the kitchen.
h. Theres a strike .. our factory.
i. She has left. She must be .. work.
j. The money fell ... my pocket.
2. Put in the missing prepositions:
.. a Monday evening ..... September 1931, .. about eight oclock,
the ship Voyager sank. The ship had been sailing .. the end of
September, when she left London, and was on her way .. England

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Chapter 1

.. Australia. The only survivor was an Englishman called Wilfred


Batty, who saved himself .. swimming two miles. He spent three years
.. an island . the middle of the Indian Ocean.
The island was quite small, and he could walk ..... the whole of it ..
an hour. He climbed .. the one hill and put a flag .... it .. a
signal. . night Batty slept .. a cave, where he felt quite ..
home .. the day, he often fished ..... a home-made net. He cooked the
fish .. a wood fire.
Batty stayed .. the island ... almost three years. .. August
1934, a ship was sailing . the island, and the captain saw Battys signal.
The sailors found a man .. a long blue coat .. dark hair and a
beard, looking rather ..... a gorilla. Batty was soon home, and a few years
later he finally arrived in Australia .. air.

85

English for Technical Students

UNIT 8 8-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Your catalogue at home


The Cardinal Numeral
Past Perfect Simple
Past Perfect Continous

PRE-READING TASK
If you produce a certain petroleum product which is the best way to promote
your product?

READING
Your catalogue at home
Here is a presentation of Composite
Catalogue of Oil Field Equipment and
Services. Translate the following text
into Romanian. Can you identify the
cardinal numerals in this text?
The key to a successful catalogue is a successful distribution. Thats why
your catalogue should be in the Composite Catalogue of Oil Field
Equipment and Services. Its where your prospects turn when theyre ready
to buy.
When you are in Composite Catalogue, youll be assured that virtually all
your customers and prospects have your product information at their
fingertips when they need it.

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Chapter 1

Well print your catalogue and distribute it worldwide to 20,000 locations


where it will be available to specifiers and buyers 24 hours a day, every day
of the year. All for a fee thats probably less than it would cost you to print
and mail half that many.
When you individually mail your own catalogue, consider this. Research
indicates that out of every 1,000 catalogues distributed by mail 330 never
reach the prospect. Another 36 are either lost, tossed or mistified after
delivery. So, when it comes time to purchase, only 13% of your prospects
can find your product information. You can avoid this costly problem if you
employ us to do this for you.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In this text you have encountered the pair of words: buy/by. They are
called homophones. Homophones are words with two spellings and two
meanings but only one pronunciation (scent/ sent/ cent, flower/flour, pair/
pear). At the same time there are homographs in English. Homographs are
those words which have one spelling but two pronunciations and two
distinct meanings or usages. For example the homograph of the verb to tear
( a rupe) is the noun tear (lacrim).
Can you find homophones for the words listed below?
due, hair, hire, mail, parish, rain, whales, war, wax.
Answer key: dew, hare, male, perish, reign, Wales, were, whacks.

A lot of jokes are made with homonyms and homophones, because there is a
play on words. Can you understand the following childrens jokes?

Customer: Waiter! What sort of soup is this?


Waiter: Its bean soup, sir.
Customer: I dont care what it was. I want to know what it is now.

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87

A Panda bear goes to a restaurant, he orders Coke and salad and wants to
leave. The waiter asks him to pay. They have an argument and they decide
to look up the word restaurant. The definition of the word restaurant is: a
place where you eat, you drink, you have a good time and you pay money
when you leave. The Panda bear insists on checking the word Panda bear.
The definition is: a Panda bear is a very nice black and white bear who eats
vegetables and leaves.

Teacher: You missed school yesterday, Johnny, didnt you?


Johnny: No, not at all.

Mechanic: Your batterys flat.


Driver: Oh dear. What shape should it be?

What colour would you paint the sun and the wind?
The sun rose and the wind blue.

What did the salad say to the tomato?


Lettuce get married.

Why was the doctor angry?


Because he had no patients.

Whats the difference between a ball and a prince?


One is thrown in the air, and the other is heir to the throne.
2. Read the following sentence: Well print your catalogue and distribute it
worldwide to 20,0000 locations. Worldwide is a compound word. A great
many new words are made by putting two little words together. The new
word may look hard at first, but you can get its meaning if you see the two
words from which it is made up.

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Chapter 1

We make many words from any, some, and every. Lets look at the words
made with any:
any

one

anyone

any

time

anytime

any

place

anyplace

any

body

anybody

any

way

anyway

any

how

anyhow

any

where

anywhere

any

thing

anything

Now practise and form new words from every, some and no.

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Can you find the two words which formed the compound words listed
below? Translate the compound words. Translate the words they are made
up of:
airplane, busman, another, backstop, courtroom, countryside, gentleman,
gatepost,

hammerhead,

headache,

horse-race,

mailman,

snowmen,

ourselves, daylight, summertime, doorman, bedtime, birthday, playtime,


holiday.

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89

English for Technical Students

Sometimes compound words are written as one word, sometimes two, and
sometimes they are written with a hyphen (-). The stress is usually on the
first word such as in the case of post office, headache, horse-race.
Match a line in A with a line in B. Check the spelling in your dictionary.
A

pocket

clock

car

paste

alarm

hour

tooth

opener

traffic

time

tin

park

traffic

belt

departure

time

safety

lights

earth

quake

rush

money

screw

recorder

word

processor

tape

driver

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE CARDINAL NUMERAL
The form of the cardinal numeral
1 one

11 eleven

21 twenty-one

100

hundred*
2 two

12 twelve

22 twenty-two

103

(one) 1,000 a (one)


thousand*
(one) 1,003 a (one)

hundred and two hundred

and

three
3 three

13 thirteen

23 twenty-three

306

three 3,476

three

90

Chapter 1

hundred and six

thousand

four

hundred

and

seventy-six
4 four

14 fourteen

30 thirty

744

seven 4,578

hundred
fourty-four

and thousand
hundred

four
five
and

seventy-eight
5 five

15 fifteen

40 fourty

999

nine 1,000,000

hundred

and million

one

ninety nine
6 six

16 sixteen

50 fifty

7 seven 17 seveteen

60 sixty

8 eight

18 eighteen

70 seventy

9 nine

19 nineteen

80 eighty

10 ten

20 twenty

90 ninety

The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural form: 500 sheets
of paper - five hundred sheets of paper.
Notes:
1. When you read phone numbers, you should read them figure by figure.
For example: My phone number is 142357- My phone number is one four
two three five seven.
2. When you read years, you should read them in pairs of two figures.
For example: He died in 1987. - He died in nineteen eighty-seven.
Controlled Practice:
1. Read the following numbers:
4,536; 867; 629,846,768; 32,467; 23,535; 756,464,654.
2. Read the following years:
1543; 1987; 2002; 1654; 1876.

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English for Technical Students

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


-is used to express:

an action completed before another action or moment in the past:

What happened to the mud that had burried the new deposits of oil?
He had read his lecture before he went to university.

an action which began before another moment in the past and continued
up to that time or into it:

In 1999 we had drilled 54 wells for five years.


He had lived in this flat since he was born.
Form
-it consists of had followed by the past participle of the main verb.
Affirmative and negative
I

had

left.

You

had not (hadnt)

He/ She
We
They

Interrogative
What

had

done?

you
he/she
we
they
Short answer
Had you read the novel before we saw the film?
Yes, I had. No, I hadnt.
Had he spoken English before he started the Engineering English course?
Yes, he had. No, he hadnt.

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Chapter 1

PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS


- is used to express:

an action in the past begun before the time of speaking in the past and
still going on that time or possibly after:

Some men had been hauling the oil up to that time.


By that time we had been working on the project for two years.
They had been living for generations in that house.

Form
-it consists of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of
the main perfect.

Affirmative and negative


By that time

had been

you

had

he/she

been

not

working

for a year.

(hadnt)

we
they
Interrogative
What

had

been

working on

you

by that time,
last year?

he/she
we
they
Short answer
Had you been working on that project by that time for a year?
Yes, I had. No, I hadnt.

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide the order in which these things happened. Then write two
sentences using after and the past perfect.

English for Technical Students

93

Example:
The bank clerk gave it to me./ She looked at my cheque./ She counted out the
money.
After the bank clerk had looked at my cheque, she counted the money.
After she had counted the money, she gave it to me.

a. The tourists got out of the coach./ They got back in the coach./ They took
photos.
b. The prisoner ran across the yard./ He jumped out of the window./ He
climbed over the wall.
c. The reporter wrote a report on the accident./ She interviewed the people
there./ She went to the scene of the accident.
d. The mechanic put a new tyre on./ He put the wheel back on./ He took the
wheel off the car.
e. The shop-assistant asked me which my size was./ She wrapped it./ She
showed it to me.

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2. Translate into English:
a. Se cunoteau de trei ani. ; b. Pn atunci lucrasem la proiectul acela de
dou luni. ; c. Ce s-a ntmplat dup ce am plecat?; d. l ateptam de o or,

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Chapter 1

cnd am aflat c avusese un accident la sond. ; e. Despre ce vorbeai cnd


ne-am ntlnit?

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95

English for Technical Students

UNIT 9 9-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Transporting oil
Future Simple
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Comparative Sentences

PRE-READING TASK:
By what means do you transport oil?
Which is the cheapest means of transport for oil?

READING
In this unit John Smith presents his
project on transporting oil to some
journalists. He presents possible
problems that may occur when
creating the pipelines. Read the
text thouroughly and be attentive at the tenses of the verbs:

Some pipelines will run above the surface, especially in rugged or


uninhibited areas, but many others will run beneath the ground. In farming
country with open fields, there may be no surface indication at all of the
black stream of oil under the growing crops. However, the pipelines will be
marked by pumping stations at an average distance of about seventy-five
miles - closer together in the mountainous areas, farther apart in flat
countryside. Thats is why I think we shall need special equipment for some
pipelines.

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Chapter 1

We shall clean the pipes by a device called a pig. This mechanism, as you
probably know, has metal blades that scrape the inside of the pipe to keep it
clear of the tar-like substance that forms in it.
So, thats about it. I think we still have some time for questions. So, Im all
ears.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Stream: steady flow of liquid.
Pipeline: a system designed to transport a liquid or a gas through pipes.
Pig: a device to clean a pipeline connecting the oil field with a refinery or
shipping point.
Scrape: rub with something rough or sharp.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Read the following sentence again: However, the pipelines will be marked
by pumping stations. Now learn some expressions containing the word by:
by and by = treptat;
by all means = cu orice pre;
by chance = din ntmplare;
by the end of week/ month/ year = spre sfritul sptmnii/ lunii/ anului;
by force = cu fora;
by hearsay = din auzite;
by no less than = cu nu mai puin de;
by no means = nicidecum, n nici un caz, cu nici un pre;
by-pass = unt, derivaie, condesator legat n dervaie;
by-pass system = sistem inelar/ cu ci de ocolire;
by reason of = pe motiv c, din cauz c;
by sight = din vedere;
by stages/ steps = discontinuu, n trepte;
by so much more = cu att mai mult;

English for Technical Students

97

by then = pn atunci, pn la acea dat;


by this time = ntre timp, pn la acea vreme;
by turns = cu schimbul, pe rnd;
by virtue of/ dint of = n virtutea, cu ajutorul, prin mijlocirea;
better by far = cu mult mai bine.
2. Read the following sentence again: I think we still have some time for
questions. Now learn some expressions containing the word time:
at the same time = n acelai timp;
for the first time = pentru prima dat;
at times = din timp n timp, la rstimpuri;
by that time = pn atunci, la vremea aceea;
some time or other = cndva;
the time is up = timpul a trecut, intervalul de timp s-a scurs;
time after time = n repetate rnduri;
time will tell = timpul va dovedi, timpul va hotr;
for a long time = de mult timp;
all in good time = oricnd;
from that time forth = de atunci nainte;
within the time = n decursul;
time-lag error = eroare de temporizare;
time release = declanare temporizat.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE AND PRACTICE


FUTURE SIMPLE
-is used to express:

actions to be performed in the future.

I shall be thirty next year.


When will you graduate from university?
She will work for our company if we give her a good salary.

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Chapter 1

Notes:
1. We use will and shall in many other ways, apart from predicting the
future: e.g.:
-intentions/ promises (Ill buy you a bike for your birthday.)
-request/ invitations (Will you hold the door open for me, please?)
-offers (Shall I help you solve this problem?)
-suggestions (Shall we go to see that movie tomorrow?)
-threats (Just wait and see! Youll regret this!)
-decisions (Ill stop and ask the way.)
2. Future is not allowed in conditional and temporal clause:
If you help me, Ill be grateful to you.
When it rains, we stay inside.
Form
Affirmative and negative
I

shall (ll)

We

shall not (shant)

You

will (ll)

He/ She

will not (wont)

come.

They
Interrogative
When

shall

help him?

we
will

you
he/she
they

Short answer
Will you help me finish my drilling project?
Yes, I shall.
Note: No, I wont is not common because it is impolite, it may mean I dont
want to help you. That is why a polite answer would be: Im afraid I cant.

99

English for Technical Students

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Te voi chema cnd voi ajunge acas. ; b. l voi vedea sptmna viitoare.
c. Azi avem repetiie la ora dou. ; d. Va deveni necesar s gsim noi
resurse de energie. ; e. Crezi c vei gsi petrol aici?

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2. Match the sentences on the left with the functions on the right:
A

1. Well have a thunderstorm tonight, a. stating a planned arrangement


Im sure. - b.
2. Will there be a general strike?

b. making a prediction

3. Ill send you a card from Paris

c. making a request

4. Will you send me an e-mail?

d. expressing future hope

5. Shall I go to the library for you?

e. expressing future uncertainty

6. Shall we take a drive into the f. offering


country later?
7. Ill report you to the police next g. promising/ stating an intention
time.
8. The wedding will take place next h. making an invitation
Friday.
9. I hope youll come and see us on i. asking for a prediction
Saturday.
10. Explain it to them again. Perhaps j. threatening
theyll understand.

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Chapter 1

11. Will you have dinner with us on i. making a suggestion


Sunday?

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES


Form
Adjectives

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Short adjectives

cheap

cheaper

the cheapest

small

smaller

the smallest

big

bigger

the biggest

fat

fatter

the fattest

old

older/ elder

the oldest/ the eldest

Adjectives that funny

funnier

the funniest

end in -y

early

earlier

the earliest

heavy

heavier

the heaviest

Adjectives with careful

more careful

the most careful

two

more expensive

the most expensive

difficult

more difficult

the most difficult

interesting

more interesting

the most interesting

rapid

more rapid

the most rapid

Irregular

good

better

the best

adjectives

bad

worse

the worst

or

syllables

more expensive

many/ much more

the most

little

less

the least

far*

farther/ further

the

farthest/

the

furthest
fore**

former

the

foremost/

late***

later/latter

first

near****

nearer

the latest/ the last

the

the nearest/ the next


Short adjectives with one vowel and one consonant double the consonant:
fat/ fatter/ the fattest, hot/ hotter/ the hottest, etc.

English for Technical Students

101

Elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family relationships
(My elder brother is twenty four).
* Farther/ the farthest are used to relate to distance (I live farther than you.);
further/ the furthest are used in relation to time, quantity. The latter has also
an abstract meaning. (Give me further details in order to understand it
better.)
** Former means of an earlier period or the first of two (In former times,
people used whale oil for lamps.); the foremost means chief (The foremost
welder in this factory is John.); the first means initial (Americans claim that
the first underground oil well was drilled in the United States.).
*** Later means the second of two (Ive met John and Cindy: the former is
a student in Drilling, the latter is student in Foreign Languages); the latest
means the most recent (He bought the latest novel by J. Fowles.); the last
means final: ( Shakespeares last play.).
****The nearest is used for distance (Could you tell me the way to the
nearest oil pump?); the next refers to order. (The next bus comes in an hour.)

Examples:
There are two forces F1 and F2, the former is the greater./ This welder is the
foremost worker in our workshop./ this is Newtons first law of motion.
This is a good conductor of electricity./ We need a better conductor./ This is
the best machine in the exhibition by far.
There is little advantage in using rotary drilling on this field./ There is less
oil in this tank than in the other one./ Forces are not of least importance for
an engineer.

COMPARATIVE SENTENCES
In relation with the degrees of comparison, there are idiomatic expressions
with two comparatives which are very common in technical English texts:
Form:
the+ comparative ...... the+ comparative ...

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Chapter 1

The bigger the force, the greater the acceleration.


The more mass in the body, the less acceleration.

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Cu ct mai repede nvm engleza, cu att mai bine. ; b. Ei fac n
continuare investigaii. ; c. Presiunea este mai mare n al doilea caz dect n
primul. ; d. Cu ct diametrul conductorului este mai mare, cu att
intensitatea este mai mic.; e. Avem nevoie de mai multe maini-unelte.; f.
Sondorul acesta este cel mai tnr dintre toi.; g. Problema aceasta este cea
mai dificil cu care m-am confruntat vreodat.; h. Ideea ta e mai bun, dar
soluia mea este mai ieftin dect a ta.; i. Aceast main devine din ce n ce
mai important.; j. Dintre cele dou unghiuri, primul este mai mic, iar al
doilea este mai mare.

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2. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in brackets:
a. He is (lazy) student in the class.; b. She is looking for a (big) company
than the one she is working in now.; c. He was unable to get (far)
information.; d. The underground pressure was (big) than expected.;
e. Today, (great) care is taken to prevent accidents.; f. (Many) heating
devices are required to keep the oil from freezing in the intense cold.; g. He
needed (little) gasoline than he thought.; h. (Difficult) problem was solved

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103

by means of computerised technology.; i. She found (little) errors in Johns


programme than in Marys one.; j. Darwin was one of (quarrelsome)
scientists.

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3. Here are some of the things John said about the cities he visited. Some are
facts and some are his opinions. Complete his sentences:
a. London is, of course, much older ..... Los Angeles, but it isnt ..
than Athens. Athens is .. oldest city I have ever seen.
b. London doesnt have .. buildings than Athens, but is has older ones
.. the ones in Los Angeles and Tokyo.
c. Tokyos exciting, but, for an architect, London is .. exciting ..
Tokyo, an, of course, Los Angeles is .. ... exciting of all.
d. Los Angeles has .. parks than Tokyo, but London has .. ..
parks. There are five in the city centre.
e. In comparison to our cities, these are .. interesting from the point of
view of the buildings people built there.
4. Fill in the gaps with one of the phrases below:
Missing phrases: environmentally friendly; the most expensive; too
expensive; the largest; more environmentally sound
If one of your criteria in choosing a car is its design, the Mercedes is far
more attractive than any others. Yet at the same time you should think that,
even if their cars are very ellegant and .., they are .. for common
people. The Electrolite is .... than the others as it is equipped with a

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filter fitted to remove toxins from the waste water that escapes from it. The
latest Mercedes model is of course .. and . yet if you want to have
a car for a life save your money and buy it.

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TEST
Choose the best variant:
1. He .. when I .. the room.
A. read/ entered; B. was reading/ entered; C. was reading/ was entering.;
D. read/ entered.
2. She .. since she a child.
A. hasnt been/ was; B. wasnt/ was; C. wasnt/ has been; D. hasnt been.
3. He .. to school by bus, but last week his car was broken and he
.. the bus.
A. doesnt go/ has taken; B. doesnt go/ takes; C. isnt going/ took;
D. doesnt go/ took.
4. Where .. ? I .. for you everywhere.
A. have you been/ have looked; B. have you been/ have been looking;
C. were you/ looked; D. were you/ was looking.
5. I . be . time. The weather was very bad and I was stuck in a
traffic jam.
A. couldnt/ on; B. wouldnt/ in; C. couldnt; in; D. shouldnt/ on
6. What exactly are you interested..?
A. in; B. about; C. on; D. for
7. I .. what to do, so I .. ask my superviser.
A. didnt know/ have to; B. havent known/ must; C. dont know/ had to;
D. didnt know/ had to
8. If this solution is .. than mine, I dont mind. The .. one will be
appreciated by everybody.
A. good/ good; B. better/ better; C. better/ best; D. better/ good.
9. I .. possibly accept his offer, as it was . than the other one.
A. couldnt/ worse; B. can/ the worst; C. wouldnt/ bad; D. wont/ worst;
10. The .. I arrive home, the . I am.
A. soon/ happy; B. better/ happier; C. sooner/ happier; D. better/ happy.
11. What are you looking ..? I .. my keys and I cant find them
anywhere.

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A. for/ have lost; B. at/ lost; C. in/ have lost; D. of/ lost.
12. Where . last summer? I .. to the seaside.
A. did you go/ went; B. have you gone/ went; C. did you go/ have gone;
D. have gone/ have gone.
13. He was preoccupied solving that problem, so he . what I was
saying.
A. for/ hasnt heard; B. with/ didnt hear; C. in/ hasnt heard; D. for/ didnt
hear.
14. The train is .. than the bus, but the plane is .. of all.
A. faster/ the fastest; B. faster/ faster; C. faster/ the fastest; D. the faster/ the
fastest.
15. When .. to John? Oh, I to him for ages.
A. did you last write/ havent written; B. have you last written/ havent
written; C. did you last write/ wrote; D. have you last written/ wrote.
16. How much did you sell your car ..?
A. at; B. with; C. of; D. for.
17. the novel before we .. the film?
A. Had you read/ saw; B. Have you read/ saw; C. Did you read/ saw;
D. Had you read/ had seen.
18. The translation of Cu ct mai repede nvm engleza, cu att mai
bine. is :
A. The quicklier we teach English, the better it is; B. The quicklier we learn
English, the better it is.; C. The sooner we learn English, the better it is.;
D. The quick we learn English, the better it is.
Answer key:
1. B; 2. A; 3. D; 4. B; 5. A; 6. A; 7. D; 8. C.; 9. A; 10. C; 11. A.; 12. A.;
13. B.; 14. C.; 15. A.; 16. D; 17. A.; 18. B.
1 point + 0,50 points per each good answer

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EVALUATION
1. What have you learnt from this chapter?

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2. What did you enjoy about it?

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3. What didnt you enjoy about it?

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4. Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it


differently.

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English for Technical Students

CHAPTER 3
UNIT 10 10-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Exploring for petroleum


Be going to Future
Future Simple or be going to?
First Conditional

PRE-READING TASK
What do you know about geology?
What is a geologist in charge of?
Who helps geologists in their search for oil fields?

READING
Read the following text about Mike
Howard who is a geologist. Identify
the future of the verbs:
Mike Howard works for an oil
company. His job involves exploring
the terrain where oil may occur.
Places

such

as

canyons,

where

different layers of rock are exposed,


often give him clues to the possible
presence of oil. He is aware of the

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fact that as most petroleum is underground this will make oil exploration a
risky business and his job is to make sure that the company he works for
doesnt waste its money.
Right now he is going to test some cores that have been brought up from
below the surface of the earth. His team includes four other members:
another geologist, two paleontologists and a geophysicist who are also
involved in the search for oil. The paleontologists are going to make a
special study of some fossils now, while the geophysicist is dealing with the
effects of gravity. He is asking Mike Howard to come and see the results of
his test.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Layer: single thickness of some substance, as a cover or coating on a
surface.
Geology: the study of the physical features of the earth such as rocks,
mountains, and so on. A geologist is a specialist in the field of geology.
Paleontology: the study of prehistoric life through the evidence of fossils.
Geophysics: the study of some disciplines of geology combined with those
of physics.
Core: a sample of rocks obtained by a drill. The core can be studied for the
types of rocks and for evidence of fossils.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Read this sentence again: The paleontologists are going to make a special
study of some fossils now. Lets learn some expressions in which the verb to
make occurs.
to make an attempt = a face o ncercare;
to make the best of = a trage ct mai mult profit de pe urma, a profita la
maximum de;

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111

to make believe = a face s cread;


to make it clear = a clarifica;
to make it possible = a face posibil;
to make for = a contribui;
to make out = a nelege, a demonstra, a redacta;
to make over = a transfera, a ceda;
to make ready = a fi gata, a (se) pregti;
to make a stand = a se opune;
to make sure of = a se asigura de;
to make short work of/ sth = a scurta, a face ceva repede, a termina, a
finaliza;
to make tight = a ermetiza, a etaneiza, a nchide etan;
to make up ones mind = a se hotr;
to make up for ones losses = a-i recupera pierderile;
to make up for lorst time = a rectiga timpul pierdut;
to make as if/ though = a prea ca i cum, a pretinde ca i cum, a face ca i
cum;
to make use of = a ntrebuina;
to make way for/ to make room for = a face loc pentru.

2. Even if to do and to make are generally translated in the same way, there
are several expressions in which you cannot use the verb to make:
e.g. to do ones best = a face tot ce-i posibil;
to do the donkey work = a munci din greu;
to do sbd. a good turn/ a favour = a face cuiva o favoare;
to do sth. with your eyes closed = a ti ceva foarte bine, a face ceva cu ochii
nchii;
to do harm = a face ru;
to do wonders = a face minuni;
to have sth. to do with = a avea de-a face cu.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

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Put make or do before the following nouns:


.. a phone call; .. a mess; .. my homework; .. a mistake;
.....a noise; .. the shopping; .. your best; .. a cup of tea;
.. your bed; .. someone a favour; ..... an excuse; ..... sense;
.....up your mind; .. an appointment; ..sure.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
BE GOING TO FUTURE
-is used

to express a future decision, intention, or plan made before the moment


of speaking

Were going to move to Bucharest.


How long are they going to drill that well in Videle?
She isnt going to attend this Physics course.
Note:
The Present Continous can be used in a similar way for a plan or
arrangement, particularly with the verbs go and come.
Shes coming on Monday.
Im going home.

when we can see or feel now that something is certain to happen in the
future

Look at those grey clouds! Its going to rain.


Watch out! The box is going to fall.

Form
the verb to be in Present+to+infinitive
Affirmative and negative
I

am (m)
am (m) not

He

is (s)

going to work.

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English for Technical Students

She

is not (isnt)

It
We

are (re)

You

are not (arent)

They
Interrogative
When

am I

going to arrive?

is he/ she/ it
are we/you/ they

Short answer
Are you going to attend his lecture?
Yes, I am. No, Im not.

FUTURE SIMPLE OR BE GOING TO?


Look at the use of Future Simple and to be going to in the following
sentences:
Im going to improve my English. ( I decided that and I may have bought
books to improve my knowledge).
What language shall I learn? Er... I know. Ill learn some English! Thats a
good idea. ( Idecided to learn English at the moment of speaking.)

Controlled Practice:
Decide which is the correct verb form:
a. My suitcase is so heavy!
Give it to me. Ill/Im going to carry it for you.
b. I bought some warm boots because Ill go/Im going on an off-shore
drilling rig.
c. Well go/ Were going to a conference next week.
d. I hear you and Mike will get/ are going to get married! Congratulations!

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e. Where will you go/ are you going on holiday this year?
France. What about you?
We dont know yet. Maybe we will go/ we are going to Spain.

FIRST CONDITIONAL
- is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the future:
If my cheque comes, Ill buy this car.
Well destroy the environment if you dont look after it.
If he passes the baccalaureate, hell go to university.
Form
No future tense occurs in the conditional clause. This is replaced by the
present.
Main Clause

If Clause

Present/ Future

Present

Affirmative and negative


If

I work hard, I

ll

she has enough money,

pass my exams.
buy that new book on MathCad.

she
we dont hurry up, we
you are late, we

be late
wont

wait for you.

you are not polite, she

talk to you anymore.

she doesnt learn, she

pass her exams in Mathematics.

Interrogative
What

will

you do

Where

will

she go

if

you dont go to any university?


she cant find a job in the
petroleum field?

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115

Controlled Practice
1. Answer the following questions with conditional sentences of the real
type:
a. What happens if you dont pass this exam?; b. What presents will you
buy if you go to that party?; c. What grade do you expect to get if you write
a good paper?; d. What do you need to learn if you want to get that job?;
e. What will you tell him if he asks you about your accident?

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2. Translate the folowing sentences into English:
a. Dac voi putea, te voi ajuta la proiectul de an. ; b. Dac voi ti rspunsul,
o s i-l spun. ; c. Dac vrei s ne nsoeti, eti binevenit.; d. Voi pleca n
vacan dac voi avea bani.; e. Vei nva mai bine dac accepi s te ajut.

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3. Put if, when, or as soon as into each gap, and put the verbs in brackets in
the correct tense:
John: Bye, darling. Have a good trip.
Maria: Thanks. I (ring) you ... I (arrive) at the hotel.
John: Good, but remember Im going out.
Maria: Well, ... you (be) out ... I (ring), I (leave) a message on the answer
phone so you know Ive arrived safely.
John: Great. What time do you expect youll be there?
Mary: ... the plane (arrive) on time, I (be) at the hotel at about 10.00. Thats
8.00 your time.
John: All right. And remember. Give me a ring .. you know the time of your
flight back, and I (pick) you up.
Maria: Thanks, darling. Bye!

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117

UNIT 11-11-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Taking trouble out of circulation


The Ordinal Numeral
The Fractional Numeral
The Multiplicative Numeral
Second Conditional

PRE-READING TASK
How do you solve the problem of water circulation for condensers of power
stations?

READING
Read the folowing text about the Delta Group, a company which is very
famous in Canada. Can you identify the ordinal and the fractional numerals
in the text?

Taking trouble out of circulation...


Two thirds of the problems associated with water circulation for condensers
of power stations and oil refineries from Canada are being solved by the use
of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by the tube division of the Delta Group.
The large range of trouble-free alloys available today is the result of over a
centurys experience in tube manufacture by James Booth Company and
John Wilkes, Sons & Mapplebeck, members of the Delta Group.

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Chapter 1

More than three fourths of the power stations and oil refineries at home and
abroad owe much of their efficiency to being fitted with tubes from one of
these old established companies.
The Delta Group was founded in 1965, June, 3rd and since then it has been
specially developed to suit the varying conditions which have to be met in
service.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Condenser: electricity capacitor.
Alloy: mixture of two or more metals.
Tube: hollow cylinder.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. Read this sentence again: Two thirds of the problems associated with
water circulation for condensers of power stations and oil refineries from
Canada are being solved by the use of non-ferrous tubes manufactured by
the tube division of the Delta Group. How do you translate from? Now learn
some expressions containing this preposition:
from first to last = de la A la Z, de la nceput pn la sfrit;
from this point of view = din acest punct de vedere;
from... to = de la... pn la;
from experience = din experien;
apart from = n afar de, separat de;
far from it = departe de acest lucru;
far be it from me = departe de mine.
2. How do you translate the phrase more than three fourths? Now learn
some expressions containing the word than:
other than = cu excepia;
little more than = cu puin mai mult dect;

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English for Technical Students

rather than = mai degrab dect;


no sooner... than = de ndat ce... c.
Now practisee these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE ORDINAL NUMERAL
The form of the ordinal numeral
1st the first

11th the eleventh

21st the twenty-first

2nd the second

12th the twelfth

22nd the twenty-second

3rd the third

13th the thirteenth

23rd the twenty-third

4th the fourth

14th the fourteenth

30th the thirtieth

5th the fifth

15th the fifteenth

40th the fourtieth

6th the sixth

16th the sixteenth

50th the fiftieth

7th the seventh

17th the seveteenth

60th the sixtieth

8th the eighth

18th the eighteenth

70th the seventieh

9th the ninth

19th the nineteenth

80th the eightieth

10th the tenth

20th the twentieth

90th the ninetieth

100th the (one) hundredth

1,000th the (one) thousandth

622nd the (six) hundredth 1,000,000 the (one) millionth


and twenty-second

THE FRACTIONAL NUMERAL


The forms of the fractional numeral
Common fractions

Decimal fractions

1/2 a (one) half

34.77 thirty-four point seventy-seven

3/6 three sixths

56.98 fifty-six point ninety-eight

2/3 two thirds

0.04 (nought) point nought four

8 6/5 eight six fifths

1.06 one point nought six

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Chapter 1

THE MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERAL


The forms of the multiplicative numeral
1x single, once
2 double/ twice/ twofold
3x triple/ threefold, three times
4x fourfold, four times
10x tenfold, ten times
100x a hundredfold, a hundred times
Controlled Practice:
1. Read the following numerals:
3 2/4; 5.879; 2 9/7; 11x; 43/42.
2. Read the following dates:
July, 12, 1987; January, 2, 2001; August, 8, 2002; May, 4, 1980; April, 27,
1974; March, 11, 1958.

SECOND CONDITIONAL
-is used to express an unreal or improbable condition (hypothetical
condition) and its probable result in the present or future. The condition is
unreal because it is different from the facts that we know. We can always
say But...
If I were Prime Minister, Id increase taxes on properties such as castles,
palaces, ranches, etc. (But Im not Prime Minister.)
If I lived in a big house, Id have a party. (But my house is very small.)

Form
The verb in the main clause is in the present conditional (would+infinitive);
the verb in the conditional clause is in the past subjunctive which is similar
to the past simple with the exception of the verb to be which becomes were
for all the persons.
Main Clause

If Clause

Present Conditional

Past Subjunctive

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English for Technical Students

Affirmative and negative


If

I had more money, I

would (d)

she knew the answer, she

buy a new computer.


tell

it

to

us

immediately.
I didnt have debts, I

wouldnt

have to work so hard.

Interrogative
What

would you do

Which countries would you visit

if

you were me?


you travelled round the
world?

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into Romanian:
a. If I knew it, I would have told you the truth.; b. If she helped me I
wouldnt be late to work.; c. If it rained, we would go inside.; d. Id like to
hear her news if she were here.; e. If you could do it, you wouldnt ask me
to tell you how to do it.

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2. Translate the following sentences into English:
a. Dac a ti mai multe amnunte despre acest anticlinal, i le-a spune. ;
b. Dac ai vrea, m-ai putea ajuta s termin proiectul acesta?; c. Dac ar fi
aici, am termina treaba mai repede i am putea iei la o cafea.; d. L-ar
asculta dac ar avea urechi de auzit.; e. Ne-ar face plcere s venim la
petrecerea ta de terminare a facultii dac nu am avea altceva de fcut.

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Chapter 1

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3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses:
a. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself.; b. If he worked more slowly he
(not make) so many mistakes.; c. I (buy) shares in this company if I had
some money.; d. I could tell you what this means if I (speak) Arab.; e. I
(offer) to help if I thought Id be of any use.; f. If you (change) your job
would it affect your pension?; g. If you (speak) more slowly he would
understand you.; h. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would see
what is missing.; i. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you told me where you
are going.

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123

English for Technical Students

UNIT 12-12-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Working on an oil rig


The Indefinite Article
The Definite Article
Zero Article

PRE-READING TASKS:
Can you describe the kind of job a drilling engineer has? Which are his
duties?
Do you think this is an interesting or a boring job?

READING
Now read a text about Graham
Macdonald, a Scottish drilling
engineer.

Confrunt

your

opinions with the opinions given


in this text by his boss:
Graham

Macdonald

is

an

engineer. He works on an oil rig


in the North Sea. He works on
the rig for two weeks and then
he has two free weeks to spend

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Chapter 1

with his family at home in Glasgow. The rig is 100 miles off the coast of
Scotland. The oil companys helicopter flies him to and from the Aberdeen
Airport. He does an important job, and hes paid over $500 a week.
Graham works twelve hours a day during his two weeks on the rig. His shift
finishes at midnight, when he goes to bed. Although the work is important,
its rather a boring job. He shares a cabin with three other men. One of them
is a friend of his, an American called Lee Driver, who comes from New
Mexico.
The weather on the rig can be pretty bad. Sometimes there are storms.
Everyones always glad to get back to the mainland.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Rig: apparatus for drilling for oil and gas
Shift: group of workers who work during a specified period
Cabin: small hut on the drilling rig where workers sleep at night.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. How do you translate the sentence The oil companys helicopter flies him
to and from the Aberdeen Airport? You have already learned some
expressions containing the preposition from. Lets learn some more
containing the preposition to.
to advantage = cu profit/ folos;
to the best of ones power/ ability = dup puterea/ capacitatea cuiva;
to cut the matter short = pe scurt;
to date = la zi;
to the dot (of an i) = pn n cele mai mici amnunte;
to this effect = n acest scop;
to a fraction = pn la milimetru;
to and fro = nainte i napoi, ici i colo;

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125

to hand = la ndemn;
to little purpose = cu puin efect, mai degeaba;
to my knowledge = dup cte tiu;
to ones mind = dup prerea cuiva;
to the letter = ntocmai, ad litteram;
to the utmost = (pn) la maximum, n cea mai mare msur;
to the very moment = chiar pn n clipa;
short and to the point = scurt i la obiect.
2. Read the following sentence again: The rig is 100 miles off the coast of
Scotland. How do you translate it? Now learn some expressions containing
the word off:
off hand = fr pregtire anterioar, ntmpltor;
off the point = n afara subiectului;
all thats off the point = toate acestea nu au legtur cu problema;
far off = ndeprtat;
on and off = la intervale neregulate;
to be off duty = a fi liber/ n afara serviciului;
to turn off/ switch off (the radio, the light) = a nchide (radioul, lumina)
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE ARTICLE
The use of articles in English is complex, and there are a lot of exceptions
that need to be known.
Here are the basic rules.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE: a (before a word beginning with a


consonant or semi-vowel)/ an (before a word beginning with a vowel) is
used

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Chapter 1

to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite (either we dont


know which one, or it doesnt matter which one):

They live in a flat.


Im reading a course for my exam now.

to describe what something or someone is (a profession, religion, class):

Thats an instrument for measuring distance.


She is an engineer.
He is a Christian.

in phrases:

to be in a hurry, to have a headache, as a matter of fact, to develop a disease,


to have a good time, to take a seat, etc.
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE: the is used:

before a singular or plural noun, when both the speaker and the listener
know which specific object is being referred to:

They live in the blue house on top of the hill.


The course Im reading is very interesting.
Mind the baby!

before nouns expressing certain public places, especially when referring


to them in a general way:

I went to the cinema last night.


I have to go to the bank to pay my bills.

before proper nouns denoting a family (in the plural), countries (if they
are in the plural, or if they represent a union), denoting groups of
islands, chains of mountains, deserts, oceans, seas, rivers, channels,
hotels, shops, institutions, means of transport, newspapers and
magazines:

The Johnsons, the Netherlands, the United States, the Bahamas, the Alps,
the Sahara, the Pacific, the Suez Canal, the Hilton, the Orient Express, the
Time, etc

before nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class, nationality, or


an abstraction:

English for Technical Students

127

The rich should help the poor.


The English are very polite.

in phrases:

to tell the time, by the way, at the moment, on the whole, on the one hand...
on the other hand, etc.
ZERO ARTICLE: - is used with:

plural and uncountable nouns when talking about things in general.

Money is the root of all evil.


Gas is cheaper than electricity.

proper nouns denoting persons, continents, countries, regions, towns,


mountains, lakes, streets, magazines and periodicals, months, festivals,
days of the week, etc.:

Mary/ Mount Everest, Europe, Oxford Street, Paris, January, Sunday,


Newsweek

nouns like school, church, prison, when we imply the use made of the
building:

He goes to school (to learn).

in phrases:

at night, at dawn, day by day, by sea, to be in trouble, by mistake, to make


friends, to shake hands, to take place, etc.

Controlled Practice:
1. Decide which answer A, B or C best fits each space:
a. He is speaking to .... authority.
A. an; B. - ; C. the
b. In order to survive, plants need ... water.
A. - ; B. a; C. the
c. In order to fix the armchair he needs ... hammer and ... nails.
A. the/ the; B. a/ the; C. a/ some

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Chapter 1

d. I took ... seat and waited for ... director to come.


A. - /the; B. a/the; C. the/ a
e. I thought you had passed ... exam but it seems that it was ... hardest of all.
A. - /the; B. an/the; C. the/the
f. They had ... excellent dinner and had ... very good time at ... Hilton.
A. - /a/the; B. an/the/ - ; C. an/a/the
g. He had ... degree in ... Physics and one in ... Mathematics, so he was one
of ... best teachers in our highschool.
A. - / - / - /the; B. a/ - / - /the; C. a/the/the/the
h. I did my homework and then went directly to ... bed as I was very tired.
A. - ; B. a; C. the
i. Everyone was impressed by ... sincerity with which he spoke, yet not
everyone admires .... sincerity in such ... way.
A. - / - / - ; B. a/ - / - ; C. the/ - /a
j. ... Smiths are at ... home now, yet they are busy at the moment.
A. - / - ; B. the/ - ; C. - /the;
2. Work in pairs to find one mistake in each of the following sentences:
a. Hes geologist, so he studies the physical features of the earth.; b. I want
a government to do something about the problem of unemployment.; c. Big
cities are usually exciting when you see them for the first time: for example,
in London, you can have tea at the Ritz and then go to the theatre in
evening.; d. I must go to a bank to see my bank manager. I want to borrow
one hundred pounds.; e. She goes to the work in the City by train every day.
Her office is in the Baker Street.

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English for Technical Students

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_____________________________________________________________
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THIRD CONDITIONAL
- is used to express impossible condition referring to the past; it contradicts
reality, which can no longer be changed. The condition is highly
hypothetical.

Form
The verb in the main clause is in the past/perfect conditional (would+ have+
the third form of the verb), while the verb in the conditional clause is in the
past perfect subjunctive (a form similar to past perfect).

Main clause

If clause

Past/Perfect conditional

Past perfect subjunctive

Affirmative and negative


If I had had more money, I

would

(d) this

have bought
she had known the answer, she

would

ellegant

car..

have the exam.

passed
I hadnt made so many mistakes, I

wouldnt

have failed the


driving

licence

test.

Interrogative
What

would

you

have if

you had seen such a

130

Chapter 1

done
Which countries would
visited

wonderful movie?
you

have

you had travelled round


the world?

Controlled Practice:
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:
a. If I (know) this from the beginning, I wouldnt have asked you to do it for
me.; b. If it had rained it (be) a disaster.; c. If she (go) to university so late,
she wouldnt have had these problems in her career.; d. If you (stay) on that
drilling rig and (be confrunted with) such storms, I dont think you would
argue against my leaving that place.; e. If I had known how to solve the
problems in chemistry, I (pass) the exam in the winter session.

_________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Translate into English:
a. Dac a fi putut s te ajut, a fi fcut-o nc de atunci.
b. Dac ar fi tiut rspunsurile la toate ntrebrile, nu ar fi luat o not aa de
mic.; c. Dac a fi nvat mai bine, nu a fi picat acest examen.; d. Dac
nu ar fi nins, nu am fi plecat la munte de Crciun.; e. V-ai fi distrat mai
bine, dac nu ai fi avut aceast problem de rezolvat n acelai timp.

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English for Technical Students

131

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3. Put the verbs in brackets into the corect tenses:
a. If I had known that you were in danger I (help) you.; b. If you (arrive)
fifteen minutes earlier you would have got a seat.; c. I shouldnt have
believed you when telling me about that drillers accident if I (not see) it
with my own eyes.; d. If he had asked you to do that job, you (accept)?;
e. But for the fog we (reach) our destination ages ago.; f. If I (be) ready
when he called he would have taken me with him.; g. If she listened to my
directions she (not turn) the lights off.; h. If you had told me that he never
paid his debts I (not lend) him the money.; i. You wouldnt have had so
much trouble with your car if you (have) it serviced regularly.; j. I (take) a
taxi to the university if I had realized that it was such a long way.

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4. Finish these sentences, taking care to use the correct tense. These are
mixed conditional sentences.
a. If he had taken my advice...
b. The substance would look better if...
c. Id have brought my compass if...

132

d. If you had asked his permission...


e. If I buy this machine ...
f. If she practised more...
g. If the river rises any higher...
h. I would lend it to you if...
i. If the fire had been noticed earlier...
j. If she rings while Im in the tunnel...

Chapter 1

English for Technical Students

133

UNIT 13 13-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Refining oil
The Adverb
The Passive Voice

PRE-READING TASKS:
Think of the most important refineries in Romania. Where are they?
Think of the petroleum products these refineries produce. How many types
of petroleum products are produced in Romania?

READING
Now read a general text on refining oil. Translate the text into Romanian:
One of the most distinctive and at the same time most characteristic sights
of the industrial age is the oil refinery.
Crude oil is a mixture of a number of different chemicals that are called
hydrocarbons because they are composed of atoms of hydrogen and carbon.
The mixture of crude oil contains fractions of the different hydrocarbon
molecules. In the refining process the different fractions of molecules in the
crude oil mixture are separated in such a way as to obtain usable products.
The impurities from the oil are also removed in the refining process.
The first step is called distillation. The oil is heated to a high temperature in
coil of pipe that pass over a furnace. Then the oil is piped into a tall
cylinder, called a fractionating tower. As the vapors rise, they
condense - that is, they turn into liquids again -at a particular temperature at
a particular level in the tower. Another process is called cracking which

134

Chapter 1

means breaking down the heavy molecules of such petroleum products as


kerosene or lubricating oil into the lighter molecules of gasoline. After the
basic fractionating or cracking process, further refining takes place,
particularly of gasoline products. There are several gasolines such as
regular, high-test, special, etc., their names indicating that one kind of
gasoline will vaporize more quickly and efficiently than another kind.
So when we speak about refining oil, we may say that in just a little over a
hundred years, oil products have asumed a central place in our industrialized
society and they will continue to do so until another fuel is discovered.

WAYS WITH WORDS


Special terms:
Refinery: the industrial plant in which oil is refined - processed and
purified - into commercially usable products.
Molecules: the smallest units in combinations of atoms.
Compound/Mixture: a compound of atoms which are chemically joined
together into molecules, like water (two atoms of hydrogen and one of
oxygen) or salt. A mixture combines several different molecules which are
not chemically joined together.
Hydrocarbons: substances made up of molecules formed from hydrogen nd
carbon.
Fractionating tower: a cylindrical tower at a refinery which is used to
separate the different fractions of crude petroleum.
Distillation: the process of separating ligthter molecules from heavier
molecules in a mixture by heating the mixture.
Cracking: the process of breaking down the heavy molecules of some
hydrocarbons into lighter molecules.

English for Technical Students

135

LANGUAGE FOCUS
1. In this text there are several occurences of the preposition after. At the
same time you may find the phrase to take place. Now learn more phrases
containing the preposition after and the verb to take:
after all = la urma urmelor;
after a while = dup ctva vreme;
day after day = zile n ir;
to look after = a avea grij de;
soon after = curnd dup.

to take advantage of = a utiliza, a valorifica, a se prevala de, a se folosi de


ocazia;
to take an active part in = a lua parte activ la;
to take account of = a ine seama de;
to take care of/ to take charge of = a-i asuma rspunderea, a avea grij de;
to take control of = a-i asuma controlul;
to take its course = a-i urma cursul;
to take for granted = a lua drept sigur, a considera indiscutabil;
to take an interest in... = a manifesta interes fa de...;
to take the liberty of (+-ing form) = a-i lua libertatea de a (e.g. She took
the liberty of doing it in her own way.);
to take into account/ consideration = a lua n consideraie;
to take note/ notice of = a ine seama de;
to take ones own way = a-i urma calea proprie;
to take on = a lua asupra sa, a se nsrcina;
to take over = a prelua;
to take a stand = a adopta un punct de vedere, a lua o poziie;
to take warning = a fi prevenit;
to take a view of = a considera, a privi;
to take a weight off somebodys mind = a elucida o problem.
Now practise these expressions in sentences of your own.

136

Chapter 1

2. In this text you learned several chemical elements such: hydrogen,


oxygen, carbon, etc. Lets learn all the chemical elements in English:
1 hydrogen H

38 strotium Sr

75 rhenium Re

2 helium He

39 yttrium Y

76 osmium Os

3 lithium Li

40 zirconium Zr

77 iridium Ir

4 beryllium Be

41 niobium Nb

78 platinum Pt

5 boron B

42 molybdenum Mo

79 gold Au

6 carbon C

43 technetium Tc

80 mercury Hg

7 nitrogen N

44 ruthenium Ru

81 thallium Tl

8 oxygen O

45 rhodium Rh

82 lead Pb

9 fluorine F

46 palladium Pd

83 bismuth Bi

10 neon Ne

47 silver Ag

84 polonium Po

11 sodium Na

48 cadmium Cd

85 astatine At

12 magnesium Mg

49 indium In

86 radon Rn

13 aluminium Al

50 tin Sn

87 francium Fr

14 silicon Si

51 antimony Sb

88 radium Ra

15 phosphorus

52 tellurium Te

89 actinium Ac

16 sulphur S

53 iodine I

90 thorium Th

17 chlorine Cl

54 xenon Xe

91 protactinium Pa

18 argon Ar

55 caesium Cs

92 uranium U

19 potassium K

56 barium Ba

93 neptunium Np

20 calcium Ca

57 lanthanum La

94 plutonium Pu

21 scandium Sc

58 cerium Ce

95 americium Am

22 titanium Ti

59 praseodymium Pr

96 curium Cm

23 vanadium V

60 neodymium Nd

97 berkelium Bk

24 chromium Cr

61 promethium Pm

98 californium Cf

25 manganese Mn

62 samarium Sm

99 eisteinium Es

26 iron Fe

63 europium Eu

100 fernium Fm

27 cobalt Co

64 gadolinium Gd

101 mendelevium Md

28 nickel Ni

65 terbium Tb

102 nobelium No

29 copper Cu

66 dysprosium Dy

103 lawrencium Lr

137

English for Technical Students

30 zinc Zn

67 holmium Ho

104 rutherfordium Rf

31 gallium Ga

68 erbium Er

105 dubnium Db

32 germanium Ge

69 thulium Tm

106 seaborgium Sg

33 arsenic As

70 ytterbium Yb

107 bohrium Bh

34 selenium Se

71 lutetium Lu

108 hassium Hs

35 bromine Br

72 hafnium Hf

109 meitnerium Mt

36 krypton Kr

73 tantalum Ta

37 rubidium Rb

74 tungsten W

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
THE ADVERB
The adverb shows a characteristic of an event or state, a quality thereof.
It can modify:

a verb: We are talking about your report today.

an adjective: He was bitterly dissapointed.

a noun: Only John knows the whole truth.

a pronoun: Me too.

another adverb: She spoke extremely loud.

a clause: Maybe I will come to your party.

Form

Simple

Derived adverbs

Compound adverbs

adverbs

Adverbial
phrases

far

likewise

everywhere

at least

fast

afloat

outdoors

at once

here

homeward(s)

outside

by the way

late

repeatedly

thereby

by all means

near

hardly

therefore

in full

now

monthly

today

in general

138

Chapter 1

then

bitterly

tomorrow

in all probability

today

happily

wherein

now and then

well

excellently

wherefore

of old

Adverbs of manner: badly; carefully; excellently; fast


Adverbs of place: away; aboard; above; anywhere
Adverbs of time: already; after; afterwards; early
Adverbs of quantity, measure, degree and approximation: awfully;
extremely; enough; little
Adverbs of frequency: always; ever; every time; again; forever
Adverbs of cause, reason, result and concession: consequently; fore; for this
reason; hence; so that
Interrogative adverbs: how; where; when; wherefore; why.

Controlled Practice
1. Maria is writing to her friend Mary in England. Shes rather tired, and
shes left some of the words out by mistake. Rewrite Marias letter to Mary
putting in the adverbs and adverb phrases on the right:
Dear Mary,
Thank you for your letter. Is it five months since I last really
wrote?
Im sorry, but Ive been very busy.

lately

Im working for my exams.

already

Ive planned my revision.

carefully

I work until about ten oclock in the evening.

usually

Ive finished for today.

just

I dont keep my plan.

of course

I saw a marvellous film.

yesterday

It was called The English Patient. Have you seen it?

yet

I dont go out.

actually, often

Suzanne comes about once a week.

here

139

English for Technical Students

We talk.

a lot

I hope to visit England again.

next year

I had a lovely time last year.

there

It would be great to see you.

again

Im trying to save some money.

hard

How are you? Is your apartment all right? Please reply.

soon

Love, yours,
Maria
2. Complete the following conversation between John and Helen by
choosing the correct adjective or adverb in the brackets:
John: Well, the party is going very nice/nicely, isnt it? Have one of these
sausages. They taste good/well.
Helen: No, thanks.
John: You dont sound very happy/happily. And you look pale/paley. Are
you all right?
Helen: I feel rather tired/tiredly. And Im hot/hotly.
John: It is getting a bit warm/warmly in here, isnt it? Well I can easy/ easily
open this window here.
Helen: Thank you. Actually, my head aches quite bad/badly, too. I think its
slow/slowly getting worse.
John: Im sure/surely the music isnt helping too much. It seems rather
loud/loudly, doesnt it? Look, would you like me to take you home?
Helen: No, thats all right, thanks. But if I could sit quiet/quietly somewhere
for a few minutes, I might be OK.
John: Ill ask Susan if theres somewhere you can go.

THE PASSIVE VOICE


What voice is the verb in the sentence: The first step is called distillation?

140

Chapter 1

This is the passive voice. Translate it into Romanian. Now learn about the
passive voice in English.
The verbs which can accept the passive voice are transitive verbs and some
prepositional verbs such as: to account for, to attend to, to look at, to look
after, to send for, to speak to, etc.
There are some transitive verbs which cannot accept the pasive voice such
as: to have, to hold, to possess, to resemble, etc.

Form
the respective tense of the auxiliary verb to be + the past participle of the
lexical verb.
The indicative mood
Simple Present

I am called

Present Continous

I am being called

Present Perfect

I have been called

Simple Past

I was called

Past Continous

I was being called

Past Perfect

I had been called

Simple Future

I shall be called

The imperative mood


Let me be asked

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate the following sentences into English:
a. Tu vei fi chemat de director mine s explici decizia ta. ; b. El este
ntrebat dac este vegetarian. ; c. Soluia a fost gsit de fratele meu. ; d. Mi
s-au furat banii. ; e. Problema a fost rezolvat recent prin introducerea
pompei elicoidale. ; f. Doctorul a fost chemat. ; g. El a fost ales preedintele
companiei n 1997. ; h. Copiii sunt ntrebai dac tiu n ce const
compoziia acestei substane.; i. Se construiesc foarte multe case zilele
acestea.

English for Technical Students

141

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_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2. Put the following sentences into the Passive:
a. Who drew this asymptote?; b. People in my town built this hospital last
year.; c. John cant have done this.; d. The soldiers shall hand in all their
weapons.; e. Children had cast stones.

_________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
3. Transfer these passive sentences into active ones. When no agent is given
supply one:
a. My drawings were shown at the art exhibition in 2000.; b. When was
your car stolen?; c. AIDS is thought to be curable.; d. The girl has been
made to recite the poem and everybody has given her a big hand.; e. The
prisoners were forbidden to smoke when they were transferred into the new
building.

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Chapter 1

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English for Technical Students

143

UNIT 14 14-th WEEK

In this unit you will learn:

Lake Erie Gas


The Infinitive
The Participle
The Gerund

READING
Now that you learned so many things about the English grammar and you
also know a certain amount of words belonging to the petroleum
vocabulary, test yourself in the following way. Use your dictionary and try
to read and translate this article on the discovery of gas in Lake Erie,
Canada.
Lake Erie gas attractive to Canadian drillers

Lake Erie Production on the Canadian side has become more important
during the past 25 years as smaller onshore gas fields in Ontario have
become depleted.
During 1984, Lake Erie production accounted for more than 74% of the
provinces total 19.4 bcf of gas - and four companies have been active in
Lake Erie this year. These operators are: Consumers Gas Co. of Toronto;
Diamond Shamrock Exploration of Calgary; Pembina Resources of Calgary;
and Place Gas Oil of Toronto.
Pembina was the most active company in the lake in 1985, drilling about 40
wells. The company operates about 185 producing wells in the producing
wells in the lake, most of these located in the eastern portion between Long
Point and the Niagara River.

144

Chapter 1

Consumers Gas which drilled about 20 wells in the lake this year and
operates more than 700 there, has been drilling in Lake Erie for 20 years.
Diamond Shamrock drilled six deep exploratory wells in the lake in 1985 on
a farm-in basis with Anschutz Resources of Calgary in order to earn 50%
interest in the 700,000-acre holding. The wells will be drilled about 10 miles
offshore and are scheduled for 4,500-5,000 ft to penetrate the Precambrian
basement.
Canadian operations. One of the worlds first offshore wells was drilled on
the Canadian side of Lake Erie in 1913 - and in the ensuing 72 years more
than 1,7000 wells have been drilled there, with total production of 190 bcf.
At the close of 1984, some 585 wells were producing or capped awaiting
pipeline hookups.
Lake Erie development continues as the most important natural gas province
in Southern Ontario.
Drilling activity. Lake Erie is the shallowest of the Great Lakes. It reaches
its maximum depth of 210 ft just east of Long Point in the eastern basin of
the lake. Most wells drilled in the lake have been close to shore- extending
existing onshore production.
Most wells have been drilled using what is designated as Lake Erie jackups, in water depths of less than 80 ft. Although these jack-ups which are
elevated by employing either hydraulic power in waters down to
350 ft - water depth normally is restricted to about 80 ft because of
unconsolidated bottom sediments. A pre-load test of the jack-ups is required
to make certain they will remain stable during drilling operations.
Drilling in deeper waters is performed using drillbarges, or floaters,
weighing 2,000 tons or more and moored onstation by an anchoring system.
For example, Underwater Gas Developers operates three rigs in Lake Erie,
including the drillbarge Telesis, a 259-ft-long vessel with a rated 5,000-ft
drillling depth capacity. The vessel is held on-station using five 5,000 lb

145

English for Technical Students

Bruce anchors attached to 1 1/8-in-dia., 1,200-ft-long cables controlled by


100-hp hydraulic winches.
During drilling, excess cement and rock cuttings can be discharged into the
lake. An inspector from the Ministry of Natural Resources is required to be
on location during periods of cementing casings, plugging, and completions.
An average 2,000-2,5000 ft Lake Erie well-including completion- costs
from $ 125,000 to $ 200,000.
The drilling season in Lake Erie extends from May to October, when the
lake freezes over.
(Andy Maslowski, Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Columbus, Ohio,
published in Ocean Industry, The Magazine for Offshore Business,
December 1985, p. 64)

GRAMMAR REFERENCE
PUNCTUATION

There is a considerable amount of variation in punctuation practices. At one


extreme are writers who use as little punctuation as possible. At the other
extreme there are writers who use to much punctuation in an effort to o
make their meaning clear. Here are some punctuation rules.
1. Sentence - Level Punctuation
Punctuation

Guidelines

Examples

Marks

ordinaly

and Some of us think we should

independent clause is invest

in

this

company.

made into a sentence by Others think it is useless.


beginning it with a
capital letter and ending
it with a period.

146

Chapter 1

Independent

clauses The

forecast

promised

may be combined into beautiful weather on the coast


one sentence by using of the North Sea, but it rained
the words and, but, yet, every day.
or, nor, and so. The Draw the figure and solve the
first clause is usually problem.
followed by a comma.

The writer can indicate Some of us think we should


that
clauses

independent invest in this company; others


are

closely think it is useless

connected by joining
them with a semicolon.

When one independent Theres only one solution: we


clause is followed by must

reduce

next

years

another that explains or budget.


exemplifies it, they can The conference addresses a
be separated by a colon. basic question: How can we
The second clause may take steps needed to protect
or may not begin with a the environment?
capital letter.

Sentences that ask a Are they still drilling in that


question

should

be region?

followed by a question What percentage of oil have


you recovered here?

mark.

Sentences that express Watch out!


strong feeling may be Thats a rude thing to say!
followed

by

exclamation mark.
2. Separating Elements in Clauses

an

147

English for Technical Students

When one of the elements in a clause is compounded, that is, when there are
two or more subjects, predicates, objects, and so forth, punctuation is
necessary.
Punctuation

Guidelines

Examples

Marks
When two elements Tuition may be paid by check or
are

compounded, charged to a major credit card.

they

are

joined

usually Im

taking

Chemistry

and

together Physics and Maths this semester.

with a words such


as

or

and,

without

or
any

punctuation.
Occasionally more
than two elements
are joined in this
way.

Compounds

that England, Scotland, and Wales

contain more than share

the

island

of

Great

two elements are Brittain.


called

series. Environmentally

conscious

Commas are used businesses use recycled paper,


to separate items in photocopy on both sides of a
a series, with words sheet, and use ceramic cups.
such as and or or
usually

occuring

between

the

last

two items.

When the items in Students were selected on the


a series are very basis
long

or

of

have vocabulary,

grades;

test

memory,

of
and

148

Chapter 1

internal

reading;

punctuation,

recommendations.

separation
commas

and

teacher

by
can

confusing,

be
and

semicolons may be
used instead.
3. Word - Level Punctuation
The punctuation covered so far is used to clarify the structure of sentences,
There are also punctuation marks that are used with words.
Punctuation

Guidelines

Examples

Marks

The

apostrophe

is The

companys

management

used with nouns to resisted the unions demands.


show possession.
An apostrophe is used Hes; didnt; let; Maam; four
in

constructions

to oclock.

show where letters or 45s; ABCs.


numbers have been
omitted.

A period is used to Prof. J. K. Lawrence; 24 ft., 4:00


mark shortened forms p.m.
like abbreviations and
initials.

A hyphen is used to

... insta -

end a line of text when bility


part of a word must be
carried over the next
line
Hyphens
sometimes

are twenty-four, self-confidence


used

to

149

English for Technical Students

form compound words


When two modifiers The study included first- and
containing

hyphens second-year students.

are joined together,


common elements are
often not repeated.
Other uses of Punctuation Marks
Punctuation

Guidelines

Examples

Marks

When writers use the exact In 1841, Ralph Waldo


words of someone else, they Emerson wrote I hate
must use quotation marks to quotations. Tell me what
set them off from the rest of you know.
the text.

...
....

If part of a quotation is She

told

him

the

omitted, the omission must be following: If you want


marked with points of ellipsis. to settle down, to get a
When the omission comes in proper job, to find the
the middle of a sentence, three proper wife... you should
points are used. When the give

up

your

selfish

omission includes the end of ideas.


one or more sentences, four Work of the tyre that
points are used.

B.W.R.A. is doing is of
greatest

value

carried

out

when
in

sufficiently
comprehensive

pattern,

and it is much to be
hoped that the framers of
codes will give it full
weight

....

There

are

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Chapter 1

many

factors

which

affect a pressure vessel


of the types commonly
used.

[]

When writers insert something In a fault, it [the crust of


within a quoted passage, the the earth] has cracked
insertion should be set off with and
brackets.

caused

different

layers of rock to slip.

The dash can be used to Well uh Id like to


indicate hesitations in speech.

try again if you let


me, he offered.

THE INFINITIVE
The infinitive is considered to be the base form of the verb.
Form
It appears as long infinitive (preceded by the particle to): I didnt want to tell
you that. ot as short infinitive (not preceded by the particle to): She made me
do it eventually.
A special use of the infinitive is the split infinitive, where the adverb which
modifies the verb is inserted between the particle to and the verb proper: He
was too disappointed to really care about the circumstances of the accident.

THE PARTICIPLE
There are two participle forms in English:

the -ing participle which denotes a continous action or state:

I saw smoke coming through the door of the chemistry laboratory.

the past participle (the third form of the verb) which denotes the action
as a result:

The police wanted the law respected.


Form

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English for Technical Students

Indefinite

Active Voice

Passive Voice

asking

being asked

having asked

having been asked

Participle
Perfect Participle

THE GERUND

denotes an action simultaneous with the present, past or future expressed


by the finite verb:

I thanked him for letting me know.

expresses anteriority after verbs as excuse, forgive, remember, thank,


etc.

Thank you for letting me know.

has a passive meaning after verbs as desire, need, require, want, etc.

Your hair needs cutting.

Form
The Gerund is formed ith the help of the -ing suffix added to the verb.

Indefinite Gerund

Active Voice

Passive Voice

helping; reading

being helped
being read

Perfect Gerund

having helped

having been helped

having read

having been read

In order to improve your knowledge about Gerund/ Infinitive, you may look
at appendix 3 (page @).

Controlled Practice:
1. Translate into English:
a. Sper s termin de nvat ultimul curs. ; b. El vrea s plece mai repede,
pentru c are o treab important de rezolvat. ; c. Te-a rugat s scrii un
raport, motivnd de ce gndeti aa. ; d. Iat cteva formule pe care s le
nvai.; e. Studentul a dovedit c este foarte bun la matematic.; f. Dac nu

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Chapter 1

faci maina s porneasc, ne stricm buna dispoziie.; g. Ploaia oprindu-se,


putem pleca la universitate.; h. Te deranjeaz dac nchizi fereastra?; i. i
mulumesc pentru c m-ai ajutat s rezolv acest exerciiu la geometrie.

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2. Put the verbs between brackets in gerund or past participle:
a. Thank you for (to tell) me the truth.; b. After (to wait) for you for half an
hour, I left the hotel.; c. We need to have our roof tiles (to replace).; d. They
stopped (to cut) the pipes, when they discovered that they had some short
ones too.; e. I dont mind your (to stay) here and (to wait) for my daughter.;
f. You are always late; you certainly must have your watch (to reapair).; g. I
should like the World Championship (to win) by the Romanian team.;
h. Why are you loking at me? Go on (to work)!; i. Ill make them (to
answer) all my questions about Canadian drilling.

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English for Technical Students

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TEST
Choose the best variant:
1. I went to .. cinema last night.
A. -; B. the; C. a; D. an.
2. He would have helped you if he
A. had been able to; B. could; C. has been able to; D. wanted.
3. If it tomorrow well postpone our businees trip.
A. rained; B. rains; C. will rain; D. had rained.
4. If I . in your place, I would gladly acept his invitation.
A. was; B. had been; C. were; D. has been.
5. On .. one hand I would like to start such a project, on other
I think I shant have the time to finish it.
A. the/ a; B. the/ the; C. -; -; D. a/ the.
6. I saw smoke through the door of .. chemistry laboratory.
A. come/ the; B. come/ -; C. coming/ -; D. coming/ the.
7. Have you .. finished your homework ?
A. -/ yet; B. just/ -; C. already/ -; D. -/ already.
8. the truth, I would have told it to you.
A. Have I known; B. Did I know; C. Had I known; D. Should I know.
9. I couldnt make a story, so I had to tell them the truth.
A. up; B. in; C. out; D. of.
10. .. had I entered the door .. the phone started to ring.
A. Hardly/ when; B. scarcely/ then; C. hardly/ than; D. hard/ when.
11. No sooner .. on that drilling rig when he . promoted.
A. had he moved/ has been; B. had he moved/ was; C. was he moved/ was;
D. he had moved/ was.
12. The doctor .. several hours ago.

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Chapter 1

A. has been sent for; B. had been sent for; C. was sent for; D. was being
sent for.
13. In case you my advice, call me at this number.
A. will need; B. need; C. has needed; D. needed.
14. Do you think we call him so late?
A. should; B. need; C. had to; D. must.
15. The paper addresses a basic question.. How can we take steps
needed to protect the environment?
A.

: ; B. .; C. ,; D. - .

16. She took the liberty it in her own way.


A. of doing; B. to do; C. of to do; D. to doing.
17. She spoke
A. extreme loud; B. extremely loud; C. extremely loudly; D. extreme
loudly.
18. He was looking at me as if he that easy equation.
A. didnt understand; B. hasnt understood; C. hadnt understood;
D. understood.

Answer key:
1. B; 2. A; 3. B; 4. C; 5. B; 6. D.; 7. A; 8. C; 9. A.; 10. A; 11. B; 12. C;
13. B.; 14. A.; 15. A; 16. A; 17. B; 18. C.
1 point + 0,50 points per each good answer

155

English for Technical Students

EVALUATION
1. What have you learnt from this chapter?

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_____________________________________________________________
2. What did you enjoy about it?

_________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
3. What didnt you enjoy about it?

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156

Chapter 1

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4. Write down two or three recommendations or suggestions for doing it


differently.

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157

English for Technical Students

APPENDIX 1
Irregular verbs
Base form

Past Simple

Past

Translation

Participle
to be

was/were

been

a fi

to beat

beat

beaten

a bate
a lovi
a nvinge

to become

became

become

a deveni

to bend

bent

bent

a (se) ndoi

to begin

began

begun

a ncepe

to bid

bid

bid

a ordona

bade

bidden

a porunci
a oferi

to bind

bound

bound

a uni
a lega
a obliga

to blow

blew

blown

a sufla
a

arde

sigurane)
to break

broke

broken

a sparge
a rupe
a sfrma
a concasa
a degrada

to bring

brought

brought

a aduce
a produce

to build

built

built

a cldi
a construi

to burn

burnt

burnt

a arde

(fuzibilul

unei

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Chapter 1

a calcina
a ataca
to burst

burst

burst

a izbucni
a exploda
a crpa

to buy

bought

bought

a cumpra

to cast

cast

cast

a arunca
a turna

to catch

caught

caught

a prinde
a capta
a bloca
a colecta

to choose

chose

chosen

a selecta
a alege

to cleave

cleft

cleft

a (se) despica

clove

cloven

a (se) scinda
a separa

to come

came

come

a veni
a ajunge

cost

cost

cost

a costa

to creep

crept

crept

a (se) tr
a aluneca
a se alungi

to cut

cut

cut

a tia
a fasona
a seciona
a opri (un motor)

to deal

dealt

dealt

a se ocupa (cu)
a contracta
a distribui
a repartiza

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English for Technical Students

to dig

dug

dug

a spa
a excava
a explora

to do

did

done

a face

to draw

drew

drawn

a desena
a schia
a atrage

to dream

dreamt

dreamt

a visa

to drink

drank

drunk

a bea

to drive

drove

driven

a aciona
a conduce

to eat

ate

eaten

a mnca

to fall

fell

fallen

a cdea
a da la rebut

to feed

fed

fed

a alimenta
a hrni
a aproviziona

to feel

felt

felt

a (se) simi

to fight

fought

fought

a combate
a (se) lupta

to find

found

found

a gsi
a descoperi
a constata

to fling

flung

flung

a lansa
a arunca
a izbucni

to fly

flew

flown

a zbura
a lansa

to forecast

forecast

forecast

a prevedea

to forbid

forbade

forbidden

a interzice

to forget

forgot

forgotten

a uita

160

to freeze

Chapter 1

froze

frozen

a nghea
a refrigera

to get

got

got

a obine
a primi
a deveni (a ajunge)

to give

gave

given

a da
a acorda
a transmite
a aviza
a preda

to go

went

gone

a merge
a funciona
a circula

to grow

grew

grown

a se mri
a dezvolta

to hang

hung

hung

a suspenda
a aga
a pune receptorul n furc

to have

had

had

a avea

to hear

heard

heard

a auzi

to hew

hewed

hewed

a ciopli

hewn

a degroa
a tia

to hide

hid

hidden

a ascunde

to hit

hit

hit

a lovi
a ciocni
a izbi

to hold

held

held

a ine
a bloca
a opri
a fixa

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English for Technical Students

a cuprinde
to hurt

hurt

hurt

a rni
a lovi
a avaria

to keep

kept

kept

a ine
a reine
a menine
a ntreine

to knit

knit

knit

a nnoda
a tricota
a mbina

to know

knew

known

a ti
a cunoate

to lay

laid

laid

a pune
a aeza
a ntinde

to lead

led

led

a conduce
a avansa
a comanda

to lean

leant

leant

a nclina
a (se) apleca
a se sprijini

to learn

learnt

learnt

a nva

to leave

left

left

a pleca
a prsi

to lend

lent

lent

a mprumuta

to let

let

let

a lsa
a permite

to lie

lay

lain

a se afla
a consta n

light

lit

lit

a aprinde

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Chapter 1

to lose

lost

lost

a pierde

to make

made

made

a fabrica
a face

to mean

meant

meant

a nsemna
a vrea s spun

to meet

met

met

a (se) ntlni
a intersecta
a ncrucia

to pay

paid

paid

a plti
a achita

to put

put

put

a pune
a aeza

to read

read

read

a citi

to ride

rode

ridden

a clri

to ring

rang

rung

a suna
a chema (la telefon)

to rise

rose

risen

a (se) ridica
a (se) urca
a rsri

to run

ran

run

a alerga
a funciona
a administra

to say

said

said

a spune

to saw

sawed

sawn

a tia cu ferstrul

to see

saw

seen

a vedea

to seek

sought

sought

a cuta
a cerceta

to sell

sold

sold

a vinde

to send

sent

sent

a trimite

to set

set

set

a regla
a ajusta

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English for Technical Students

a stabili
to shake

shook

shaken

a bate
a scutura
a vibra

to shear

sheared

shorn

a tia
a mrgini
a forfeca

to shed

shed

shed

a arunca
a difuza
a vrsa

to shine

shone

shone

a strluci
a polisa

to show

showed

shown

a arta
a manifesta

to shoot

shot

shot

a mpuca
a filma

to shrink

shrank

shrunk

a se contracta
a freta

to shut

shut

shut

a nchide

to sing

sang

sung

a cnta

to sink

sank

sunk

a (se) scufunda
a ngropa

to sit

sat

sat

a sta jos

to sleep

slept

slept

a dormi

to slide

slid

slid

a aluneca
a glisa

to sling

slung

slung

a arunca
a lansa

to smell

smelt

smelt

a mirosi

to smite

smote

smitten

a izbi

to speak

spoke

spoken

a vorbi

164

Chapter 1

to speed

sped

sped

a accelera

to spell

spelt

spelt

a scrie liter cu liter


a silabisi

to spend

spent

spent

a petrece
a cheltui
a ntrebuina

to spill

spilt

spilt

a vrsa
a risipi
a turna

to split

split

split

a cliva
a scinda
a despica
a disocia

to spin

spun

spun

a centrifuga
a roti
a presa

to spread

spread

spread

a rspndi
a acoperi
a extinde

to spring

sprang

sprung

a sri
a izvor
a se arcui

to stand

stood

stood

a sta (vertical)
a rezista
a suporta

to steal

stole

stolen

a fura

to stick

stuck

stuck

a (se) lipi
a se fixa

to strike

struck

struck

a lovi
a izbi

to string

strung

strung

a nira

165

English for Technical Students

a lega
a ncorda
to strive

strove

striven

a se strdui
a se lupta

to swear

swore

sworn

a jura

to swell

swelled

swollen

a (se) umfla
a crete

to swim

swam

swum

a nota

to swing

swung

swung

a oscila
a (se) balansa
a pendula

to take

took

taken

a lua
a capta
a necesita

to teach

taught

taught

a preda

to tear

tore

torn

a rupe

to tell

told

told

a spune

to think

thought

thought

a reflecta
a gndi
a socoti c

to throw

threw

thrown

a arunca

to thrust

thrust

thrust

a mpinge
a nfige
a apsa

to understand understood

understood

a nelege

to wake

woke

woken

a (se) trezi

to wear

wore

worn

a purta
a uza
a toci

to weep

wept

wept

a plnge
a picura

166

Chapter 1

a se prelinge
to win

won

won

a ctiga

to wind

wound

wound

a rni

to wring

wrung

wrung

a stoarce
a rsuci
a smulge

to write

wrote

written

a scrie

167

English for Technical Students

APPENDIX 2
WORD+PREPOSITION
(sb.= somebody; sth.= somenthing)
(break sth.) by accident
according to (the weather forecast)
to account for sth.
an advertisement for sth
afraid of (storms)
at the age of (twenty)
to agree with sb. on sth.
to apply for (a job)
appropriate for sth.
to argue with sb. about sth.
to arrive at (the railway station)
to arrive in (Europe)
as a result
to ask for sth.
to assist in sth.
attentive at sth./ sb.
at the beginning of sth.
in the beginning
to be afraid of. sb./ sth.
to be at home
to be aware of sth.
to be bored with sth./sb.
to be careful about sth.
to be fed up with sth.
to be full of (energy)
to be fond of sb.
to be good at sth.
to be in charge of sth.

168

to be in love with sb.


to be in a mess
to be interested in sth.
to be impressed by sth.
to be married to sb.
to be on strike
to be out of order
to be patient with sb./ sth.
to be proud of sth./ sb.
to be similar to sth.
to be tired of sth.
to believe in sth.
to belong to sb.
to benefit from sth.
to go by bus/ train/plane, etc.
in the (20-th) century
certain of sth.
change for (a dollar)
to come from England/ Romania
to compare sth. with sth. else
to complain about sth.
in (good/bad) condition
in/ under these conditions
in contrast with sth./ sb.
to cooperate with sb.
to cope with sth.
to deal with sth.
to debate on sth.
deficiency in sth./ deficient in sth.
to depend on sb./ sth.
to develop into sth.

Chapter 1

English for Technical Students

to die of sth.
to be different from sb./sth.
in the distance
to distinguish sth. from sth. else
to dream about sb./sth.
in the end
at the end of sth.
to a (certain/great) extent
to fight against sb./ sth.
to fight against sb./ sth.
on a flight to (Paris)
to fight against sb./sth.
to find put about sv./ sth.
to forget about sb./sth.
to get in touch with sb.
to get on (well) with sb.
to go out with sb.
to go home
to have a degree in sth.
to have an interview for a job
to invite sb. to (a party) or for (dinner)
in the North/ South, etc.
to laugh at sb./ sth.
to listen to sth./ sb.
to live on the third/fourth floor
to look after sb.
to look at sth.
to look for sth.
to look forward to doing sth.
to merge with sth.
by mistake

169

170

at the/that moment
to operate on sb.
to originate in sth.
owing to sth.
to participate in sth.
to pay ($5000) for sth.
to point at sb./ sth.
to point sth. (a gun) at sb.
preoccupation with sth.
to rely on sb./ sth
representative of sb./ sth.
resistance to sth./ sb.
to search for sth./ sb.
to sell sth. for ($300)
to share sth. with sb.
similar to sb./ sth.
to speak to sb. about sth.
to specialize in sth.
to spend money on sth.
a story about sth.
to suffer from sth.
to talk to sb. about sth.
thanks to sb./ sth.
on television
to think about (What are you thinking about?)
to think of (What do you thinf of von Laue?)
to throw sth. at sb.
a ticket for sth.
in view of sth.
to wait for sb./ sth.
on the way (to school)

Chapter 1

English for Technical Students

to work as (a teacher)
to work for (an organization)
to worry about sth./ sb.
to write (an e-mail, a letter) to sb.

171

172

Chapter 1

APPENDIX 3
Verbs which are always followed by a GERUND:
The drilling engineer denied experiencing a gusher.
admit

defer

dispute

find

miss

recall

appreciate

delay

enoy

finish

pardon

risk

avoid

deny

escape

forgive

postpone

suggest

celebrate

detest

excuse

mention

practice

understand

consider

dislike

explain

mind

prevent

Verbs wich are always followed by an INFINITIVE:


The regional Electricity companies expect to earn an additional 23% profit
this year.
afford

decide

intend

plan

refuse

agree

expect

need

pretend

seem

appear

hope

offer

promise

want

Verbs which are followed by either an INFINITIVE or a GERUND


Nowadays many countries prefer to generate/generating electricty from
renewable sources of energy.
begin

continue

prefer

start

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English for Technical Students

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Dnil, Viorica, Engleza tehnic, Editura tehnic, Bucureti, 1982;
2. Dnil, Viorica, Engleza pentru ingineri i tehnicieni, Editura tehnic,
Bucureti, 1967;
3. Deighton, Lee C., Vocabulary Development, Macmillan, New York,
1984;
4. Eastwod, J., A Basic English Grammar. Exercises, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1984;
5. Hall, Eugene J., The Language of the Petroleum Industry in English,
Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey, 1976;
6. Lougheed, Lin, The Great Preposition Mystery, Grammar Review for
Intermediate/ Advanced Students of EFL, English Teaching Division,
Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Washington, D.C., 1985;
7. Sanford, Adrian B, Bishop, Katherine V., Reading Comprehension,
Macmillan, New York, 1984;
8. Soars, John & Liz, Headway, pre-intermediate, Students Book,
Oxford University Press, Hong Kong, 1991;
9. Soars, John & Liz, Headway, upper-intermediate, Students Book,
Oxford University Press, Hong, 1991;
10. Thomson, A.J., A. V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar,
Exercises 1, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986;
11. Vince, Michael, Excel at First Certificate, Students Book,
Heinemann, Oxford, London Edinburgh, 1989;
12. ***, English for Science and Technology, Cavallioti Publishing
House, The British Council, Bucharest, 1996;
13. ***, Sinteze i exerciii pentru examenele de bacalaureat i
admitere, Editura Amarcord, Timioara, 1998;
14. http://www.google.com
15. http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adjectives.htm
16. http://www.randomhouse.com